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The 6th International Conference on Hydraulic Machinery and Hydrodynamics Timisoara, Romania, October 21 - 22, 2004

Wen-Guang LI Department of Energy and Engineering for Power Lanzhou University of Technology

85 Langongping Road, Lanzhou, the Peoples Republic of China Tel.: (+86) 931 275625251, Fax: (+86) 931 2756250, Email: liwg38@yahoo.com.cn ABSTRACT The experimental investigation into the hydraulic performance of a commercial centrifugal oil pump of type 65Y60 has been carried out at various liquid viscosities while the original impeller is trimmed 4 times. The trim exponents of flow rate, head, shaftpower and efficiency as well as trim curves at best efficiency point, the trim exponents of head and power at shut-off point have been worked out. The experimental exponents have been compared with the theoretical exponents of existing affinity law to account for changes in impeller diameter. Expect impeller diameter of 205mm the flow rate exponent is less affected by both liquid viscosity and diameter trimmed. The other experimental trim exponents are affected heavily by both liquid viscosity and impeller diameter trimmed and have shown very different variation trend with viscosity for each diameter. However, these exponents are less influenced by liquid viscosity when the impeller diameter is trimmed in larger amount and approaches to the corresponding theoretical values proposed by Stepanoff. The existing analytical trim curves show a great difference with the experimental data, especially efficiency curve. Thus, the performance parameters of centrifugal oil pumps can not be evaluated exactly by using the existing equations for trim curves in case of impeller diameter reduction at best efficiency point when handling viscous oils, the effect of viscosity on the parameters must be considered in this evaluation. KEYWORDS Centrifugal oil pump, impeller trim, performance NOMENCLATURE

m P Q

[-] order of trim curve [kW] shaft power at BEP [m3/h] flow rate at BEP [-] percentage of diameter trimmed [%] efficiency at BEP [-] diameter ratio [-] kinematical viscosity

Subscripts and Superscripts i trim index ABBREVIATIONS BEP best efficiency point

1. INTRODUCTION Impeller trimmed can adjust the performance of centrifugal oil pumps while pumping viscous oils. The performance of pump with impeller trimmed can meet exactly the requirement in pressure head and flow rate of process systems in oilfields, refineries etc and lead to avoid too large pressure loss across a control valve throttled to reduce flow. This will improve the gross efficiency of pumping units and result into energy saving. However, this research issue is not yet attacked and a lot of unknowns remain at the moment. In order to examine this issue in details, in this paper, the original impeller, vendor-supplied, with diameter of 213mm was chosen, and trimmed four times, the remained diameter are 205mm, 195mm, 185mm and 175mm respectively. The performances of the pump were gained experimentally for impellers with these diameters at various kinematical viscosities, from 1cSt to 255cSt. The results have shown that the affinity law to account for changes in impeller diameter while handling viscous oil with higher viscosity is different from that while pumping water, and it heavily depends upon the diameter cut and the viscosity of liquid handled. 217

ai D2 H n

[-] fitted coefficients, i=5,4,..,1,0 [mm] impeller original diameter [m] head at best efficiency point [-] trim exponent

2. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP 2.1. Test rig The sketch of the test rig for measuring the performance of centrifugal oil pump while handling water or viscous oil can be found in [1]. The measurement uncertainties of flow rate, head, shaft power and efficiency are 0.707 %, 0.205 %, 0.515 % and 0.898 %, respectively. 2.2. Test pump The test pump is a single-suction, one-stage, cantilevered, commercial centrifugal oil pump of type 65Y60 which is widely applied to transport clean crude oil and liquid petroleum products at -40C~+350C in China. The pump specifications are the flow rate Q = 25 m 3 h , head H = 60 m , rotating speed n = 2950 r min , specific speed n s = 41.6 * , respectively. The impeller style is fully closed with five blades. The construction of the pump has been shown in Fig. 1.

D = 2i D2 D2 D 2 i = 100% = (1 ) 100% D2

(1)

where D2 is the diameter of original impeller, D 2 i is the diameter of impeller trimmed, subscript i stands for trim index, i = 1,2,3,4. Table 1 The diameters of impellers trimmed Trim index i 1 2 3 4 Impeller diameter 205 195 185 175 D2i(mm) 0.96 0.92 0.87 0.82 Diameter ratio, Percentage of diameter 3.76 7.45 13.15 17.84 trimmed, (%) Table 1 demonstrates the impeller diameter trimmed, diameter ratio and percentage of diameter trimmed. The maximum percentage diameter trimmed is 17.84 %. After the impeller being trimmed, its geometries, especially blade discharge angle and width, have been changed. The maximum increases in the outlet width and in blade discharge angle are 15.6% and 26 % from original values, respectively. The actual value of the blade outlet width is greater than the design one and increases by about 13 % ~ 15 % from the original dimensions.

2.3. Working Liquids

Figure 1. The test pump construction drawing The impeller diameter was trimmed four times. Fig. 2 illustrates the impeller trim style and a series of impeller trimmed. The number values in front of ( ) are design values of blade outlet width and the values in ( ) are actual values of them. Here diameter ratio and percentage of diameter trimmed are defined as the following two formulas

The working liquids are water and machine oil in the performance test, respectively. The values of the kinematical viscosity of working liquids are chosen as 1(water)cSt, 29cSt, 45cSt, 75cSt, 98cSt, 134cSt, 188cSt and 255cSt (oil).

2.4. Existing Affinity Law for Impeller Reduction

The affinity law for impeller reduction should be written as the following set of equations

218

Qi Q = n1 n H i H = 2 n3 Pi P = n4 i =

(2)

where n1 , n 2 , n 3 and n 4 are defined as the trim exponents in this paper, respectively, which correspond to flow rate, head, power and efficiency. Q , H , P and are the flow rate, head, power and efficiency respectively for original impeller while pumping water at BEP. The BEP is defined as the operation point of pump where the pump demonstrates the highest efficiency. Qi , H i , Pi and i are flow rate, head, power and efficiency for trimmed impeller, and subscript i ( = 1,2,3,4) denotes the trim index, as shown in Table 1. At shut-off operation point, both flow rate and efficiency is zero, head and power are available only. Hence the affinity law will yield the following equations H i H = n20 n30 Pi P = (3)

The affinity law includes four exponents, such as n1 , n 2 , n 3 and n 4 at BEP, and two exponents, n 20 , n 30 at shut-off point. If they are defined for a centrifugal oil pump, the law will be available. Therefore, the law depends upon the exponents only. These exponents can be determined by using the experimental data of the performance of a centrifugal oil pump. After the natural logs is taken, Eq. (2) can be re-arranged, and the four exponents will be calculated by using the following set of equations

n1 = ln(Qi Q ) ln n = ln(H H ) ln 2 i n3 = ln(Pi P ) ln n 4 = ln( i ) ln

(5)

Nevertheless, these exponents are the function of the specific speed n s of pump , the viscosity of liquid handled and diameter ratio respectively. The specific speed of our centrifugal oil pump can be regarded as a constant, so that the n i = n i ( , ) (i = 1, 2, 3, 4).

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.1. Performance Curves

where n 20 , n30 are trim exponents of head and shaft power at shut-off point respectively, and can be determined by using the experimental data of the performance only. After the impeller trimmed, the head, power and efficiency will vary with the flow rate, respectively at BEP. These variations will result in three curve, they are called as trim curves here. Based on the Eq. (2) the following a series of equations allow us to predict the hydraulic performance of a centrifugal pump while the impeller trimmed

Qi = K Q m1 m H i = K H Qi 2 m3 Pi = K P Qi i = K Qim4

(4)

where m1 , m2 , m3 and m4 are exponents, which are related to the trim exponents, m1 = n1 , m2 = n 2 n1 , m3 = n3 n1 and m4 = n 4 n1 . The coefficients

Fig. 3 illustrates the typical hydraulic performance curves of the pump with five diameters, such as 213mm, 205 mm, 195 mm, 185 mm and 175 mm, in liquid viscosity of 1cSt and 75cSt conditions at rotating speed of 2950 r / min. For head and power curves, as the diameter reduces, they decrease continuously. For efficiency curve, the situation is a little more complex. When pumping water (1cSt), the efficiency curve drops continuously. It can be seen that the flow rate at BEP reduces continuously while the diameter trimmed. As handling oil (75cSt), the curve rises at first, and then drops, finally reaches its highest position with diameter of 205mm. It should be noted that the pump efficiency varied while the impeller is reduced. The so called constant-efficiencytrim is incorrect while the impeller of centrifugal oil pumps is trimmed as pumping viscous oils.

3.2. Trim Exponents

Stepanoff theoretically suggested that n1 = 1 , n 2 = 2 , n 3 = 3 .[2] It leads to m1 = 1 , m2 = 2 , m3 = 3 and

un-changed while impeller is trimmed, so called constant-efficiency-trim occurs.

Fig. 4 has shown the four trim exponents of the oil pump with four different impeller diameters at BEP under eight values of viscosity of both water and viscous oil pumped respectively. It can be seen that the trim exponents strongly depends on the diameter ratio and viscosity of liquid, especially while the viscosity greater than 50cSt.

219

Figure 3 Performance curves in case of five diameter The trim exponent n1 of flow rate is between 1 and 2 when the viscosity of liquid is less than 30cSt. As the viscosity greater than this value, the exponent is positive and less than 1 except for the diameter of 205mm ( = 3.76% ). This implies that the BEP moves to a smaller flow rate location when the viscosity increases after the impeller was cut. In case of the diameter of 205mm, while the impeller is trimmed, the exponent is negative, and the BEP moved to a larger flow rate location. This indicates that the hydraulic performance of the pump is improved while the impeller with this diameter. As the impeller diameter reduces, the exponent n1 closes to a theoretical value of 1. Expect impeller diameter of 205mm the exponent less is affected by both liquid viscosity and diameter trimmed.

The trim exponent n 2 of head is larger than 2 in the most of case, rises with the viscosity increase, reduces with impeller diameter reduction. Therefore, the head drops continuously with increase of viscosity and diameter reduction. The exponent heavily depends on the liquid viscosity and diameter trimmed. The trim exponent n 3 of power decreases continuously from a theoretical value of 3, with viscosity increase. The larger diameter results in great drop in the exponent. This demonstrates that impeller disk friction heavily depends on the impeller diameter and liquid viscosity. The exponent heavily also depends on the liquid viscosity and diameter trimmed.

220

Figure 4 Trim exponents variations at BEP The trim exponent n 4 of efficiency increases continuously from a theoretical value of 0 with viscosity increase and gets small with impeller diameter reduction. This has shown a large difference with the analytical result. The exponent heavily depends on the liquid viscosity and diameter trimmed again.

However, the four exponents are less influenced by liquid viscosity when the impeller diameter is trimmed in larger amount and approaches to the corresponding theoretical values which were proposed by Stepanoff in [2], especially the exponent of flow rate. Fig. 5 illustrates the trim exponent variation of head and power at shut-off point for different impeller diameter and viscosity. The exponent n 20 of head at shut-off point has shown a reverse variation trend with that of exponent n 2 at BEP. The value of n 20 is also less than n 2 . The exponent n 30 of power at shut-off point demonstrates the similar trend of the exponent n 3 at BEP, but n 30 drops very quickly with viscosity increase. The absolute value of n 30 is also smaller than n 3 at the same viscosity and diameter.

To develop affinity law for impeller diameter reduction for centrifugal oil pumps and to prompt our results in applications, the experimental trim exponents have be fitted by using polynomial with 4 or less -order. The polynomial is written as

ni = a 4 4 + a 3 3 + a 2 2 + a1 + a 0

(6)

where a4 , a3 , a2 , a1 and a0 are coefficients of the polynomial. Table 2 and Table 3 illustrate the coefficients of the polynomial at both best efficiency point and shut-off point. In regress, data fitting was performed from lower order of polynomial to higher another. The fitted curves can fit the scattered data very well expect while viscosity is 29cSt(Fig. 4 and Fig. 5) for head and shaft-power exponents in the case of = 3.76 (D2 = 205mm).

3.3. Trim Curves

Fig.6 demonstrates the variation of trim curves of head, power and efficiency at BEP with flow rate while the impeller diameter trimmed under constant-speed condition. The curves are gained by using Eq. (4). The test data for four diameters and eight viscosities are also marked in the figure. It can be seen that the most of the data dont fall on the corresponding curves. The existing analytical trim curves show a great difference with the experimental data, especially efficiency curve. So that the performance parameters of centrifugal oil pumps at best efficiency point when handling viscous oils can not be evaluated exactly by using the existing equations for trim curves, such as Eq. (4), in case of impeller diameter reduction, the effect of viscosity on the parameters must be considered. Otherwise, the larger error will be introduced in the parameters prediction.

4. CONCLUSIONS

Figure 5 Trim exponents variations at shut-off point Based on above results the trim exponents heavily depends upon both liquids viscosity and diameter reduced for centrifugal oil pumps while pumping viscous oils. Furthermore the trim exponents for viscous oils clearly differ from those for water. Obviously, if the exponents for water are applied into impeller trim of centrifugal oil pump while pumping viscous oils, it will result into great errors.

The experimental investigation into the hydraulic performance of a commercial centrifugal oil pump of type 65Y60 has been carried out at various viscosity of liquid while the original impeller is trimmed. The trim exponents at both best efficiency and shut-off point, trim curves at the best efficiency point only have been worked out. The following conclusions should be made: As the diameter reduces, the head and power curves decrease continuously, the efficiency, however, will increase at first and then drop for certain value of diameter at several viscosity conditions. The efficiency varies with impeller trimmed while handling viscous oils. The called constant-efficiency-trim is wrong while the impeller of centrifugal oil pumps is trimmed as pumping viscous oils. 221

n1

n2

n3

n4

(%) 3.76 7.45 13.15 17.84 3.76 7.45 13.15 17.84 3.76 7.45 13.15 17.84 3.76 7.45 13.15 17.84

a4

a3

a2

a1

a0

a4

a3

0.000131433 0.00016494 3.57847E-5 3.23682E-5 0.00033416 7.1456E-5 -2.03787E-5 0.000123817 -0.000247479 1.59058E-5 -1.02496E-5 4.27211E-5 -0.000103297 -5.74728E-5 -2.4899E-5 -1.79237E-5

a2

-0.0426235 -0.0252641 -0.00925939 -0.0101759 -0.0164379 3.69193E-5 0.000863723 -0.0046981 -0.0467675 -0.0344853 -0.0182887 -0.019984 0.0775535 0.0432349 0.0232217 0.0165058

1.18625 1.63592 1.17171 1.41239 2.15966 1.93073 2.11907 2.07101 3.87176 3.76056 3.36747 3.52758 -0.059198 0.0845832 0.195372 0.191819

a0

n 20

(%)

a1

3.76

n 30

13.15

17.84

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 3.72046E-7 0 0 0

The four exponents have shown different variation trends with viscosity and diameter at best efficiency point. The existing theoretical exponents, based on the current affinity laws, have illustrated a great departure from the experimental data at best efficiency point. The trim exponents of both head and power at shut-off point reduce continuously with viscosity increase. These two exponent variation trends are different from those of them at best efficiency point. Expect impeller diameter of 205mm the flow rate exponent is less affected by both liquid viscosity and diameter trimmed. The other three exponents heavily depend on the liquid viscosity and diameter trimmed. However, these exponents are less influenced by liquid viscosity when the impeller diameter is trimmed in larger amount and approaches to the corresponding theoretical values proposed by Stepanoff. The existing analytical trim curves show a great difference with the experimental data, especially efficiency 222

curve. The performance parameters of centrifugal oil pumps at best efficiency point when handling viscous oils can not be evaluated exactly by using the existing equations for trim curves. In case of impeller diameter reduction, the effect of viscosity on the parameters must be considered.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The author is indebted to full support under the Key Research and Development Program for Outstanding Groups at Lanzhou University of Technology, the Peoples Republic of China.

REFERENCE 1. Li W. G. (2002) The Influence of Number of Blades on the Performance of Centrifugal Oil Pumps, World Pumps, 2002, No. 427, pp. 32-35 2. Stepanoff A. J. (1957) Centrifugal and Axial Flow Pumps, 2nd Edition, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1957, p.85-87

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