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CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION TO STUDY
The field of investment traditionally divided into security analysis and portfolio management. The heart of security analysis is valuation of financial assets. Value in turn is the function of risk and return. These two concepts are in the study of investment .Investment can be defined the commitment of funds to one or more assets that will be held over for some future time period. In today fast growing world many opportunities are available,so in order to move with changes and grab the best opportunities in the field of investments a professional fund manager is necessary. Therefore, in the present scenario the Portfolio Management Services (PMS) is fast gaining importance as an investment alternative for the High Net worth Investors. Portfolio Management Services (PMS) is an investment portfolio in stocks, fixed income, debt, cash, structured products and other individual securities, managed by a professional money manager that can potentially be tailored to meet specific investment objectives. When you invest in PMS, you own individual securities unlike a mutual fund investor, who owns units of the entire fund. You have the freedom and flexibility to tailor your portfolio to address personal preferences and financial goals. Although portfolio managers may oversee hundreds of portfolio, your account may be unique. Investment Management Solution in PMS can be provided in the following ways: i. ii. iii. Discretionary Non Discretionary Advisory

Discretionary: Under these services, the choice as well as the timings of the investment decisions rest solely with the Portfolio Manager.

Non Discretionary: Under these services, the portfolio manager only suggests the investment ideas. Advisory: Under these services, the portfolio manager only suggests the investment ideas. The choice as well as the execution of the investment decisions rest solely with the Investor. Rule 2, clause (d) of the SEBI (portfolio managers) Rules, 1993 defines the term Portfolio as total holding of securities belonging to any person.As a matter of fact, portfolio is combination of assets the outcomes of which cannot be defined with certainty new assets could be physical assets, real estates, land, building, gold etc. or financial assets like stocks, equity, debenture, deposits etc. Portfolio management refers to managing efficiently the investment in the securities held by professional for others. Merchant banker and the portfolio management with a view to ensure maximum return by such investment with minimum risk of loss of return on the money invested in securities held by them for their clients. The aim Portfolio management is to achieve the maximum return from a portfolio, which has been delegated to be managed by manger or financial institution. There are lots of organization in the market on the lookout for the people like you who need their portfolios managed for them .They have trained and skilled talent will work on your money to make it do more for you. Therefore, if any investors still insist on managing their own portfolio, then ensure you build discipline into their investment. Work out their strategy and stand by it.

MYTHS ABOUT PMS


There are two most common myths found about Portfolio Management Services (PMS) which we found among most of the Investors. They are as follows.

Myth No. 1: PMS and Mutual Fund are Similar as the investment option
As in the Finance Basket both the PMS and Mutual Fund are used for minimizing risk and maximize the profit of the Investors. The objectives are similar as in both the product but they are different from each other in certain aspects. They are as follows.
Management Side

In PMS, its ongoing personalized access to professional money management services. Whereas, in Mutual fund gives personalize access to money. Customization In PMS, Portfolio can be tailored to address each investor's specific needs. Whereas in Mutual Fund Portfolio structured to meet the fund's stated investment objectives. Ownership In PMS, Investors directly own the individual securities in their portfolio, allowing for tax management flexibility, whereas in Mutual Fund Shareholders own shares of the fund and cannot influence buy and sell decisions or control their exposure to incurring tax liabilities. Liquidity In PMS, managers may hold cash; they are not required to hold cash to meet redemptions, whereas, Mutual funds generally hold some cash to meet redemptions.

Minimums PMS generally gives higher minimum investments than mutual funds. Generally, minimum ranges from: Rs. 1 Crore + for Equity Options Rs. 5 Crore + for Fixed Income Options Rs. 20 Lacs + for Structured Products, whereas in Mutual Fund Provide ongoing, personalized access to professional money management services.

Flexibility PMS is generally more flexible than mutual funds. The Portfolio Manager may move to 100% cash if it required. The Portfolio Manager may take his own time in building up the portfolio. The Portfolio Manager can also manage a portfolio with disproportionate allocation to select compelling opportunities whereas, in Mutual Fund comparatively less flexible.

Myth No. 2:

PMS is more Risk free than other Financial Instrument

In Financial Market Risk factor is common in all the financial products, but yes it is true that Risk Factor vary from each other due to its nature. All investments involve a certain amount of risk, including the possible erosion of the principal amount invested, which varies depending on the security selected. For example, investments in small and midsized companies tend to involve more risk than investments in larger companies.

INTRODUCTION TO STOCK EXCHANGE


The emergence of stock market can be traced back to 1830. In Bombay, business passed in the shares of banks like the commercial bank, the chartered mercantile bank, the chartered bank, the oriental bank and the old bank of Bombay and shares of cotton presses. In Calcutta, Englishman reported the quotations of 4%, 5%, and 6% loans of East India Company as well as the shares of the bank of Bengal in 1836. This list was a further broadened in 1839 when the Calcutta newspaper printed the quotations of banks like union bank and Agra bank. It also quoted the prices of business ventures like the Bengal bonded warehouse, the Docking Company and the storm tug company.

Between 1840 and 1850, only half a dozen brokers existed for the limited business. But during the share mania of 1860-65, the number of brokers increased considerably. By 1860, the number of brokers was about 60 and during the exciting period of the American Civil war, their number increased to about 200 to 250. The end of American Civil war brought disillusionment and many

Failures and the brokers decreased in number and prosperity. It was in those troublesome times between 1868 and 1875 that brokers organized an informal association and finally as recited in the Indenture constituting the Articles of Association of the Exchange.

On or about 9th day of July,1875, a few native brokers doing brokerage business in shares and stocks resolved upon forming in Bombay an association for protecting the character, status and interest of native share and stock brokers and providing a hall or building for the use of the Members of such association. As a meeting held in the broker Hall on the 5th day of February, 1887, it was resolved to execute a formal deal of association and to constitute the first managing committee and to appoint the first trustees. Accordingly, the Articles of Association of the Exchange and the Stock

Exchange was formally established in Bombay on 3rd day of December, 1887. The Association is now known as The Stock Exchange.

The entrance fee for new member was Re.1 and there were 318 members on the list, when the exchange was constituted. The numbers of members increased to 333 in 1896, 362 in 1916and 478 in 1920 and the entrance fee was raised to Rs.5 in 1877, Rs.1000 in 1896, Rs.2500 in 1916 and Rs. 48,000 in 1920. At present there are 23 recognized stock exchanges with about 6000 stock brokers. Organization structure of stock exchange varies.

14 stock exchanges are organized as public limited companies, 6 as companies limited by guarantee and 3 are non-profit voluntary organization. Of the total of 23, only 9 stock exchanges have been permanent recognition. Others have to seek recognition on annual basis. These exchange do not work of its own, rather, these are run by some persons and with the help of some persons and institution. All these are down as functionaries on stock exchange. These are:

i. ii. iii. iv.

Stockbrokers Sub-broker Market makers Portfolio consultants etc.

1. Stockbrokers:
Stock brokers are the members of stock exchanges. These are the persons who buy, sell or deal in securities. A certificate of registration from SEBI is mandatory to act as a broker. SEBI can impose certain conditions while granting the certificate of registrations. It is obligatory for the person to abide by the rules, regulations and the buy-law. Stock brokers are commission broker, floor broker, arbitrageur etc.

Detail of Registered Brokers


Total no. of registered brokers as on 31.03.12 Total no. of sub-broker as on 31.03.12

9000

24,000

2. Sub-broker:
A sub-broker acts as agent of stock broker. He is not a member of a stock exchange. He assists the investors in buying, selling or dealing in securities through stockbroker. The broker and sub-broker should enter into an agreement in which obligations of both should be specified. Sub-broker must be registered SEBI for a dealing in securities. For getting registered with SEBI, he must fulfill certain rules and regulation.

3. Market Makers:
Market maker is a designated specialist in the specified securities. They make both bid and offer at the same time. A market maker has to abide by bye-laws, rules regulations of the concerned stock exchange. He is exempt from the margin requirements. As per the listing requirements, a company where the paid-up capital is Rs. 3 Crore but not more than Rs. 5 core and having a commercial operation for less than 2 years should appoint a market maker at the time of issue of securities.

4. Portfolio Consultants:
A combination of securities such as stocks, bonds and money market instruments is collectively called as portfolio. Whereas the portfolio consultants are the persons, firms or companies who advise, direct or undertake the management or administration of securities or funds on behalf of their clients.

Traditionally stock trading is done through stock brokers, personally or through telephones. As number of people trading in stock market increase enormously in last few years, some issues like location constrains, busy phone lines, miss communication etc start growing in stock broker offices. Information technology (Stock Market Software) helps stock brokers in solving these problems with Online Stock Trading.

Online Stock Market Trading is an internet based stock trading facility. Investor can trade shares through a website without any manual intervention from Stock Broker.

There are two different type of trading environments available for online equity trading.

1. Installable software based Stock Trading Terminals


This trading environment requires software to be installed on investors computer. This software is provided by the stock broker. This software requires high speed internet connection. These kind of trading terminals are used by high volume intraday equity traders.

2. Web (Internet) based trading application


This kind of trading environment doesn't require any additional software installation. They are like other internet websites which investor can access from around the world through normal internet connection.

Stock exchanges are like market places, where stockbrokers buy and sell securities for individuals or institutions. As per the SCRA (Securities Contracts Regulation Act) 1956, the definition of securities includes shares, bonds, stocks, debentures, government securities, derivatives of securities, units of collective investment scheme (CIS) etc. The securities market has two interdependent segments: the primary and secondary market.

The primary market is the channel for creation of new securities issued by public limited companies or by government agencies. New securities issued in the primary market are traded in the secondary market. The secondary market operates through the over-the-counter (OTC) market and the exchange trade market.

Advantages of Stocks Trading


1. Better returns Actively trading stocks can produce better overall returns than simply buying and holding. 2. Huge Choice There are thousands of stocks listed on markets around the world. There is always a stock whose price is moving - its just a matter of finding them. 3. Familiarity The most traded stocks are in the largest companies that most of us have heard of and understand - Microsoft, IBM, and Cisco etc.

Disadvantages of Stocks Trading


1. Leverage With a margined account the maximum amount of leverage available for stock trading is usually 4:1. Meaning a $25,000 could trade up to $100,000 of stock. This is pretty low compared to Forex trading or futures trading. 2. Pattern Day Trader Rules It requires at least $25,000 to be held in a trading account if the trader completes more than 4 trades in a 5 day period. No such rule applies to Forex trading or futures trading.

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3. Uptick Rule on Short Selling A trader must wait until a stock price ticks up before they can short sell it. Again there are no such rules in Forex trading or futures trading where going short are as easy as going long.

4. Need to Borrow Stock to Short Stocks are physical commodities and if a trader wishes to go short then the broker must have arrangements in place to borrow that stock from a shareholder until the trader closes their position. This limits the opportunities available for short selling. Contrast this to futures trading where selling is as easy as buying.

5. Costs Although online trading costs for stock trading are low they still add considerably to the costs of day trading. Online futures trading are about 1/4 of the cost for the equivalent value. In the UK 0.5% stamp duty is also levied on all share purchases making trading virtually impossible, hence the popularity of spread betting.

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CHAPTER- 2 COMPANY PROFILE

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COMPANY PROFILE
Sharekhan is one of the leading retail brokerage of City Venture which is running successfully since 1922 in the country. Earlier it was the retail broking arm of the Mumbai-based SSKI Group, which has over eight decades of experience in the stock broking business. Share khan offers its customers a wide range of equity related services including trade execution on BSE, NSE, Derivatives, depository services, online trading, investment advice etc.

Earlier with a legacy of more than 80 years in the stock markets, the SSKI group ventured into institutional broking and corporate finance 18 years ago. SSKI is one of the leading players in institutional broking and corporate finance activities. SSKI holds a sizeable portion of the market in each of these segments. SSKIs institutional broking arm accounts for 7% of the market for Foreign Institutional portfolio investment and 5% of all Domestic Institutional portfolio investment in the country.

It has 60 institutional clients spread over India, Far East, UK and US. Foreign Institutional Investors generate about 65% of the organizations revenue, with a daily turnover of over US$ 2 million. The content-rich and research oriented portal has stood out among its contemporaries because of its steadfast dedication to offering customers best-of-breed technology and superior market information. The objective has been to let customers make informed decisions and to simplify the process of investing in stocks

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Mission of the Sharekhan is


To educate and empower the individual investor to make better investment decisions through QUALITY ADVICE INNOVATIVE PRODUCTS and SUPERIOR SERVICE.

WORK STRUCUTRE OF SHAREKHAN


Sharekhan has always believed in investing in technology to build its business. The company has used some of the best-known names in the IT industry, like Sun Microsystems, Oracle, Microsoft, Cambridge Technologies, Nexgenix, Vignette, Verisign Financial Technologies India Ltd, Spider Software Pvt. Ltd. to build its trading engine and content. The Citi Venture holds a majority stake in the company. HSBC, Intel & Carlyle are the other investors.

On April 17, 2002 Sharekhan launched Speed Trade and Trade Tiger, are net-based executable application that emulates the broker terminals along with host of other information relevant to the Day Traders. This was for the first time that a net-based trading station of this caliber was offered to the traders. In the last six months Speed Trade has become a de facto standard for the Day Trading community over the net. Sharekhans ground network includes over 700+ Shareshops in 130+ cities in India. The firms online trading and investment site www.sharekhan.com - was launched on Feb 8, 2000. The site gives access to superior content and transaction facility to retail customers across the country. Known for its jargon-free, investor friendly language and high quality research, the site has a registered base of over 3 Lacs customers. The

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number of trading members currently stands at over 7 Lacs. While online trading currently accounts for just over 5 per cent of the daily trading in stocks in India, Sh arekhan alone accounts for 27 per cent of the volumes traded online.

The Corporate Finance section has a list of very prestigious clients and has many firsts to its credit, in terms of the size of deal, sector tapped etc. The group has placed over US$ 5 billion in private equity deals. Some of the clients include BPL Cellular Holding, Gujarat Pipavav, Essar, Hutchison, Planetasia, and Shoppers Stop. Finally, Sharekhan shifted hands and Citi venture get holds on it.

PRODUCT AND SERVICES OFFERD BY SHAREKHAN


1- Equity Trading Platform (Online/Offline). 2- Commodities Trading Platform (Online/Offline). 3- Portfolio Management Service. 4- Mutual Fund Advisory and Distribution. 5- Insurance Distribution. 6-Forex

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6. Forex.

REASON TO CHOOSE SAHREKHAN LIMITED


Experience
SSKI has more than eight decades of trust and credibility in the Indian stock market. In the Asia Money broker's poll held recently, SSKI won the 'India's best broking house for 2004' award. Ever since it launched Sharekhan as its retail broking division in February 2000, it has been providing institutional-level research and broking services to individual investors.

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Technology
With their online trading account one can buy and sell shares in an instant from any PC with an internet connection. Customers get access to the powerful online trading tools that will help them to take complete control over their investment in shares .

Accessibility
Sharekhan provides ADVICE, EDUCATION, TOOLS AND EXECUTION services for investors. These services are accessible through many centers across the country (Over 650 locations in 150 cities), over the Internet (through the website www.sharekhan.com) as well as over the Voice Tool.

Knowledge
In a business where the right information at the right time can translate into direct profits, investors get access to a wide range of information on the content-rich portal, www.sharekhan.com. Investors will also get a useful set of knowledge-based tools that will empower them to take informed decisions.

Convenience
One can call Sharekhans Dial-N-Trade number to get investment advice and execute his/her transactions. They have a dedicated call-center to provide this service via a Toll Free Number 1800 22-7500 & 39707500 from anywhere in India.

Customer Service
Its customer service team assist their customer for any help that they need relating to transactions, billing, demat and other queries. Their customer service can be contacted via a toll-free number, email or live chat on www.sharekhan.com.

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Investment Advice
Sharekhan has dedicated research teams of more than 30 people for fundamental and technical research. Their analysts constantly track the pulse of the market and provide timely investment advice to customer in the form of daily research emails, online chat, printed reports etc.

Benefits
Free Depository A/c Instant Cash Transfer Multiple Bank Option. Secure Order by Voice Tool Dial-n-Trade. Automated Portfolio to keep track of the value of your actual purchases. 24x7 Voice Tool access to your trading account. Personalized Price and Account Alerts delivered instantly to your Mobile Phone & E-mail address. Live Chat facility with Relationship Manager on Yahoo Messenger Special Personal Inbox for order and trade confirmations. Buy or sell even single share Anytime Ordering.

Sharekhan offers the following products:-

CLASSIC ACCOUNT
This is a User Friendly Product which allows the client to trade through website www.sharekhan.com and is suitable for the retail investors who is risk-averse and hence prefers to invest in stocks or who does not trade too frequently.

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Features
Online trading account for investing in Equity and Derivatives via www.sharekhan.com Live Terminal and Single terminal for NSE Cash, NSE F&O & BSE. Integration of On-line trading, Saving Bank and Demat Account. Instant cash transfer facility against purchase & sale of shares. Competitive transaction charges. Instant order and trade confirmation by E-mail. Streaming Quotes (Cash & Derivatives). Personalized market watch. Single screen interface for Cash and derivatives and more. Provision to enter price trigger and view the same online in market watch.

SPEEDTRADE
SPEEDTRADE is an internet-based software application that enables you to buy and sell in an instant. It is ideal for active traders and jobbers who transact frequently during days session to capitalize on intra-day price movement.

Features
Instant order Execution and Confirmation. Single screen trading terminal for NSE Cash, NSE F&O & BSE. Technical Studies. Multiple Charting. Real-time streaming quotes, tic-by-tic charts. Market summary (Cost traded scrip, highest clue etc.) Hot keys similar to brokers terminal. Alerts and reminders. Back-up facility to place trades on Direct Phone lines. Live market debts.

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DIAL-N-TRADE
Along with enabling access for trade online, the CLASSIC and SPEEDTRADE ACCOUNT also gives Dial-n-trade services. With this service, one can dial Sharekhans dedicated phone lines 1800-22-7500, 3970-7500. Beside this, Relationship Managers are always available on Office Phone and Mobile to resolve customer queries.

SHARE MOBILE
Sharekhan had introduced Share Mobile, mobile based software where one can watch Stock Prices, Intra Day Charts, Research & Advice and Trading Calls live on the Mobile. (As per SEBI regulations, buying-selling shares through a mobile phone are not yet permitted.)

PREPAID ACCOUNT
Customers pay Advance Brokerage on trading Account and enjoy uninterrupted trading in their Account. Beside this, great discount are also available (up to 50%) on brokerage.

Prepaid Classic Account: - Rs. 2000 Prepaid Speed trade Account: - Rs. 6000

IPO ON-LINE
Customers can apply to all the forthcoming IPOs online. This is quite hassle-free, paperless and time saving. Simply allocate fund to IPO Account, Apply for the IPO and Sit Back & Relax.

Mutual Fund Online


Investors can apply to Mutual Funds of Reliance, Franklin Templeton Investments, ICICI Prudential, SBI, Birla, Sundaram, HDFC, DSP Merrill Lynch, PRINCIPAL and TATA with Sharekhan.

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Zero Balance ICICI Saving Account


Sharekhan had tied-up with ICICI bank for Zero Balance Account for Sharekhans Clients. Now their customers can have a Zero Balance Saving Account with ICICI Bank after your demat account creation with Sharekhan.

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CHAPTER-3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT


Each research study has its own specific purpose. It is like to discover to Question through the application of scientific procedure. But the main aim of our research to find out the truth that is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet. Our research study has two objectives: To know the concept of Portfolio Management. To know about the schemes offered by the different insurance companies, new IPOs, Mutual Funds. To know in depth about Insurance, Mutual Funds, Stock, Bonds etc. To know about the awareness towards stock brokers and share market. To study about the competitive position of Sharekhan Ltd in Competitive Market. To study about the effectiveness & efficiency of Sharekhan Ltd in relation to its competitors To study about whether people are satisfied with Sharekhan Services & Management System or not. To study about the difficulties faced by persons while Trading in Sharekhan. To study about the need of improvement in existing Trading system.

Scope of the Study


The study of the Portfolio Management Services is helpful in the following areas. In today's complex financial environment, investors have unique needs which are

derived from their risk appetite and financial goals. But regardless of this, every investor seeks to maximize his returns on investments without capital erosion. Portfolio Management Services (PMS) recognize this, and manage the investments

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professionally to achieve specific investment objectives, and not to forget, relieving the investors from the day to day hassles which investment require. It is offers professional management of equity investment of the investor with an aim to deliver consistent return with an eye on risk. Identify the key Stock in each portfolio. To look out for new prospective customers who are willing to invest in PMS. To find out the Sharekhan, PMS services effectiveness in the current situation. It also covers the scenario of the Investment Philosophy of a Fund Manager.

RESEARCH DESISGN OF THE STUDY This report is based on primary as well secondary data, however primary data collection was given more importance since it is overhearing factor in attitude studies. One of the most important users of research methodology is that it helps in identifying the problem, collecting, analyzing the required information data and providing an alternative solution to the problem .It also helps in collecting the vital information that is required by the top management to assist them for the better decision making both day to day decision and critical ones.

The study consists of analysis about Investors Perception about the Portfolio Management Services offered by Sharekhan Limited. For the purpose of the study 100 customers were picked up at random and their views solicited on different parameters.

The methodology adopted includes Questionnaire Random sample survey of customers Discussions with the concerned

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SOURCES OF DATA
Primary data: Questionnaire Secondary data: Published materials of Sharekhan Limited. Such as periodicals, journals, news papers, and website.

SAMPLING PLAN Sampling:


Since Sharekhan Limited has many segments I selected Portfolio Management Services (PMS) segment as per my profile to do market research. 100% coverage was difficult within the limited period of time. Hence sampling survey method was adopted for the purpose of the study.

Population:
(Universe) customers & non consumers of Sharekhan limited

Sampling size:
A sample of hundred was chosen for the purpose of the study. Sample consisted of Investor as based on their Income and Profession as well as Educational Background.

Sampling Methods:
Probability sampling requires complete knowledge about all sampling units in the universe. Due to time constraint non-probability sampling was chosen for the study.

Sampling procedure:
From large number of customers & non consumers sample lot were randomly picked up by me.

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Field Study:
Directly approached respondents by the following strategies

Tele-calling

Personal Visits Clients References Promotional Activities Database provided by the Sharekhan Limited.

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CHAPTER-4 PORTFOLIO MANAGMENT SERVICES

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PORTFOLIO MANGEMNT SERVICES (PMS)


Portfolio (finance) means a collection of investments held by an institution or a private individual. Holding a portfolio is often part of an investment and risk-limiting strategy called diversification. By owning several assets, certain types of risk (in particular specific risk) can be reduced. There are also portfolios which are aimed at taking high risks these are called concentrated portfolios.

Investment management is the professional management of various securities (shares, bonds etc) and other assets (e.g. real estate), to meet specified investment goals for the benefit of the investors. Investors may be institutions (insurance companies, pension funds, corporations etc.) or private investors (both directly via investment contracts and more commonly via collective investment schemes e.g. mutual funds).

The term asset management is often used to refer to the investment management of collective investments, whilst the more generic fund management may refer to all forms of institutional investment as well as investment management for private investors. Investment managers who specialize in advisory or discretionary management on behalf of (normally wealthy) private investors may often refer to their services as wealth management or portfolio management often within the context of so-called "private banking". The provision of 'investment management services' includes elements of financial analysis, asset selection, stock selection, plan implementation and ongoing monitoring of investments. Outside of the financial industry, the term "investment management" is often applied to investments other than financial instruments. Investments are often meant to include projects, brands, patents and many things other than stocks and bonds. Even in this case, the term implies that rigorous financial and economic analysis methods are used.

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Need of PMS
As in the current scenario the effectiveness of PMS is required. As the PMS gives investors periodically review their asset allocation across different assets as the portfolio can get skewed over a period of time. This can be largely due to appreciation / depreciation in the value of the investments.

As the financial goals are diverse, the investment choices also need to be different to meet those needs. No single investment is likely to meet all the needs, so one should keep some money in bank deposits and / liquid funds to meet any urgent need for cash and keep the balance in other investment products/ schemes that would maximize the return and minimize the risk. Investment allocation can also change depending on ones risk-return profile.

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Objective of PMS
There is the following objective which is full filled by Portfolio Management Services. 1. Safety Of Fund: The investment should be preserved, not be lost, and should remain in the returnable position in cash or kind.

2. Marketability: The investment made in securities should be marketable that means, the securities must be listed and traded in stock exchange so as to avoid difficulty in their encashment.

3. Liquidity: The portfolio must consist of such securities, which could be en-cashed without any difficulty or involvement of time to meet urgent need for funds. Marketability ensures liquidity to the portfolio.

4. Reasonable return: The investment should earn a reasonable return to upkeep the declining value of money and be compatible with opportunity cost of the money in terms of current income in the form of interest or dividend.

5. Appreciation in Capital: The money invested in portfolio should grow and result into capital gains.

6. Tax planning: Efficient portfolio management is concerned with composite tax planning covering income tax, capital gain tax, wealth tax and gift tax.

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7. Minimize risk: Risk avoidance and minimization of risk are important objective of portfolio management. Portfolio managers achieve these objectives by effective investment planning and periodical review of market, situation and economic environment affecting the financial market.

PORTFOLIO CONSTRUCTION
The Portfolio Construction of Rational investors wish to maximize the returns on their funds for a given level of risk. All investments possess varying degrees of risk. Returns come in the form of income, such as interest or dividends, or through growth in capital values (i.e. capital gains).

The portfolio construction process can be broadly characterized as comprising the following steps:

1. Setting objectives.

The first step in building a portfolio is to determine the main objectives of the fund given the constraints (i.e. tax and liquidity requirements) that may apply. Each investor has different objectives, time horizons and attitude towards risk. Pension funds have long-term obligations and, as a result, invest for the long term. Their objective may be to maximize total returns in excess of the inflation rate. A charity might wish to generate the highest level of income whilst maintaining the value of its capital received from bequests. An individual may have certain liabilities and wish to match them at a future date. Assessing a clients risk tolerance can be difficult. The concepts of efficient portfolios and diversification must also be considered when setting up the investment objectives.

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2. Defining Policy.

Once the objectives have been set, a suitable investment policy must be established. The standard procedure is for the money manager to ask clients to select their preferred mix of assets, for example equities and bonds, to provide an idea of the normal mix desired. Clients are then asked to specify limits or maximum and minimum amounts they will allow to be invested in the different assets available. The main asset classes are cash, equities, gilts/bonds and other debt instruments, derivatives, property and overseas assets. Alternative investments, such as private equity, are also growing in popularity, and will be discussed in a later chapter. Attaining the optimal asset mix over time is one of the key factors of successful investing.

3. Applying portfolio strategy.

At either end of the portfolio management spectrum of strategies are active and passive strategies. An active strategy involves predicting trends and changing expectations about the likely future performance of the various asset classes and actively dealing in and out of investments to seek a better performance. For example, if the manager expects interest rates to rise, bond prices are likely to fall and so bonds should be sold, unless this expectation is already factored into bond prices. At this stage, the active fund manager should also determine the style of the portfolio. For example, will the fund invest primarily in companies with large market capitalizations, in shares of companies expected to generate high growth rates, or in companies whose valuations are low? A passive strategy usually involves buying securities to match a preselected market index. Alternatively, a portfolio can be set up to match the investors choice of tailor-made index. Passive strategies rely on diversification to reduce risk. Outperformance versus the chosen index is not expected. This strategy requires minimum input from the portfolio manager. In practice, many active funds are managed somewhere between the active and passive extremes, the core holdings of the fund being passively managed and the balance being actively managed.
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4. Asset selections.

Once the strategy is decided, the fund manager must select individual assets in which to invest. Usually a systematic procedure known as an investment process is established, which sets guidelines or criteria for asset selection. Active strategies require that the fund managers apply analytical skills and judgment for asset selection in order to identify undervalued assets and to try to generate superior performance.

5. Performance assessments.

In order to assess the success of the fund manager, the performance of the fund is periodically measured against a pre-agreed benchmark perhaps a suitable stock exchange index or against a group of similar portfolios (peer group comparison). The portfolio construction process is continuously iterative, reflecting changes internally and externally. For example, expected movements in exchange rates may make overseas investment more attractive, leading to changes in asset allocation. Or, if many largescale investors simultaneously decide to switch from passive to more active strategies, pressure will be put on the fund managers to offer more active funds. Poor performance of a fund may lead to modifications in individual asset holdings or, as an extreme measure; the manager of the fund may be changed altogether.

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Steps to Stock Selection Process

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Types of assets
The structure of a portfolio will depend ultimately on the investors objectives and on the asset selection decision reached. The portfolio structure takes into account a range of factors, including the investors time horizon, attitude to risk, liquidity requirements, tax position and availability of investments. The main asset classes are cash, bonds and other fixed income securities, equities, derivatives, property and overseas assets.

Cash and cash instruments


Cash can be invested over any desired period, to generate interest income, in a range of highly liquid or easily redeemable instruments, from simple bank deposits, negotiable certificates of deposits, commercial paper (short term corporate debt) and Treasury bills (short term government debt) to money market funds, which actively manage cash resources across a range of domestic and foreign markets. Cash is normally held over the short term pending use elsewhere (perhaps for paying claims by a non-life

insurance company or for paying pensions), but may be held over the longer term as well. Returns on cash are driven by the general demand for funds in an economy, interest rates, and the expected rate of inflation. A portfolio will normally maintain at least a small proportion of its funds in cash in order to take advantage of buying opportunities.

Bonds
Bonds are debt instruments on which the issuer (the borrower) agrees to make interest payments at periodic intervals over the life of the bond this can be for two to thirty years or, sometimes, in perpetuity. Interest payments can be fixed or variable, the latter being linked to prevailing levels of interest rates. Bond markets are international and have grown rapidly over recent years. The bond markets are highly liquid, with many issuers of similar standing, including governments (sovereigns) and state-

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guaranteed organizations. Corporate bonds are bonds that are issued by companies. To assist investors and to help in the efficient pricing of bond issues, many bond issues are given ratings by specialist agencies such as Standard & Poors and Moodys. The highest investment grade is AAA, going all the way down to D, which is graded as in default. Depending on expected movements in future interest rates, the capital values of bonds fluctuate daily, providing investors with the potential for capital gains or losses. Future interest rates are driven by the likely demand/ supply of money in an economy, future inflation rates, political events and interest rates elsewhere in world markets. Investors with short-term horizons and liquidity requirements may choose to invest in bonds because of their relatively higher return than cash and their prospects for possible capital appreciation. Long-term investors, such as pension funds, may acquire bonds for the higher income and may hold them until redemption for perhaps seven or fifteen years. Because of the greater risk, long bonds (over ten years to maturity) tend to be more volatile in price than medium- and short-term bonds, and have a higher yield.

Equities
Equity consists of shares in a company representing the capital originally provided by shareholders. An ordinary shareholder owns a proportional share of the company and an ordinary share carries the residual risk and rewards after all liabilities and costs have been paid. Ordinary shares carry the right to receive income in the form of dividends (once declared out of distributable profits) and any residual claim on the companys assets once its liabilities have been paid in full. Preference shares are another type of share capital. They differ from ordinary shares in that the dividend on a preference share is usually fixed at some amount and does not change. Also, preference shares usually do not carry voting rights and, in the event of firm failure, preference shareholders are paid before ordinary shareholders. Returns from investing in equities are generated in the form of dividend income and capital gain arising from the ultimate sale of the shares. The level of dividends may vary from year to year, reflecting the changing profitability of a company. Similarly, the market price of a share will change from day to day to reflect all relevant available information. Although not
36

guaranteed, equity prices generally rise over time, reflecting general economic growth, and have been found over the long term to generate growing levels of income in excess of the rate of inflation. Granted, there may be periods of time, even years, when equity prices trend downwards usually during recessionary times. The overall long-term prospect, however, for capital appreciation makes equities an attractive investment proposition for major institutional investors.

Derivatives
Derivative instruments are financial assets that are derived from existing primary assets as opposed to being issued by a company or government entity. The two most popular derivatives are futures and options. The extent to which a fund may incorporate derivatives products in the fund will be specified in the fund rules and, depending on the type of fund established for the client and depending on the client, may not be allowable at all. A futures contract is an agreement in the form of a standardized contract between two counterparties to exchange an asset at a fixed price and date in the future. The underlying asset of the futures contract can be a commodity or a financial security. Each contract specifies the type and amount of the asset to be exchanged, and where it is to be delivered (usually one of a few approved locations for that particular asset). Futures contracts can be set up for the delivery of cocoa, steel, oil or coffee. Likewise, financial futures contracts can specify the delivery of foreign currency or a range of government bonds. The buyer of a futures contract takes a long position, and will make a profit if the value of the contract rises after the purchase. The seller of the futures contract takes a short position and will, in turn, make a profit if the price of the futures contract falls. When the futures contract expires, the seller of the contract is required to deliver the underlying asset to the buyer of the contract. Regarding financial futures contracts, however, in the vast majority of cases no physical delivery of the underlying asset takes place as many contracts are cash settled or closed out with the offsetting position before the expiry date.

37

An option contract is an agreement that gives the owner the right, but not obligation, to buy or sell (depending on the type of option) a certain asset for a specified period of time. A call option gives the holder the right to buy the asset. A put option gives the holder the right to sell the asset. European options can be exercised only on the options expiry date. US options can be exercised at any time before the contracts maturity date. Option contracts on stocks or stock indices are particularly popular. Buying an option involves paying a premium; selling an option involves receiving the premium. Options have the potential for large gains or losses, and are considered to be high-risk instruments. Sometimes, however, option contracts are used to reduce risk. For example, fund managers can use a call option to reduce risk when they own an asset. Only very specific funds are allowed to hold options.

Property
Property investment can be made either directly by buying properties, or indirectly by buying shares in listed property companies. Only major institutional investors with longterm time horizons and no liquidity pressures tend to make direct property investments. These institutions purchase freehold and leasehold properties as part of a property portfolio held for the long term, perhaps twenty or more years. Property sectors of interest would include prime, quality, well-located commercial office and shop properties, modern industrial warehouses and estates, hotels, farmland and woodland. Returns are generated from annual rents and any capital gains on realization. These investments are often highly illiquid.

Risk and Risk Aversion


Portfolio theory also assumes that investors are basically risk averse, meaning that, given a choice between two assets with equal rates of return they will select the asset with lower level of risk.

38

For example, they purchased various type of insurance including life insurance, Health insurance and car insurance. The Combination of risk preference and risk aversion can be explained by an attitude toward risk that depends on the amount of money involved. A discussion of portfolio or fund management must include some thought given to the concept of risk. Any portfolio that is being developed will have certain risk constraints specified in the fund rules, very often to cater to a particular segment of investor who possesses a particular level of risk appetite. It is, therefore, important to spend some time discussing the basic theories of quantifying the level of risk in an investment, and to attempt to explain the way in which market values of investments are determined

Definition of Risk
Although there is a difference in the specific definition of risk and uncertainty, for our purpose and in most financial literature the two terms are used interchangeably. In fact, one way to define risk is the uncertainty of future outcomes. An alternative definition might be the probability of an adverse outcome.

Composite risks involve the different risk as explained below:-

(1). Interest rate risk: It occurs due to variability cause in return by changes in level of interest rate. In long runs all interest rate move up or downwards. These changes affect the value of security. RBI, in India, is the monitoring authority which effectalises the change in interest rate. Any upward revision in interest rate affects fixed income security, which carry old lower rate of interest and thus declining market value. Thus it establishes an inverse relationship in the prize of security.

39

TYPES
Cash equivalent Long term Bond

RISK EXTENT
Less vulnerable to interest rate risk More vulnerable to interest rate risk.

(2) Purchasing power risk:


It is known as inflation risk also. This risk emanates from the very fact that inflation affects the purchasing power adversely. Purchasing power risk is more in inflationary times in bonds and fixed income securities. It is desirable to invest in such securities during deflationary period or a period of decelerating inflation. Purchasing power risk is less in flexible income securities like equity shares or common stuffs where rise in dividend income offset increase in the rate of inflation and provide advantage of capital gains.

(3) Business risk:


Business risk emanates from sale and purchase of securities affected by business cycles, technological change etc. Business cycle affects all the type of securities viz. there is cheerful movement in boom due to bullish trend in stock prizes where as bearish trend in depression brings downfall in the prizes of all types of securities. Flexible income securities are nearly affected than fix rate securities during depression due to decline n the market prize.

(4) Financial risk:


Financial risk emanates from the changes in the capital structure of the company. It is also known as leveraged risk and expressed in term of debt equity ratio. Excess of debts against equity in the capital structure indicates the company to be highly geared or highly levered. Although leveraged companys earnings per share (EPS) are more

40

but dependence on borrowing exposes it to the risk of winding up. For, its inability to the honor its commitments towards the creditors are most important. Here it is imperative to express the relationship between risk and return, which is depicted graphically below .

Maximize returns, minimize risks

41

RISK VERSUS RETURN


Risk versus return is the reason why investors invest in portfolios. The ideal goal in portfolio management is to create an optimal portfolio derived from the best riskreturn opportunities available given a particular set of risk constraints. To be able to make decisions, it must be possible to quantify the degree of risk in a particular opportunity. The most common method is to use the standard deviation of the expected returns. This method measures spreads, and it is the possible returns of these spreads that provide the measure of risk. The presence of risk means that more than one outcome is possible. An investment is expected to produce different returns depending on the set of circumstances that prevail. For example, given the following for Investment A:

Circumstance
I II III IV

Return(x)
10% 12% 15% 19%

Probability(p)
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.1

It is possible to calculate: 1. The expected (or average) return Mean (average) = x = expected value (EV) = px

Circumstance
I II III IV

Return(x)
10% 12% 15% 19%

Probability(p)
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.1

px
2.0 3.6 6.0 1.9

Expected Return (px) = 13.5%

42

2. The Standard deviation Standard deviation == p(x- x) 2 Also Variance (VAR) is equal to the standard deviation squared or
Deviation from expected Circumstance Return Probability Return (x -x) I II III IV 10% 12% 15% 19% 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.1 -3.5% -1.5% +1.5% +5.5% p (x -x)2 2.45 .68 1.90 3.03 2

VARAIANCE= 7.06 Standard deviation () = Variance = 7.06 = 2.66%

The standard deviation is a measure of risk, whereby the greater the standard deviation, the greater the spread, and the greater the spread, the greater the risk. If the above exercise were to be performed using another investment that offered the same expected return, but a different standard deviation, then the following result might occur:

If the above exercise were to be performed using another investment that offered the same expected return, but a different standard deviation, then the following result might occur: Plan Investment A Investment B Expected Return 9% 9% Risk(standard deviation) 2.5% 4.0%

43

Since both investments have the same expected return, the best selection of investment would be Investment A, which provides the lower risk. Similarly, if there are two investments presenting the same risk, but one has a higher return than the other, that investment would be chosen over the investment with the lower return for the same risk. In the real world, there are all types of investors. Some investors are completely risk averse and others are willing to take some risk, but expect a higher return for that risk. Different investors will also have different tolerances or threshold levels for risk return trade-offs i.e. for a given level of risk, one investor may demand a higher rate of return than another investor.

INDIFFERNCE CURVE
Suppose the following situation exists

Plan Investment A Investment B

Expected Return 10% 20%

Risk(Standard Deviation) 5% 10%

The question to ask here is, does the extra 10% return compensate for the extra risk? There is no right answer, as the decision would depend on the particular investors attitude to risk. A particular investors indifference curve can be ascertained by plotting what rate of return the investor would require for each level of risk to be indifferent amongst all of the investments.

For example, there may be an investor who can obtain a return of 50% with zero risk and a return of 55 %with a risk or standard deviation of 5% who will be indifferent between the two investments. If further investments were considered, each with a higher degree of risk, the investor would require still higher returns to make all of the investments equally attractive. The investor being discussed could present the following as the indifference curve shown in Figure.

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Indifference Curve
Expected Return 50% 55% 70% 100% 120% 230% Risk 0% 5% 10% 15% 18% 25%

Risk Indifference curve


It could be the case that this investor would have different indifference curves given a different starting level of return for zero risk. The exercise would need to be repeated for various levels of riskreturn starting points. An entire set of indifference curves could be constructed that would portray a particular investors attitude towards risk

45

Indifference Curve Utility scores


At this stage the concept of utility scores can be introduced. These can be seen as a way of ranking competing portfolios based on the expected return and risk of those portfolios. Thus if a fund manager had to determine which investment a particular investor would prefer, i.e. Investment A equaling a return of 10% for a risk of 5% or Investment B equaling a return of 20% for a risk of 10%, the manager would create indifference curves for that particular investor and look at the utility scores. Higher utility scores are assigned to portfolios or investments with more attractive risk return profiles. Although several scoring systems are legitimate, one function that is commonly employed assigns a portfolio or investment with expected return or value EV and variance of returns 2the following utility value:
U = EV .005A2 where:

U = utility value

46

A = an index of the investors aversion, (the factor of .005 is a scaling convention that allows expression of the expected return and standard deviation in the equation as a percentage rather than a decimal). Utility is enhanced by high expected returns and diminished by high risk. Investors choosing amongst competing investment portfolios will select the one providing the highest utility value. Thus, in the example above, the investor will select the investment (portfolio) with the higher utility value of 18.

Expected Return(EV)
10% 20%

Standard deviation()
5% 10%

Utility=EV-.005A2
10 20

(Assume A= 4 in this case

Portfolio Diversification
There are several different factors that cause risk or lead to variability in returns on an individual investment. Factors that may influence risk in any given investment vehicle include uncertainty of income, interest rates, inflation, exchange rates, tax rates, the state of the economy, default risk and liquidity risk (the risk of not being able to sell on the investment). In addition, an investor will assess the risk of a given investment (portfolio) within the context of other types of investments that may already be owned, i.e. stakes in pension funds, life insurance policies with savings components, and property. One way to control portfolio risk is via diversification, whereby investments are made in a wide variety of assets so that the exposure to the risk of any particular security is limited. This concept is based on the old adage do not put all your eggs in one basket. If an investor owns shares in only one company, that investment will fluctuate depending on the factors influencing that company. If that company goes bankrupt, the investor might lose 100 per cent of the investment. If, however, the investor owns shares in several companies in different sectors, then the likelihood of all
47

of those companies going bankrupt simultaneously is greatly diminished. Thus, diversification reduces risk. Although bankruptcy risk has been considered here, the same principle applies to other forms of risk.

RISK RETURN MATRIX

Covariance and Correlation


The goal is to hold a group of investments or securities within a portfolio potentially to reduce the risk level suffered without reducing the level of return. To measure the success of a potentially diversified portfolio, covariance and correlation are considered. Covariance measures to what degree the returns of two risky assets move in tandem. A positive covariance means that the returns of the two assets move together, whilst a negative covariance means that they move in inverse directions.

48

Covariance
COV(x, y) = p(x-x) (y-y) for two investments x and y, where p is the probability. Covariance is an absolute measure, and covariances cannot be compared with one another. To obtain a relative measure, the formula for correlation coefficient [r] is used.

Correlation coefficient

r = COVxy x .y

To illustrate the above, here is the example:

Circumstance y I II III IV

Probabilit

x-x

y-y
p(x-x) (y-y)

0.2 0.3 0.4 0.1

+1.0 0 +1.5 -4

-3.5 -1.5 +1.5 +5.5 COVxy =-2.0

-0.7 0 0.9 -2.2

For data regarding (y y), see earlier example. Assume that a similar exercise has been run for data regarding (x x). Assume the variance or of x= 2.45, and the variance or of y = 7.06. Thus, the correlation coefficient would be
2 2

49

-2.0 2.45 *7.056

= -0.481

If, the same example is run again, but using a different set of numbers for y, a different correlation coefficient might result of say, 0.988. It can be concluded that a large negative correlation confirms the strong tendency of the two investments to move inversely.

Perfect positive correlation (correlation coefficient = +1) occurs when the


returns from two securities move up and down together in proportion. If these securities were combined in a portfolio, the offsetting effect would not occur.

Perfect negative correlation (correlation coefficient = 1) takes place when


one security moves up and the other one down in exact proportion. Combining these two securities in a portfolio would increase the diversification effect.

Uncorrelated (correlation coefficient = 0) occurs when returns from two securities


move independently of each other that is, if one goes up, the other may go up or down or may not move at all. As a result, the combination of these two securities in a portfolio may or may not create a diversification effect. However, it is still better to be in this position than in a perfect positive correlation situation.

Unsystematic and systematic risk


As mentioned previously, diversification diminishes risk: the more shares or assets held in a portfolio or in investments, the greater the risk reduction. However, it is impossible to eliminate all risk completely even with extensive diversification. The risk that remains is called market risk; the risk that is caused by general market influences. This risk is also known as systematic risk or non-diversifiable risk. The risk that is

50

associated with a specific asset and that can be abolished with diversification is known as unsystematic risk, unique risk or diversifiable risk.

Total risk = Systematic risk + Unsystematic risk

Systematic risk = the potential variability in the returns offered by a security or asset
caused by general market factors, such as interest rate changes, inflation rate movements, tax rates, state of the economy.

Unsystematic risk = the potential variability in the returns offered by a security or


asset caused by factors specific to that company, such as profitability margins, debt levels, quality of management, susceptibility to demands of customers and suppliers. As the number of assets in a portfolio increases, the total risk may decline as a result of the decline in the unsystematic risk in that portfolio. The relationship amongst these risks can be quantified as follows TR2 = SR2 + UR2 or 2i = s2 + u2 Where:

= the investments total risk (standard deviation) s = the investments systematic risk u =the investments unsystematic risk.
The correlation coefficient between two investment opportunities can be expressed as: s = i CORim Where,

s = the investment systematic risk i = the investments total risk (systematic and unsystematic) CORim = the correlation coefficient between the return of the investment and those of the market.

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If an investment were perfectly correlated to the market so that all its movements could be fully explained by movements in market, then all of the risk would be systematic & i =
s If

an investment were not correlated at all to the market, then all of

its risk would be unsystematic

TECHNIQUES OF PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT


Various types of portfolio require different techniques to be adopted to achieve the desired objectives. Some of the techniques followed in India by portfolio managers are summarized below.

(1). Equity portfolioEquity portfolio is affected by internal and external factors:

(a) Internal factors


Pertain to the inner working of the particular company of which equity shares are held. These factors generally include:

(1) Market value of shares (2) Book value of shares (3) Price earnings ratio (P/E ratio) (4) Dividend payout ratio

(b) External factors


(1) Government policies (2) Norms prescribed by institutions (3) Business environment (4) Trade cycles

52

(2). Equity stock analysis


The basic objective behind the analysis is to determine the probable future value of the shares of the concerned company. It is carried out primarily fewer than two ways. (a) Earnings per share (b) Price earnings ratio

(A) Trend of earning: A higher price-earnings ratio discount expected profit growth. Conversely, a downward trend in earning results in a low price-earnings ratio to discount anticipated decrease in profits, price and dividend. Rising EPS causes appreciation in price of shares, which benefits investors in lower tax brackets? Such investors have not pay tax or to give lower rate tax on capital gains. Many institutional investor like stability and growth and support high EPS. Growth of EPS is diluted when a company finances internally its expansion program and offers new stock. EPS increase rapidly and result in higher P/E ratio when a company finances its expansion program from internal sources and borrowings without offering new stock.

(B) Quality of reported earning: Quality of reported earnings affects P/E ratio. The factors that affect the quality of reported earnings are as under: Depreciation allowances: Larger (Non Cash) deduction for depreciation provides more funds to company to finance profitable expansion schemes internally. This builds up future earning power of company.

53

Research and development outlets: There is higher P/E ratio for a company, which carries R&D programs. R&D enhances profit earning strength of the company through increased future sales. Inventory and other non-recurring type of profit: Low cost inventory may be sold at higher price due to inflationary conditions among profit but such profit may not always occur and hence low P/E ratio.

(C) Dividend policy: Dividend policy is significant in affecting P/E ratio. With higher dividend ratio, equity price goes up and thus raises P/E ratio. Dividend rates are raised to push in share prices up. Dividend cover is calculated to find out the time the dividend is protected, In terms of earnings. It is calculated as under:

Dividend Cover = EPS / Dividend per Share (D) Investors demand: Demand from institutional investors for equity also enhances the P/E ratio.

(3) Quality of management: Investors decide about the ability and caliber of management and hold and dispose of equity academy. P/E ratio is more where a company is managed by reputed entrepreneurs with good past records of management performance.

54

Types of Portfolios
The different types of Portfolio which is carried by any Fund Manager to maximize profit and minimize losses are different as per their objectives .They are as follows.

Aggressive Portfolio: Objective: Growth. This strategy might be appropriate for investors who seek High
growth and who can tolerate wide fluctuations in market values, over the short term.

Growth Portfolio: Objective: Growth. This strategy might be appropriate for investors who have a
preference for growth and who can withstand significant fluctuations in market value.

55

Balanced Portfolio:

Objective: Capital appreciation and income. This strategy might be appropriate for
investors who want the potential for capital appreciation and some growth, and who can withstand moderate fluctuations in market values

Conservative Portfolio:

Objective: Income and capital appreciation. This strategy may be appropriate for
investors who want to preserve their capital and minimize fluctuations in market value.

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Sharekhan Portfolio Management Services

PMS

PRO PRIME

PRO ARBITRAGE

PRO TECH

Pro Prime Product Approach


Investment will be keeping in mind 3 investment tenets. 1. Consistent, steady and sustainable returns. 2. Margin of Safety 3. Low Volatility

Product offering
Pro Prime is the ideal for investors looking at steady and superior with low and medium risk appetite. The portfolio consists of a blend of quality blue chip and growth stocks ensuring a balanced portfolio with relatively medium risk profile. The portfolio constitutes of relatively large capitalization stocks, based on sector and themes which have medium to long term growth potential.

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Product Characteristics
Bottom up stock selection In depth ,independent fundamental research High quality companies with relatively large capitalization Disciplined valuation approach applying multiple valuation measure. Medium to long term vision, resulting in low portfolio turnover.

How to invest?
Minimum Investment : 10 Lacs Lock in : 6 months Reporting: Access to website showing clients holding .Monthly reporting of portfolio holding /transaction. Charges: 2.5% pa AMC (Annual Maintenances Charges) fees charged every quarter ,0.5% brokerage ,20% profit sharing after 15% chargeable at the end of fiscal year. hurdle is crossed

Pro Arbitrage Product Approach


An opportunity lies in basis which is the difference between cash and future. Whenever basis is high we buy the stocks and sell the future to lock in difference .The difference is bound to be zero at expiry.

Cash future arbitrage:


The product intends to spot low risk opportunities which will yield more than the normal low risk product .Whenever such opportunity is spotted stocks will be bought and to lock in the basis, future will be sold .This position will be liquated in the expiry or before that if the basis vanishes early .Similarly the scheme will move on from opportunity to opportunity.

58

Product Characteristics Low Risk: This is relatively low risk product which can be compared with liquid
funds issued by mutual funds.

High return: Compared with other low risk products, this products offers an
indicative post tax return of 8 to 10% plus.

Product Details
Minimum Investment:Rs.1 Crore Lock in :6 months Reporting: Fortnightly for portfolio Net worth, Monthly reporting portfolio Holding /transaction. Charges: 0.035% brokerage for future ,0.07% for delivery

Pro Tech
Pro tech using the knowledge of technique analysis and the power of depravities markets to identify trading opportunities in the market .The protech line of the product is designed around various risk /reward /volatility profiles for the different kind of investment needs.

Product Approach
Better performance is possible from superior market timing and from picking stocks before inflation points in their trading cycles .Linear return are possible from having hedged/ sell market positions in downtrends .Absolute return are targeted by focusing on finding trading opportunities & not out performance of an index.

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Product offered 1. Nifty Thirty :


Nifty futures will be bought and sold on the basis of an automated trading system generated calls to go long/short. The exposure will never exceed the value of portfolio i.e. no leveraging; but allows us to be short /hedged in Nifty in falling market therefore allowing the client to earn irrespective of the market direction.

2. Beta Portfolio :
Positional trading opportunities are identified in the future segment based on technical analysis .Inflection points in the momentum cycles are identified to go long /short on stock/index futures with 1-2 months time horizon .The idea is to generate the best possible return in the medium term irrespective of the direction of the market without really leveraging beyond the portfolio value. Risk protection is done based on stop losses on daily closing prices.

3. Star Nifty:
Swing trading technique and Dow theory is used to identify short term reversal levels for Nifty futures and ride with trend both on the long and short side .This return can be earned in bull and bear market .Stop and reverse means to reverse ones position from long to short or vice a versa at the reversal levels simultaneously .The exposure never exceeds value of portfolio i.e. there is no leveraging.

4. Trailing Stops.
Momentum trading techniques are used to spot short term momentum of 5-10 days in stocks and stocks /index futures .Trailing stop loss method of risk management or profit protection is used to lower the portfolio volatility and maximize return .Trading opportunities are exposed both on the long side and the short side as the market demands to get the best of both upward and downward trends.
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Product Characteristics Using swing based index trading systems stop and reverse .trend following and
momentum trading technique.

Nifty based products for low impact cost and low product volatility Both long and short strategies to earn returns even in falling market. Trading in future market to allow for active risk protection using trailing stop
losses.

How to invest?
Minimum : Rs.10 Lacs Lock in : 6 months Reporting: Fortnightly reporting of portfolio Net Worth, monthly reporting of portfolio Holding /Transaction. Charges: 0% AMC (Annual Maintenance Charges), 0.05% brokerage for derivatives, 20% profit sharing on booked profit quarterly basis

61

CHAPTER -5 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

62

1. Do you know about the Investments Option available?


Statistics Q.1 N Valid Missing Mode 100 0 1

Q.1 Frequency Valid 1 2 Total 92 8 100 Percent 92.0 8.0 100.0 Valid Percent Cumulative Percent 92.0 8.0 100.0 92.0 100.0

Yes No

92

Interpretation: - It was being analyzed that from the survey conducted and the questionnaire being out to the respective respondents in the course of project training with regard to the 100 respondents that 49 of them are about investment option and remaining are not aware.

63

2. What is the basic purpose of your Investments?


Statistics

Q.2 N Valid Missing Mode 100 0 1

Q.2 Frequency Valid 1 2 3 4 5 6 Tot al 31 22 16 18 9 4 100 Percent 31.0 22.0 16.0 18.0 9.0 4.0 100.0 Valid Percent Cumulative Percent 31.0 22.0 16.0 18.0 9.0 4.0 100.0 31.0 53.0 69.0 87.0 96.0 100.0

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

31

22 16 18

9 4

Liquidity

Return

Tax Benefit

Risk Capital Covering Appreciation

Others

64

3. What is the most important factor you consider at the time of Investment?
Statistics Q.3 N Valid Missing Mode 100 0 3

Q.3 Frequency Valid 1 2 3 Total 12 23 65 100 Percent 12.0 23.0 65.0 100.0 Valid Percent 12.0 23.0 65.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 12.0 35.0 100.0

12

Risk 23 Return Both 65

65

4. From which option you will get the best returns?


Statistics N Valid Missing Mode 100 0 2

Q4 Frequency Valid 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total 20 22 16 18 8 14 2 100 Percent 20.0 22.0 16.0 18.0 8.0 14.0 2.0 100.0 Valid Percent 20.0 22.0 16.0 18.0 8.0 14.0 2.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 20.0 42.0 58.0 76.0 84.0 98.0 100.0

25 22 20 20 16 15 14 18

10

5 2 0 Mutual Fund Shares Commodity Market Bonds Fixed Deposit Property Others

66

5. Investing in PMS is far safer than Investing in Mutual Fund. Do you agree?
Statistics
N Valid Missin g Mode 1 Q.5 Frequency Valid 1 2 Total 76 24 100 Percent 76.0 24.0 100.0 Valid Percent 76.0 24.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 76.0 100.0 100 0

24

Yes No 76

67

6. How much you carry the expectation in Rise of your Income from Investments?
Statistics Q.6 N Valid Missing 100 0

Q.6 Frequency Valid 1 2 3 4 Total 48 32 12 8 100 Percent 48.0 32.0 12.0 8.0 100.0 Valid Percent 48.0 32.0 12.0 8.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 48.0 80.0 92.0 100.0

60 50 40 30 48 20 32 10 12 0 Upto 15% 15-25% 25-35% More than 35% 8

68

7. If you invested in Share Market, what has been your experience?


Statistics Q.7

Valid Mission

100 0 100

Q.7 Frequency Valid 1 2 3 4 Total 20 34 6 40 100 Percent 20.0 34.0 6.0 40.0 100.0 Valid Percent 20.0 34.0 6.0 40.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 20.0 54.0 60.0 100.0

20

40

Satisfactory Results Burned Finger Unsatisfactory Results No 34 6

69

8. How do you trade in Share Market?


Statistics Q.8 N Valid Missin g Mode 2 100 0

Q.8 Frequency Vali d 1 2 3 Tot al 24 45 31 100 Percent 24.0 45.0 31.0 100.0 Valid Percent 24.0 45.0 31.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 24.0 69.0 100.0

24 31 Hedging Speculation 45 Investment

70

9. How do you manage your Portfolio?


Statistics N Valid Missing Mode 100 0 1

Q.9 Frequency Valid 1 2 Total 57 43 100 Percent 57.0 43.0 100.0 Valid Percent 57.0 43.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 57.0 100.0

60

50

40

30

57 43

20

10

0 self Depends on Company for Portfolio

71

10. Which Portfolio Type you preferred?


Statistics Q.10 N Valid Missing Mode 100 0 1

Q.10 Frequency Valid 1 2 3 Total 45 27 28 100 Percent 45.0 27.0 28.0 100.0 Valid Percent 45.0 27.0 28.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 45.0 72.0 100.0

45 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Equity Debt Balance 27 28

72

11. Do you recommend Sharekhan PMS to others?


Statistics Q.11 N Valid Missing Mode 100 0 1

Q.11 Frequency Valid 1 2 Total 56 44 100 Percent 56.0 44.0 100.0 Valid Percent 56.0 44.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 56.0 100.0

30

Earned Faced Loss 52 No Profit No Loss

18

73

12. How was your experience about Portfolio Management services (PMS) of Sharekhan Limited?
Statistics Q.12 N Valid Missing Mode 100 0 1

Q.12 Frequency Valid 1 2 3 Total 52 18 30 100 Percent 52.0 18.0 30.0 100.0 Valid Percent 52.0 18.0 30.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 52.0 70.0 100.0

44 56

Yes No

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CHAPTER-6 HYPOTHESIS TESTING

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Null Hypothesis: - There is no significant difference between respondents of different age group towards knowledge about investment option available Alternative Hypothesis: - There is significant difference between respondents of different age group towards knowledge about investment option available

AGE * Q.1 Cross tabulation Count Q.1 1 AGE 18-25 16-35 Above 35 Total 33 42 17 92 2 4 3 1 8 Total 37 45 18 100

Chi-Square Tests A symp. Sig. Value Pearson ChiSquare Likelihood Ratio N of Valid Cases .638 100 2 .727 .652
a

df 2

(2-sided) .722

a. 3 cells (50.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.44.

Case Processing Summary Cases Valid Percen N OCCUPATION * Q.1 100 t 100.0 % N 0 Missing Percen t .0% N 100 Total Percen t 100.0 %

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Null Hypothesis: - There is no significant difference between respondents of different occupation group towards knowledge about investment option available Alternative Hypothesis: - There is significant difference between respondents of different occupation group towards knowledge about investment option available
OCCUPATION * Q.1 Cross tabulation Count Q.1 1 OCCUPATION Business Home Maker Service Student Teaching Total 19 9 32 15 17 92 2 3 0 0 4 1 8 Total 22 9 32 19 18 100

Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio N of Valid Cases 9.059
a

Df 5 5

(2-sided) .107 .052

10.947 100

a. 7 cells (58.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .08.

Case Processing Summary Cases Valid N OCCUPATION * Q.2 100 Percent 100.0% N 0 Missing Percent .0% N 100 Total Percent 100.0%

Null Hypothesis: - There is no significant difference between respondents of occupation group towards purpose of investment

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Alternative Hypothesis: - There is significant difference between respondents of occupation group towards purpose of investment
OCCUPATION * Q.2 Cross tabulation Count Q.2 1 OCCUPATION Business Home Maker Service Student Teaching Total 8 1 12 4 5 31 2 5 3 5 7 3 22 3 2 3 5 2 4 16 4 3 1 7 4 3 18 5 2 1 2 2 2 9 6 2 0 1 0 1 4 Total 22 9 32 19 18 100

Chi-Square Tests Value Pearson Chi-Square 14.884


a

Df 25

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .944

Likelihood Ratio N of Valid Cases

15.269 100

25

.935

. a. 29 cells (80.6%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .04

Case Processing Summary Cases Valid N OCCUPATION * Q.3 100 Percent 100.0% N 0 Missing Percent .0% N 100 Total Percent 100.0%

Null Hypothesis: - There is no significant difference between respondents of different occupation group towards factor consider while making an investment decision.

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Alternative Hypothesis: - There is significant difference between respondents of different occupation group towards factor consider while making an investment decision.
OCCUPATION * Q.3 Cross tabulation Count Q.3 1 OCCUPATION Business Home Maker Service Student Teaching Total 4 0 3 3 2 12 2 7 2 9 5 0 23 3 11 7 20 11 16 65 Total 22 9 32 19 18 100

Chi-Square Tests Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio N of Valid Cases 14.298
a

df 10 10

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .160 .044

18.703 100

a. 11 cells (61.1%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .12.

Case Processing Summary Cases Valid N OCCUPATION * Q 4 100 Percent 100.0% N 0 Missing Percent .0% N 100 Total Percent 100.0%

Null Hypothesis: - There is no significant difference between respondents of different occupation group towards investment options and their returns. Alternative Hypothesis: - There is significant difference between respondents of different occupation group towards investment options and their returns.

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OCCUPATION * Q 4 Cross tabulation Count Q4 1 OCCUPATION Business Home Maker Service Student Teaching Total 5 1 7 3 4 20 2 6 1 6 3 6 22 3 3 2 7 3 1 16 4 5 2 5 3 3 18 5 0 2 1 4 1 8 6 2 1 6 2 3 14 7 1 0 0 1 0 2 Total 22 8 32 19 18 100

Chi-Square Tests Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio N of Valid Cases 28.421
a

df 30 30

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .548 .788

23.645 100

a. 38 cells (90.5%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.

Case Processing Summary Cases Valid N OCCUPATION * Q.6 100 Percent 100.0% N 0 Missing Percent .0% N 100 Total Percent 100.0 %

Null Hypothesis: - There is no significant difference between respondents of different occupation group towards expectation of income from investment Alternative Hypothesis: - There is no significant difference between respondents of different occupation group towards expectation of income from investment

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OCCUPATION * Q.6 Cross tabulation Count Q.6 1 OCCUPATION Business Home Maker Service Student Teaching Total 13 5 13 7 9 48 2 7 0 11 6 8 32 3 1 2 5 4 0 12 4 1 2 3 2 1 8 Total 22 9 32 19 18 100

Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. Value Pearson ChiSquare Likelihood Ratio N of Valid Cases 13.202
a

df 15

(2-sided) .587

18.011 100

15

.262

a. 16 cells (66.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .08.

Case Processing Summary Cases Valid N OCCUPATION * Q.8 100 Percent 100.0% N 0 Missing Percent .0% N 100 Total Percent 100.0%

Null Hypothesis: - There is no significant difference between respondents of different occupation group towards trading with share market. Alternative Hypothesis: - There is significant difference between respondents of different occupation group towards trading with share market.

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OCCUPATION * Q.8 Cross tabulation Count Q.8 1 OCCUPATION Business Home Maker Service Student Teaching Total 5 4 10 3 2 24 2 10 2 16 10 7 45 3 7 3 6 6 9 31 Total 22 9 32 19 18 100

Chi-Square Tests Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio N of Valid Cases 12.004
a

Df 10 10

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .285 .287

11.964 100

a. 8 cells (44.4%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .24.

Cases Valid N OCCUPATION * Q.10 100 Percent 100.0 % N 0 Missing Percent .0% N 100 Total Percent 100.0 %

Null Hypothesis: - There is no significant difference between respondents of different occupation group towards portfolio preferences Alternative Hypothesis: - There is significant difference between respondents of different occupation group towards portfolio preferences

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OCCUPATION * Q.10 Cross tabulation Count Q.10 1 OCCUPATION Business Home Maker Service Student Teaching Total 12 4 16 8 5 45 2 4 1 10 7 5 27 3 6 4 6 4 8 28 Total 22 9 32 19 18 100

Chi-Square Tests Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio N of Valid Cases 12.717
a

df 10 10

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .240 .148

14.579 100

a. 7 cells (38.9%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .27.

Case Processing Summary Cases Valid N OCCUPATION * Q.12 100 Percent 100.0% N 0 Missing Percent .0% N 100 Total Percent 100.0%

Null Hypothesis: - There is no significant difference between respondents of different occupation group towards experience about Portfolio Management services (PMS) of Sharekhan Limited. Alternative Hypothesis: - There is significant difference between respondents of different occupation group towards experience about Portfolio Management services (PMS) of Sharekhan Limited.

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OCCUPATION * Q.12 Cross tabulation Count Q.12 1 OCCUPATION Business Home Maker Service Student Teaching Total 14 7 16 8 7 52 2 0 2 7 4 5 18 3 8 0 9 7 6 30 Total 22 9 32 19 18 100

Chi-Square Tests Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio N of Valid Cases 16.558
a

df 10 10

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .085 .019

21.319 100

a. 9 cells (50.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .18.

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CHAPTER-7 FACTS AND FINDINGS

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OBSERVATION AND FINDING About 85% Respondents knows about the Investment Option, because
remaining 15% take his /her residential property as Investment, but in actual it not an investment philosophy carries that all the Investment does not create any profit for the owner. More than 75% Investors are investing their money for Liquidity, Return and Tax benefits. At the time of Investment the Investors basically considered the both Risk and Return in more %age around 65%. As among all Investment Option for Investor the most important area to get more return is share around 22%after that Mutual Fund and other comes into existence. More than 76% of Investors feels that PMS is less risky than investing money in Mutual Funds. As expected return from the Market more than 48% respondents expect the rise in Income more than 15%, 32% respondents are expecting between 15-25% return. As the experience from the Market more than 34% Investor had lose their money during the concerned year, whereas 20% respondents have got satisfied return. About 45% respondents do the Trade in the Market with Derivatives Tools Speculation compare to 24% through Hedging .And the rest 31% trade their money in Investments. Around 57% residents manage their Portfolio through the different company whereas 43%Investor manage their portfolio themselves. The most important reasons for doing trade with Sharekhan limited is Sharekhan Research Department than its Brokerage rate Structure.

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Out of hundred respondents 56% respondents are using Sharekhan PMs services. Investors preferred more than 45% equity Portfolio, 28%Balanceed Portfolio and about 27% Debt Portfolio with Sharekhan PMS. About 52% Respondents earned through Sharekhan PMS product, whereas 18% investor faced loses also. More than 63% Investor are happy with the Transparency system of Sharekhan limited. As based on the good and bad experience with Sharekhan limited around 86% are ready to recommended the PMS of Sharekhan to their peers, relatives etc.

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LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT


As only Jaipur was dealt in the survey so it does not represent the view of the total Indian market. The sample size was restricted with hundred respondents. There was lack of time on the part of respondents. The survey was carried through questionnaire and the questions were based on perception. There may be biasness in information by market participant. Complete data was not available due to company privacy and secrecy. Some people were not willing to disclose the investment profile.

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CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS


On the basis of the study it is found that Sharekhan Ltd is better services provider than the other stockbrokers because of their timely research and personalized advice on what stocks to buy and sell. Sharekhan Ltd. provides the facility of Trade tiger as well as relationship manager facility for encouragement and protects the interest of the investors. It also provides the information through the internet and mobile alerts that what IPOs are coming in the market and it also provides its research on the future prospect of the IPO. We can conclude the following with above analysis. Sharekhan Ltd has better Portfolio Management services than Other Companies It keeps its process more transparent. It gives more returns to its investors. It charges are less than other portfolio Management Services It provides daily updates about the stocks information. Investors are looking for those investment options where they get maximum returns with less returns. Market is becoming complex & it means that the individual investor will not have the time to play stock game on his own. People are not so much ware aware about the Investment option available in the Market.

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Suggestions
The company should also organize seminars and similar activities to enhance the knowledge of prospective and existing customers, so that they feel more comfortable while investing in the stock market. Investors must feel safe about their money invested. Investors accounts must be more transparent as compared to other companies. Sharekhan limited must try to promote more its Portfolio Management Services through Advertisements. Sharekhan needs to improve more its Customer Services There is need to change in lock in period in all three PMS i.e.Protech, Proprime, Pro Arbitrage.

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QUESTIONNAIRE
Name : Contact No : E-Mail ID : .... . .

1. Do you know about the Investments Option available? YES NO

2. What is the basic purpose of your Investments? Liquidity Tax Benefits Capital Appreciation Return Risk Covering Others

3. What is the most important factor you consider at the time of Investment? Risk Return Both

4. From which option you will get the best returns? Mutual Funds Commodities Market
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Shares Bonds

Fixed Deposits Others

Property

5. Investing in PMS is far safer than Investing in Mutual Fund. Do you agree? Yes No

6. How much you carry the expectation in Rise of your Income from Investments? Up to 15% 25-35% 15-25%

More than 35%

7. If you invested in Share Market, what has been your experience?

Satisfactory Return Unsatisfactory Results

Burned Finger

No

8. How do you trade in Share Market? Hedging Speculation Investment

9. How do you manage your Portfolio? Self Depends on the company for portfolio

10. Which Portfolio Type you preferred? Equity Balanced Debt

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11. Do you recommend Sharekhan PMS to others? Yes No

12. How was your experience about Portfolio Management services (PMS) of Sharekhan Limited? Earned Faced Loss No profit No loss

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
BOOKS
1. Kothari C.R., Research Methodology, Published by New age international Pvt. Ltd. 2nd Edition. 2. Swamy K.N & Appa lyer Siva Kumar, Management Research Methodology Published by Pearson Education

REPORTS & MAGAZINES


1. Journal Of Management Research

WEBLIOGRAPHY:1. www.auto.indiamart.com 2. http://www.consumerreports.org

REFERENCES
1. www.sharekhan.com 2. www.sebi.gov.in 3. www.moneycontrol.com 4. www.karvy.com 5. www.valueresarchonline.com 6. www.yahoofinance.com

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