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AQA

A2
Geography
Questions, mark schemes and commentaries
Amanda Barker, David Redfern and Malcolm Skinner

Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Plate tectonics and associated hazards Question 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Question 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Question 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Question 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Weather and climate and associated hazards Question 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Question 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Question 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Question 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Ecosystems: change and challenge Question 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Question 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Question 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Question 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 World cities Question 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Question 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Question 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Question 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Development and globalisation Question 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Question 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Question 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Question 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Contemporary conflicts and challenges Question 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Question 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Question 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Question 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
P01404

Supporting AQA A2 Geography Barker, Redfern and Skinner

2009 Philip Allan Updates

Introduction
This website contains some examples of the types of questions you will face in the AQA Unit 3 geography examination at A2. You may wish to use these questions as practice questions in your work or for revision. Questions are in bold type. Each one has a mark scheme together with commentary in purple on how best to answer it. Sample student answers to some of the questions, with examiner comments, appear in the AQA A2 Geography Student Unit Guide: Unit 3 published by Philip Allan Updates. Before attempting to answer any of the questions, it is important that you understand the processes by which these questions will be marked by the examiner in the real examination. Below is a summary of those processes.

General marking criteria


The philosophy Marking at AQA is positive rather than negative. This means that examiners credit material you get right, rather than deduct marks for what you get wrong. Examiners do not start with a model answer in their heads, nor do they compare your answer with a model answer. They credit you for the way in which you answer the question set, awarding more marks for the appropriate detail and depth of response that you give. Levels marking For all questions worth more than 5 marks levels marking is used. For questions with 58 marks there is a maximum of two levels; for questions with between 9 and 15 marks there are three levels. For questions with more than 15 marks, including the essays on Unit 3, there are four levels.
Everyone involved in the levels marking process (examiners, teachers, students) should understand the criteria for moving from one level to the next the triggers. In simple terms, you should know what you must do to take your answer from Level 1 to Level 2, Level 2 to Level 3, and Level 3 to Level 4. Although the precise triggers will vary from question to question, there are general rules you should follow to enable you to make this progression. In broad terms the levels can be described as follows.

Level 1: you attempt the question to some extent, giving a basic response
An answer at this level is likely to: I display a basic understanding of the topic I make one or two points without support of appropriate exemplification or application of principle I give a basic list of characteristics, reasons and attitudes I provide a basic account of a case study, or provide no case study evidence I give a response to one command of a question where two (or more) commands are stated, e.g.describe and suggest reasons I demonstrate a simplistic style of writing perhaps lacking close relation to the terms of the question I lack organisation, relevance and specialist vocabulary I demonstrate deficiencies in legibility, spelling, grammar and punctuation

Level 2: you answer the question clearly


An answer at this level is likely to: I display a clear understanding of the topic I make one or two points supported by appropriate exemplification
Supporting AQA A2 Geography Barker, Redfern and Skinner
2009 Philip Allan Updates

I I I I I I

give a number of characteristics, reasons, attitudes (more than one) provide clear use of case studies give responses to more than one command, e.g.describe and explain demonstrate a style of writing which matches the requirements of the question demonstrate relevance and coherence with appropriate use of specialist vocabulary demonstrate legibility of text, and qualities of spelling, grammar and punctuation which enable clarity of meaning

Level 3: you answer the question very well


An answer at this level is likely to: I display a detailed understanding of the topic I make several points with support of appropriate exemplification I give a wide range of characteristics, reasons, attitudes etc. I provide detailed accounts of a range of case studies I respond well to more than one command I demonstrate evidence of discussion, evaluation, assessment and synthesis I demonstrate a sophisticated style of writing incorporating measured and qualified explanation and comment as required by the question I demonstrate a clear sense of purpose so that the response is seen to closely relate to the requirements of the question with confident use of specialist vocabulary I demonstrate legibility of text, and qualities of spelling, grammar and punctuation that contribute to complete clarity of meaning

Level 4: you answer the question with depth, flair, creativity and insight
In addition to the requirements of Level 3, an answer at this level is likely to: I provide strong evidence of thorough, detailed and accurate knowledge, and critical understanding of concepts and principles and of specialist vocabulary I give explanations, arguments and assessments or evaluations that are direct, logical, perceptive, purposeful, and show both balance and flair I demonstrate a high level of insight, and an ability to identify, interpret and synthesise a wide range of material with creativity I demonstrate evidence of maturity in understanding the role of values, attitudes and decision-making processes

Question types Unit 3 has a combination of structured questions carrying 25 marks and essay questions carrying 40 marks.

Structured questions
Structured questions have a gradient of difficulty. The initial sub-questions are less demanding than the later ones, and therefore carry fewer marks. Thus sub-question (a) often uses command words such as comment on, describe or outline, while subsequent questions may require explanation, examples and evaluation. Stimulus materials are used both directly and indirectly. For direct use, OS maps and photographs are provided to assess key skills such as map reading and interpretation. Charts and sketch maps may be supplied to assess your ability to summarise and recognise spatial patterns and trends. For indirect use, stimulus materials are presented as a catalyst for assessing your wider knowledge and understanding of a topic.

Essay questions
Essay questions have a number of common features: I they require description and explanation I they require some evaluation, assessment or discussion

Supporting AQA A2 Geography Barker, Redfern and Skinner

2009 Philip Allan Updates

I I

they always require detailed exemplification using case studies higher levels of response require clear evidence of synopticity

You should reserve 4 or 5 minutes for thinking time and for writing a brief plan of your answer. The plan should outline the general content of each paragraph and the geographical examples you intend to use to support your answer. Your answer should have three main components: an introduction, a main body and a conclusion. I The introduction should (a) define any key terms used in the question, and (b) indicate the broad structure of your answer. It should be brief and businesslike: four or five lines should be sufficient. I The main body is where you develop the list of points in your introduction by means of a series of paragraphs that follow each other in a logical sequence.When discussing or evaluating an issue, and therefore presenting a number of viewpoints, put each idea into a separate paragraph.This will ensure that the reader does not become confused by your argument. I The conclusion should be a brief summary of the points developed in your answer. Where appropriate, it may need to include some evaluation or overall assessment. Finally, all questions will cover some aspect of the geographical process summarised in Figure A. It is important to recognise which part of the process the question is asking you about. In general, the sequence of questions in an exam is logical. You may be asked to explain causes, then to describe changes, next to identify problems and finally to suggest solutions.

Geographical issues begin with causes. Processes then occur which lead to

changes taking place. These can be changes to natural or human systems. The changes often have

consequences; these can be positive or negative (problems) for people and/or the environment

the problems and issues require management to find solutions and minimise conflict

Figure A The geographical process

The essays in Unit 3 will be marked using a generic mark scheme. This means that the same general principles will be used to assess your essay, only the context, content and command words will vary. Table A illustrates this mark scheme.
Table A Essay mark scheme Level 1 Marks/40 110 Assessment criteria
I I I I I I I I I I

The answer shows a basic grasp of concepts and ideas, but points lack development or depth Explanations are incomplete, arguments partial and lack coherent organisation or reasoned conclusions Examples are superficial There is no evidence of synopticity The answer is relevant and accurate, and shows reasonable knowledge and critical understanding of concepts and principles with some use of specialist vocabulary Arguments are not fully developed and the organisation of ideas and the use of examples and general theories show imbalances Some ability to identify, interpret and synthesise some of the material Limited ability to understand the roles of values, attitudes and decision-making processes Sketch maps/diagrams are not used effectively Evidence of synopticity is limited

1120

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Level 3

Marks/40 2130

Assessment criteria
I I I I I I I I I I I I

Sound and frequent evidence of thorough, detailed and accurate knowledge and critical understanding of concepts and principles, and of specialist vocabulary Explanations, arguments and assessments or evaluations are direct, logical, purposeful and generally balanced Some ability to identify, interpret and synthesise a range of material Some ability to understand the roles of values, attitudes and decision-making processes Examples are developed and sketch maps/diagrams are used effectively There is strong evidence of synopticity Strong evidence of thorough, detailed and accurate knowledge and critical understanding of concepts and principles and of specialist vocabulary Explanations, arguments and assessments or evaluations are direct, logical, perceptive, purposeful, and show both balance and flair There is a high level of insight, and an ability to identify, interpret and synthesise a wide range of material with creativity Evidence of maturity in understanding the role of values, attitudes and decisionmaking processes Examples are well-developed and sketch maps/diagrams are fully integrated The answer is fully synoptic

3140

Supporting AQA A2 Geography Barker, Redfern and Skinner

2009 Philip Allan Updates

Plate tectonics and associated hazards


Question 1
a Study Figure 1, which shows the global distribution of earthquakes.
Plate margins Earthquake zone Eurasian plate North American plate MidAtlantic ridge Caribbean plate South American plate

Pacific plate African plate Cocos plate Indo-Australian plate Nazca plate

Antarctic plate

Antarctic plate

Figure 1 Global distribution of earthquakes

Describe the distribution of the earthquakes and attempt to explain the pattern that is shown.

(7 marks)

Mark scheme
Level 1 Basic/simple statements with regard to distribution, mainly names of countries or areas affected by earthquakes. Explanation confined to plate boundaries. (14 marks) Level 2 Wider picture seen, such as the Pacific Ring of Fire. Some reference to the large areas where there are no or few recorded instances. More details on plate boundaries such as the name, the activity taking place there which results in earthquakes and activity within fold mountains. Some attempt to explain why some areas are free/relatively free from earthquakes. (57 marks)
e

As this question is levels marked, you will receive only Level 1 marks if you describe the distribution in piecemeal form, i.e. simply a list of countries/areas. You must describe a wider pattern to reach Level 2. Similarly, explanations must go deeper than simply stating that the earthquakes are on or near plate boundaries.You could state what is happening to cause earthquakes at specific boundaries (must be those shown on the map, not earthquakes in general) such as on the conservative margin in California.

b Describe the effects that a major earthquake can have on the population
of an area.
(8 marks)

Mark scheme
Level 1 Simple statements giving nothing more than a list of the effects. (14 marks)

Level 2 Recognises that effects can be divided into primary and secondary and gives examples of each (accept candidates own definition of primary/secondary as long as it is logical). Links are clearly made between primary and secondary hazards, e.g. ground shaking can cause buildings to fall, Supporting AQA A2 Geography Barker, Redfern and Skinner
2009 Philip Allan Updates

breaking gas pipes which could lead to fires breaking out. Several effects can be linked together in a chain; another example could be ground shaking resulting in dams cracking, collapsing and leading (58 marks) to flooding downstream.
e

To reach the higher mark level, you must do more than write a list of effects. With many hazards it is important to recognise that there are both primary effects and later secondary effects, which may last for a considerable period of time after the event. It is also essential to see that one effect may be the cause of another. If you can link the hazards in this way, your mark will be at the top of the range.

c Discuss the effectiveness of the methods used to lessen the impact of


earthquakes on the population of an area.
(10 marks)

Mark scheme
Level 1 Simple statements of methods, in effect little more than a list of the ways people can attempt to lessen the impact. (14 marks) Level 2 Recognises that there can be categories, or shows the general aim behind the methods. Begins to show how these methods work and how effective they have been, perhaps with some small references to located examples. (58 marks) Level 3 Shows a clear indication that methods can be divided into categories and discusses the purposes of such attempts. Clearly makes critical evaluations of the methods with details on how they can be made to work. Links methodology and its effectiveness with clear references to located examples. (910 marks)
e

As with (b), text that is effectively a list of methods will receive credit only at the lowest level. The key word in the question is effectiveness, and you must show to what extent the methods you quote work. Although examples are not mentioned in the question, it is a good idea to link effectiveness to real-world situations. If a particular method was effective/ineffective at a certain event, say so, as this will receive credit at the higher levels.

Question 2
a Study Figure 2 which shows the distribution of tectonic plates and their movements.

Eurasian plate

Eurasian plate North American plate African plate Pacific plate

Ind o-A u pla stra te lian

Nazca plate

South American plate

Transform fault Antarctic plate Convergent (destructive) subduction zones Divergent (constructive) sea-floor spreading Direction of plate movement

C Conservative
zones

Figure 2 Tectonic plates Supporting AQA A2 Geography Barker, Redfern and Skinner

2009 Philip Allan Updates

Select one plate boundary where volcanic activity is taking place. Name it, and with the aid of an annotated diagram(s) explain what is happening there as a result of the movement of the plates. (7 marks)

Mark scheme
Level 1 Simple statements/labels such as names of plates and density (but not both). Labelling incomplete. (14 marks) Sequence of events from plate movement to volcanic activity not established. Level 2 Plate labelling includes names and density (figures would indicate top of level answer). Details given, with clear sequence established from movement to volcanic activity. Particular details given on volcanic activity. (57 marks)
e

Selection is very important here. You should choose a boundary with a lot of activity and where there is a clear link between the plate movement and volcanic action.The question states with the aid of diagrams, which means that you could produce some text but you MUST draw an annotated diagram to achieve a reasonable mark.The most important point concerning the diagram is that the reader must be able to see the sequence from the initial movement of the plate to the ultimate production of volcanic activity.

b A tsunami can result from tectonic activity. Explain how such large waves
are formed and why they can be so destructive.
(8 marks)

Mark scheme
Level 1 Simple statements relating to cause, such as earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. Simple list of effects, with no stress on why tsunamis can be so devastating. (14 marks) Level 2 More detailed explanations as to the cause. Explains why tsunamis can cause such destruction, particularly the lack of preparation/perception of the hazard in the past. Details on size, penetration, etc., and indications that tsunamis may consist of more than one wave. Shows that debris in water can also be very destructive. (58 marks)
e

To achieve a mark beyond Level 1 you must recognise that formation of a tsunami requires more than an earthquake/volcanic action. You must explain not only the damage that tsunamis can do, but why they can be so destructive (e.g. Indian Ocean tsunami, December 2004). Simply listing the effects will receive credit only at Level 1.

c Discuss the ways in which people and organisations have attempted to


minimise the effect of volcanic eruptions.
(10 marks)

Mark scheme
Level 1 Simple statements of responses which could apply to any volcanic eruption. Answer little more than a short list. (14 marks) Level 2 Recognises that there can be categories, or shows general aim behind the methods. Begins to show how such methods work with some small references to examples. (58 marks) Level 3 Very clear indication that attempts can be categorised. Recognises that volcanic activity will occur and that people are unable to stop it so their main thrust should be to minimise the effects upon them. Critical evaluation made of the success of any attempts made, with clear reference to examples. (910 marks)
e

As with (c), it is important to use examples, even though there is no reference to them in the question wording. As with all questions of this type, you should avoid stating only the methods that are applied. Most methods can be divided into categories and you must

Supporting AQA A2 Geography Barker, Redfern and Skinner

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use them, because this gives a clearer insight into how people hope to minimise the effect of such hazards.

Essay questions
The generic mark scheme for the essays is given on pages 56. Below is a summary of the requirements for a good answer to these questions. A key element is the need to demonstrate synopticity. Synoptic assessment is built into the mark scheme, and is loosely defined as follows: Synoptic assessment involves assessment of candidates ability to draw on their understanding of the connections between different aspects of the subject represented in the specification and demonstrate their ability to think like a geographer.

Question 3
The hazards presented by earthquakes and volcanic activity have the greatest impact on the poorest members of the worlds population. To what extent do (40 marks) you agree with this view?

Appropriate content Appropriate content for a response to this question might include: I the concept of a hazard I an understanding of volcanoes and earthquakes as hazards and the extent to which they impact upon human economies and societies I the possibility of management I areas at risk compared with the income/economic development of the people living there I variations in the capacity to adapt to/manage processes and impacts I varying impacts on different groups within the same population, such as the vulnerability of informal settlements I case study material/examples Synopticity This could emerge with some of the following: I a critical understanding of the processes that produce volcanic and earthquake hazard events and the context in which they are produced I understanding the context of varying timescales (frequency etc.) I an understanding of the impact of volcanic and earthquake events I an understanding of the vulnerability of different populations to these hazards I a critical understanding of the vulnerability of different regions, particularly the differences between richer and poorer areas and the contrast between urban and rural environments I understanding the capacity and willingness of people to deal with these hazards I evidence of breadth/depth of case study material
The question requires a discussion and the response should reach a view. Any conclusion can be credited as long as it is measured and reasonable, and related to the content of the answer.
e

To answer this question you should carefully read the above bullet points to get an idea of what your discussion should involve. The obvious conclusion is that the statement is mainly correct. Poor people are not able to prepare for or manage hazards in the same way that people in richer countries can. Richer countries can build structures to withstand earthquakes, warning of volcanic eruptions is better and people are better placed to do something about it.You could also argue, though, that the overall monetary cost to richer
2009 Philip Allan Updates

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populations is much higher as there is more to lose. You could develop this theme, showing how an earthquake in India does not have the same cost in financial terms as one, say, in Los Angeles In terms of loss of life and impact upon an areas economy, however, you would have to argue the opposite. Hazard events in poorer countries often have a long recovery period, with help needed from richer areas. If California, for example, suffers an earthquake, federal aid and other forms of help are almost always immediately available, but the effectiveness of this very much depends on the scale of the event.

Question 4
To what extent do you agree with the view that the hazards resulting from earthquakes and volcanic activity cannot be managed but merely adapted to.
(40 marks)

Appropriate content Appropriate content for a response to this question might include: I a review of the two geomorphological processes with some detailed description and explanation I the extent to which earthquakes and volcanic activity impact upon human affairs either intermittently or persistently I the scale of the processes and their role in the operation of wider natural systems I the potential for management I the potential to adapt to the processes, with risk acceptance being justifiable in certain contexts I management, in terms of levels of development, technical capacity, types of economy and cultural disposition Synopticity This could be achieved by some of the following: I a critical understanding of the processes that produce volcanic and earthquake hazard events and the context in which they are produced I understanding the frequency of events and how this impacts on populations I an understanding of the impacts of earthquake and volcanic events I a critical understanding of how such events can be prepared for and possibly managed I a critical understanding of the vulnerability of different peoples I an understanding of the ability of people to respond depending upon their levels of wealth, technical capacity and their cultural disposition I an understanding of the perception of risk taken by various peoples and how they respond given their perceptions I evidence of breadth/depth of case study material
The question clearly requires a discussion and the response should reach a view. Any conclusion can be credited as long as it is reasonable and related to the material under discussion.
e

Carefully read the above bullet points as they will give you a clear insight as to what is required when attempting an answer to this question. You should understand what management entails in the context of these hazards. It is difficult to act directly against a specific earthquake event, although preparation in earthquake-prone areas will save lives and infrastructure when an event happens. Volcanic activity cannot be prevented either, but warnings can be given to evacuate populations and people can act to control lava flows. Again, this depends upon the scale of the disaster.

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An overall conclusion will probably be that it is not really possible to manage these hazards in terms of trying to control or even stop them, but some techniques can mitigate the effects. You could also interpret the question as implying that people in some areas simply accept that the area is prone to such hazards and feel that, with some preparation, they can live with the situation.

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Weather and climate and associated hazards


Question 1
Figure 3 is a synoptic chart showing weather conditions for 12 00 hours GMT on a July day over north Africa, southern Europe and the middle east.
High
24 10
24 16 20 18 23 16 42 03 33 10 23 13 28 15 28 19 22 15 29 19 32 10

40N

0 102
26 19 29 15

27 16

29 14

40N
37 11 48 04 36 10

31 19

6 101

29 20

25 19 33 09 37 07 35 13

32 14 34 14

39 12

35 05 47 03

Low
39 27

1004

39 04

1012
24 21 37 05 37 16 26 21 26 24 19 19 28 23 25 23 25 20 29 22 30 22 41 15

44 06

Low
37 16 41 11 33 17

Tropic of Cancer

Low
41 06 41 02 27 17 21 11

29 22

30 23

1008

0 100
36 23

04 10
1008

101 2
25 23

27 19

28 23 28 24 24 18

1012 High
Equator

km

1,000

0
31 24

0 Dry bulb temperature Dew point

Figure 3 Synoptic chart

a Use Figure 3 to account for the differences in the weather in Africa between
the equator and the Tropic of Cancer.
(7 marks)

Mark scheme
Level 1 Simple and generalised statements that predominantly describe differences in the weather between the equator and the Tropic of Cancer. (14 marks) Level 2 More understanding here of the reasons why the weather in the area between the two locations differs. Expect reference to and understanding of at least two aspects of the weather for 7 marks. (57 marks)
e

The key here is to make sure that you refer to differences in terms of temperature (dry bulb and dew point), wind speeds, cloud conditions and humidity. Having described the differences you should then try to explain them in terms of the evidence given on the map.This will relate to differences in pressure and associated patterns of air movement.

b Explain why some climates within the tropics experience both a distinct wet
and dry season, yet others show very little seasonal variation.
(8 marks)

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Mark scheme
Level 1 Simple and generalised descriptive statements comparing the equatorial climate with one other tropical climate. A hint of understanding is displayed, most likely related to the angle of incidence of the sun, and its effect on temperatures within the tropics. (14 marks) Level 2 A clear answer which explains why seasonal differences in temperature, precipitation and/or wind direction occur further away from the Equator. An understanding of global pressure and circulation is conveyed. (58 marks)
e

This question requires an understanding of the variations in pressure patterns and winds in tropical regions.You should explain these variations with references to the following: I Close to the equator the climate shows uniformity throughout the year, often with little seasonal difference in temperature or precipitation. This is because this latitudinal belt lies under the influence of the doldrums low pressure all year round. I Tropical continental climates are experienced between 5 and 15N and S of the equator, mainly in Africa and east central South America. They are influenced by the trade winds and subtropical high pressure for part of the year (dry season) and low pressure when the ITCZ moves in line with the overhead sun for the rest of the year. I The tropical monsoon climate is experienced in some tropical latitudes, where seasonal wind patterns exert a huge influence on precipitation patterns. This climate is best developed over southeast Asia and northern Australia. For one season the winds blow from the sea to the land, bringing heavy rainfall, and for another season the source of the winds is from the land, giving little or no rain.

c Assess the possible effects of global warming on a tropical region you have
studied.
(10 marks)

Mark scheme
Level 1 Simple statements relating to one or more vague tropical region. No depth to the answer. Limited use of exemplification and/or sense of place. (14 marks) Level 2 Some detail and depth relating to one clearly defined climate type/region, with development of at least one of the listed bullet points below, including simple evaluation/assessment of the effect/s. (58 marks) Level 3 Fully developed answer, with sound assessment of at least two of the bullet points below relating to the stated climate. Locations used to elaborate are accurate. (910 marks)
e

Be clear in your identification of the chosen tropical region and relate the possible impacts of global warming to that area.The more specific your answer the better, but in general terms you should consider references to: I temperature change I precipitation levels (total amounts and variability) I impact on river discharge levels I sea level change I impact on biodiversity (fauna and flora) I impact on human activities The key command of the question is assess hence you should give an overview of the impact based on your previous argument.

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Question 2
Tables 1 and 2 show climate data for Greenwich, London, and Tenby, on the Welsh coast (19712000 averages).
Table 1 Greenwich, London (altitude 7 m) Month Max temp (C) 7.9 8.2 10.9 13.3 17.2 20.2 22.8 22.6 19.3 15.2 10.9 8.8 Min temp (C) 2.4 2.2 3.8 5.2 8.0 11.1 13.6 13.3 10.9 8.0 4.8 3.3 Days of air frost 7.4 7.4 2.9 1.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 3.0 6.9 Sunshine hours (hours) 45.9 66.1 103.2 147.0 185.4 180.6 190.3 194.4 139.2 109.7 60.6 37.8 Rainfall (mm) 51.9 34.0 42.0 45.2 47.2 53.0 38.3 47.3 56.9 61.5 52.3 54.0

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec

Table 2 Tenby, south Wales (altitude 5 m) Month Max temp (C) 8.5 8.0 9.7 11.7 14.8 17.3 19.5 19.3 17.1 14.2 11.2 9.5 Min temp (C) 3.1 2.8 3.8 4.7 7.4 9.9 12.0 11.8 10.3 8.3 5.3 4.0 Days of air frost 3.2 3.1 0.6 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 1.9 Sunshine hours (hours) 58.0 75.4 115.6 184.8 218.2 205.8 218.9 200.6 149.1 106.0 71.7 49.9 Rainfall (mm) 115.4 90.1 87.2 61.3 51.5 66.6 52.7 92.7 101.6 131.3 129.9 126.4

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec

a Describe and suggest reasons for the differences in the climates of Greenwich
and Tenby.
(7 marks)

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Mark scheme
Level 1 Straightforward description of climate differences with little attempt to use the values in support. Explanation is basic. (14 marks) Level 2 Clear description and explanation of climatic differences using values from the figures.Two or more aspects of the climate must be explained for full marks. (57 marks)
e

Note there are two commands for this question. You must respond clearly to both to access Level 2. In each case differences should form the focus of your answer. Differences should be identified in terms of temperature, days of air frost, sunshine hours and rainfall. Explanation could involve factors such as distance from the sea, location in a large urban area or otherwise (urban climate) and relative position within the UK (east versus west).

b Explain how the weather experienced in the British Isles is influenced by


its global position.
(8 marks)

Mark scheme
Level 1 Simple and generalised descriptive statements about the weather will be given with perhaps just a token explanation in relation to Britains latitude or coastal location. (14 marks) Level 2 A clear description and explanation of two or more aspects of the weather, showing good understanding of atmospheric processes. (58 marks)
e

A range of influences can be cited here: I Latitude The British Isles is located in the temperate mid-latitudes, roughly between 50 and 60N. Latitude has a strong influence on temperature. I Air masses Britain can be affected by polar or tropical air masses which will depress or raise temperatures. Additionally, when a continental air mass locates itself over Britain dry weather is the norm, but when a moist maritime air mass is located over the area, humidity is higher and precipitation occurs. I Ocean current The British Isles is located on the western margin of a major continent, under the influence of a warm ocean current. Its coastal location modifies both summer and winter temperatures because of the differential heat capacities of land and sea. Summer temperatures are lower than might be expected, winter temperatures higher. I Westerly winds affect precipitation as well as temperature. Subtropical and sub-polar air masses meet in these latitudes, giving rise to low-pressure weather systems and frequent precipitation.
(10 marks)

c Evaluate the influence of oceanic circulation on global climates. Mark scheme

Level 1 A simple appreciation of the influence of warm and cold ocean currents on climate. No depth to the (14 marks) answer and limited use of locations. Level 2 A clear answer, where a good understanding of the influence of oceanic circulation on global climates is demonstrated. One other influence, probably latitude, will be noted, but evaluation will be (58 marks) implicit. Level 3 More detailed knowledge and understanding of the factors influencing global climates, using locations is shown.The candidate is able to highlight the most important factors and understands (910 marks) that oceanic circulation is of lesser importance than other factors.

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Note the key command of this question evaluate. Your conclusion should give an overall statement of the role of ocean currents on global climates. The overriding influence on global climates is latitude, and distance from the sea/continentality is another important factor. Ocean currents do play a part, but this is relatively minor and is most marked on the western sides of continents. ENSO has an important influence on the climate of places bordering the Pacific Ocean, and the Gulf Stream influences the mid-latitudes on the west coast of the Atlantic Ocean.

Essay questions
The generic mark scheme for the essays is given on pages 56. Below is a summary of the requirements for a good answer to these questions. A key element is the need to demonstrate synopticity. Synoptic assessment is built into the mark scheme, and is loosely defined as folows: Synoptic assessment involves assessment of candidates ability to draw on their understanding of the connections between different aspects of the subject represented in the specification and demonstrate their ability to think like a geographer.

Question 3
Assess the impact on human activity of the weather associated with the varying air masses affecting the British Isles.
(40 marks)

Appropriate content Appropriate content for a response to this answer might include: I knowledge that the climate of the British Isles is influenced by several distinctive air masses, each bringing with it a range of weather conditions I detailed accounts of the weather associated with each of the arctic, polar maritime, polar continental, tropical maritime and tropical continental air masses I detailed accounts of the impacts of these weather patterns on human activity I references to examples of significant impact Synopticity Synopticity can be achieved by: I understanding the atmospheric processes associated with air masses from different geographical source regions I evidence of breadth/depth of case study material I understanding that some impacts of the weather are positive, others negative I assessment may compare the impacts of the weather associated with different air masses in the UK, a developed country, with those in a less developed country I there may be assessment of the impacts of different air masses on contrasting regions within the British Isles, e.g. a predominantly rural region compared with a predominantly urban region
This question requires an analytical approach. The answer should be broken down into its constituent parts, with an in-depth account given of each element. Any conclusion can be credited as long as it is reasonable and related to the preceding content and argument.
e

Carefully read the above bullet points as they will give you a clear insight as to what is required when attempting an answer to this question.You should have a clear idea of the concept of air masses and the varying weather patterns associated with them.Take note

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of the key command assess an overall assessment of the extent to which human activity is influenced by weather is required. A response to this command based on a thorough grasp of concepts and suitable and detailed case study material should allow you to access the upper levels of the mark scheme.

Question 4
Critically evaluate the extent to which economic activity can modify both weather patterns and climatic trends.
(40 marks)

Appropriate content Appropriate content for a response to this answer might include: I knowledge that urbanisation and the development of megacities have had a marked effect on the weather in such built-up areas; for example, temperature (the heat island effect), precipitation (increased frequency and intensity, fogs and thunderstorms), wind (speed, direction and frequency), air quality ( particulate pollution and photochemical smog) I an evaluation of the extent of variation in urban climates in relation to city size/area/ population/location/level of economic development I references to climate change: global warming in recent decades has been blamed on human activity in particular the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation; some may debate whether the evidence points towards human activity causing recent changes to global climates or indeed whether global warming is a natural event, or they might choose to disagree with the evidence altogether Synopticity Synopticity emerges with the following: I evidence in the breadth/depth of supporting case study material I detailed critical understanding of the differentiation between weather and climate and the varying levels of impacts in the developing and more developed parts of the world I recognition of the complexity of the issue of global warming and some recognition of the debate around the issue I an awareness of the interrelationships of the various aspects covered in the question
This question requires an evaluative approach and the response should reach a view. Any conclusion can be credited as long as it is reasonable and related to the preceding content and argument.
e

Carefully read the above bullet points as they will give you a clear insight as to what is required when attempting an answer to this question.You should have a clear idea of the concept of weather and climate modification and the varying weather patterns associated with human economic activity. Take note of the key command critically evaluate an overall evaluation of the extent to which human activity can modify weather/climate is required. A response to this command based on a thorough grasp of concepts and suitable and detailed case study material should allow you to access the upper levels of the mark scheme.

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Ecosystems: change and challenge


Question 1
Figure 4 is a kite diagram illustrating the results of vegetation quadrat sampling along a sand and shingle ridge in south Devon.
50 Pioneer species 0 50 Maritime specialists 0 50 Meadow plants 0 50 Shrubs 0 50 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Station number along transect Seaward Landward Percentage of vegetation sampled at each station

Figure 4 Kite diagram showing the results of vegetation sampling, south Devon

a Describe and suggest reasons for the changes shown in Figure 4. Mark scheme

(7 marks)

Level 1 Simple and generalised statements that describe how species change inland, with only limited explanation offered, most likely along the lines of conditions becoming less harsh inland from the (14 marks) sea. No precise use of the kite diagram. Level 2 Clear description of the changes in both extent and variety of species inland, demonstrating an understanding of why these changes occur.The answer may show knowledge of particular species within seres, or there may be use of per cent values determined from the kite diagram. (57 marks)
e

Note there are two commands for this question,describe and suggest reasons, and that both commands must be responded to clearly to access Level 2. In each case changes should form the focus of your answer. Differences should be identified in terms of distance from the sea, species variation and relative proportions of shrubs. Explanation could involve factors such as soil quality, nutrient levels, soil moisture levels and plant succession processes.

b Examine the circumstances under which succession towards climatic climax


can be arrested.
(8 marks)

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Mark scheme
Level 1 A basic response that describes either a plagioclimax or a secondary succession in vague terms.There may be some confusion in the definitions. (14 marks) Level 2 The response demonstrates clear knowledge and understanding of either a plagioclimax, a secondary succession or both.There may be reference to accurate examples or locations. (58 marks)
e

Plant successions can be stopped from reaching the climatic climax, or deflected towards a different climax, by human interference. The resulting vegetation is known as a plagioclimax. Examples of human activity that create plagioclimaxes are: I deforestation or afforestation I animal grazing or trampling I fire clearance A secondary succession is a succession that develops on land that has previously been vegetated. For example, an area might have been cleared for farming, but later abandoned. This abandoned land becomes colonised in a secondary succession. Secondary succession can also follow natural events such as a change in climate, a disease, a mudflow, a volcanic eruption or a spontaneous fire, which can be the result of lightning. You should refer to a range of the above in order to access the higher level.

c Analyse the factors that are most responsible for variations in biodiversity
at a global scale.
(10 marks)

Mark scheme
Level 1 Simple statements concentrating on the impact of different types of habitat in relation to the number and type of animal and plant species. Over-reliance on one biome, such as the tropical rainforest. (14 marks) Level 2 Some detail and depth relating to one factor, most likely climate, in relation to at least two biomes. (58 marks) Level 3 Fully developed answer, with good elaboration of both physical and human influences using (910 marks) accurate locations in relation to the biomes stated.
e

Climate is the overriding factor as it has an important influence on soil type and vegetation. These three factors combined have the greatest impact globally on biodiversity. Tropical rainforest and monsoon forest are high-energy biomes but the savanna grasslands have a lower net primary productivity (NPP). All biomes, regardless of which continent they occur on, show similarities in climate, soils, plants and animal life. Lowenergy biomes are the tundra in the high latitudes and the hot deserts in the low latitudes. Here, the vegetation is scant and NPP is low, biodiversity among animals, birds and insects is lower because there is less food available for the herbivores, and this has an effect on the higher trophic levels.The greatest biodiversity exists within the tropical rainforests half the worlds gene pool is thought to exist there.Tropical rainforests have been stable ecosystems for up to 100 million years and, until recently, have continued to gain new species in their undisturbed state. Human activity has greatly depleted biodiversity in some biomes; deforestation of the rainforests and of the tropical monsoon forests provides a good example of this. In more

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developed countries (e.g. the UK) very little of the natural vegetation remains and so biodiversity has been affected greatly. In some more extreme latitudes the natural environment has been less affected by human activity. The introduction of alien species, usually initiated by human activity, has had an enormous impact on biodiversity in some areas. Ensure that you give an overall analysis of a range of factors to access the highest level of response.

Question 2
Figure 5(a) and (b) demonstrates seasonal differences in the nutrient cycle for a deciduous wood in England.
(a) Late autumn (b) Late spring

Biomass Biomass

Litter

Litter

Stores Soil Transfers

Soil

Figure 5 The nutrient cycle

a Identify and comment on the seasonal variations in nutrient cycling between


late autumn and late spring.
(7 marks)

Mark scheme
Level 1 Description predominantly of differences in the three stores between the seasons, expect reference to one of the transfers using an accurate term for 4 marks. (14 marks) Level 2 Accurate description of the relative sizes of all three transfers and stores.The most effective responses will also show knowledge of inputs and outputs. (57 marks)
e

You should provide a description of the relative sizes of the stores, and demonstrate an understanding of the terms biomass, litter and soil. You should also comment on the comparative size of the transfer flows as they change seasonally.The best responses will also show an understanding of inputs and outputs (not shown on the diagrams), for example runoff and leaching are likely to be greater outside of the growing season, in late autumn, and weathering more rapid during spring.

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b Suggest reasons for the variations identified in (a). Mark scheme

(8 marks)

Level 1 Predominantly basic reasons why there are changes in relative sizes of the stores; it is unlikely that the correct terminology for transfers will be used. Basic explanation might be offered, perhaps an understanding of why leaf fall occurs during the autumn. (14 marks) Level 2 Clear understanding why differences in both stores and transfers occur between the seasons.There may be more precise use of detail, e.g. temperature values might be used to explain the start of the growing season. (58 marks)
e

This question focuses on reasons only. There are a number of reasons for the changes, which are linked to seasonal variations in the influence of the following: I temperatures: having an impact on both leaf coverage and rates of decomposition I the activity of soil fauna such as earthworms I the rates of growth of vegetation and the associated uptake of nutrients by vegetation I the relative rates of weathering physical and chemical A good answer will show the links between these factors.

c Evaluate the success of conservation measures in relation to one or more


fragile ecosystems you have studied.
(10 marks)

Mark scheme
Level 1 The response is likely to give a generalised description of conservation strategies, such as the creation of National Parks or other types of protected area within a general environment, such as a rainforest.There will be little or no attempt to evaluate the success of conservation measures. (14 marks) Level 2 Some detail and depth relating to one clearly defined fragile environment, with development of at least one conservation strategy, including simple evaluation/assessment of the effectiveness of this. (58 marks) Level 3 Fully developed answer, with sound assessment of the success of conservation measures relating to the fragile environment. Locations used to elaborate are accurate. (910 marks)
e

You should be sure of the meaning of the two key terms of this question: I conservation the protection and possible enhancement of natural environments to ensure their survival for future use I fragile environment one that is easily disturbed and difficult to restore once destroyed According to the United Nations, fragile environments include arid and semi-arid areas, mountainous areas, polar locations, freshwater and intertidal wetlands, rainforests and coral reefs. Many are regional in scope, transcending national boundaries; others are at a smaller scale in isolated and fragmented pockets. You should ensure that you clearly outline and describe the conservation measures that have taken place in your chosen area(s), and express a judgement as to whether or not they have been successful.

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Essay questions
The generic mark scheme for the essays is given on pages 56. Below is a summary of the requirements for a good answer to these questions. A key element is the need to demonstrate synopticity. Synoptic assessment is built into the mark scheme, and is loosely defined as follows: Synoptic assessment involves assessment of candidates ability to draw on their understanding of the connections between different aspects of the subject represented in the specification and demonstrate their ability to think like a geographer.

Question 3
With reference to one tropical biome, evaluate the role and extent of human activities in modifying its characteristics. (40 marks)

Appropriate content Appropriate content for a response to this answer might include: I an outline of the main characteristics of the biome, in terms of climate, vegetation, soils and biodiversity I a discussion of a range of human activities in the biome, which will depend upon the biome selected; deforestation is likely to be a common theme, as are settlement/agricultural land use and conservation I an exploration of the impact of climate change caused by human activity on the biome would also be relevant, which is likely to be evaluated as having an impact throughout the entire biome Synopticity Synopticity emerges with the following: I contrasts in human activity in relation to levels of economic development between regions/countries located within the biome I evidence of breadth/depth of case study material used in support I detailed critical understanding of the impact of at least one human activity on the biome I clear distinction between the role of human activities and the extent to which human activity modifies the chosen biome
This question requires an evaluative approach and the response should reach a view. Any conclusion is creditable as long as it is reasonable and related to the preceding content and argument.
e

Carefully read the above bullet points to get a clear insight into what is required when attempting an answer to this question. You should have a clear idea of the concept of vegetation change resulting from human activity, and be aware that the question requires a discussion of both role and extent.Take note of the key command evaluate an overall evaluation of the extent to which human activity can modify vegetation characteristics is required. A response to this command based on a thorough grasp of concepts and suitable and detailed case study material should allow you to access the upper levels of the mark scheme.

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Question 4
Discuss the relative importance of physical and human factors in accounting for changes to vegetation over time in one or more ecosystems you have studied in the British Isles. (40 marks)

Appropriate content Appropriate content for a response to this answer might include: I the factors causing succession towards climatic climax of a range of plant communities found in the British Isles, including at least one of lithosere, psammosere, hydrosere or halosere I the characteristics of the climatic climax community, the temperate deciduous woodland biome and the extent to which this has been modified; there might be some understanding of regional differences in the biome, e.g. the types of location where ash is the dominant species rather than oak I the human factors affecting plant successions: secondary succession and plagioclimax I changes to ecosystems resulting from urbanisation, colonisation of wasteland; the development of distinctive ecologies along routeways and in the urbanrural fringe I the impact of conservation in a variety of settings: urban and rural, and natural environments such as sand dunes Synopticity Synopticity emerges with the following: I an understanding of both physical and human factors in relation to changes in plant communities over time, either short or long term I awareness of the interrelationships between physical and human factors I use of detailed case study support (breadth and depth) from contrasting ecosystems, manmade and natural I evaluative comments relating to the relative importance of physical and human factors over the short and long term
The question clearly requires a discussion approach and the response should reach a view regarding relative importance of the two factors. Any conclusion can be credited as long as it is reasonable and related to the material under discussion.
e

Carefully read the above bullet points as they will give you a clear insight as to what is required when attempting an answer to this question.You should have a clear idea of the concept of vegetation change resulting from both physical and natural causes as well as from human activities.Take note of the key command discuss an overall statement of relative importance of the two factors is required. A response to this command based on a thorough grasp of concepts and suitable and detailed case study material should allow you to access the upper levels of the mark scheme.

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World cities
Question 1
a Study Figure 6 which shows the global distribution of two types of city.
Du Am sse ste ldo rda rf H lan m am Zu ric bu h Ro Mu St rg Be me nic rlin ockh h o Co lm pe nh ag en

Minneapolis

Toronto Montreal Boston London Paris

Moscow

Beijing Shanghai Hong Kong Bangkok

Seoul Tokyo Osaka Taipei

San Chicago New York Francisco Washington Los Atlanta Angeles Dallas Miami Houston Mexico City Caracas So Paulo

Warsaw

Brussels

Frankfurt

Prague

Geneva Madrid
Ba rce lon

Budapest

Manila Kuala Lumpur Jakarta

Mi

Istanbul

Singapore

Sydney Santiago Buenos Aires Johannesburg Melbourne

World cities

Other important cities

Figure 6 World cities and other important cities, 2005

Describe and comment on the distribution of the two types of city shown in Figure 6.

(7 marks)

Mark scheme
Level 1 Simple listing of cities by continent; recognition that there are variations in the totals of cities by continent. Basic recognition of types of city shown and their distribution. Commentary is lacking or simplistic. (14 marks) Level 2 Commentary that reflects on the distributions shown that may suggest some contributory factor, e.g. level of development. Critical comments on the data shown. Overall a more sophisticated response. (57 marks)
e

Answers to this type of data stimulus question fall into two categories. The simple and low-level response is to lift the data and put them into words. Examiners refer to this as data waffle. The key to a higher-level response is to respond to the higher level command comment on. Any valid and appropriate comment will be rewarded, especially if it is supported by evidence from the figure and/or your own knowledge. It is also valid to critically comment on the data are all of the important cities in Asia named?

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b With reference to one or more examples, describe how urban growth can
cause social and economic problems in urban areas.
(8 marks)

Mark scheme
Level 1 Generalised account of problems that could refer to the growth of any city in the world. Problems tend to be listed simplistically rather than dealt with in depth; or discussion of one, or one type of, problem only. (14 marks) Level 2 More than one problem discussed. Specific statements relating to a named city/urban area access this level. Answers are detailed, have depth and are more sophisticated. Higher mark responses should refer to both social and economic problems. (58 marks)
e

The key to a good answer to this type of question is to respond to the opening clause of the question:With reference to one or more examples. Weaker responses tend not to note this and give very generalised answers which could refer to a wide range of cities in the world. At A-level, depth and detail are paramount, together with a clear sense of place. Note that both social and economic problems are required for maximum credit, though you will access the lower end of Level 2 for just one. Also note that there is no requirement for any particular type of city you can refer to cities at any stage along the development continuum.

c Discuss the attempts by planners to reduce the impact of cities on the


physical environment.
(10 marks)

Mark scheme
Level 1 Limited knowledge and understanding of how planners have attempted to reduce the impact of cities on the physical environment. Cause and effect are not well understood and there is limited use of examples. Limited analysis of the attempts by planners to reduce the impact of cities on the physical environment. (14 marks) Level 2 Some knowledge and understanding of how planners have attempted to reduce the impact of cities on the physical environment. Cause and effect are understood and some examples are given. Some analysis of the attempts by planners to reduce the impact of cities on the physical environment. Limited (if any) evaluation. (58 marks) Level 3 Detailed knowledge and understanding of how planners have attempted to reduce the impact of cities on the physical environment. Cause and effect are well understood, and there is effective use of detailed examples. Clear analysis and effective evaluation of the attempts by planners to reduce the (910 marks) impact of cities on the physical environment.
e

Planning attempts aimed at reducing the impact of cities on the physical environment include: I controls on air pollution, especially from motor vehicles I recycling waste and reductions in solid waste going to landfill I reclamation of derelict land I tackling traffic congestion I the development of sustainable cities As stated in the mark scheme, the key is to provide both depth and detail of a range of management strategies, with good use of case studies. To gain the highest level, some statement of success or otherwise should be given.

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Question 2
a Study Photograph 1 which shows an out-of-town retailing area in the UK.
Bluewater

Photograph 1 Out-of-town retailing

Describe and comment on the characteristic features of this retail park.

(7 marks)

Mark scheme
Level 1 Two characteristic features identified and described, or simple listing of features from the photograph. Commentary is lacking or simplistic. (14 marks) Level 2 More than two characteristics identified and described. Commentary that relates to the features identified. Overall a more sophisticated response. (57 marks)
e

When answering a question introduced by the words Study Photograph, you must refer to the actual photograph given.You are told that the place in the photograph is an out-of-town retailing area so your comments should bear this in mind. However, your initial starting point should be features that can be seen rather than those that could be there or are at a similar centre you studied.

b Suggest reasons for the decentralisation of retailing and other services. Mark scheme

(8 marks)

Level 1 Generalised statements of reasons that could apply to the growth of any out of town location, or the decline of a CBD area. Reasons tend to be stated simplistically. Development of one reason only. (14 marks) Level 2 Development of more than one reason. As more reasons are developed and elaborated upon the (58 marks) answer moves up through the mark range.
e

This question does not ask for references to named examples and hence maximum credit can be awarded for a purely theoretical answer. However, as the question requires reasons more than one reason should be given. To access Level 2, some degree of development is required this could take the form of a more sophisticated account or it could involve the use of case studies. Hence there are two ways to access the higher level of credit.
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c With reference to at least one example, discuss the impact of the redevelopment
of urban centres.
(10 marks)

Mark scheme
Level 1 Limited knowledge and understanding of the impact of redevelopment of urban centres. Cause and effect are not well understood and there is limited use of examples. Limited analysis of the impact of redevelopment. (14 marks) Level 2 Some knowledge and understanding of the impact of redevelopment of urban centres. Cause and effect are understood and some examples are given. Some analysis of the impact of redevelopment. Limited (if any) evaluation. (58 marks) Level 3 Detailed knowledge and understanding of the impact of redevelopment of urban centres. Cause and effect are well understood, and there is effective use of detailed examples. Clear analysis and effective (910 marks) evaluation of the impact.
e

A number of strategies have been devised to redevelop urban centres, including: I the provision of a more attractive shopping environment with pedestrianisation, new street furniture, floral displays, paving and landscaping I the construction of all-weather shopping malls which often have integral low-cost parking I the encouragement of specialist areas, such as attractive open street markets, cultural quarters, themed areas and arcades I the improvement of public transport links to the heart of the CBD, including rapid transit systems, park-and-ride schemes and shopper buses I the encouragement of a wider range of leisure facilities, including caf bars, restaurants, music venues I the encouragement of residential activities to return to city centres, by providing flats to rent above shops, redeveloping old buildings (a form of gentrification) or building new up-market apartments As stated in the mark scheme, the key here is to provide both depth and detail of a range of redevelopment strategies with good use being made of case studies. To gain the highest level, some statement of success or otherwise should be given.

Essay questions
The generic mark scheme for these essays is given on pages 56. Below is a summary of the requirements for a good answer to these questions. A key element is the need to demonstrate synopticity. Synoptic assessment is built into the mark scheme, and is loosely defined as follows: Synoptic assessment involves assessment of candidates ability to draw on their understanding of the connections between different aspects of the subject represented in the specification and demonstrate their ability to think like a geographer.

Question 3
With reference to either waste management or transport management in urban areas, assess the extent to which it is possible to achieve increased levels of sustainability. (40 marks)

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Appropriate content Appropriate content for a response to this question might include: I a description of the chosen urban issue and how it impacts on identified affected areas I a definition of the term sustainability I an outline of the solutions/management strategies adopted in an identified area(s) I a comparison between contrasting cities in countries along the development continuum Synopticity This could be achieved by: I evidence in the breadth/depth of case study material I detailed critical understanding of the issue identified I detailed critical understanding of the management of the issue identified I a recognition of the importance of values and attitudes, and of the role of decision makers I evaluative comments as to whether sustainability can be achieved/increased
The question requires a discursive approach and the response should reach an overall view. Any conclusion can be credited as long as it is reasonable and related to the preceding content and argument.
e

Carefully read the above bullet points as they will give you a clear insight as to what is required when attempting an answer to this question.You should have a clear idea of the concept of sustainability and what this entails in the context of your chosen issue. The question refers to increased levels of sustainability this implies change. You must therefore be sure of the current state of affairs and what strategies can be put in place to change this situation. Make sure you take note of the key command assess an overall assessment of the extent to which change can be produced, and the degree of that change, is required. A response to this command based on a thorough grasp of concepts and suitable and detailed case study material should allow you to access the upper levels of the mark scheme.

Question 4
With reference to examples, discuss the overall effectiveness of urban regeneration schemes.
(40 marks)

Appropriate content Appropriate content for a response to this question might include: I a description of the issues facing areas identified prior to regeneration I a definition of the term urban regeneration I a discussion of at least one urban regeneration scheme and of how such schemes impact on the affected areas identified I a comparison of the different strategies adopted by identified areas Synopticity This could be achieved by: I evidence in the breadth/depth of case-study material I detailed critical understanding of the problems facing the areas identified I detailed critical understanding of the regeneration strategies in the areas identified I a recognition of the importance of values and attitudes, and of the role of decision makers I evaluative comments as to whether the schemes are/were successful
The question requires a discursive approach and the response should reach an overall view. Any conclusion can be credited as long as it is reasonable and related to the preceding content and argument.

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Carefully read the above bullet points as they will give you a clear insight as to what is required when attempting an answer to this question. The great majority of urban regeneration schemes have a positive effect on the social, economic and environmental aspects of the areas affected. Indeed, in the more modern schemes most of these go hand in hand they are deliberately integrated. However, not everyone agrees on the relative effectiveness and/or success of each of these elements, nor of the scheme in total. You should examine the rationale and methodology of at least two urban regeneration schemes and comment on their success. A good discussion should highlight both the positive and negative elements of the schemes selected. Remember, it is important that you reach a conclusion based upon the evidence you have presented in your essay.

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Development and globalisation


Question 1
a Study Figure 7 which shows the GNP per capita for most countries in 2006.

GNP per capita ($US) 10,00190,000 2,50110,000 5012,500 0500 No data

Figure 7 Map showing GNP per capita, 2006

Describe the pattern shown on this map. To what extent does it justify the division of the world into rich North/poor South one way of showing the development gap?

(7 marks)

Mark scheme
Level 1 Basic material with regard to pattern. Says only that it reflects a development gap, with high GNP countries to the north and low GNP countries to the south. (14 marks) Level 2 Recognises that there are aspects of the pattern other than simply rich areas/poor areas, e.g. great variety within Africa/Middle East. Attempts to answer question by addressing to what extent, seeing the more negative points given above. (57 marks)
e

The first section requires that you do more than just state which areas have high GNP and which areas have low figures. Point out where there are quite wide variations in one area, for example Africa. For the second section, you must address the to what extent command by looking both at positive aspects, which justify the division, and more negative points where it is not so clear. Remember that Australia and New Zealand are not anomalies, they are counted as being in the North.

b What are the characteristics of the countries which make up the group
known as least developed countries (countries at a low level of economic development).
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Mark scheme
Level 1 Straightforward statements, very much a list of characteristics, e.g. low GNP, low literacy, low life expectancy, low levels of calorie intake, etc. (14 marks) Level 2 Recognises that the characteristics can be placed into categories, such as economic, social, political. Links made between some of the problems listed above, such as lack of capital leading to poor education and health services giving low life expectancy and low levels of literacy. Puts in some detail such as figures, and may back up material with examples. (58 marks)
e

Answers to questions on characteristics can easily become a list of those features.To access higher marks you must recognise that characteristics can be categorised and details are essential.For example, do not just state low GNP, but give some figure (under $800 is given in the textbook). Also, try to link some characteristics, e.g. the low level of economic diversification which itself is based upon the low share of manufacturing in the GNP.

c Discuss the ways in which the countries known as NICs have rapidly transformed
their economies in recent years.
(10 marks)

Mark scheme
Level 1 Concentrates on rapid industrialisation and the role of TNCs. Little detail and examples are little more than a simple e.g. (14 marks) Level 2 Recognises that stages exist and that different reasons exist for the growth. Is able to identify countries from the various stages, but stops at the India/China stage. More detail on the role of TNCs. (58 marks) Level 3 Clear answer showing the progressive growth of NICs and the different ways in which they gained a better economy. Recognises that there is a stage based on new markets and technologies. Good and accurate use of exemplar material. (910 marks)
e

There are various reasons for the growth of NICs and you should be able to set this material in the stages given in the textbook. Remember that although the question does not mention examples, such material should form part of your answer at the higher levels (and should be more than e.g. Malaysia). Good comparisons of the different paths followed by these countries will form part of the discussion asked for in the question wording.

Question 2
a Study Figure 8, which shows the distribution of Toyota manufacturing plants outside
Japan and the companys worldwide production in 2004. Toyota is an automobile manufacturer which started life in Japan. Describe and attempt to explain the world distribution of Toyota plants and production as shown on Figure 8. (7 marks)

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North America (1,444,000)

TMEM Technical Division Europe (583,000) Toyota Technical Center (USA) Toyota Europe Design Development

Toyota Motorsports

Asia (647,000)

Toyota Technical Center, China (Tianjin)

Calty Design Research

Middle east & southwest Asia (70,000) Africa (109,000) Toyota Technical Center, Asia Pacific (Thailand)

Latin America & the Caribbean (80,000)

Manufacturing plant R&D centre (1,444,000) Vehicles produced, 2004

Oceania 110,000

Toyota Technical Center, Asia Pacific (Australia)

Figure 8 Distribution of Toyota manufacturing plants outside Japan and worldwide production, 2004

Mark scheme
Level 1 Simple statements with regard to distribution. Explanations are little more than production in home country followed by a need for Toyota to produce where it sells (i.e. its markets). (14 marks) Level 2 Detailed statements with regard to distribution, particularly with regard to technical centres. Explains in detail why plants are scattered, such as reduced taxation and subsidies and grants. Sees peculiarities of local markets requiring specialised R&D. (57 marks)
e

At Level 1, this is a simple distribution exercise.To reach the higher level marks you do not need to know anything about Toyota. Assume that it behaves in the same way in which other companies operate, i.e. it has markets where it manufactures, it moves to take advantage of tax concessions and grants/subsidies, it requires local R&D for local market conditions. These are the possible explanations asked for in the question.

b What can be the effects in the donor (home) country when transnational
companies move their investment to other countries?
(8 marks)

Mark scheme
Level 1 Straightforward statements referring to unemployment, poorer areas and on the positive side, more money. Answer mainly stresses the downside of the move in terms of the donor country. (14 marks) Level 2 More detail on the material, particularly with reference to the downward spiral. Much more detail on the movement of capital back to the donor country. (58 marks)
e

Remember, to reach Level 2 credit you must put detail on your statements. For example, do not simply state that money from profits is returned, but show in detail how it is returned via share dividends and to the government through company taxation. Another good Level 2 point would relate to unemployment, where you should show that it is not only the main industry that is affected but also component and service suppliers (when a factory closes, it is said that other companies are affected, even including those who supply clean towels to the washrooms and those supplying pies to the canteen; this is part of the downward spiral mentioned in the mark scheme).
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c Discuss the role of transnational companies in the development of the global


economy.
(10 marks)

Mark scheme
Level 1 Simple statements commenting on the importance of TNCs across the world without developing their role in the global economy. (14 marks) Level 2 Clear statements with a precise picture of how TNCs operate across the world and their importance in the global economy. Good use of case study material to exemplify points. (58 marks) Level 3 Clear discussion of the global economy and of the role of TNCs in it. Good and accurate use of (910 marks) exemplar material.
e

The discussion should centre on assessing the role of TNCs in the global economy. Be sure to translate the idea of the importance of TNCs into that role. For the highest marks you must write something about the global economy and place TNCs into that discussion. As before, work exemplar material into your answer.

Essay questions
The generic mark scheme for these essays is given on pages 56. Below is a summary of the requirements for a good answer to these questions. A key element is the need to demonstrate synopticity. Synoptic assessment is built into the mark scheme, and is loosely defined as follows: Synoptic assessment involves assessment of candidates ability to draw on their understanding of the connections between different aspects of the subject represented in the specification and demonstrate their ability to think like a geographer.

Question 3
Discuss the varying roles of (a) the promotion of trade and (b) the provision of aid, as approaches in the efforts to raise living standards in the poorest countries of the world.

(40 marks)

Appropriate content Appropriate content for a response to this question might include: I the problems of the poorest countries which need to be addressed I the benefits of trade such as increases in the amount of wealth being generated, allowing an increase in living standards I the belief that countries should go through a process of industrialisation (just like those in the North); this would allow more trade, increasing the revenue flowing into the country I the doubts, expressed by some economists, that many of these countries cannot be competitive as they have too many problems such as HIV/AIDS, internal conflicts and climatic problems, e.g. drought I the main systems of international aid and how they work I the argument that aid does not always get to where it is needed and it is often not used effectively I aid dependency and aid with strings

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Synopticity This could emerge with some of the following: I a critical understanding of the extent of the problems of developing countries and how it is possible to resolve them in general terms I a critical understanding of how trade works in a global context I a critical review of the arguments for and against trade as a solution to problems in developing countries, particularly considering the factors on which success will be based (adoption of capitalism, the trickling down of wealth, promotion of free trade) I an understanding of the provision of aid I a critical review of aid, involving both donors and recipients I evidence of breadth/depth of exemplar material
The question clearly requires a discussion and the response should reach a view of the effectiveness of the two approaches. Any conclusion can be credited as long as it is measured and reasonable, and related to the content of the answer.
e

Your starting point in answering the question is your knowledge of how both trade and aid work in attempting to raise the living standards of the worlds poorest people. This becomes the positive side of the answer, the negative being the views of those people who disagree. Such views are important, as there are many economists who believe that the problems of these countries are so severe that neither trade nor aid will have much effect.There are examples of countries that are trying to improve their economies, often through a mixture of both systems, and you should use such exemplar material to help reach some conclusion as to which could work. Remember, it is important that you reach a conclusion based upon the evidence you have presented in your essay.

Question 4
Can sustainable development ever be achieved?
(40 marks)

Appropriate content Appropriate content for a response to this question might include: I the meaning of the term sustainable development I environmental objectives in terms of sustainability I the concept of economic sustainability I the Rio Earth Summit environmental principles I the Rio Earth Summit economic principles I knowledge of the three sustainability pillars environment, society and economy I the environmentalists view of sustainability: the reduction of human impact on the Earths resources and environmental services to a sustainable level Synopticity This could emerge with some of the following: I a critical understanding of the term sustainable development I a critical judgement of environmental objectives against economic ideals I a critical understanding of the principles set out at the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio I a critical understanding of environmental impact assessments (EIA) I a critical understanding of the World Summits 2005 (New York) declarations on pillars of sustainability and the implications of such declarations I an understanding of the environmental sustainability index I evidence of breadth/depth of exemplar material, particularly with reference to the above index

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As a question has been asked, your material must answer that question, even if your answer is qualified. Any reasonable conclusion is acceptable as long as it is measured and related to the content of the answer (which, of course, has to be accurate).
e

Although this is a straightforward question, you have to draw on a lot of material to produce a credible answer. The main issue is between economic and environmental principles. Environmentalists emphasise the global environment as the ecological and material basis of human existence that is progressively degraded. Many see the human race on a road of self-destruction and demand a reduction of the human impact upon the resources and environment to a sustainable level, without full consideration of the social and economic dimensions needed to achieve this. If you base your conclusions around such ideas, your answer will be rewarded in the upper levels of the mark scheme.

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Contemporary conflicts and challenges


Question 1
a Study Figure 9, which shows the global pattern of internet users.
19.1 5.4 15.2 17.9 9.0 5.2 11.6 15.8 14.8 6.5 26.9

6.6

135.7

10.6 8.1 Top 15 nations (numbers show millions of users) Internet use growing Internet use rare

Figure 9 Global pattern of internet users, 2007

Describe the pattern of internet use as shown in Figure 9 and comment on the extent to which the information can be used to indicate poverty around the world.

(7 marks)

Mark scheme
Level 1 Simple description of the pattern of internet use around the world, with statements concentrating on continental distributions. Commentary is simplistic. (14 marks) Level 2 More detailed description of the pattern, for example recognition of anomalies and/or variation in totals. Commentary is more sophisticated demonstrating greater understanding. (57 marks)
e

As with any question requiring the description of a distribution or pattern, the key is to identify broad trends but also to recognise anomalies to those trends.The lowest level of response is to give a Cooks tour of where certain levels of use are in certain countries. The commentary aspect of the question lends itself to statements such as low income levels leading to low use, but the low levels in eastern Europe may be due to other factors such as access.

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b Outline the causes of poverty in the world. Mark scheme

(8 marks)

Level 1 Simple and generalised statements of causes of poverty (i.e. of process), with no depth or detail. Specific locations are not given. (14 marks) Level 2 Specific causes of specific aspects/areas of poverty access this level, with good use being made of (58 marks) case studies and/or good development of one or more factors.
e

This question does not ask for references to named examples, and hence maximum credit can be awarded for a purely theoretical answer. However, as the question requires causes, more than one cause should be given. To access Level 2, some degree of development is required this could take the form of a more sophisticated account, or it could involve the use of case studies. Hence there are two ways to access the higher level of credit.

c Discuss how poverty has been addressed on a global scale. Include the work
of the United Nations in your answer.
(10 marks)

Mark scheme
Level 1 Simple statements of how an organisation/agency has addressed the issue. No depth to answer, mostly generalisations. Limited use of exemplification and/or sense of place. (14 marks) Level 2 Some detail and depth for one type of response from one agency/organisation. Good development of the impact of that response in one area of the world, with perhaps some evaluation of impact. (58 marks) Level 3 Fully developed answer, with good elaboration of more than one response from an agency/organisation (which must include the UN). Rounded answer with a range of responses discussed and/or evaluated. (910 marks)
e

Poverty has been addressed on a global scale by the work of many groups and organisations: I the United Nations through its Millennium Development Goals programme I supranational bodies such as the World Bank through their top-downapproach using large capital projects I charitable organisations, e.g. Oxfam, Save the Children through their work in bottomup projects, often involving appropriate (or intermediate) technology The question requires some knowledge of the above, and to gain the highest level the work of the UN has to be identified. However, it is possible to gain a good mark by discussing the work of any other agency or organisation. As suggested in the mark scheme, the key here is to provide both depth and detail of a range of strategies for addressing poverty (at least two) with good use being made of case studies.To gain the highest level, some statement of success or otherwise should be given.

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Question 2
a Study Figure 10, which shows the percentage of people living in Great Britain who
were born in the UK by ethnic group (2001).
White British White Irish Other white Mixed Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Other Asian Black Caribbean Black African Other black Chinese Other ethnic group 0 20 40 60 80 100 % All ethnic groups

Source: National Statistics

Figure 10 People living in Great Britain who were born in the UK: by ethnic group, April 2001

Describe and comment on the information shown.

(7 marks)

Mark scheme
Level 1 Simple lifting of figures from the diagram with the use of high/low statements to illustrate basic understanding. No comparison of information, nor commentary that is meaningful. (14 marks) Level 2 More sophisticated description of the data, with perhaps some classification.Valid and appropriate commentary that arises from the data. (57 marks)
e

The information presented in Figure 10 examines ethnicity from a slightly different viewpoint. It highlights those born in the UK by ethnic group, and although it shows that white British are overwhelmingly born in the UK, it also shows that more than half of black Caribbean and Pakistani people are too. This is perhaps due to the presence of second- and third-generation immigrants.The proportion of white Irish and other white (French, Australian?) born in the UK is low, much lower than Bangadeshi and Indian people. It is this mismatch with general viewpoints that could form the basis of valid commentary as required by the question. Be sure to examine such data with an investigative eye.

b With reference to examples, describe and explain the roles of identity,


culture and ideology in generating conflict.
(8 marks)

Mark scheme
Level 1 Simplistic statements that are generalised and lacking in depth of understanding.There is no real attempt to introduce geographical examples of where different reasons for conflict exist. (14 marks) Level 2 More sophisticated comments on the origins of conflict (covering at least two of the factors).There is a clear attempt to support the argument with references to locations and places. (58 marks)

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The key to a good answer to this type of question is to make sure you respond to the opening clause of the question itself:With reference to examples. Weaker responses do not note this and give very generalised answers which could refer to a wide range of areas in the world. At A-level depth and detail are paramount, together with a clear sense of place. Note that a range of factors (identity, culture and ideology) is stated in the question in order to give you some choice as to which you develop. A minimum of two would be required for the higher level, though for maximum marks some reference to all three factors would be required.

c With reference to one recent major international conflict, discuss the impact
of the conflict on the environment of the area affected.
(10 marks)

Mark scheme
Level 1 Simple statements of impact, which are generalised and non-specific to identified conflict, e.g. land is mined, farming land is destroyed. (14 marks) Level 2 Detailed statements of impact with a clear sense of place being generated.The answer is detailed and makes sophisticated comments on impact. (58 marks) Level 3 A fully developed answer, with good elaboration and clear and appropriate detail. Recognition of the complexity of the issue. Recognition of the changing impact over time. (910 marks)
e

This question must be answered in the context of one major international conflict. If your answer uses more than one example the examiner will count only the best response.The decision about which conflict you will write about is therefore paramount. Similarly, the question asks you to discuss environmental impact only make sure you remain within this restriction. The question is testing your depth of knowledge and understanding, rather than your breadth. The impact of the chosen conflict on the environment may be direct bombing of buildings, laying of mines etc., or it may be indirect people may have been forced to leave their land, causing them to deteriorate. As with any question on an international conflict, do not waste time by giving background knowledge of its causes.This question has a clear focus stay within it.

Essay questions
The generic mark scheme for these essays is given on pages 56. Below is a summary of the requirements for a good answer to these questions. A key element is the need to demonstrate synopticity. Synoptic assessment is built into the mark scheme, and is loosely defined as follows: Synoptic assessment involves assessment of candidates ability to draw on their understanding of the connections between different aspects of the subject represented in the specification and demonstrate their ability to think like a geographer.

Question 3
With reference to examples, discuss the nature of, and reasons for, separatist pressures around the world. (40 marks) This question should be answered in the context of separatism within and/or across national boundaries. A wide range of such contexts can be identified.
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Appropriate content Appropriate content for a response to this question should include: I a description of the variety of separatist pressures around the world I an outline of the reasons causing separatist pressures around the world I recognition and discussion of the variety of aspects of/reasons for separatism in different parts of the world Synopticity This could be achieved by: I understanding the context of varying timescales I evidence in the breadth/depth of case-study material I detailed critical understanding of both the nature and causes of separatism I analysis of both nature and causes and a recognition that they may vary around the world
The question requires a discussion and the response should reach a view. Any reasonable conclusion can be credited as long as it is measured and related to the preceding content.
e

Carefully read the above bullet points as they will give you a clear insight as to what is required when attempting an answer to this question. There is a wide variety of expressions of separatist pressures in the world, with an equally wide variety of reasons for them. You should refer to a number of these expressions and reasons both in a general sense but also by making clear references to case studies to support your answer. Credit will be awarded for demonstrating both breadth (a wide range) and depth (detailed knowledge and understanding) of those case studies. Remember, it is important that you reach a conclusion based upon the evidence you have presented in your essay.

Question 4
To what extent do economic development and national security mutually support each other?
(40 marks)

This question should be answered in the context of a conflict where economic development and security are parallel issues. A range of case studies will be relevant (as chosen by the centre), though Iraq and Afghanistan will feature in the answers of many candidates.

Appropriate content Appropriate content for a response to this question will include: I an outline of the economic development issues of the chosen country/countries I a description of the security issues facing the chosen country/countries I a discussion of the interrelationships between these two concepts, and the degree to which one impacts upon the other
The question should be fully addressed and the synoptic element is achieved when there is a more critical view of the roles of different stakeholders in the conflict, coupled with some discussion of consequences, so that the two strands of the question are covered explicitly.

Synopticity This could be achieved by: I evidence in the depth of the chosen case-study material I detailed critical understanding of the issues I good understanding of at least one, and preferably more, of the elements given above I recognition of variation in the basis of attitudes (e.g. over time) within groups who may lose or benefit from the interrelationship(s) I recognition that perception may change over time and/or space
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This question requires an evaluative approach and the response should reach a view. Any conclusion is creditable as long as it is reasonable and related to the preceding content and argument.
e

Carefully read the above bullet points as they will give you a clear insight as to what is required when attempting an answer to this question.You should have a clear idea of the concepts of economic development and national security and what these entail in the context of one or more areas of study. The question asks to what extent they mutually support each other an inference of interrelationship.Your must therefore be aware of the range of opinions and views in this area. Some believe that security must be in place for development to take place; others take the view that increased development of an area will make that area more secure. Take note of the command to what extent an overall assessment of the extent to which these factors are mutually supportive is required. A response to this command based on a thorough grasp of concepts and suitable and detailed case study material should allow you to access the upper levels of the mark scheme.

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