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Chapter 1

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Dr. Mouna Nakkar & Dr. Ali El-Moursy

One characteristic of digital system is their ability to manipulate discrete elements of information The signals in most present day electronic digital system use just two discrete values and said to be Binary A Binary Digit is called a Bit A Bit has two values: 0 or 1

University Of Sharjah

Dr. Mouna Nakkar & Dr. Ali El-Moursy

A group of bits can be made to represent discrete symbols A digital system is a system that manipulates discrete elements of information that is represented internally in Binary format Most digital devices are programmable Digital system manipulates discrete quantities of information that are represented in binary form
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There are different base systems:


Base 2 (Binary) Base 3 Base 4 Base 5 Base 6 Base 7 Base 8 (Octal) .. Base 16 (Hexadecimal)
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Base 2: Bnary: 0, 1 Base 8: Octal: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Base 10: Decimal: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Base 16: Hexadecimal: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 , A, B, C, D, E, F

University Of Sharjah

Dr. Mouna Nakkar & Dr. Ali El-Moursy

Decimal Base Binary (Base 2)


00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15
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Octal (Base 8)
0 1 10 11 100 101 110 111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Hexadecimal (base 16) 16)


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
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Dr. Mouna Nakkar & Dr. Ali El-Moursy

A decimal number of 7,392 represents a quantity equal to 7 thousand, plus 3 hundreds, plus 9 tens, plus 2 units 7 X 103 + 3 X 102 + 9 X 101 + 2 X 100 In more general terms a5a4a3a2a1a0.a-1a-2a-3 =105 a5 + 104 a4 + 103 a3 + 102 a2 + 101 a1 + 100 a0 + 10-1 a-1 + 10-2 a-2 + 10-3 a-3
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The decimal number system is said to be of base 10 or Radix 10


Because it uses 10 digital and the coefficients are multiplied by powers of 10

The Binary system is a different number system. The coefficients of the Binary number system have only two possible values: 0 and 1. Each coefficient ai is a multiple of 2i

University Of Sharjah

Dr. Mouna Nakkar & Dr. Ali El-Moursy

General Rules:
A number expressed in a baser system has coefficients multiplied by power of r an . rn + an-1. rn-1 + ..+ a2 . r2 + a1 . r1 + a0 + a-1. r-1 + a-2 -m 2 . r + .. + a-m . r

University Of Sharjah

Dr. Mouna Nakkar & Dr. Ali El-Moursy

There are three major number manipulations:


1. 2. 3.

Convert from any base to decimal. Convert from decimal to any base. Convert from any base to any base.

University Of Sharjah

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Example,
(11010.11)2 is a binary number

Q: What is the decimal equivalent to this number? A: 24 X 1 + 23 X 1 + 22 X 0 + 21 X 1 + 20 X 0 + 2-1 X 1 + 2-2 X 1 = 26.75

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11

Exercise:
What is the equivalent decimal number for (4021.2)5 ; a number is given in base 5

What is the equivalent decimal number for (127.4)8 ; a number given in base 8

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Exercise:
What is the equivalent decimal number for (B65F)H ; a number is given in base 16

What is the equivalent decimal number for (110101)2 ; a number given in base 2

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Suppose we want to convert a number in base 10 to binary or other bases. What do we do?

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Converting from decimal to Binary & Octal


Steps:
1. 2.

Divide the decimal by 2 until we reach a 0 The reminder is the new binary number Reminder 1 0 0 1 0 1
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41 2 20 2 10 2 5 2 2 2 1 2 0
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(41)d = (101001)2

Example:
Convert decimal 153 to Octal
Reminder 153 8 19 8 2 8 0 1 3 2

(153)d = (231)8

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Converting a fraction Steps:


1. Multiply the Fraction by 2 2. The whole number is the new binary number

Whole Number 0.6875 X2 0.375 X2 0.750 X2 0.500 X2 0.00


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1 0 1 1

(0.6875)d = (0.1011)2

Example,
Convert (0.513)10 to Octal
Whole Number 0.513 X8 0.104 X8 0.832 X8 0.656 X8 0.248
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4 0 6 5 1
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(0.513)d = (0.406517)8

Converting from Binary to Octal & Hex


Steps:
1.

Group the n bits of Binary and directly converting them Q: Convert the following Binary to Octal & Hex (10110001101011.111100000110)2 A: Group each three bits and find their Octal equivalence (26153.7406)8 A: Group each four bits and find their Hex equivalence (2C6B.F06)H

Example:

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Converting from Octal & Hex to Decimal Steps:


1. Directly convert each bit to its Octal and Hex

equivalence

Example:
Convert the following Octal Number to its Binary (673.124)8 = (110 111 011.001010100)2 Convert the following Hex Number to its Binary (306.D)H = (0011 0000 0110. 1101)2

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Determine the base of the numbers in each of the following operations:


24 + 17 = 40

14/2 =5

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54/4 = 13

7 + 12 = 19

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There are two types of complements for each base-r system: the radix complement and the diminished radix complement. rs complement: Radix Complement (r-1)s complement: Diminished Radix Complement

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9s complement: Obtained by subtracting each digit from 9


Example:
1. 9s complement 546700 is 999999

- 546700 --------------453299 2. 9s complement 012398 is 999999 - 012398 ---------------987601

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1s Complement: Obtained by Subtracting each digit from 1. Example:


1.

1s complement 1011000 is

2.

1s complement 0101101 is

1111111 - 1011000 --------------0100111 1111111 - 0101101 ------------------1010010

Simply convert each 0 to 1 and each 1 to 0


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Radix Complement:
10s complement is 9s complement +1 2s complement is 1s complement +1

Example:
10s complement of 2389 = 9999 ----------7610 1 - 2389

+ 2s complement of 1101101 is

0010010 + 1 ----------------0010011

Hint: for 2s complement, leave all significant 0s unchanged until the first 1 and then flip each 0 to 1 and each 1 to 0

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Find the 10s complement of (4567)d

Find the 2s complement of (10101011)

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RULE:
1. 2.

Add M to the rs complement of N M + (rn N) = M N + rn If M > N , the sum will produce an end carry, rn, which can be discarded If M < N, the sum does not produce an end carry and is equal to rn (N-M) which is the rs complement of (N M). To obtain the answer in a familiar form, take the rs complement of the sum.

3.

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M N = (72532)10 (3250)10 M = 72532 N= + 96750 ----------------1 69282 - 1 00000 ------------------69282

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Exercise:
Using 10s complement perform the subtraction 3250 72532

Using 2s complement perform the subtraction 1010100 - 1000011

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Exercise:

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There are two types of numbers:


Un-signed:
All positive quantities

Signed:
Some positive and some negative

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Usually a negative numbers are represented by () minus sign In computer language this is really hard To represent a negative number assign the Most Significant Bit (MSB) to 1. If MSB is = 0, then the number is positive If MSB is = 1, then the number is negative

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There are many representations for the signednumbers in binary. Most popular ones are:Signed-magnitude representation Signed-2s-complement representation

In ALL presentations MSB SHOULD be:1 for negative numbers 0 for positive numbers

In computers signed numbers are presented using signed-2s-complement format


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It is used in some ordinary arithmetic operations but not in the computer arithmetic
N bits 1 bit N-1 bits

Sign bit

Magnitude bits

Represent decimal 5 & -5 in 4-bits signedmagnitude (5)10 -> (0101)2 (-5)10 -> (1101)2
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Decimal Base Signed Signed-2s Complement


+7 +6 +5 +4 +3 +2 +1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8
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Signed Magnitude
0111 0110 0101 0100 0011 0010 0001 0000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 ----36

0111 0110 0101 0100 0011 0010 0001 0000 1111 1110 1101 1100 1011 1010 1001 1000

Dr. Mouna Nakkar & Dr. Ali El-Moursy

Exercise:
find the decimal for the following 8-bit signed binary number in signed-2scomplement representation (10110010)2 (11110110)2 (00110010)2

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Anytime we add two signed or unsigned numbers we may get an overflow.


Overflow unsigned Overflow signed

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Overflow occurs when we start with n-bits and the result occupies n+1 bits. We just add another 0 to a positive number or another 1 to a negative number in the mostsignificant position to extend them to n+1 bits and then perform the addition.

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If the Carry-in to the MSB (sign bit) is different than the carry-out of MSB (sign bit), then there is an overflow

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Exercise: perform the following addition (signed numbers) +6 0000 0110 +13 0000 1101 --------------------+6 0000 0110 -13 1111 0011 ---------------------6 1111 1010 +13 0000 1101 ---------------------6 1111 1010 -13 1111 0011 ---------------------

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An n-bit Binary Code is a group of n bits that assume 2n distinct combination If n = 2, 22 =4 distinct combinations If n = 3, 23 = 8 distinct combinations If n = 4, 24 = 16 distinct combinations

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BCD Code: Binary Coded Decimal Code


BCD Digit Decimal Symbol 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001
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0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
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Dr. Mouna Nakkar & Dr. Ali El-Moursy

ASCII Codes: American Standard Code of Information Interchange Uses seven bits to code 128 character Look book page 23

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Other decimal codes Look at book page 24 table 1.7

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Binary Logic is based on Binary System Holds one of two values: 0 and 1 (true, false) (yes, no)..etc Def:
Variables A,B,C, y,y,z etc. These variables can hold one of two values: 0, 1 Three basic logical operations: AND, OR, NOT

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1.

2.

3.

AND: represented by . x . y = z or xy = z z = 1 if and only if both x=1 and y=1 otherwise z=0 OR: represented by + x+y=z z = 1 if either x=1 or y = 1 otherwise z=0 NOT: x = z z= 1 if x = 0 other wise z=0

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Truth Table for AND, OR, and NOT

AND
x 0 0 1 1 y 0 1 0 1 xy 0 0 0 1 x 0 0 1 1

OR
y 0 1 0 1 x+y 0 1 1 1 x 0 1

NOT
x 1 0

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2-input AND gate 2-input OR gate Not gate 3-input AND gate 3-input OR gate

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