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266

CONQUERING SAT MATH

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS


SECTION 2
1. Answer: C Solve the equation. 2x + 6 = 4 x 1 7 = 2 x 3.5 = x 2. Answer: C See the pattern below. The sequence 4,9,6,11,8,13, . . . is formed by adding 5 and then subtracting 3. We can see that the next term in the sequence will be 10. +5 4 9 3 6 +5 11 3 8 +5 13 3 [10]

3. Answer: A Multiply the number of styles, 5, by the number of colors, 7, to get the number of bicycles that can be made by the company, 5 7 = 35. Therefore, there are a total of 35 different types of bicycles that can be made by the company. 4. Answer: C Look at the graph of the function f (x) = 2(x 3) 2. Notice that the graph does not touch the x-axis when x = 3 but when x = 3.
y
4

5. Answer: E Solve the proportion. 3 4 = x 6 15 3 1 1 x x i = = 4 6 15 8 15 8 x = 15 x = 15 7 . = 1 cups. 8 8

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6. Answer: _ E _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Because AB BC then AB = BC. Therefore, B is the midpoint of AC, so statement I is true. _ _ _ _ 1 Because B is the midpoint of AC , AB = AC , and statement II is true. As stated above, AB = BC; therefore, 2 1 AB BC , so statement III is false. Statements I and II are true. Thats choice E. 2
A B C

7. Answer: A A = the amount produced by Plant A. B = the amount produced by Plant B. T = the total amount produced by the company. Three times the Plant A production is one-half the total. 3A = 1 1 T A = T. 2 6 1 of total production, 6

Because Plant A and Plant B are the only two production plants and Plant A production is A= 1 5 T so B = T . 6 6

8. Answer: D Multiply the average number of unsold tickets by the number of viewings per week. Total number of unsold tickets = tv. 9. Answer: B

120 x

x + 120 = 180 because a b, and because same-side interior angles are supplementary. That means x = 60 Since z and x are vertical angles and vertical angles are congruent, z = 60.

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10. Answer: C For any number less than 1, x3 < x2

( 2 )3 = 8 < 4 = ( 2 )2 .
For any number between 1 and 1 x3 < x2 1 1 1 1 = < = . 2 8 4 2 1 1 1 1 = < = . 2 8 4 2 However for any number greater than 1 x 3 > x 2
3 2 3 2

( 2 )3 = 8 > 4 = ( 2 )2 .
11. Answer: C The question mentions that the base area of Cylinder A is four times the base area of Cylinder B. The base of a cylinder is a circle. Let rA be radius of Cylinder A and rB be the radius of Cylinder B. ( rA ) = 4 ( rB ) ( rA ) = 4 ( rB )
2 2 2 2

(rA )2

4 ( rB ) rA = 2rB .
2

12. Answer: D 7 . The ratio of nonred marbles to total number of marbles is 7:12 = 12 13. Answer: D Write an equation for Jims monthly earnings. c (4 + x) = $2,000 Jim sold six cars. Substitute 6 for x. c (4 + 6) = $2,000 Solve for c. 10 c = $2,000 so c = $200 Substitute $200 for c and find f (x) to be sure. f (x) = $200 (4 + x) = $800 + $200x The expression tells us that Jim earned a base salary of $800 and a commission of $200 per car. 14. Answer: C If ay + ax = 0, that means a(x + y) = 0, which means x + y = 0. Therefore, x and y must be opposites. In other words x = y.

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15. Answer: A We know that if the sides are equal, the angles across from the sides have equal measure. We also know that the sum of the measures of the angles of a triangle is 180. Therefore, the given triangle must be an equilateral triangle. Because it is equilateral, we can break the triangle up to find the height of the triangle.
60 30 30

10 53

10

60 5

90 90 5 10

60

The diagram shows how the equilateral triangle can be partitioned into two 30-60-90 right triangles. The length of each side of the new triangles across from the 30 angle is 5, half of 10. That means the side across from the 60 angle is 5 3. That means that the base of the original triangle is 10, and the height is 5 3. Now find the area. A= 1 1 bh = i 10 i 5 3 = 25 3. 2 2

16. Answer: C x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 = 81 Factor the quadratic equation.

( x + y )2

= 81

Notice that it is a perfect square. x + y = 9.

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17. Answer: B Find the slope of line r. Line r passes through the points (3,2) and (0,2) [y-intercept of 2]. The slope of line r is Find the equation of line q. Line r and line q are parallel, so the slope line q is also Line q passes through the point (3, 7). 4 4 x + b 7 = ( 3) + b 7 = 4 + b 3 = b 3 3 4 The equation of line q is y = x + 3. 3 y = mx + b y = y= 3 x + 3 is the equation of the line with the same y-intercept as line q and perpendicular to line q. 4 4 . 3 2 ( 2 ) 4 = . 3 0 3

18. Answer: B Find the sum of A and C to find the average of A and C. Because c = a + 2 b then a + c = a + ( a + 2b ) = 2a + 2b. Therefore, the average of a and c is 19. Answer: D Draw a figure to show the height (2x) is twice the base (x).
x

2a + 2b = a + b. 2

105

2x

Use the Pythagorean Theorem to solve for x in the right triangle. x 2 + ( 2 x ) = (10 5 )
2 2

That means x 2 + 4 x 2 = 500 5 x 2 = 500, so x 2 = 100 x = 10. Therefore, the base of the rectangle is 10, and the height of the rectangle is 20, so the area of the rectangle is A = b h = 10 20 = 200. 20. Answer: C Think of the positive integers less than 17. The only two positive integers less than 17 that divide into 17 with a remainder of 3 are 7 and 14. Therefore, the sum of the possible value of k is 21. When 21 is divided by 17, the remainder is 4.

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SECTION 5
1. Answer: D x + y = 4, then 2 ( x + y ) = 2 ( 4 ) = 8. 2. Answer: A Draw dimensions on the diagram.
B A C D x H x E 8 F 6 G G 6 F

Use the Pythagorean Theorem to find EG. x 2 = 62 + 82 x 2 = 36 + 64 = 100 x = 10. Therefore, EG = 10. You might have noticed that EG = 10 because EFG is a 3-4-5 right triangle. 3. Answer: A
Grade Freshmen Sophomores Juniors Seniors Frequency 10 20 40 80

The table shows that the number of students in a grade playing a varsity sport is twice the previous grade. That means the sophomore wedge should be twice the size as the freshmen wedge, the junior wedge should be twice the size as the sophomore wedge, and the senior wedge should twice the size as the junior wedge.

Freshman Sophomores Juniors Seniors

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4. Answer: D Let s = number of shovels. Therefore, 10 + s = number of rakes. Write and solve a proportion to find the number of shovels. 3 s = 30 + 3s = 5s 30 = 2s 15 = s. 5 10 + s There are 15 shovels, which means that there are 25 rakes. 5. Answer: B Write the dimensions and draw dotted segments as shown below.
A 3w B

Use formula for the area of triangle AMB to find the width of the rectangle (h = w, b = 3w). Area of triangle AMB = 1 i w i 3w = 18 3w 2 = 36 2

w 2 = 12 w = 12 = 4 i 3 = 2 3 . The base of the rectangle is three times the width, shown as 3 ( 2 3 ) = 6 3 . ____ _ _ _ _ The length of CM is half the length of the base of the rectangle because M is the midpoint of the base CD . Therefore, ____ 6 3 = 3 3. the length of CM is 2 6. Answer: C Solve for a. 4 a2 = 36b 4 4 a 2 = 36b 4 b2 4 a 2 = 36b 6 a 2 = 9b 6. a = 9b 6 a = 3b 3 1 . 3b 3
i

b2

Find the inverse of a. a 1 =

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7. Answer: A
A

d 600 miles

Airport

800 miles

Airplane A is flying at 200 miles per hour. So, from 10:00 AM to 10:30 AM, it will travel 100 miles. Airplane A is now 700 100 = 600 miles from the airport. Airplane B is flying at 250 miles per hour. So, from 10:00 AM to 10:30 AM, it will travel 125 miles. Airplane A is now 925 125 = 800 miles from the airport. The diagram shows the position of the two airplanes at 10:30 AM. The dotted line represents the distance the two airplanes are from each other. Use the Pythagorean Theorem. d 2 = 600 2 + 800 2 d 2 = 360,000 + 640,000 d 2 = 1,000,000 d = 1,000. The two airplanes are 1,000 miles apart. You could have also used the fact that this is a 3-4-5 right triangle. 8. Answer: D Based on the graph we can see that f (2) = 4. So we are looking for a value of a where f (a) = 4. Inspect answer choices. Notice that only a = 1 means f (a) = 4. 2
y

( 2 ,4)
2 4 6

(2,4)

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CONQUERING SAT MATH

9. Answer: 4 Each of the three couples invites four guests, none of whom are the same; there are 3 4 = 12 guests. Then, we must consider the three couples who will attend the party, giving us 6 more people. There are a total of 18 people at the party. Each table can seat five people. Three tables seat a maximum of 15 people, so it will take a minimum of four tables to seat 18 people. 10. Answer: 6 Solve the absolute value inequality. 2x 3 7 2 x 3 7 2 x 4 x 2 . x 2 4 x 6. x2 4 x 2 4 x 2. Notice that 6 is a solution to the second inequality but not to the first inequality. 11. Answer: 60 Use the diagram. Write 90 degrees for the right angle. 2 x 3 7 2 x 10 x 5.

30 x 90

x + 90 + 30 = 180 x + 120 = 180 x = 60 12. Answer: 10.5 You can use your calculator to guess and check to find that the ten consecutive integers are 6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14, and 15. These are ten numbers, the median is the average of the middle two numbers: 10 and 11. Therefore the median of the two numbers is 10.5. The mean and median of consecutive integers are always equal.

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13. Answer: 11 f ( x ) = 2x + 3 Substitute ( c + 2 ) for x. f ( c + 2 ) = 2 ( c + 2 ) + 3 = 15. Solve for c. 2 c + 4 + 3 = 15 2 c + 7 = 15 2 c = 8 c = 4. Find f ( c ) . f ( c ) = f ( 4 ) = 2 ( 4 ) + 3 = 8 + 3 = 11. 14. Answer: 10
C
x 15

130

35

145

25

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Because AB BC ABC is an isosceles triangle. That means the measure of A and the measure of C are equal. A triangle has 180, therefore, A and C each have a measure 25. Therefore, x + 15 = 25 x = 10. 15. Answer: 2 or 0.4 5
Original number of red marbles in jar Number of red marbles in jar after adding three green Probability of choosing a red marble after three green have been added, making a total of 15 marbles 1 i 12 = 6 2

6 2 = 15 5

16. Answer: 1.4 or

7 5 Write the equation x + .19 x = y .15 y Divide to find 1.19 y y y = 1.4 = . , 1.19 x = 0.85 y 0.85 x x x

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17. Answer: 4 Write square root of r in exponent form. r = r2 , h = r2. Use the formula for volume of a cylinder. V = r 2 h
1 1 1

Substitute r 2 for h. r 2 r 2 = r 2 r 2 = r 2 . 32 = r 32 = r ( 32 ) 18. Answer: 12 Use distance formula: d = 26 =


5 2 5 2 2 5 1 4 1 5

= (r )
5 2

2 5

4 = r.

( x2 x1 )2 + ( y2 y1 )2

( 3 13)2 + [ x ( 12 )]2

Square both sides.

( 26 )2 =

( 3 13)2 + ( x + 12 )2 ) .
2

Simplify. 676 = ( 10 ) + ( x + 12 )
2 2 2

676 = 100 + ( x + 12 ) . 576 = ( x + 12 ) Take square root of each side. 576 =

( x + 12 )2

24 = x + 12 12 = x.

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SECTION 8
1. Answer: B The only number that is both even and prime is 2. Therefore, the intersection of the set containing all the even numbers and the set containing all the prime numbers is {2}. 2. Answer: E Solve the equation. x 5 + 6 = 11 Square both sides. x5 = 5

x 5 ) = 52 x 5 = 25
2

Solve for x. x = 30 3. Answer: E


Number Polled Men Women 250 350 Percentage Not in Favor 76% 78% Number Not in Favor 0.76 250 = 190 0.78 350 = 273

Therefore, there were a total of 190 + 273 = 463 Not in Favor of the law. 4. Answer: E Use the diagram.
80

40 40 x

We know the top angle in the bottom triangle is 40 because vertical angles are congruent. The sum of the angles in a triangle is 180. 180 40 = 140. That means x + y = 140.

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5. Answer: B

House Price
500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

Price

C House

1995 Appraisal Price 2000 Appraisal Price

Inspect to eliminate choices A, C, and E, which are all less than 50%. The 2000 price for houses B and D is the same, while the 1995 price is less for house B. That means there is a greater percent change for house B.
House B:

450 275 175 = = 63.63% 275 275


House D:

450 300 150 = = 50% 300 300 6. Answer: C Because f (x) = f (x), the graph of f (x) is symmetric with respect to the y-axis, as shown below. Inspect the graph to see that f (1.5) = 2.

1.5

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7. Answer: A The key is to rewrite 9 as 32. 9 a 3c = (32) a 3c = 32 a 3c = 32 a + c = 177,147. Use the guess and check method to find the power of 3 that will result is 177,147. 311 = 177,147. 32 a + c = 177,147 so 2 a + c = 11.

8. Answer: C

(3,13) r (2,1)

The distance between the center and a point on the circle is equal to the radius of the circle. r =

[ 2 ( 3)]2 + (1 13)2 =

52 + ( 12 ) =
2

25 + 144 =

169 = 13.

The radius of the circle is 13. The area of the circle is A = r 2 = (13) 2 = 169.

9. Answer: D The arrows are pointing out. Choose a greater than inequality. The midpoint of 12 and 4 is 4. This is only true for Choice D. Check your solution. x 4 > 8 x 4 < 8 x < 4 x > 4. x 4 > 8 x > 12 x < 12.

12

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CONQUERING SAT MATH

10. Answer: D Cylinder A: Use the volume formula to find the radius of Cylinder A. h = 4. V = r 2 h = 256 r 2 ( 4 ) = 256 r 2 = 64 r = 8. Cylinder B: The radius of Cylinder A is 8, so h = 8. Use the volume formula to find the radius of Cylinder B. V = r 2 h = 256 r 2 (8 ) = 256 r 2 = 32 r = 32 = 4 2.

11. Answer: E Choose two values of k to find two points. 2 = ( 2, 1) and 4 = ( 4, 2) . Use these points to find the slope of the line. m= 21 1 = 4 ( 2 ) 2

Find the y-intercept of the line using the point (2,1). y = mx + b y = 1 1 x + b 1 = ( 2 ) + b 1 = 1 + b 0 = b. 2 2 1 x. 2

Therefore, the equation of the line is y =

12. Answer: A A, B, and C represent the populations of the towns. A = 0.75B C = 0.20B Divide A by C. A 0.75 B = = 3.75 C 0.20 B

The population of Town A is 375%. The population of Town C.

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13. Answer: C
I. One of the numbers is odd Let x be odd. Let y and z be even. y + z is even. An even plus an odd is odd, so x + y + z is odd. II. Two of the numbers are odd. Let x be even. Let y and z be odd. y + z is even x + y + z is even. III. Three of the numbers are odd. Let x, y, and z be odd. x + y is even x + y + z is odd.

14. Answer: A By choosing one value of x to test all three statements we can see that only statement I is true. Let x = 0.5. Remember you are multiplying negative numbers. I. ( 0.5) 3 > (0.5) II. 0.5 > ( 0.5)2 III. ( 0.5)3 > ( 0.5)2 15. Answer: C True: ( 0.5)3 = 0.125, which is greater than ( 0.5). False: ( 0.5)2 is positive. False: ( 0.5)2 is positive; ( 0.5)3 is negative.

Scatterplot of Grade on Test vs Study Hours


100 95 Grade on Test 90 85 80 70 60 60 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 Study Hours 0.8 1.0 80 75 70 77 88 80 85 90 86 90 88

Begin by sketching what appears to be the best fitting line. Notice that the y-intercept is between 65 and 70. In the equation of a line, y = mx + b, b represents the y-intercept. Since the y-intercept for choices A, B, and E is 24, these can be eliminated. The line has a positive slope. In the equation of a line y = mx + b, m represents the slope. For choice B, the slope is 24 and for choice C the slope is 24. Choice B can be eliminated leaving, leaving us with choice C as the correct answer.

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16. Answer: D There are four congruent hexagons and four congruent isosceles triangles. Find the area of one isosceles triangle and one hexagon, add them together, and then multiply by 4.

10 10
120 120 120

There are four isosceles triangles in the original figure. Find the area of one of them. Partition the triangle into two 30-60-90 triangles. Use the properties of 30-60-90 triangles to complete the diagram.

60 60 10 5 10

30 53 53

30

Use the formula to find the area. A= 1 1 bh = i 10 3 i 5 = 25 3. 2 2

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Hexagon: Find the area of one of the central equilateral triangles and multiply that area by 6. We already know that the base of the triangle is 10. Use the rules of a 30-60-90 right triangle. Find the height of the triangle to be 5 3. The area 1 of the triangle is A = 10 5 3 = 25 3 Area of hexagon is 6 ( 25 3 ) = 150 3. 2

30 53 60 5 10 5

Therefore, the sum of these two areas is 25 3 + 150 3 = 175 3 , so the area of the region is 4 i 175 3 = 700 3.