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Table of Content

No # % ' * + 0 1 2 !b"ective $earning !utcome &afety measures (aterials and )pparatus Procedure ,esults .iscussion Conclusion ,eference )ppendix Title Page # # # % % ' */ ' * * *

Objectives: To study the characteristics curves of a Pelton turbine operating at different flow rates with high head and low head. Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of the experiment, student should understand the characteristics of torque, power output and efficiency of turbines at different rotational speed of turbines, at high head and low head.

Safety Measures: . (a3e sure that the scale reading for the Pelton turbine, to obtain the values of m and m#, is stable before the reading is ta3en as it tend to move up and down. #. To be careful of the water that is lea3ing from the apparatus. %. !nly turn on the throttle valve partially 4one round5 because the rotor is too powerful to be measured within the force balance limit.

Results: Part ) 4i5 6 7igh head, with large flow rate. 8 4$5 * Table T 4min5 T# 4min5 9 4$P(5 9 4m%:s5 2. 10% 2.#2##'.1' '. +x 2/'

4i5 6 ;low rate measurement data.

<n the following table, m and m# is obtained from the scale. ;b and ;b# is basically converting m and m# respectively in terms of Newton. ;b is obtained by subtraction of ;b from ;b#. N and N# is obtained from the Pelton turbine. N is the average of N and N#. N is then converted to 7ert=.
m 4g5 %2 *2 -2 22 2 %2 *2 #2 #22 m# 4g5 +2 %2 %22 *#2 +12 0%2 122 1+2 2#2 ;b 4N5 2.#1'% 2.'12* 2.+0+2.10 .2-1 .#-*% .'- * . --# .1+# ;b# 4N5 2.*00+ .#-*% #.1'% *. 2 # +.-+01 0. '#% 0.0#1 1.' -+ 2.22+# ;b 4N5 2.#1'% 2.-0'0 #.#*+% '. #2# *.+010 +.0+-.%*-* 0.#'2' 0.2''# N 4rpm5 0+' -'' '++ -1 12# +1-.% *+2 #%*.* 2 N# 4rpm5 0*% -*2 '+' 0% 120.0 +1 .# *+-.# #%-.# 2 N 4rpm5 0*0.* -''+* 0 12*.' +1'.#* *+%.+ #%+.%* 2 N 47=5 %2.10 #1. # #'.'# 1.+0 *.21 .*1.%1 %.1' 2

Table # 4i5 6 Pelton turbine experimental data.

<n the following table, 9, ;b and N is obtained from the previous tables. P is obtained by converting the pressure exerted on the turbine, which is .*3gf:cm#, to bar. 7i is obtained from converting Pi from bar to metres. Ph is obtained by the following formula > ? x g x 7i x 9, where ? is the density of water 4 2223g:m%5 @ g is the gravitational acceleration 41.0 m:s#5 T is obtained by multiplying ;b with the radius of the turbine, which is 2.2'#m. Pb is obtained by the following formula > #ANT. Bt 4C5 is obtained by dividing Pb with Ph and converting it to percentage.

9 4m%:s5 '. +x 2 '. +x 2/' '. '. '. '. '. +x +x +x +x +x 2/' 2/' 2/' 2/' 2/'
/'

;b 4N5 2.#1'% 2.-0'0 #.#*+% '. #2# *.+010 +.0+-.%*-* 0.#'2' 0.2''#

N 47=5 %2.10 #1. # #'.'# 1.+0 *.21 .*1.%1 %.1' 2

P 4bar5 .'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'-

7i 4m5 * * * * * * * * *

Ph 4D5 + .# + .# + + + + + .# .# .# .# .#

T 4Nm5 2.2 #' 2.2%#1 2.21'0 2. -% 2.#%1 2.#00' 2.%21 2.%'+ 2.%%-1

Pb 4D5 #.' %+.2 1+ '.*'*# .%1# ##.++2' #2.1+*0.#%20.*+0 2

Bt 4C5 %.1' 1.0% #%.-+ %'.1* %-.2# %'.#* #1.-0 ' 2

'. +x 2/' '. +x 2/'

+ .# + .#

Table % 4i5 6 Pelton turbine experimental summary.

Part ) 4ii5 6 7igh head, with small flow rate. 8 4$5 * Table T 4min5 T# 4min5 9 4$P(5 9 4m%:s5 2.02'* 2.0#%* +. ' .2#x 2/'

4ii5 6 ;low rate measurement data.

<n the following table, m and m# is obtained from the scale. ;b and ;b# is basically converting m and m# respectively in terms of Newton. ;b is obtained by subtraction of ;b from ;b#. N and N# is obtained from the Pelton turbine. N is the average of N and N#. N is then converted to 7ert=.
m 4g5 '2 '2 '2 '* *2 *2 *2 *2 +* m# 4g5 +2 22 %2 +2 -2 #22 #%2 #'2 %#2 ;b 4N5 2.%1#' 2.%1#' 2.%1#' 2.'' * 2.'12* 2.'12* 2.'12* 2.'12* 2.+%-;b# 4N5 2.*00+ 2.10 .#-*% .*+1+ .++-.1+# #.#*+% #.%*'' %. %1# ;b 4N5 2. 1+# 2.*00+ 2.00#1 . #0 . --# .'- * .-+*0 .0+%1 #.*2 * N 4rpm5 #1# 2*' 011.0 -*2 +##.% '1-.0 %+%.1 # ' 2 N# 4rpm5 #00 2*0 12'.1 -*2.1 +#'.' '1-.* %-2.% # * 2 N 4rpm5 #12 2*+ 12#.%* -*2.'* +#%.%* '1-.+* %+-. # '.* 2 N 47=5 # .* -.+ *.2' #.* 2.%1 0.#1 +. # %.*0 2

Table # 4ii5 6 Pelton turbine experimental data.

<n the following table, 9, ;b and N is obtained from the previous tables. P is obtained by converting the pressure exerted on the turbine, which is .*3gf:cm#, to bar. 7i is obtained from converting Pi from bar to metres. Ph is obtained by the following formula > ? x g x 7i x 9, where ? is the density of water 4 2223g:m%5 @ g is the gravitational acceleration 41.0 m:s#5 T is obtained by multiplying ;b with the radius of the turbine, which is 2.2'#m. Pb is obtained by the following formula > #ANT. Bt 4C5 is obtained by dividing Pb with Ph and converting it to percentage.

9 4m%:s5 .2#x 2 .2#x 2 .2#x 2 .2#x 2 .2#x 2 .2#x 2 .2#x 2 .2#x 2 .2#x 2
/' /' /' /' /' /' /' /' /'

;b 4N5 2. 1+# 2.*00+ 2.00#1 . #0 . --# .'- * .-+*0 .0+%1 #.*2 *

N 47=5 # .* -.+ *.2' #.* 2.%1 0.#1 +. # %.*0 2

P 4bar5 .'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'-

7i 4m5 * * * * * * * * *

Ph 4D5 * * * * * * * * *

T 4Nm5 2.220# 2.2#'2.2%2.2'-' 2.2'1' 2.2+ 0 2.2-'# 2.2-0% 2. 2*

Pb 4D5 . 2-#.-% ' %.*2*1 %.-#*0 %.##'1 %.# 1 #.0*%# .-+ % 2

Bt 4C5 -.%0 0.# #%.%#'.0' # .* # .'+ 1.2# .-' 2

Table % 4ii5 6 Pelton turbine experimental summary.

Using the data from Table % 4i5 and Table % 4ii5, in which weEre using the values for high head large flow rate and high head small flow rate, the following graphs are drawn.

Fraph

6 T versus N 4&eries

represents the large flow rate, series # represents the small flow rate5

Fraph # 6 Pb versus N 4&eries

represents the large flow rate, series # represents the small flow rate5

Fraph % 6 Bt versus N 4&eries

represents the large flow rate, series # represents the small flow rate5

Part G 4i5 6 $ow head, with large flow rate. 8 4$5 * Table T 4min5 T# 4min5 9 4$P(5 9 4m%:s5 2.#01* 2.#0-.%' #.01x 2/'

4iii5 6 ;low rate measurement data.

<n the following table, m and m# is obtained from the scale. ;b and ;b# is basically converting m and m# respectively in terms of Newton. ;b is obtained by subtraction of ;b from ;b#. N and N# is obtained from the Pelton turbine. N is the average of N and N#. N is then converted to 7ert=.
m 4g5 %2 +2 02 22 2 #2 %2 %*2 m# 4g5 +2 12 %'2 * 2 +02 0 2 1#2 #*2 ;b 4N5 2.#1'% 2.*00+ 2.-0'0 2.10 .2-1 . --# .#-*% %.'%%* ;b# 4N5 2.*00+ .0+%1 %.%%*' *.22% +.+-20 -.1'+ 1.2#*# #.#+#* ;b 4N5 2.#1'% .#-*% #.**2+ '.2## *.*1 +.-+01 -.-'11 0.0#1 N 4rpm5 *0 %-# 0% 1-'.1 -''. *'+ %%0 2 N# 4rpm5 *1# %-% -0 102.# -*-.% *-'.* %*2 2 N 4rpm5 *0+.* %-#.* 02.* 1--.** -*2.*+2.#* %'' 2 N 47=5 #+.'' ##.00 1.+0 +.#1 #.* 1.%' *.-% 2

Table # 4iii5 6 Pelton turbine experimental data.

<n the following table, 9, ;b and N is obtained from the previous tables. P is obtained by converting the pressure exerted on the turbine, which is 3gf:cm#, to bar. 7i is obtained from converting Pi from bar to metres. Ph is obtained by the following formula > ? x g x 7i x 9, where ? is the density of water 4 2223g:m%5 @ g is the gravitational acceleration 41.0 m:s#5 T is obtained by multiplying ;b with the radius of the turbine, which is 2.2'#m. Pb is obtained by the following formula > #ANT. Bt 4C5 is obtained by dividing Pb with Ph and converting it to percentage.

9 4m%:s5 #.01x 2 #.01x 2 #.01x 2 #.01x 2 #.01x 2 #.01x 2 #.01x 2 #.01x 2


/' /' /' /' /' /' /' /'

;b 4N5 2.#1'% .#-*% #.**2+ '.2## *.*1 +.-+01 -.-'11 0.0#1

N 47=5 #+.'' ##.00 1.+0 +.#1 #.* 1.%' *.-% 2

P 4bar5 2.1022.1022.1022.1022.1022.1022.1022.102-

7i 4m5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Ph 4D5 #0.%* #0.%* #0.%* #0.%* #0.%* #0.%* #0.%* #0.%*

T 4Nm5 2.2 #' 2.2*%+ 2. 22. +01 2.#%'1 2.#0'% 2.%#** 2.%-20

Pb 4D5 #.2+ -.-2** %.#'%# -.#0-' 0.'+%0 +.+0' .- 01 0.*+0

Bt 4C5 -.##-. 0 '+.+2.10 +*. % *0.0* ' .%' %2.##

Table % 4iii5 6 Pelton turbine experimental summary.

Part G 4ii5 6 $ow head, with small flow rate. 8 4$5 * Table T 4min5 T# 4min5 9 4$P(5 9 4m%:s5 2.''%0 2.'%10 .%# .01x 2/'

4iv5 6 ;low rate measurement data.

<n the following table, m and m# is obtained from the scale. ;b and ;b# is basically converting m and m# respectively in terms of Newton. ;b is obtained by subtraction of ;b from ;b#. N and N# is obtained from the Pelton turbine. N is the average of N and N#. N is then converted to 7ert=.
m 4g5 %2 '2 *2 +2 +2 -2 -2 02 m# 4g5 +2 22 -2 ##2 #+2 % 2 %%2 %12 ;b 4N5 2.#1'% 2.%1#' 2.'12* 2.*00+ 2.*00+ 2.+0+2.+0+2.-0'0 ;b# 4N5 2.*00+ 2.10 .++-#. *0# #.**2+ %.2' %.#%-% %.0#*1 ;b 4N5 2.#1'% 2.*00+ . --# .*+1+ .1+# #.%*'' #.**2+ %.2' N 4rpm5 -2 2 2 0'% +1*.# *'* %0*.# 0'.* '.* N# 4rpm5 '2 222 0*2 +0%.* *'2.* %00.1 -1.' 2.' N 4rpm5 ** 22* 0'+.* +01.%* *'#.-* %0-.2* 0 .1* #.'* N 47=5 1.#* +.-* '. .'1 1.2* +.'* %.2% 2.#

Table # 4iv5 6 Pelton turbine experimental data.

<n the following table, 9, ;b and N is obtained from the previous tables. P is obtained by converting the pressure exerted on the turbine, which is 3gf:cm#, to bar. 7i is obtained from converting Pi from bar to metres. Ph is obtained by the following formula > ? x g x 7i x 9, where ? is the density of water 4 2223g:m%5 @ g is the gravitational acceleration 41.0 m:s#5 T is obtained by multiplying ;b with the radius of the turbine, which is 2.2'#m. Pb is obtained by the following formula > #ANT. Bt 4C5 is obtained by dividing Pb with Ph and converting it to percentage.

9 4m%:s5 .01x 2 .01x 2 .01x 2 .01x 2 .01x 2 .01x 2 .01x 2 .01x 2


/' /' /' /' /' /' /' /'

;b 4N5 2.#1'% 2.*00+ . --# .*+1+ .1+# #.%*'' #.**2+ %.2'

N 47=5 1.#* +.-* '. .'1 1.2* +.'* %.2% 2.#

P 4bar5 2.1022.1022.1022.1022.1022.1022.1022.102-

7i 4m5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Ph 4D5 0.*' 0.*' 0.*' 0.*' 0.*' 0.*' 0.*' 0.*'

T 4Nm5 2.2 #' 2.2#'2.2'1' 2.2+*1 2.20#' 2.2101 2. 22. #-0

Pb 4D5 .'110 #.*11* '.%-1+ '.-*-+ '.+0** '.220 #.2%1 2. +0+

Bt 4C5 0.21 '.2# #%.+# #*.++ #*.## .+# 2.1

Table % 4iv5 6 Pelton turbine experimental summary.

Using the data from Table % 4iii5 and Table % 4iv5, in which weEre using the values for low head large flow rate and low head small flow rate, the following graphs are drawn.

Fraph

6 T versus N 4&eries

represents the large flow rate, series # represents the small flow rate5

Fraph # 6 Pb versus N 4&eries

represents the large flow rate, series # represents the small flow rate5

Fraph % 6 Bt versus N 4&eries

represents the large flow rate, series # represents the small flow rate5

Discussion: There are two types of turbines, reaction and the impulse, the difference being the manner of head conversion. <n the reaction turbine, the fluid fills the blade passages, and the head change or pressure drop occurs within the runner. )n impulse turbine first converts the water head through a no==le into a high/velocity "et, which then stri3es the buc3ets at one position as they pass by. The runner passages are not fully filled, and the "et flow past the buc3ets is essentially at constant pressure. <mpulse turbines are ideally suited for high head and relatively low power. The Pelton turbine used in this experiment is an impulse turbine. The Pelton turbine consists of three basic components as shown in ;igure 6 a stationary inlet no==le, a runner and a casing. The runner consists of multiple buc3ets mounted on a rotating wheel. The "et stri3es the buc3ets and imparts momentum. The buc3ets are shaped in a manner to divide the flow in half and turn its relative velocity vector nearly 02H.

;igure 6 &chematic of an impulse turbine. The primary feature of the impulse turbine is the power production as the "et is deflected by the moving buc3ets. )ssuming that the speed of the exiting "et is =ero 4all of the 3inetic energy of the "et is expended in driving the buc3ets5, negligible head loss at the no==le and at the impact with the buc3ets 4assuming that the entire available head is converted into "et velocity5, the energy equation applied to the control volume shown in ;igure provides the power extracted from the available head by the turbine Pavailable > 97available where 9 is the discharge of the incoming "et, and 7available is the available pressure head on the no==le.

Gy applying the angular momentum equation 4assuming negligible angular momentum for the exiting "et5 to the same control volume about the axis of the turbine shaft the absolute value of the power developed by the turbine can be written as P > IT > #ANT where I is the angular velocity of the runner, T is the torque acting on the turbine shaft, and N is the rotational speed of the runner. The efficiency of the turbine is defined as the ratio between the power developed by the turbine to the available water power J > P : Pavailable The following are theories related to the Pelton turbine 6 . <t is a tangential flow turbine 4water hits runner tangential at the blades5 where as in radial turbine water does not hit it, flows over the blades with high pressure and velocity. #. Bnergy present at inlet is only 3inetic but in radial energy at inlet is 3inetic and pressure energy %. Fenerally used in hydroelectric plants where water level is high 4high head5.

Conclusion: <n conclusion, the ob"ectives of this experiment has been achieved, which is to study the characteristics curves of a Pelton turbine operating at different flow rates with high head and low head. <t has been observed that for both high head and low head, the curves for the larger flow rate are higher than the curves for the smaller flow rate. The proof for this is the graphs drawn for torque, bra3e power and useful fluid power against the number of rotations per second. &ince the ob"ectives of have been met, this experiment is proven to be successful. References: . ,obertson, K.)., 11%. Pelton turbine experiment L!nlineM )vailable from 6 Nhttp6::www.engineering.uiowa.edu:fluidslab:pdfs:*%/2- :lab'.pdfO L)ccessed on #'th Kune #2 #M #. Da"id, )., #221. Theory of Pelton turbine L!nlineM )vailable from 6 Nhttp6::answers.yahoo.com:question:indexPqid>#2212##%2%%2% ));vfb(O L)ccessed on #'th Kune #2 #M %. $emelson, P., #2 #. The Pelton turbine L!nlineM )vailable from 6 Nhttp6::www.energybeta.com:hydropower:pelton/turbine:O L)ccessed on #'th Kune #2 #M