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TEACHING THROUGH THE MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES APPROACH TO ENHANCE STUDY SKILLS, HABITS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS

Abstract: You can teach a student a lesson for a day; but if you can teach him to learn by creating curiosity, he will continue the learning process as long as he lives- Clay ! "edford! #his $uote captures the need for a teachers role to be redefined as a faciltator for learning! #raditional pedagogy emphasi%es the role of the teacher as the bearer of wisdom, facilitation puts the tas& on the students to become involved in their own learning! A good facilitator is one who stimulates thin&ing and curiosity in students and encourages students to e'plore, discover and learn! #eaching through the theory of multiple intelligences proposes a ma(or transformation in the learning e'perience of students and provides students with opportunities for authentic learning, based on students) needs, curiosity, interests and motivate students to be activeinvolved learners! #herefore the present study was underta&en to assess the influence of teaching through the multiple intelligences approach on the study s&ills, habits and academic performances of si'th grade students! A total of **+ students ,both boys and girls- in the age range of **-*. years were identified for the study, constituting an e'perimental group ,/012- and a control group ,/0 2.-! #he e'perimental group was e'posed to an intervention programme, where a part of the curriculum was introduced using the multiple intelligences approach for an academic year! #he results of the pretest - posttest data analysis indicated a significant improvement in the study s&ills , habits and the academic performance of students in the e'perimental group! Key words: 3ultiple 4ntelligences Approach, #eacher as faciltator, 5tudy s&ills, 6abits, Academic performance INTRODUCTION: 4f a child can7t learn the way we teach, maybe we should teach the way they learn! - 4gnacio 8strada! 3ost schools in 4ndia, are relatively conventional and fi'ed! #hey focus enormously on linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligence! #he curriculum is content centric and stresses on memorisation of fact and formulas and less emphasis is laid on creativity and curiosity! 4mmense emphasis is laid on e'am scores leading to intense competition and stress in students! 5tudents are compelled to be tied down to endless repetitive reviewing and cramming for e'ams! Campbell,*++2- believes that teaching and learning through the multiple intelligences helps solve many common school problems and optimi%es the learning e'perience for students and teachers ali&e! Armstrong ,9::+- states that one of the most remar&able features of the theory of multiple intelligences is how it provides eight different potential pathways to learning! 4f a teacher is having difficulty reaching a student in the more traditional linguistic or logical ways of instruction, the theory of multiple intelligences suggests several other ways in which the material might be presented to facilitate effective learning! ;hatever is being taught can be connected with

words ,linguistic intelligence-, numbers or logic ,logical-mathematical intelligence-, pictures ,spatial intelligence-, music ,musical intelligence-, selfreflection ,intrapersonal intelligence-, a physical e'perience ,bodily&inesthetic intelligence-, a social e'perience ,interpersonal intelligence-, and<or an e'perience in the natural world! ,naturalist intelligence-! 4f initiated in schools, it could motivate students to learn by incorporating artistic, athletic, team wor& and musical activities! 5tudent7s approach to understanding concepts from different angles can be addressed! =or e'ample: A topic on rain can have scientific, poetic, artistic, musical, and geographic points of entry to understanding the concept! 4t could encourage students to demonstrate, share and build their dominant intelligences! #his can in turn lead to increased selfesteem in students! #herefore the present study was ta&en up to e'plore the possibility of introducing the multiple intelligences approach in classroom teaching and had the following ob(ectives: develop a tool based on the 3ultiple 4ntelligences framewor&, to elicit information on the dominant areas of intelligences in students! develop a chec&list to assess the study s&ills and study habits of students! design the academic curriculum of >4 standard students based on the perspectives of the e'periential learning theory, the situated learning theory, the constructivist theory, using the 3ultiple 4ntelligences theory as its pivotal framewor&! introduce the designed curriculum to >4 standard students for one academic year! assess the impact of the designed multiple intelligences approach on study s&ills and habits of students! #o assess the impact of the designed multiple intelligences approach on the academic performances of students!

The s !dy w"s #"rr$ed o! $% he &o''ow$%( )III *h"ses: Ph"se I+ De,e'o*-e% o& "**ro*r$" e oo's &or he s !dy: #hree tools were developed for the study! Too' ./: M!' $*'e I% e''$(e%#es S " e-e% .B"sed Che#0'$s 1MISC2: #he chec&list consisted of ?: statements covering the ? areas of intelligences! Too'.3: The A# $,$ y Or$e% ed Too' 1AOT2: =or accurate classification and cross- verification of the 3ultiple 4ntelligences 5tatement-based Chec&list, a pictorial< activity oriented version with reference to the 3ultiple 4ntelligences 5tatement-based Chec&list was developed! Too'.4: S !dy S0$''s "%d S !dy H"5$ s Che#0'$s : #his chec&list was designed to be administered for pretest - posttest analysis! #he study s&ills and habits chec&list contained .@ statements, to elicit information on the following

two dimensions related to academics namely study s&ills and habits toward studies! Ph"se II+ Ide% $&$#" $o% "%d se'e# $o% o& s#hoo's A total of 9: schools were surveyed in and around "angalore city to identify two schools which would be willing to introduce the multiple intelligences approach in their si'th grade curriculum! 5imilarities in the type of schooling offered ,syllabi followed- and the socio demographic characteristics were the broad criteria for selecting the schools! #wo schools were identified for the study, #he #itan 5chool, 6osur and A!5!5 ublic 5chool, "angalore! #he two schools were isolated from each other to avoid spill over effects! #he lottery method was adopted to classify the schools into e'perimental and control schools! Ph"se III+ S"-*'e se'e# $o% #he selection of the sample was done on a voluntary basis, as the researcher felt that a voluntary participation would yield more accurate results than a captive participation! 5tandard >4 students from the #itan school were selected for drawing the e'perimental group! otential research participants, were given sufficient information about the study and consent was obtained from a total of 12 si' graders, from #itan school, who had agreed to participate in the research study! #he control group comprised of 2. si'th graders, from A!5!5 ublic school! Ph"se I)+ Pre. Tes d" " #o''e# $o% #he 3ultiple 4ntelligences 5tatement "ased Chec&list was administered to the respondents from both e'perimental and control group, to elicit information on their dominant areas of intelligences! Bespondents from both the e'perimental and control group were administered the study s&ills and study habits chec&list, to assess the study s&ills and habits of students!

Ph"se )+ De,e'o*-e% o& -od!'es Mod!'e des$(% &or )I s "%d"rd #!rr$#!'!- !s$%( -!' $*'e $% e''$(e%#es "**ro"#h #he researcher considered a blend of learning theories for developing the modules: 8'periential learning theory, Constructivist theory, 5ituated- learning theory, Beggio 8milia Approach and 3ultiple 4ntelligences theory C as the core

framewor& to create learning strategies through their dominant< preferred intelligences, thereby, giving leverage to the diverse intelligence of the students! A total of *@ modules were designed based on the felt needs of the respondents! #he sessions included icebrea&ers, tool administration, introduction to multiple intelligences, using multiple intelligences apprach to sub(ects namely- english,grammar, poetry and communicative-, mathematics, science, social studies, environmental science and moral science! Ph"se )I + I% er,e% $o% *ro(r"--e #he e'perimental group was e'posed to the multiple intelligences approach for one academic year 9::+- 9:*:! #he *@ modules were designed for the entire intervention programme which spanned across D9 sessions! 8ach session was designed to be offered for appro'imately 9 hours! 5essions were designed to be offered thrice a wee&! #he sessions followed a se$uential frame of beginning with an introduction followed by a warmup activity, categorising students, planning and preparation time, activity time, presentation time and recapitulation time! Ph"se )II+ Pos es d" " #o''e# $o% #o elicit information on any significant differences in the study s&ills and habits between the e'perimental and control group, the study s&ills and habits chec&list was re-administered to respondents of both groups! 3ar&s of the e'perimental group respondents were obtained for the $uarterly, half yearly and final e'ams for the academic years 9::+9:*:!

Ph"se )III+ S " $s $#"' "%"'ys$s Eescriptive statistical analysis has been carried out in the present study! Besults on continuous measurements are presented on 3ean 5E ,3in-3a'and results on categorical measurements are presented in /umber ,F-! 5ignificance is assessed at 1 F level of significance! 5tudent t test ,two tailed, independent- has been used to find the significance of study parameters on continuous scale between two groups 4nter group analysis- on metric parameters, and 5tudent t test ,two tailed, dependent- has been used to find the significance of study parameters on continuous scale with in each group! Chis$uare< =isher 8'act test has been used to find the significance of study parameters on categorical scale between two or more groups! The s !dy hy*o hes$sed h"

4ntegrating the 3ultiple 4ntelligences perspective for designing learnercentric curriculum will not be effective! #here will be no significant difference in the study s&ills and habits of students after e'posure to curriculum taught using 3ultiple 4ntelligences approach! #here will be no significant improvement in the academic progress after e'posure to curriculum taught using 3ultiple 4ntelligences approach!

Res!' s "%d d$s#!ss$o%s T"5'e /+ Fre6!e%#y "%d *er#e% "(e o& N!-5er o& "re"s o& I% e''$(e%#e h" "re S ro%( "%d )ery s ro%( N!-5er o& "re" o& E7*er$-e% "' s#hoo' I% e''$(e%#e 1%89:2 No ; Gne : :!: #wo : :!: #hree * *!? =our : :!: =ive 9 .!2 5i' 1 ?!+ 5even *. 9.!9 8ight .1 29!1 Co% ro' s#hoo' 1%8:42 No ; * *!2 9 .!9 9 .!9 . @!D @ 2!. *9 *+!* *+ .:!9 9: .*!D

4n table *, the fre$uency and percentage of number of areas of intelligences that are strong and very strong among the e'perimental and control group were analysed! 3a(ority of the respondents from e'perimental group ,29!1F- and the control group ,.*!DF- had a strong to very strong range for all the eight areas of intelligences! T"5'e 3+ C" e(or$s" $o% o& "re"s o& $% e''$(e%#e o& s !de% s $% 5o h (ro!*s+ MISC C" e(or$s" $o% o& "re"s o& $% e''$(e%#e F"$r'y )ery <e"0 S ro%( s ro%( s ro%( E=PERIMENTAL 1%89:2 #G#AH : *,*!?F.+,2+!2F*2,9?!2F-

>8B"AHH4/IJ45#4C 3A#6- HGI4CAH >45JAH 5 A#4AH "GE4HY K4/A85#68#4C 3J54CAH 4/#8B 8B5G/AH 4/#BA 8B5G/AH /A#JBAH45#4C CONTROL 1%8:42 #G#AH >8B"AHH4/IJ45#4C 3A#6- HGI4CAH >45JAH 5 A#4AH "GE4HY K4/A85#68#4C 3J54CAH 4/#8B 8B5G/AH 4/#BA 8B5G/AH /A#JBAH45#4C

: ,:F: ,:F: ,:F: ,:F: ,:F: ,:F: ,:F* ,*!?F: 9 ,.!9F: ,:F@ ,2!.F: ,:F2 ,+!1F* ,*!2F* ,*!2F: ,:F-

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.? ,2D!+F.1 ,29!1F.9 ,1D!*F.@ ,2:!DF.@ ,2:!DF.? ,2D!+F.? ,2D!+F92 ,@2!@F19,?9!1F@* ,21!*F@. ,2?!.F.+ ,2*!+F.2 ,1D!*F9+ ,@2F.. ,19!@F.2 ,1D!*F.+ ,2*!+F-

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4n table 9, the respondents were classified based on the range, set by the researcher for the eight intelligence areas! 3a(ority of the respondents from both groups were found to have strong to very strong levels of all eight intelligences! 3a(ority of the e'perimental group respondents e'hibited very strong naturalistic intelligence ,1*!?- and strong verbal, interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences,2D!+F-! 3a(ority of the control group respondents e'hibited very strong bodily &inaesthetic intelligence ,.*!DF- and strong math-logical intelligence ,2?!.F-!

T"5'e 4+ E&&e# $,e%ess o& he $% er,e% $o% *ro(r"--e o% he s !dy s0$''s "%d h"5$ s ow"rds 'e"r%$%( E7*er$-e% "' Co% ro' D$-e%s$o%s Assess-e% S$(%$&$#"%#e s#hoo' s#hoo' t0:!*++; G>8BAHH re ?@!D+L*:!1. ?1!99L*.!:D p0:!?@. t09!?2+; ost +2!D1L*@!2. ?+!@2L*9!*? p0:!::1MM A!5#JEY t09!29+; re .*!?:L1!9+ 9+!:1L2!:2 5K4HH p0:!:*:MM t0@!*.@; ost .@!D1L2!*@ .:!.DL1!:9 pN:!::*MM t0*!11?; *!Hearning re +!?2L9!99 +!*2L9!29 p0:!*99 t0.!?@9; ost *:!@+L9!9: +!:9L*!?1 pN:!::*MM 9!#ime t0:!@2.; re 1!:+L*!2. @!+1L*!1+ management p0:!2@@ t0*!:11; ost 1!2:L*!@9 1!.9L*!@. p0:!9+@ t0:!?2:; .!8'am re D!@1L*!1D D!*2L9!:9 p0:!.+9 t0:!+2@; ost ?!*1L*!++ D!?9L*!1* p0:!..D t09!+.+; @!3emori%ing re +!@*L.!.9 D!D?L9!D@ p0:!::@MM t0@!@*.; ost *:!1*L9!D9 ?!9*L9!D+ pN:!::*MM t0*!+?2; C!6A"4# re **!11L9!92 *:!2?L9!1 p0:!:@+M t0*!?++; ost *9!@1L9!DD **!1@L9!9+ p0:!:2:M t0:!:DD; *!Hearning re 1!+*L*!1. 1!?+L*!11 p0:!+.+ t0*!?19; ost 2!21L*!2@ 2!*@L*!9+ p0:!:2DO 9!#ime t09!D+*; re 1!2@L*!2* @!D+L*!D: management p0:!::2MM t0*!9@+; ost 1!?:L*!2? 1!@:L*!2? p0:!9*@ O significant at *:F Hevel, M 5ignificant at 1 F MM 5ignificant at *F 4n table ., the effectiveness of the multiple intelligence approach on study

s&ills and study habits were analysed! #here were significant differences noted between the e'perimental and control group in the overall study skills dimension! 5ignificant differences were noted particularly in the areas of learning skills and memorising skills. #here were significant differences noted in the overall habit dimension and in both habits towards learning and towards time management! T"5'e >+ Me"s!r$%( he E&&e# $,e%ess o& $% er,e% $o% *ro(r"--e o% A#"de-$# s#ores o& he e7*er$-e% "' (ro!* A#"de-$# *er&or-"%#e SUBAECTS #amil 8nglish 3aths 8>5,socialstudies and science 6indi

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#otal

4n table @, the effectiveness of the intervention programme in academic scores of the e'perimental group! #here has been an improvement in the academic scores of the e'perimental group spanning the entire academic year! )"'$d" $o% o& hy*o hes$s 4t was hypothesised that integrating the 3ultiple 4ntelligences perspective for designing learner-centric curriculum will not be effective! 6owever, from the scrutiny of the (ournals that the students maintained on what interests them, the multiple intelligences strategies they learnt to use during each session and the feedbac&s obtained from students, teachers and parents, at the close of the intervention programme indicated the approach was successful! "ased on this, the school had adopted the multiple intelligences approach for an entire year for all classes! 5ohn7s ,9::@- study supports the present study! #he researcher e'amined how effective the researcher-created methods and instruments are in fostering the e'ploration and development of their personal profile of intelligences within the multiple intelligence ,34- framewor&, and applying their newly gained insights to help solve novel mathematical problems! =indings suggest that student7s self-identified 34 profiles assisted them in selecting appropriate strategies to solve mathematical problems! ;hen students were able to choose their own mathematical strategies, a very high percentage of them used strategies that matched their 34 profile!

4t was hypothesised that there will be no significant difference in the study s&ills and habits of students after e'posure to curriculum taught using 3ultiple 4ntelligences approach! 6owever, analysis of the data indicated that there is a significant difference noted in certain areas of the study s&ills and study habits dimension of students! 6ence it can be concluded that the intervention programme has improved the study s&ills and study habits dimensions of the participants to a certain e'tent in the e'perimental group! 4t was hypothesised that there will be no significant improvement in the academic performance of the e'perimental group, after e'posure to curriculum taught using 3ultiple 4ntelligences approach! 6owever there was an improvement noted in the academic scores of e'periment group! Eavis7s ,9::@- study supports the present study! #he researcher utili%ed the multiple intelligences ,34- theory and brain-based learning to develop the 43 AC# strategy to increase the academic achievement of @th-grade students in science! Analysis of the results indicated that there was a significant improvement in students) achievement, behaviour, and self-esteem! Co%#'!s$o% #oday)s schools are essentially passive e'periences and the curriculum is designed to address a ma(ority of the student population while students with specific learning needs are neglected! #here are very less opportunities provided for the students to e'plore their learning strengths and pursue their own interests in school! #his is e'acerbated by the general acceptance of rote learning of te'tboo& content across schools in 4ndia! 5tudents memori%e by heart the concepts they are taught, rather than understanding them! #he study concluded that the intervention programme had influenced study s&ills and habits of the participants in the e'perimental group and had provided an opportunity for them to understand concepts using their diverse intelligences and become active and involved learners! #he intervention also brought about an improvement in their overall academic performances of the participants in the e'perimental group! Re&ere%#es: Armstrong, #! ,9::+-! 3ultiple 4ntelligences in the Classroom .rd ed! Ale'andria, >A: Association for 5upervision and Curriculum Eevelopment Campbell, "! ,*++2-! Multiple Intelligences In The Classroom, Article extracted from #he Hearning Bevolution ,4CP9D-, ;inter *++*, age *9! Clay ! "edford!- $uote- http:<<artofselfeducation!com<$uotes< Eavis, H! ,9::@-! Using the Theory of Multiple Intelligences to Increase Fourth-Grade tudents! Academic Achie"ement in cience,

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Gnline submission ,8B4C Eocument Beproduction 5ervice /o! 8E@+*@DDIardner, 6! ,*+?.-! =rames of 3ind: #he #heory of 3ultiple 4ntelligences! /ew Yor&: "asic! 4gnacio 8strada4gnacio 8strada $uotes http:<<thin&e'ist!com<$uotes<ignacioQestrada< 5ohn, 5!C! ,9::@-! A method for introducing the #o$ard Gardner Theory of Multiple Intelligences %MI& to middle school students. Eissertation Abstracts 4nternational -A 2@<:?, g : 9D2?! Abstract retrieved 5eptember :+, 9::@ from Eissertation Abstracts 4nternational database!

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