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Indian Standard

IS I 8910 - 1978 ( Reaflinoed 1997 )


(~Second Reprint AUGUST 1998 ) )



0 Copyright 1-978







December 1978

IS : 8910 - 1978

Indian Standard
Chairman DR U. N. BEIRAKY Members SHHI H. S. ASW.~TH Bokaro Steel Plant ( SAIL ), Bokaio Steel City SHRI S. G. TUDEKA~ ( Af~ernafc ) SHRI S. B~NERJEE Steel Rc-rolling Mills Association of India, Calcuttr SHRI S. Ii. BASTJ Guest, Keen, Williams Ltd, Howrab SHRI A. ROYCHOWDHURY ( Alternate ) SHRI B. C. BISWAS National Test House. Calcutta SHILI P. K. CHAKRAVARTY Tata Iron & Steel Co Ltd, Jamshcdpur SHRI M. C. KTJX~RASWAMY ( Alternate ) SERI G. CRaTTER JEE Durgapur Steel Plant ( SAIL ), Durgapur SERI K. 2. MATHEWS( Alternafr ) .%RI P. f;. CE_4TTERJEE Ministry of Defence ( DGI ) SHRI V. RAMASWAMY ( Alternate ) DR N. S. DATAE Rourkela Steel Plant ( SAIL ), Rourkela SHRI K. S. SIN~H ( Altcmafe ) Mukand Iron & Sleel Works Ltd, Bomba\, DR A. Y. DE~ANI SHI~I R. V. PAREKH ( Altcrnatc ) SHRI S. C. DEY Central Boilers Board DIRECTOR ( M & C ), RDSO Ministry of Railways JOINT DIBECTOR ( MET ), RDSO ( Alternnte ) SHRI A. K. GUHA Directorate General of Supplies 8r Disposals, XCW Delhi SHEI K. M. TANEJA ( Alternate ) JOINT DIEECTOR ( WAaorr )-I, Ministry of Railways RDSO JOINT D I R E c T o R ( IRON DH V. C. KASHYAP Special Steels Ltd, Bombay SHRI S. S. MURANJAN ( Alternate ) SEXI M. N. KHANNA Bhilai Steel Plant ( SAIL ), Ehilai SHRI K. C. Sons ( Alternate ) DIG D. M. LAEHIANI Indian Iron & Steel Co Ltd, Burnpur SnEr T. K. DATTA ( AItemate )
& STEEL ), RAILWAY BOARD ( Alternate )

Steel Products





Steel & Alloys Ltd, Bombay

( Confinued on page 2 )

This publication is protected under the fndian Copyright Act ( XIV of 1957 ) and reproduction in whole or in part by any means except with written permission of the publisher shall be deemed to be an infringement of copyright under the said Act.

IS : 8910- 1978
( Confinucd from page Members


SHRI P. LAXMINARAYANA Hindustan Shipyard Ltd. Visakhapatnam SHRI N. C. MAGOTRA Tinplate Co of India Limited, Golmuri SHRI P. K. BANERJEE ( Alternate ) SHRI R. C. MAHAJAN The Indian Steel & Wire Products Ltd, Jamshcdpur SHRI A. N. KATUX ( Af~crna!c) SHRI M. K. PRAMANIK Iron 8s Steel Control, Calcutta SHRI. B. K. DIJTTA ( Alfemale ) Metallurgical SHRI RAQJXUBI~SIN~H National Laboratory ( CSIR ), Jamshedpur Mintstry of Defence ( DGOF ) SHRI D. SEN SHRI Y. C. SUBRABUNYA ( Alternate ) Sxr.xu L. SI~AND Metal Box Co of India Ltd, Calcutta SERI K. R. NARASIMHAN ( Alfcrnafc ) Joint Plant Committee, Calcutta SHRI D. SRINIVASAN SHRI B. P. GHOSH ( AItcrnate ) Bharat Heavy Eiectricals Ltd SHRI A. SRINIVASULU SERI A. K. MITTAL ( Altrrnatc ) M. N. Dastur & Co Pvt Ltd, Calcutta SHRI K. S. VAIDYANATHAN Director General, IS1 ( Ex-oflcio Member ) SHRI C. R. RAMA RAO, Director ( Strut & Met ) Secretary Deputy Director ( Metals ), IS1

IS :8910-1978

Indian Standard

0.1 This Indian Standard was adopted by the Indian Standards Institution on 15 September 1978, after the draft finalized by the Wrought Steel Products Sectional Committee had been approved by the Structural and Metals Division Council.
0.2 This Indian Standard has been formulated with a view to guide the steel industry and the consumers of steel and steel products with regard to the supply conditions of these products. This will also help the industry for the selection and preparation of test samples. 0.3 In formulation of this standard, assistance has been derived from Draft International Standard ISO/DIS 404 Steel and steel products General technical delivery requirements prepared by International Organization for Standardization.

1. SCOPE 1.1 The general

apply to crude*, technical delivery requirements defined in this standard semi-finished and finished wrought steel products. for different requirements, may form such the

1.2 Where product standards provide requirements shall be applicable. 1.3 In subject

special cases, variations to these requirements of an agreement at the time of order.


2.1 The purchaser selects the type of product specifying its dimensions and characteristics as well as the grade and quality of the steel. In his choice he may be guided by the manufacturer.
*For the purpose of this Indian Standard, the concept of crude proaucts 9 covers only ingots but also blooms, billets, slabs and all products of other shapes continuously cast and intended for forming at a later stage.



The order ); shall contain

2.2 Details to be Stipulated in the Order all the necessary information, such as: a) the number b) the shape c) the nominal d) the tolerances e) the grade f) of pieces of the product; dimensions; on the dimensions, of the steel;

( and/or mass or length

mass, number allows

of pieces,


and quality

technical data ( if the product standard or if special agreements are possible ); cond~itions; and finishing conditions for treating and testing

for an alternative

g) heat treatment h) conditions j) inspection

of surface; ( see 4 ); packing, conditioning,

and type of document

k) conditions for marking, workmanship, loading, despatch and place of destination;

and all data covering application of the product which are necessary for the order to be carried out correctly, for instance: subsequent heat treatment, surface coating, hot or cold forming, etc. 2.3 The information shall be specified:

a) either by reference to one or more standards with, if necessary, stipulation of any variations allowed by these standards; b) or, in the absence of a standard, by stipulation of the characteristics and conditions defined before and by common agreement. If, in an order, reference is made to a given Indian Standard, reference shall be interpreted as being the latest edition at the of signing the order. 3. MANUFACTURING PROCESS this date

3.1 The manufacturing process shall be left to the discretion ofthe manufacturer except by agreement to the contrary at the time of order or as otherwise specified in the product standard. 3.2 In the manufacturing shall be distinguished. process, the features given in 3.2.1 to 3.2.3

3.2.1 The steel making process, that is the melting ( for example: basic Bessemer, open-hearth, electric,

and refining process oxygen processes j. killed,

3.2.2 The state of deoxidation:

rimmed, 4


IS:8910-1978 3.2.3 The product making process, that is the sequence of operations following solidification of the metal preceding delivery of the products. 3.3 The steel making process shall be indicated to the formation if this has been specified in the order. 4. INSPECTION, TESTING AND CONFORMITY purchaser for i-n-


4.1 General Principle - The manufacturer is responsible to the purchaser with respect to the compliance of the products with the Consequently, the manufacturer arranges requirements of the order. appropriate inspection and testing of his production at his xvorks. 4.2 Conformity of the Products

4.2.1 At the time of order, the purchaser shall sprc;fy if the products are to be delivered with non-specific inspection and testing or with By special ngrcement, continuous specific inspection and testing. inspection and testing may be specified ( see 4.4 ). 4.2.2 At the time of order, the purchaser shall also specify which dccuments shall be required according to,, and 4.3 Inspection Documents 4.3.1 and Testing of the Products and Related

Speczjic Inspection

and Testing

of the Products DeJnitionprocedure and testin order to ve f ify whether the order.

Spxific inspection and testing means the inspection carried out on the products to be supplied in these products comply with the requirements of Place of inspection and testing - The selection of samples, the preparation of test pieces and the tests themselves are carried out, unless agreed to the contrary, in the works of the manufacturer. Where the works of the manufacturer does means, the inspections are carried out at another the parties. Documents not have the necessary place agreed to between

a) Inspection certificate - The inspection certificate contains the results of all the tests specified, carried out on samples taken from the 5

products conditions. themselves supplied under the The following may be noted: specified batching

1) By agreement, when ordering, the inspection and testin,g procedures may be carried out at the discretion of the purchaser: i) by the qualified ii) in the presence him. department* of the manufacturers or a body works; by of the purchaser designated

2) The inspection certificate is signed in case (i) by the representative of the qualified department, and in case (ii) by the purchaser or the representative of the designated body. 3) In certain special cases, by agreement when ordering, the inspection and testing procedures may also be carried out by a body independent of the purchaser and the manufacturer, the tests being carried out~outside the production works. In that case, the inspection certificate is to be signed by the representative of that body.


Inspection report Where the inspection certificate specified in case (ii) of (a) (1) shall, by agreement, be signed by the purchaser and the manufacturer or his representative, it is known as the inspection report. .Non-speciJc Inspection and Testing

4.3.2 Dejnition - Non-specific inspection and testing is carried out by the manufacturer in accordance with his own procedures ( see 4.1 ), on products made by the same manufacturing process, but not necessarily on the products actually supplied. Documents

a) Statement of combliance with the order Document in which the manufacturer states that the products supplied are in compliance with the requirements of the order, without mention of any test result.


Test report - Document in which the manufacturer states that the products supplied are in compliance with the requirements of the order and in which he supplies the results of the routine work inspection tests, carried out on products made by the same manuas the consignment, but not, therefore, facturing p recess necessarily applying to the actual products supplied.
department different from may be subject to approval

*A qualified department means inspection and testing the production department. In certain cases, this department by the purchaser.

IS : 8910 - 1978 4.4 Continuous Inspection of Product Characteristics - For specific ~products, following an agreement between the parties, specific product inspections ( in accordance with 4.3.1 ) may be replaced by extracts from the continuous product inspection carried out by the qualified department of the manufacturers works, approved by the purchaser. The characteristics to be verified and the values of these, the frequency of the inspection and, if necessary, the documents of compliance shallbe agreed, as shall the right of the purchaser or his representative to verify such continuous inspection by appropriate means.

Method of Batching Acceptance Unite, Samples and Identification of Casts

of batching is determined method of batching may, by for

4.5.1 Method of Batching - The method the product standard or the order. The example, be as follows:

same product form. They come By cast - The products areofthe from the same cast and have been submitted, where appropriate,to the same heat treatment conditions in the manufacturers works;

b) cl 4

By batch - The products product making processes, By rolling unit By piece For certain technical requirements.

may come from different identified or otherwise; coming where unit is laid products made down

casts and/or

For instance-sheets

from the same coil; necessary by the by pro-

4.5.2 Acceptance Unit - The acceptance duct standard or the order. The inspection unit is the number of products to be accepted or rejected together, tion to be carried out on these products. unit 4.53 Samples - Each inspection certain number of samples. This number according to the type of test ( chemical specified temperature, long-duration tests,

of pieces or the tonnage on the basis of the inspec-

gives rise to the selection of a may vary for the same product analysis, mechanical tests at a technological tests, etc ). manufacwith the of order, In the case of pieces ordered at finished size, the turer may, with a view to taking of samples in accordance technical possibilities and subject to agreement at the time submit for acceptance:

a) b) 4



pieces, and of sufficient size fcr samples to be pieces

or pieces with prolongations, or smaller taken. additional

1s :8910 - 1978
to the cast is necessary 4.5.4 Identijification of Casts - Wh- re reference for the inspection and testing operations, the manufacturer shall be able to relate the products in question to the casts from which they come. 4.6 Submission for Inspection and Testing - Submission for inspection and testing of part or all the consignment in accordance with 4.3.2 is notified to the purchaser or his inspection representative by the manufacturer or his authorized representative. 4.6.1 In order to avoid interference with-the normal operation of the works, the manufacturer and the purchaser or his inspection representative fix, by common agreement, the date or dates of the inspection. 4.6.2 A submission note referring to the order, or to the available ofthe order, is delivered to the inspection representative not later the beginning of the acceptance procedure. part than

4.7 Rights and Duties of the Inspection Representative The inspection representative shall have free access, at any appropriate moment, to the places where the productsto be accepted are manufactured and stored. He may indicate the elements of the acceptance unit or the products from which the samples are to be taken in conformity with the specifications. He shall have the possibility of following the operations of selection of samples, preparation ( machining and treatment ) of test pieces and of witnessing the tests. However, the inspection representative, when moving around the works, shall observe all the safety rules in force in the works and be accompanied, where possible, by a representative of the works. 4.7.1 The acceptance procedures shall be carried out in accordance with the requirements of the normal run of production. Sufficient time shall be allowed for them to bc carried out effectively. 5. MECHANICAL 5.1 Carrying Out test results shall be responding Indian be in accordance Standards. AND TECHNOLOGICAL TESTS

of Tests - The tests shall be carried out, and the utilized and interpreted, in accordance with, the carStandards. The accuracy of the testing machines shall with the requirements of the corresponding Indian Preparation of Samples and Test Pieces for with IS : 3711- This shall be done in accordance

5.2 Selection and Mechanical Tests 1966.

*Method for selection and preparation tests for wrought steel.

of samples and test pieces for mechanical

1-s: 8910 - 1978 5.3 Interpretation of Results

5.3.1 Where, in a standard, the mechanical characteristics arc specified bv thickness categories, the thickness to be considered is the nominal thickness of the product at the required location for taking samples for mechanical tests. 5.3.2 In the absence of any spccificntinn in the order or the product standard, the mechanical characteristics 1 elate to the delivery condition of the products. 5.3.3 For certain tests (impact tests, for instance), the interpretation of the reslrlts is based on a sequential method as follows given in 5.3.3-l to A series of tests ( usually 3 tests ) is carried out on test pieces taken from a single sample and the results obtained shall meet the criteria specified by the prcduct standard ( arithmetic mean and ; if necessary, individual values ). In the case of unsatisfactory results, too low a mean or an individual value below the minimum specified value, a second series of tests may be carried out, again on test pieces from the same sample. The mean of the two series of tests shall comply with the specified mean value. With regard to the individual values of the second series of tests, the requirements of the product standard shall apply. If these conditions are not satisfied, the product is rejected and re-tests are carried out on the remainder of the acceptance unit ( see5.5.2 ). 5.4 Invalidation of Tests unsatisfactory owing to: a) faulty production the steel itself, b) faulty mounting working c) faulty -4 test is invalidated not if the results are in

of the test piece of the test piece,


to defects

of the test machine,

d) incorrect heat treatment of the sample where the guaranteed mechanical characteristics relate to a heat treatment condition from that of the delivery conditions. In each of these cases, the test shall be repeated. 5.5 Re-tests - Where one or more tests give unsatisfactory results, retests may be carried out in accordance with the fc)llowing requirements for each unsatisfactory tests, except by agreement to the contrary when ordering. The unsatisfactory result comes from an individual test ( for example, tensiie test or bend test ). 9

IS : 8910 * 1978 5.5.1 The acceptance unit is the individual product. The manufacturer may, at his discretion, retain the product as an acceptance unit, or not. If the product is retained, two new tests of the same type as the one giving an unsatisfactory result are carried out. Both new tests shall give satisfactory results. If not, the product is rejected. 5.5.2 The acceptance unit is a cast or a batch. The manufacturer may, at his discretion, retain or not retain in the acceptance unit the product from which the unsatisfactory test piece comes, except by agreement to the contrary. If the product is withdrawn from the acceptance unit, the inspection representative once more designates, within the same acceptance Two more tests of the same type unit, two other products of his choice. are then carried out on test pieces from these two products, under the same conditions as for the first tests; both new tests shall give satisfactory results. If the product is retained in the acceptance unit, the procedure is as indicated in, but one of the new test pieces shall be taken from the product retained in the acceptance unit; both new tests shall give satisfactory results. If the result of a test should deviate significantly from the specified requirements for the steel type to be supplied, SO that mixed material is suspected, and no longer apply. In that case, a special inspection and testing procedure may be agreed between the parties. 5.5.3 The unsatisfactory result arises from a sequential method as defined in 5.3.3 ( for instance, impact test ). As indicated in the product which has not given satisfactory results is rejected. The procedure is as indicated in carrying out two new series of tests on two different products from the remainder of the acceptance unit, both of which shall give satisfactory results. In that case, no longer applies, and a second series of tests may not be carried out. 5.6 Sorting or Re-treatment - The manufacturer reserves the right to carry out sorting or re-treatment ( heat treatment or mechanical treatment, for example ) ofthe products, except by agreement to the contrary when ordering, either before or after the re-tests and to submit these products as a new acceptance unit in accordance with the provisions of 4.5 and 4.6 without prejudice to the purchaser. The manufacturer shall state to the inspection representative the method of sorting used or the treatment applied. 10

IS : 8910 - 1978

6.0 Where the order contains requirements relating to chemical composition, the results of the analysis regarding the specified elements are given, in accordance with agreement at the time of order, in one of the documents defined in, and 6.1 Selection of Samples samples is carried out in Appendix A. for Chemical accordance with Analysis Selection the procedure given of in

6.2 Cast ( Ladle ) Analysis - The cast analysis shall apply, except where otherwise indicated in the product standard or by special agreement. 6.3 Product Analysis

6.3.1 Where the product analysis is required by the product standard or the order, the sample for product analysis shall be taken from the location specified in the product standard or by special agreement. 6.3.2 Re-analysis - Where one or more analysis give unsatisfactory results, re-analysis may be carried out according to the following procedures, for each unsatisfactory analysis, except by agreement to the contrary at the time of order. The acceptance unit is the individual product. The manufacturer may, at his discretion, retain the product as the acceptance unit, or If the product is retained, two new analysis of the same type as the not. one which has given an unsatisfactory result, are carried out. Both new analysis shall give satisfactory results. If not, the product is rejected. The acceptance unit is a cast or a batch. The manufacturer may, at his discretion, retain or not retain in the acceptance unit the product or products from which the -msatisfactory test pieces were taken, except by agreement to the contrary. If the product is withdrawn from the acceptance unit, the inspection representative once more designates, in the same acceptance unit, two other products of his choice. Two new analysis of same type are then carried out on samples from the two products, under the same conditions as for the first analysis; both new analysis shall give satisfactory results. If the product is retained in the acceptance unit, the procedure is as indicated in but one of the new samples shall be taken from the product retained in the acceptance unit; both new analysis shall give satisfactory results. 11

IS : 8910 - 1978 If the result of an ana!~-sis deviates significantly from the specified composition so that mixed material is suspected, and no longer apply. In that case, a tighter inspection procedure shall be agreed between the parties. 6.4 Arbitration Andysis - Arbitration analysis, if any, are carried out in 4 laboratory chosen by common agreement, inaccordance withmethods specified in the corresponding Indian Standards. 7. SURFACE 7.1 Surface AND INTERNAL Defects to the proper use of the product DEFECTS

7.1.1 Surface defects not prejudicial cannot be grounds for rejection. The order contains, if necessary, relating to surface appearance which supplement standards depending on the intended use. Rejection at the manufC~cturcrs surface defects is limited to the actual products

particular specifications the general or product works on the grounds displaying such defects. of

7.1.2 The use of special techn;ques, either during acceptance, or after delivery, to detect surface defects, as well as the procedures for intcrpreting the results shall be agreed at the time c!f order. 7.2 Repairs - Surface defects may be removed provided that the remaining thickness remains within the lower dimensional tolerance limit specified in either the product standard or the order and provided that this operation is not prejudicial to the use of the product. 7.2.1 The purchaser or the accepting This agreement may apply welding. part of the consignment. 7.3 Internal Defects agent either may permit local repairs by to the whole or only to a

7.3.1 Internal defects not prejudicial to proper use cannot be grounds Rejection, at the manufacturers works, on the grounds of for rejection. internal defects, is limited to~the actual products displaying such defects. 7.3.2 The use of special techniques at the time of acceptance (radiograetc ) to detect internal defects as phy, ultrasonics, magnetic detection, well as the number of products to be tested per acceptance unit and the procedures for interpreting the results shall be agreed at the time of order. 12


8.1 Tolerances on Dimensions and Shape The product may be rejected if the dimensional or shape tolerances are exceeded. Such rejection is limited to those products where the tolerances are exceeded. 8.2 Tolerances ard or a specific tolerances: on Theoretical Mass - Generally, the product standstandard concerning dimensional tolerances lays down mass calculated mass for each product acceptance and/or, unit or consign-

a) on the theoretical b) on the theoretical ment.

of an entire

8.3 Tolerances on the Number of Pieces Supplied or, the Tonnage Supplied - Deviations, specified as an absolute value or as a relative value, between the number of pieces supplied or the tonnage supplied and the number of pieces or the tonnage ordered, respectively, may also be specified in the order. 9. ROUNDING TESTING OFF RESULTS OBTAINED BY INSPECTION AND

9.1 Mechanical and Chemical Properties - The results of mechanical and chemical tests shall be rounded off, in accordance with IS : 2-1960*. The number of significant places retained in the rounded off value should be same as that specified in the.product standard. 9.2 Dimensional Characteristics - The results of determination of dimensions ( length, width, thickness, rounding, etc) and shape (squaring, straightness, flatness, kinking, ovalisation, etc ) are not cambering, These shall comply with the specifications in the standard, rounded. taking account of the permissible deviations also given in the standard. 10. IDENTIFICATION AND MARKING

10.1 The identification and marking, if any, of the products supplied are carried out in conformity with the specific provisiofis made in the order, and, where appropriate, the specifications in the product standards. 10.2 Where product marking is required, but not detailed in the order, a type of marking compatible with the type of product is left to the discretion of the manufacturer. 11. COMPLAINTS AFTER DELIVERY

11.1 In the event of a complaint, the manufacturer shall have an opportunity to check the merit of the claim within a reasonable time. The contested items remain available for this purpose.
*Rules for rounding off numerical values ( rwircd ).


11.2 In particular,
it is necessary

if defects appear to submit the product

after subsequent to a check.


the purchaser,

APPENDIX ( Clause 6.1 )



from which the sample

is selected.
as sample-

NOTE products.

time of casting are also considered


of finely divided material taken from a normai Sample - Quantity section of the sample-product so as to represent the average chemical composition of this section.

NOTE - Where products are liable to chemical .changes in the surface, decarburizatron, for example, it may be agreed to discard from the sample the parts ( that is the surface ) that have undergone chemical change. A-l.3 Sample for Chemical Analysis such a manner as to represent the average intended to be used for the analysis proper. A-2. METHODS OF SELECTING Part of the sample taken in chemical composition and


A-2.1 Selection and Identification -*The sample-products required by particular specification or called for by the inspector should be provided with the necessary reference numbers or other. identification marks: The samples should be selected from these sample-products. is made in the section at the location A-2.2 Location - The selection specified by the material specification. Failing a standard specification, the locations are spread evenly over the whole section. A-2.3 Preparation of the Location - If necessary, the metal is completely cleaned, at the location, by sand blasting, grinding or any other suitable method, *and finally degreased by means of a suitable solvent. After preparation, the locations should be kept perfectly clean.
*The clauses of this Appendix do not apply to the special methods, such as spectrographic methods, for which other conditions would be necessary.


IS : 8910 - 1978 A-2.4 Method of Selection - If the sample is to be taken from the section, planing, milling or turning should be used. If the sample may be taken from a part of the section only or from prescribed locations, drilling or one of the above-mentioned processes can be used, as required. A-2.4.1 Special Precautions - No water, oil or any other lubricant may be used. The metal should not be heated to the point of oxidation. A-2.4.2 Particle Size - The particles obtained should be small to reduce to a minimum the subsequent operation of fragmentation out on the sample before chemical analysis ( see A-3.1 ). enough carried the

A-2.5 Protection of the Sample During and after selection, sampl: should be kept clean and protected against oxidation. A-3. METHOD ANALYSIS OF PREPARING THE SAMPLE FOR CHEMICAL

A-3.1 Sieving - If-sieving is necessary to obtain a representative sample, the whole of the sample should pass through a sieve with a 4 mm mesh*. If any of the particles will not pass through, they should be broken up until they do. A-3.1.1 Any sieving obviate contaminations should be carried out in such or loss of the material. a manner as to

A-3.2 Number of Samples -The sample should be divided into the same~number of samples as there are parties interested in the analysis. For possible arbitration, two further samples should be provided. A-3:3 Protection of the Samples - The sample for chemical should be kept in such a manner as to avoid any contamination. analysis

A-3.3.1 Containers - The containers should give the necessary identifiThe two containers which are to cation marks and be sealed if necessary. be kept for possible arbitration should be sealed both by the manufacturer and by the user or by their representatives. Unless otherwise agreed, these containers are kept by the party responsible for the preparation of the sample for chemical analysis. A-3.4 Arbitration where arbitration parties. When arbitration is to be carried out is necessary, the laboratory should be agreed between the

*For carbon determination, a 119 mm mesh.

the whole of the sample should pass through a sieve with



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