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Proposed Design Methodology for shotcrete

W.C Joughin, G.C. Howell, A.R. Leach & J. Thompson

Research Workshop Team


William Joughin Graham Howell Tony Leach Jody Thompson Kevin Le Bron

Karl Akermann (AngloPlatinum), Lars Hage (BASF), Alan Naismith, Julian Venter, Dave Ortlepp

Design Process
Determination of rock mass and loading conditions
Rock mass classification Stress modelling

Determination of Shotcrete Requirements


Excavation requirements Shotcrete function/purpose Is it required?

Determination of Shotcrete Demand Determination of Shotcrete Capacity


Peak/Residual capacity Energy absorption Standard tests Fibre content, mesh characteristics

Deadweight loading Quasi-static loading Dynamic loading

Determination of safety factor

Rock mass conditions


Massive (>70)

Q/GSI Stress modelling


Rock Mass Condition (GSI)

Loading Condition
Low Stress A1 Moderate stress High Stress A2 A3 Dynamic A4

Limited or no damage.

Fracturing and minor spalling of Intense fracturing, spalling and rock occurs. bulking of rock occurs.

Violent ejection of rock.

B1
Jointed (40-70)

B2

B3

B4

Blocks or wedges mobilize under Fracturing is altered by joint Intense fracturing and sliding gravity loading. pattern. Blocks or wedges begin along joints. Blocks or wedges to slide. slide.

Violent ejection of rock.

Heavily jointed (<40)

C1

C2

C3

C4

Unravelling of small blocks.

Unravelling of small blocks. Failure can propagate into the rock mass if not controlled

Unravelling and crushing of blocks. Sliding along joints can create squeezing conditions

Violent ejection of rock and unravelling

Shotcrete requirements (Excavation requirements)


Importance of excavation (access/production) Exposure of personnel Life of excavation Functional dimensions of excavation Maintenance and rehabilitation (redundancy)

Shotcrete requirements
(Shotcrete function/purpose)
Structural support (Not covered) Fabric between tendons to contain jointed/fractured rock To prevent spalling/strainbursting near face

Shotcrete requirements (is it required?)


Observations of block size and stress damage Keyblock analysis (eg Jblock) (joint controlled) Stress damage (RCF>0.7, 1/c ratio) Empirical charts (joint controlled + SRF)

Shotcrete requirements

Shotcrete requirements

Shotcrete Demand
Deadweight Quasi-static Dynamic

Shotcrete Demand (deadweight)


Roof prism (Barret & McCreath) Sidewall prism slides Conservative estimate

100

md (kNm/m)

Shotcrete Demand (Deadweight) 10


20 kN/m3 25kN/m3

30 kN/m3 1
35kN/m3 40 kN/m3

0.1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Span between tendons (m)

Shotcrete Demand (quasi-static)


Assumption: Rock mass will continue to deform under quasi-static loading. Support pressures provided by shotcrete are inadequate to prevent deformation. Objective is to survive the deformation and maintain the functions of containing the fractured rock mass If the moment demand exceeds the peak moment capacity, the shotcrete will enter the residual state, providing it is reinforced.

Shotcrete Demand (quasi-static) (Displacement)


Displacement monitoring (extensometers) Maximum displacement from Udec GRC modelling

1.E+06 9.E+05 8.E+05 7.E+05 6.E+05 5.E+05 4.E+05


300 MPa

Displacement from modelling

Support Pressure (Pa)

3.E+05
250 MPa

2.E+05 1.E+05 0.E+00 0.00

200 MPa 150 MPa

5.00

10.00

15.00

20.00

25.00

30.00

Deformation (mm)

Shotcrete Demand (quasi-static) (Displacement)


Quartzite
150-200MPa 200-250MPa 250-300MPa 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

48.20 5.50 4.50 8.00 7.50 4.00 4.00 2.75

Squeezing Squeezing 43.00 25.30 6.70 5.50 3.50 1.30

Squeezing Squeezing 51.00 35.70 7.80 5.50 4.00 4.60

1.E+05

Shotcrete Demand (quasi-static)


1.E+04 1.E+03
md (kNm/m)

Square tendon spacing (a) Thickness (h) a=1.0m h=25mm a=1.0m h=50mm a=1.0m h=75mm a=1.0m h=100mm a=1.0m h=150mm

1.E+02
SD site 2 final Mponeng

1.E+01 SD site 2 initial Impala 1.E-01

a=1.0m h=200mm a=1.5m h=25mm a=1.5m h=50mm a=1.5m h=75mm a=1.5m h=100mm a=1.5m h=150mm a=1.5m h=200mm

1.E+00

1.E-02 0 1 10 Deflection (mm) 100 1,000

Shotcrete Demand (Dynamic)


Roof Prism (Barret & McCreath Sidewall: Kinetic Energy Roof: Kinetic and potential energy

Shotcrete Demand (Dynamic)


100

Kinetic Energy (kJ)

0.2 m/s 10
South Deep Site effect Mponeng Max PPV 0.5 m/s 1.0 m/s 1.5 m/s 2.0 m/s

0.1

Mponeng threshold PPV South Deep Blast PPV

2.5 m/s
3.0 m/s

0.01 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Span between tendons (m)

10

Shotcrete Demand (Dynamic)


Potential Energy (kJ)
1

0.1 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Span between tendons (m)

Shotcrete Capacity
Peak/residual strength Energy Absorption Standard tests (RDP/ASTMC1550, EFNARC) Fibre content Mesh area

Shotcrete Capacity (RDP)


60 50

Peak load
Steel 40kg/m3 Steel 55kg/m3 Steel 70kg/m3 Polypropylene 1kg/m3

40

Wpc(kN)

30

Polypropylene 2kg/m3 Polypropylene 3kg/m3 Polypropylene 4kg/m3 Polypropylene 5kg/m3 Polypropylene 6kg/m3

20

10

Polypropylene 7kg/m3 Polypropylene 8kg/m3

0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Deflection (mm)

1.E+03

Shotcrete Capacity (RDP)


55kg/m3 steel fibre mix 1-8kg/m3 poly fibre mixes
70kg/m3 steel fibre mix Thickness (h) 25mm 50mm 100mm South Deep site 2 150mm 200mm 40kg/m3 steel fibre mix

1.E+02

mc (Nm/m)

Mponeng 1.E+01

1.E+00

Impala

1.E-01 0 10 20 30 RDP Wpc (kN) 40 50 60

Shotcrete Capacity (RDP)


60 50 Steel 40kg/m3 40 Steel 55kg/m3 Steel 70kg/m3 Polypropylene 1kg/m3 30 Polypropylene 2kg/m3 Polypropylene 3kg/m3 20 Polypropylene 4kg/m3 Polypropylene 5kg/m3 Polypropylene 6kg/m3 10 Polypropylene 7kg/m3 Polypropylene 8kg/m3 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Deflection (mm)

Wpc(kN)

Shotcrete Capacity (RDP)


12.00

Lever Arm = L/2

Generic
10.00 8.00
mpc (kNm/m)

P (Load)
Steel 40kg/m3 Steel 55kg/m3 Steel 70kg/m3 Polypropylene 1kg/m3

6.00

Polypropylene 2kg/m3 Polypropylene 3kg/m3 Polypropylene 4kg/m3 Polypropylene 5kg/m3 Polypropylene 6kg/m3

4.00

2.00

Polypropylene 7kg/m3 Polypropylene 8kg/m3

0.00 0.000 0.020 0.040 0.060 (radians) 0.080 0.100 0.120

Shotcrete Capacity (on wall)


400

8.66 x
350 300 250

75mm thick, 1m tendon spacing

Wc(kN)

200 150 100 50 0 0.00 10.00

Steel 40kg/m3 Steel 55kg/m3 Steel 70kg/m3

1.33 x

20.00

30.00 Deflection (mm)

40.00

50.00

60.00

Shotcrete Capacity (on wall)


9000 8000 7000 6000

75mm thick, 1m tendon spacing

EAc(J)

5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 Deflection (mm) 40.00 50.00 60.00

Steel 40kg/m3 Steel 55kg/m3 Steel 70kg/m3 40 kg/m3 Panel 55 kg/m3 panel 70 kg/m3 panel

Shotcrete capacity (Dynamic)


100 55kg/m3 steel fibre mix 40kg/m3 steel fibre mix 10
EAc (kJ)

RDP

70kg/m3 steel fibre mix Thickness (h) 25mm 50mm 100mm 150mm 200mm

Mponeng

South Deep site 2 1

Impala 0.1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 RDP EApc (kJ) 0.8 1 1.2

Factor of safety
Loading South South Mponeng Deep Site Deep Site 116 level 2 2 2.4 2.4 72.1 1.0 0.1 9.3 1.1 32.6 0.1 0.9 Impala

Deadweight Quasi-static Dynamic Max Dynamic (3m/s)

4.6 2.6 0.08

Outstanding work
Large scale panel tests (Kirsten & Labrum)
UDL & point load Thickness (50mm, 100mm, 150mm) Mesh & fibre

Large scale panel tests (Shotcrete working group Gerhard Keyter)

Acknowledgements
Mine Health and Safety Council (SIM040204) South Deep Gold Mine, Mponeng Mine, Impala 14# BASF (Lars Hage), Mash (Hector Snashall) Geopractica, University of the Witwatersrand Seismogen (Tony Ward) James Dube, Hlangabeza Gumede