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Definition: The assignment of a subclass instance to a reference variable of the type "reference to super class" is described as a narrowing cast,

because you are switching from a more detailed view to a one with less detail. I t is also called as up-casting. Definition: - The assignment of a superclass instance to a reference variable of the type "points to sub class" is described as a Wide casting, because here we are switching from a more generalized view to a one with more de tail (Specialized View). Persistent Objects: Using Business Key Identity Persistent Objects: Using GUID Object Identity What is the concept of the Singleton design pattern? The concpet of restricting the instantiation of the a class to only and only to one object is called Singleton. As name suggests, it will restrict to create only one instance of a class. Re: use of chain and endchain? If we want to validate more than one field in the selection screen, then we can use this chain and endchain. Normally, if u dont use this then, if one of the field in selection screen is not properly entered it wont allow u to enter the remaining fields. But if we use chain and endchain, even if one of the field is not entered correctly it will allow u to enter the remaining fields. Re: In Function module SAP provieds Two Standard Exception, give name of that tw o exceptions. in the function moudle two standard exception are 1.communication_failure 2.system_failure What is the main difference between BAPI and RFC and difference between BAPI and BDC? BAPI is used only when it is available for the particular transaction like Deliv ery Sales order. but BDC can be used for any transaction which have screen and f ields. BAPI is directly updated the database instead BDC run through the screen flow. So BAPI can't handle all the flow logic checking and enhancement put by programm er to faciliate the user requirement. Difference between BAPI and BDC: BAPI is a higher end usage for tranfering the d ata from SAP to non-SAP and vice-versa. for ex: if we are using VB application,where in that we want to connect to SAP a nd retireve the data, and then change and update the data in SAP for that purpose we can use that. Apart from that, we can also use it for Uploading/Downloading the data from SAP to Non-SAP like BDC, provided we have an existing BAPI for that. BAPI function modules will also do all the checks required for data integrity li ke Transactions for BDC. There is one more advantage using BAPI instead of BDC. When we go for upgradation, there might be pozzibility to change the screen elem ents for transactions depending on the requirement. In that case,our BDC pgm may or may not work (depending on the screen changes th ey have made). Unless and until we prepare new BDC we cant use the old BDC pgm.

But in BAPI, SAP promises that they are going to keep the old BAPI and for new f unctionality they will provide an upgraded BAPI. Until we write a new BAPI pgm, we can use the exisitng BAPI pgm. LSMW is an encapsulated data transfer tool. It can provide the same functionalit y as BDC infact much more but when coming to techinical perspective most the parameters are encapulated. To listout some of the differences : LSMW is basicaly designed for a fuctional consultant who do not do much coding b ut need to explore the fuctionality while BDC is designed for a technical consultant. LSMW offers different techinque for migrating data: Direct input ,BAPI,Idoc,Batc h input recording. While bdc basically uses recording. LSMW mapping is done by SAP while in BDC we have to do it explicitly . LSMW is basically for standard SAP application while bdc basically for customize d application. Coding can be done flexibly in BDC when compared to LSMW. BAPI are RFC enabled function modules. The difference between RFc and BAPI are business objects. You create business ob jects and those are then registered in your BOR (Business Object Repository) which can be accessed outside the SAP system by using some other applications (N on-SAP) such as VB or JAVA. Bapi can't handle exceptions , the calling program has to handle it whereas RFC fm can handle it. every BAPI is a RFc whereas every RFC is not a BAPI. Rfc enabled are basically for sap systems whereas BAPI are for non sap systems l ike i want to acess data via java or vb.