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PART III Core Subject Poetry-I (AEN8E31) UNIT-I Thomas Wyatt: I Find No Peace Surrey: My Friend,The Things That

Do Attain Spencer: From Amoretti Sydney: From Astrophel and Stella & The Nightingale Michael Drayton : Since Theres No Help UNIT-II Shakespea re: Sonnets 29,60,73,116,130. & Fear Nomore the Heat o the Sun UNIT-III John Donne: Song & The Bait Herbert: Virtue & The Collar Abraham Cowley : The Wish Andraw Marwel: To his Coy Mistress UNIT-IV Milton: Lycidasfor St.Cecilias Day UNIT-V Dryden: A song Pope: Ode on Solitude Gray: Hymn to Adversity Collins: Ode to Evening Blake: Human Abstract Burns: A Red, Red Rose

UNIT I I FIND NO PEACE THOMAS WYATT As a typical Renaissance man Wyatt took to writing poetry in order to restore gravity and cogency of utterance to English verse. This became necessary as pronunciation had altered and metrical patterns had gone to pieces after a period of linguistic transformation in the century following Chaucer. In the Italian sonnet he found a model which would help him achieve what he was seeking. The sonnet was a highly conventional form, a form that demanded discipline and craftsmanship from on the poets part, and challenged the poet to mould his thought with will and aptness to the precise shape of those fourteen balanced lines. In the English literary scene Wyatt along with other courtly makers emerged as craftsmen, experimenting with both the theme and the form in their attempts to hammer out a disciplined yet flexible poetic style.

In his love sonnets Petrarch had manifested an idealized courtly love attitude toward Laura, an attitude which had become conventionalised with numerous Italian poets trying their hands with the genre. The Petrarchan sonnet provides the English poet not only with a fo rm but also with the sentiments. Wyatts I Find No Peace is a sonnet set typically in the Petrarchan tradition; it has the same five rhymes abcde, and can be divided in two parts octave and sestet. But it should be remembered that Wyatt deviates from the Petrarchan model in a number of ways. Unlike a Petrarchan sonnet, in which the theme of love is introduced in the octave and developed in the sestet, Wyatts poem does not maintain the division and distribution of thought. The poet begins just by frankly confessing the conflicting states of mind

occasioned by the onset of love: I find no peace and all my war is done, I fear and hope, I burn and freeze like ice Wyatt employs military terms to describe what has happened with him in his encounter with the beloved. His peace of mind has been destroyed by the war he has been waging against himself and his ladylove in order to win her love. It may be surmised here whether after finding his war is done, that is, his game over, he resorts to writing this sonnet in an attempt to communicate to her the words of his desire; for, the rest of the lines in the poem are set almost as disguised appeals, as desperate cries to the mistress...

AMORETTI SONNET 75 - SPENSER Edmund Spensers sonnet sequenc e, the Amoretti (meaning little love gifts in Italian), ranks among the most notable of the collections produced during the golden age of English poetry, also the heyday of the English sonnet. Beginning in fourteenth century Italy with Petrarchs tributes, in sonnet form, to his beloved Laura, the sonnet cycle describing the lovers pangs and the inamoratas remote beauty quickly became a poetic standard. The introduction of this poetic form to England is generally credited to Sir Thomas Wyatt, who brought... Amoretti was a sonnet cycle written by Edmund Spenser in the 16th century. The cycle describes his courtship and eventual marriage to Elizabeth Boyle. Amoretti was first published in 1595 in London by William Ponsonby. It was printed as part of a volume entitled Amoretti and Epithalamion. Written not long since by Edmunde Spenser. The volume included the sequence of 89 sonnets, along with a series of short poems called Anacreontics and an Epithalamion, a public poetic celebration of marriage. [1]. The volume memorializes Spensers courtship of Elizabeth Boyle, a young, well-born Anglo Irish woman, and the couples wedding on June 11, 1594 [2]. Analysis Sonnet 75 After the middle ages sonnets became very popular to poets. They usually where written by men expressing there love for an unattainable women. After many decades the sonnet written by Edmund Spenser "Sonnet 75" is still very popular it shows the many different traits that all sonnets have. The peace of work that he did was very well written and shows what he truly felt for this women.

The sonnets that where written in the Elizabethan age all have a lot of things in common. They each have the some kinds of literary terms and they all seam to be about the love a man feels for a women. Most of the well known sonnets are still around today and they seem to still get everybodys attention. The sonnet is a love poem that has a rhyme scheme of ABAB BCBC CDCD EE. . This is the rhyme scheme that most of the sonnets written during this time has. I feel that this was a great choice to have the rhyme scheme this way because the first part is linked to the second part and the second part is linked to the third part this give the poem the balance that it need and make the sonnet flow better. He make the sonnet better by using many different types of literary terms such as form, rhyme, personification, and alliteration. Using these made the sonnet easier to read and allowed the reader to be able to follow the flow of the poem and understand it better. One of the many traits that this sonnet shows is the many different images that it gives. The first image that appears is the man writing the womens name in the sand. It shows in your minds eye a man writing out a name while he was sitting on a beach. The poem also describes a beach and it is very easy to see when you think about it. Another trait that it shows is symbolism. The ocean in the sonnet symbolizes eternity. The ocean seams to go on forever so this is a perfect symbol for it. Another symbol is the waves messing up the name that he wrote on the sand. This symbolizes that his love for her will go on forever and that nothing can change that. Throughout the poem, Spencer uses alliteration to create sounds that help the imagery in his poem. In the second line of his poem, Spencer uses alliteration when he says "waves and washed it away". The repetition of the "w" sound creates a sound similar to the actual washing of waves. Later in the poem, Spencer writes, "my pains his pray" where the repetition of the "p" sound, which is a sound that gives the felling about the hard time the person is feeling. Spencer

uses alliteration to tie in the words and phrases he uses to help connect the poem with the imagery. One of the things that I liked in this poem was the way that he used his words. He really got me to want to read his poem he used the literary terms well and he use them to catch the attention of many different people he worked the problem that he had as the man that could not get the women of his dreams. His poem is still is looked at today and the different things that he has said make it feel that it was you in the poem. "Sonnet 75" is a successful Elizabethan sonnet with a view of love, but Spencer takes the words he used a step further by giving us a lot of different literary techniques that work well with the story and imagery of his sonnet. His skillful use of form, rhyme, personification, and alliteration all contribute to the construction of this sonnet. By creating "Sonnet 75", Spenser immortalized love That has been shown by many and well always be shown by both men and women for a log time to come.

STROPHIL AND STELLA-SYDNEY 1-4 Notice how one thing leads to the next in his imagined chain of events. his pains ==> her pleasure ==> reading ==> knowledge ==> pity ==> grace He hopes to win her love by seeming pitiful . In the tradition of courtly love, the lady's "gift of grace" was when she consumated the relationship 5-8 Wanting to seem as pitiful as possible ("paint the blackest face of woe"), he looks for inspiration in the "leaves" (pages) of others, that is, he reads their poems 9-12 The is one of the earliest declarations of the need for originality in one's work. Shakespeare thought nothing of stealing the plots of others, and his audiences were not surprised to find him using the ideas of others. Sydney says he can't study others to be creative himself. He can't always rely on the kindness of strangers. "feet" = their poetry. "Foot" refers to the meter of poems. Their feet only trip him up. 13-14 He has to write what is in his own heart if he is to be effective. Analysis of Astrophil and Stella In Sir Philip Sydney's Astrophil and Stella "Sonnet 1," there is an observable poetic structure that can be analyzed on a literal as well as a figurative level in an attempt to gain a logical understanding of the poem. Sydney's style of writing appears to be easily interpreted on a literal level, yet there is a deeper and more complex dimension of figurative elements, such as metaphors, that require further exploration and examination to unveil their complete meaning. In addition, this sonnet encompasses complex speech that must be interpreted through its underlying meaning and not what it appears to be on the surface. Firstly, Sydney uses a fairly concise structure throughout "Sonnet 1." For the most part, there is a consistent pattern of unstressed then stressed syllables which make "Sonnet 1" a poem of iambic hexameter. In addition, he also uses a rather apparent rhyme scheme of "ABAB ABAB CDCD EE" as well as commas between phrases, resulting in the poem flowing at a fast pace. The rhyme pattern,

commas, and the iambic meter force the reader to read one phrase after another, resulting in a mutual feeling of anger between the speaker and the reader for not being able to write to his love. There is first an octave where the first two quatrains share the same rhyme scheme, then another quatrain, and then a couplet which attempts to offer a solution to the problem the speaker is experiencing in the poem. This type of line sequence is called a sonnet. In the octave, there is an exact rhyme of "A" words, such as "show" (line 1), "know" (line 3), and "woe" (line 5), that have the same amount of syllables at the end of the line, whereas, the "B" rhymes, like "pain" (line 2), "obtain" (line 4), and "entertain" (6) are near rhymes and have different amounts of syllables. When reading, there is a tendency to slow down the "B" words to capture their actual meanings. The turn, or deviation of tone, appears between the octave of the first eight lines and the sestet of the last six lines where the variation in rhyme scheme also takes place. At this point, the tone change suggests the speaker has a blank mind due to an absence of imagination causing a lack of words to express the ideas that he is so filled with. On a more literal level, there are several aspects that compliment and are complimented by the structure of this poem, such as tone, metaphor, and other literary elements. Firstly, the speaker of this poem is a lover who is attempting to write to his love to try to make her feel so beloved and overtaken by the most perfect words he has chosen, yet in the midst of him trying to write, his mind goes blank and he cannot think of anything to say to her. The angry tone toward the end of the sonnet is evident by the speaker saying, "Biting my truant pen, beating myself for spite" (line 13). The speaker also seems woeful when he says, "Thus, great with child to speak, and helpless in my throes" (line12) which is ironic because he is trying to make his love woeful, yet he is the one who is sad and wallowing in his pain. Through the fast-paced flow of the poem, we as readers are forced to understand that his anger is a legitimate result of "Nature" failing to grant him an imagination to compose love poetry. Our tendency to develop a mutual agreement that "Invention, Nature's child" (line 10) has passed him by causes the readers to overlook his personal inabilities and deters us from criticizing his senselessness Furthermore, Sydney's use of metaphors as a literary device is much less apparent. The few metaphorical phrases are found in line seven where the speaker says "turning others' leaves," in line ten "some fresh and fruitful showers," and in

line twelve "great with child to speak, and helpless in my throes." Within these few phrases of the poem, Sydney has created a dimension deeper than the literal which causes the reader to further examine them to reveal and comprehend the underlying meaning. The "fresh and fruitful showers" are not showers of rain to cool his "sunburned brain," but they are showers of thoughts to replenish his brain with ideas for writing. Similarly, "great with child to speak" does not mean his is pregnant; it means he has so much to say, yet, with him being "helpless in [his] throes," he cannot overcome his inability to think of any ideas to express. Therefore, he is unable to speak even though he would like to. His mind has gone blank, and all the wonderful ideas he once had have left him which has caused him to become so depressed that he feels there is nothing he can do about it. The suggestion that he cannot compose poetry when he thinks of his love implies that he is attempting to use his creative imagination to write to her. This point is illustrated in line fourteen, "Fool," said my Muse to me, "look into thy he art, and write.'" The word "Fool" is an indication that the composer has made an extremely stupid mistake in composing a love poem by basing it on imaginative elements as opposed to the interpersonal emotions he feels for his love. Unlike Sydney's less apparent use of metaphors as a literary device, he has personified three words toward the end of the sonnet. He uses "Invention" as "Nature's child," and likewise, "Nature" is "Invention's parent." Due to the fact that he gives these nouns roles as mother and child, he is suggesting that it is natural to use imagination to come up with ideas, and it should not be possible that one is not found without the presence of the other, but this is not the case for the writer. He is still without an imagination in addition to an incorrect approach to the ideas for composing a love poem. The other personification is the word "study." Sydney brings the word study to life by giving breath for it to blow invention away. These words are personified to create other characters to project the blame as to whose fault it is that the writer is unable to write. The speaker fails to realize that he is causing his writer's block. In summary, Sydney's Astrophil and Stella is a poem consisting of several literary devices and poetic structures that bring the poem to a level where readers are able to interpret it on a literal level. In order to understand and experience the actual meaning, one must analyze each individual aspect and develop a point of view that is more understanding than criticizing. By developing a lesser critical

point of view, readers are permitted to feel what it is like for an aspiring poet to learn that in actuality, he is not a poet and he lacks imagination, an essential element of composing poetry.

THE NIGHTINGALE- SYDNEY "The Nightingale" (Danish: "Nattergalen") is a literary fairy tale by Danish poet and author Hans Christian Andersen (1805 1875). The story is about an emperor who prefers the tinkling of a bejeweled mechanical bird to the song of a real nightingale. When the Emperor is near death, the nightingale's song restores his health. Well received upon its initial publication in Copenhagen, Denmark in 1843, the tale is believed to have been inspired by the author's unrequited love for opera singer and fellow Scandinavian, Jenny Lind. The story has been adapted to opera, ballet, musical
play, television drama and animated film.

Plot summary The Emperor of China learns that one of the most beautiful things in his empire is the song of the nightingale. When he orders a nightingale brought to him, a kitchen maid leads the court to a nearby forest where the bird is found. The nightingale agrees to appear at court. The Emperor is so delighted with the bird's song that he keeps the nightingale in captivity. When the Emperor is given a bejeweled
mechanical bird he loses interest in the real nightingale, who returns to the forest.

The mechanical bird breaks down due to overuse. The Emperor is taken deathly ill shortly thereafter. The real nightingale learns of the Emperor's condition and returns to the palace. Death is so moved by the nightingale's song that he departs and the emperor recovers. The nightingale agrees to sing to the emperor of all the happenings in the empire, that he will be known as the wisest emperor ever to live. Andersen met Swedish opera singer Jenny Lind (1820-1887) in 1840, and experienced an unrequited love for the singer. Lind preferred a platonic relationship with Andersen, and wrote him in 1844, "God bless and protect my

brother is the sincere wish of his affectionate sister." Jenny was the illegitimate daughter of a schoolmistress, and established herself at the age of eighteen as a world class singer with her powerful soprano. Andersen's "The Nightingale" is generally considered a tribute to her. [6] The Nightingale is a song written to be sung to an It alian tune. The form compasses two eight-lined verses separated by a four-lined choral verse and ending with the same chorus. The nightingale, as soon as April bringeth Unto her rested sense a perfect waking; after the hibernation of winter the bird emer ges in spring when April awakens nature on earth. Sings out her woes; the nightingale sings of her grief. For Tereus force on her chaste will prevailing; refers to Tereus rape of Philomela. Thine earth now springs, mine fadeth; Thy thorn without, my thorn my heart invadeth; the poet consoles Philomela saying he too grieves for love unconsummated. On her by strong hand wroken; refers to Tereus who raped her. As often in poetry, the nightingale is here linked with the classical myth of Philomela who was raped by her brother in law Tereus, the king of Thrace, who afterwards cut off her tongue to prevent her from telling others about the crime. According to the myth, Philomela was changed into a nightingale. The song of the bird at night is thus thought to be a lament. The poets song expresses the idea that love which is frustrated is more sorrowful than forced or unwanted love, as in his own case of unrequited love.

DRAYTON'S : SINCE THERE IS NO HELP "Theres a thin line between love and hate" describes the theme of Michael Draytons sonnet "Since theres no help, come let us kiss and part." Unlike most love sonnets, which talk about the many intricacies of love, Draytons poem discusses the end of love and its possible recovery. The 1st section of the poem, lines 1 through 8, contains the majority of the poems theme. Drayton, without much introduction, leads his readers right into the sonnets subject. He, directly addressing his X- lover, says, "Since theres no help, come let us kiss and part." From the very first line, we know the poet has doomed this relationship in the first part, 3rd person in the 2nd part and to end. The phrase "theres no help" indicates to us a frustration between the two parties involved in this relationship. Instead of proving to his readers that this relationship is doomed, Drayton takes this point as fact and builds on it in the second half of the line "come let us kiss and part." The tone in this half is one of acceptance. Since the couple can do nothing more to redeem their failing relationship, they willingly acquiesce to this fact and move on. The term "kiss and part" gives the reader a terminal feeling to this relationship. Its as if two acquaintances part at the airport not caring that they will never see one another again. In contrast to the accepting and civil tone within the first line, the second line embodies a harsher voice. Drayton tells his old lover that she can have "no more" of him. Despite the austere appearance of this statement, the word "Nay" expr with his decision. Its as if hes attempting to convince himself as well as his reader that the relationship is ruined. Thus, giving an uncertain and doubtful impression. The third line reiterates this notion. After first assuring himself "you get no more of me," the lover says "And I am glad, yea glad with all my heart." Its as though he is

forcing himself and us to believe that hes glad, glad with all his heart. Also, the word "heart" emphasizes the love-hate theme of the poem. A heart is the instrument by which humans feel love and hate. Its interesting that both extremes reflect themselves within the same place. The heart that once loved this woman wants desperately to hate and forget her. Furthermore, the word "glad" is a paradox in itself. In a situation where a relationship is ending, the last emotion anyone feels is glad. Here the poet grabs this emotion and molds it into an unexpected situation.As the poem progresses in this first section, the lovers tone becomes more acrimonious and less understanding. " Again, we feel he is unsure of his decision through the repetition of his desire to be free of this relationship. The order of the words in this line adds power to its tone. By reading the word "cleanly" before the word "free", we feel his passion to finish off any last strands because the emphasis is shifted from the subject to the adverb (cleanly) and verb (free). Furthermore, the word "so" empowers the word "cleanly." Since "so" is an unstressed syllable, "cleanly" becomes stressed, particularly the "clean" in "cleanly." Also the word "free" is stressed. Therefore, the two words that add power to this line are stressed. An alternative would have been "Thus I so cleanly free myself." One can notice an impeccable difference between both lines, the first one being the more powerful. esses the lovers apprehensiveness associated The fifth line is also very powerful. "Shake hands for ever, cancel all our vows." It has a foreboding end to it. I think the reason Drayton uses the phrase "shake hands for ever" is to iterate both parties acceptance of this failing relationship. When two people shake hands on a certain issue, they are in agreement. The longer the shake, the better the agreement and the more happy the recipients. Here Drayton shakes hands with his X-lover for ever. This means both parties did not come to agree through compromise, one letting go of his/her desires for the better of the group,

but in fact both desire and welcome this truce. Its also interesting how Drayton uses the word forever as two words. Instead of saying "forever," he says "for ever", separating the "for" from the "ever." Im not sure why he did this. I looked up the word "for ever" in the dictionary but could not find any origin for it. My hypothesis is that like the words "foreshadow," and "forebode," the word "forever" would have been too final, too definite. On the other hand, the word "for ever" doesnt sound as conclusive and as final as "forever." This goes back to the authors feeling of uncertainty as far as his relationship is concerned. The second half of the line is as severe as any of the previous lines. Here the author wishes to end all links to his woman, including even their vows and promises. Vows are of crucial importance in marriage ceremonies. Couples usually take pains in drawing up their own vows. These vows are supposed to bond and hold the married couple together. When Drayton says, "cancel all our vows" he eliminates and casts off all previous promises made between the couple. In contrast to the uncertainty that is felt in some of the previous lines, this line is unyielding in its severity. The next three lines, lines 6 through 8 conjure up a scene in the readers mind. When this couple meet, at any time in the near or far future, in any instance, under any circumstance, they are to ignore one another to the point where its not even shown in their faces. This is a pact they are drawing up. Interestingly, the same out-of-order form used in line 4 is used in lines 7 and 8. I like the way the author used the passive voice in line 7. He says "be it not seen" instead of "let no one see." Since the subject is unknown in passive voice, it can be anyone. Let no one, not a single soul see" Also, the image of the "brows" is interesting. The eyebrows hold the tone of any face. In fact, in some faiths, one is forbidden to shape their brows because of the immense difference it has on ones facial expression. The author

used this image to accentuate the importance of hiding the couple hiding their feelings after the end of their relationship. Moreover, its ironic that in line 5 the poet says "cancel all our vows," meaning end all agreements. Yet here he is making another agreement. Should one believe this "vow" might be cancelled as well? Indeed, this point makes one think how uncertain the lover must be. On the other hand, he uses the word "jot" meaning "iota" in line 8 to indicate how much love should NOT be seen in their faces. The fact Drayton uses the verb "seen" can indicate the lovers may very well retain "one jot of former love" if not more than one jot. However, they must not let it be seen. If others see it, they might sympathize. The lover wants no sympathy. This first section, using first person voice has set the scene. We know how adamant (or not) the author is at ending this relationship. We see he is frustrated and angry through the drawn up imageries of the "brow", the "kiss and part", and the cancellation of all previous vows. The next section, using the third person voice, moves away from the central situation. Here the author discusses the dying of Love. He personifies Love as a sick man on his death bed. He also personifies the three aspects of love: Passion, Faith and Innocence. The use of personification adds power to the poem. Instead of viewing Passion, Faith and Innocence as mere concepts, we view them as friends and companions to Love. This section, although very different from the first section, re-emphasizes the dying love between the man and the woman. Drayton takes this love and examines it closely. We enter the scene as abruptly as we entered the poem. Love is taking his last gasp of breath, ready to die. This image draws up a picture of an old man with age old lines on his face, gasping for breath. His friends and companions surround him.

These companions are Passion, Faith and Innocence. Each of his companions hold a role in this death scene related to their role in the Love relationship. In line ten, "Passion speechless lies." The verb speechless deems passion inactive. Usually, with a healthy relationship full of love, passion is anything but inactive. On the contrary, it is usually vigorous and vibrant. Passion finds no bounds in love. Its like a wolf in amongst a heard of sheep. Here, however, passion lies speechless next to Love. It is no longer vibrant or vigorous. Instead, it is inert and lethargic. Also, in line eleven, Faith is "kneeling by [loves] bed of death." Faith, as any young man, should stand tall and strong. Here, however, he is kneeling at Loves death bed. When Love is blooming, Faith is powerful and strong. It, more than love, bonds the couple together, for without Faith, Love is weak. As reflected in line eleven, Faith is week as it kneels on the bed; therefore, making love even weakerto the point of death. We move o nto Innocence in line twelve. Here, Innocence, who is also personified, is "closing up [Loves] eyes." Innocence is very much related to eyes. An innocent person is one who sees little of what this world has to offer. Innocent peoples eyes rarely come acr oss non-innocent behavior. Their eyes do not witness betrayal and hate. Love in its youth starts out with innocent eyes. He thinks he will last forever with in the couples heart. But now, Love knows better. He is no longer innocent. The image drawn up by Drayton is very appropriate. As Love dies, so does Innocence. Unlike Love, Innocence does not die in a death bed. He dies with the closing of the eyes. Lines 9 through 12, using third person to refer to Love, are a scene drawn up by the poet. We enter it in the middle. The tone in those 4 lines is that of on going action. The use of present participle indicates this on going action. Loves pulse is failing while Passion is speechless during the same time that Faith is kneeling and Innocence is closing up the eyes. There is somewhat of a freeze when the third

section is introduced. Love, the reader, and the poets roles are reversed. The readers assume the position of the woman. Love assumes the position of the man. The poet is both narrator and director. With the introduction of lines thirteen and fourteen, the poet is the director screaming at the top of his lungs "CUT, wait theres more. He has a last chance." Love CAN survive. The poet, in the tone of narrator shown through the use of 2nd person, appeals to the woman lover (the reader). He says, "look all has given him up. Passion, Faith, and Innocence, all have given him over but if you wouldst, you can recover him yet from death back into life." The verb "wouldst" in "if thou wouldst" doesnt only me an "would" as in "able", it also means "would" as in "desire or wish." If you desire and wish it, Love can recover. In conclusion, the theme of this poem illustrates the thin line between love and hate. As easily as love formed, it can be destroyed. As easy as it was destroyed it can be formed again. If one wishes to love again, then regain your vibrant passion, restore your healthy faith, and turn your innocence into wisdom. Drayton does a beautiful job of pushing this point through. When I first read this poem, I thought it to be weak and nonsensical. However, now, it is easy to see the wisdom behind Draytons words.

UNIT II - SHAKESPEARE Structure of SONNETS The sonnets are almost all constructed from three four-line stanzas (called quatrains) and a final couplet composed in iambic pentameter[17] (a meter used extensively in Shakespeare's plays) with the rhyme scheme abab cdcd efef gg (this form is now known as the Shakespearean sonnet). The only exceptions are Sonnets 99, 126, and 145. Number 99 has fifteen lines. Number 126 consists of six couplets, and two blank lines marked with italic brackets; 145 is in iambic tetrameters, not pentameters. Often, the beginning of the third quatrain marks the volta ("turn"), or the line in which the mood of the poem shifts, and the poet expresses a revelation or epiphany. There is another variation on the standard English structure, found for example in sonnet 29. The normal rhyme scheme is changed by repeating the b of quatrain one in quatrain three where the f should be. This leaves the sonnet distinct between both Shakespearean and Spenserian styles. When in disgrace with fortune and mens eyes I all alone beweep my outcast state, And trouble deaf heaven with my bootless cries, And look upon myself, and curse my fate, Wishing me like to one more rich in hope, Featurd like him, like him with friends possessd, Desiring this mans art, and that mans scope, With what I most enjoy contented least; Yet in these thoughts myself almost despising, Haply I think on thee, and then my state, Like to the lark at break of day arising From sullen earth, sings hymns at heavens gate; For thy sweet love rememberd such wealth brings

That then I scorn to change my state with kings. Whether the author intended to step over the boundaries of the standard rhyme scheme will always be in question. Some, like Sir Denis Bray, find the repetition of the words and rhymes to be a "serious technical blemish", [18] while others, like Kenneth Muir, think "the double use of 'state' as a rhyme may be justified, in order to bring out the stark contrast between the Poet's apparently outcast state and the state of joy described in the third quatrain." [19] Given that this is the only sonnet in the collection that follows this pattern, it is hard to say if it was purposely done. But most of the poets at the time were well educated; "schooled to be sensitive to variations in sounds and word order that strike us today as remarkably, perhaps even excessively, subtle." [20] Shakespeare must have been well aware of this subtle change to the firm structure of the English sonnets. Characters Some scholars of the sonnets refer to these characters as the Fair Youth, the Rival Poet, and the Dark Lady, and claim that the speaker expresses admiration for the Fair Youth's beauty, and later has an affair with the Dark Lady. [citation needed] It is not known whether the poems and their characters are fiction or autobiographical. If they are autobiographical, the identities of the characters are open to debate. Various scholars, most notably A. L. Rowse, have attempted to identify the characters with historical individuals. [citation needed] Fair Youth Main article: Shakespeare's sexuality Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton at 21. Shakespeare's patron, and one candidate for the "Fair Youth" of the sonnets.

The 'Fair Youth' is an unnamed young man to whom sonnets 1-126 are addressed. The poet writes of the young man in romantic and loving language, a fact which has led several commentators to suggest a homosexual relationship between them, while others read it as platonic love, or even as the love of a father for his son. The earliest poems in the collection do not imply a close personal relationship; instead, they recommend the benefits of marriage and children. With the famous sonnet 18 ("Shall I compare thee to a summer's day") the tone changes dramatically towards romantic intimacy. Sonnet 20 explicitly laments that the young man is not a woman. Most of the subsequent sonnets describe the ups and downs of the relationship, culminating with an affair between the poet and the Dark Lady. The relationship seems to end when the Fair Youth succumbs to the Lady's charms. There have been many attempts to identify the Friend. Shakespeare's one-time patron, the Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton is the most commonly suggested candidate, [citation needed] although Shakespeare's later patron, William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke, has recently become popular [1]. Both claims have much to do with the dedication of the sonnets to 'Mr. W.H.', "the only begetter of these ensuing sonnets": the initials could apply to either Earl. However, while Shakespeare's language often seems to imply that the 'friend' is of higher social status than himself, this may not be the case. The apparent references to the poet's inferiority may simply be part of the rhetoric of romantic submission. An alternative theory, most famously espoused by Oscar Wilde's short story 'The Portrait of Mr. W.H.' notes a series of puns that may suggest the sonnets are written to a boy actor called William Hughes; however, Wilde's story acknowledges that there is no evidence for such a person's existence. Samuel

Butler believed that the friend was a seaman, and recently Joseph Pequigney ('Such Is My love') an unknown commoner. The Dark Lady "The Dark Lady" redirects here. For other uses, see Dark Lady. The Dark Lady sequence (sonnets 127152), distinguishes itself from the Fair Youth sequence by being more overtly sexual in its passion. Among these, Sonnet 151 has been characterized as "bawdy" and is used to illustrate the difference between the spiritual love for the Fair Youth and the sexual love for the Dark Lady.[21] The distinction is commonly made in the introduction to modern editions of the sonnets.[21] William Wordsworth was unimpressed by these sonnets. He wrote that: These sonnets, beginning at 127, to his Mistress, are worse than a puzzle-peg. They are abominably harsh, obscure & worthless. The others are for the most part much better, have many fine lines, very fine lines & passages. They are also in many places warm with passion. Their chief faults, and heavy ones they are, are sameness, tediousness, quaintness, & elaborate obscurity. The Rival Poet The Rival Poet's identity has always remained a mystery, though there is a general consensus that the two most likely candidates are Christopher Marlowe and George Chapman. However, there is no hard evidence that the character had a real-life counterpart. The Poet sees the Rival as competition for fame and patronage. The sonnets most commonly identified as The Rival Poet group exist within the Fair Youth series in sonnets 7886.[22]

Themes One interpretation is that Shakespeare's Sonnets are in part a pastiche or parody of the three centuries-long tradition of Petrarchan love sonnets; in them, Shakespeare consciously inverts conventional gender roles as delineated in Petrarchan sonnets to create a more complex and potentially troubling depiction of human love. [23] Shakespeare also violated many sonnet rules which had been strictly obeyed by his fellow poets: he plays with gender roles (20), he speaks on human evils that do not have to do with love (66), he comments on political events (124), he makes fun of love (128), he speaks openly about sex (129), he parodies beauty (130), and even introduces witty pornography (151). 1. Sonnet 29 Is a 14-line stanza ABAB CDCD EFEF GG, 5' iambic pentameter. The first octave of 4 rhyming quatrains proclaims and intensifies the problem and the second sestet offers a resolution with 2 rhyming quatrains. The sonnet ends with the usual rhyming couplet. It is important to realise the nature of the language and wording of a sonnet in the era it was written. "Fortune" for example in the Middle Ages was also feminine at the introduction of The Wheel of Fortune:- Fortune is painted blind, with a muffler afore her eyes, to signify to you that fortune is blind.. Henry V (1599) . Fortune was both masculine in the form of a hero/victim of tragedy, and feminine in the form of comedy; a fickle woman, whore and such like, the latter as seen through the eyes of young men'. It is easy to assume that 'Love' is associated with the opposite sex in Shakespearean sonnets without understanding that male and female are not always separate persons but one duality of purpose in one unified consciousness.

Resenting his bad luck, the poet envies the successful art of others and rattles off an impressive catalogue of the ills and misfortunes of his life. His depression is derived from his being separated from the young man, even more so because he envisions the youth in the company of others while the poet is "all alone." Stylistically, Sonnet 29 is typically Shakespearean in its form. The first eight lines, which begin with "When," establish a conditional argument and show the poet's frustration with his craft. The last six lines, expectedly beginning in line 9 with "Yet" similar to other sonnets' "But" and resolving the conditional argument, present a splendid image of a morning lark that "sings hymns at heaven's gate." This image epitomizes the poet's delightful memory of his friendship with the youth and compensates for the misfortunes he has lamented. The uses of "state" unify the sonnet's three different sections: the first eight lines, lines 9 through 12, and the concluding couplet, lines 13 and 14. Additionally, the different meanings of state as a mood and as a lot in life contrast the poet's sense of a failed and defeated life to his exhilaration in recalling his friendship with the youth. One state, as represented in lines 2 and 14, is his state of life; the other, in line 10, is his state of mind. Ultimately, although the poet plaintively wails his "outcast state" in line 2, by the end of the sonnet he has completely reversed himself: ". . . I scorn to change my state with kings." Memories of the young man rejuvenate his spirits.

2.

Sonnet 60

Is acknowledged as one of Shakespeare's greatest because it deals with the universal concerns of time and its passing. In the sonnet, time is symbolized by concrete images. For example, the opening two lines present a simile in which time is represented by "waves" and "minutes": "Like as the waves make towards the pebbled shore, / So do our minutes hasten to their end"; here, death is "the pebbled shore" another concrete image. In the second quatrain, the poet laments time's unfairness. A child "Nativity" is born and, over time, matures to adulthood, and yet the adult now dreads the maturation process as he grows increasingly older and thus reaches the point of death, or the end of time. Time, which gives life, now takes it away: "And Time that gave doth now his gift confound." The antithesis in lines 9 through 12 is between the aging poet and the youth's good looks. The poet warns, "Time doth transfix the flourish set on youth / And delves the parallels in beauty's brow." In other words, the young man currently is beautiful, but "parallels" wrinkles will eventually appear, as they have on the poet. However much the young man and the poet would like beauty to reside forever on the youth's face, "nothing stands but for his [time's] scythe to mow." Nonetheless, the poet promises to immortalize the youth's good looks before time's wrinkles appear on his face: "And yet to times in hope my verse shall stand, / Praising thy worth, despite his cruel hand." Unlike the poet's promise in Sonnet 19, this assurance does not include giving the young man eternal beauty. Even more, the "scythe" in line 12 recalls Sonnet 12's concluding couplet: "And nothing 'gainst Time's scythe can make defense / Save breed, to brave him when he takes thee hence." Clearly the poet is no longer concerned that the young man have a child to ensure the immortality of his beauty. Now, the poet's own sonnets are the only security the youth needs to gain eternal worth.

3.

Sonnet 73

The poet indicates his feeling that he has not long to live through the imagery of the wintry bough, twilight's afterglow, and a fire's dying embers. All the images in this sonnet suggest impending death. In the first quatrain, the poet compares himself to autumn leaves, but he is unable to pinpoint their exact number, just as he cannot determine how close he is to death: "When yellow leaves, or none, or few, do hang / Upon those boughs which shake against the cold." In the second quatrain, he talks of "twilight" as "after the sun fadeth in the west," a traditional metaphor for death. Death is close to the poet in this second quatrain, for he imagines death twice more, first as "black night" and then as sleep, "Death's second self." The third quatrain recalls Sonnet 45, in which the poet likened his desire for the young man to "purging fire." Now, however, his fire is but dying embers, a "deathbed" fueled by his love for the youth, "Consumed with that which it was nourished by." Note the pause indicated by the period after each quatrain in the sonnet, the longest pause coming appropriately after the third quatrain, before the concluding couplet. The pauses after the first two quatrains are due to their beginning "In me thou seest. . . ." This phrase indicates that the poet is drawing an allusion between an external image and an internal state of mind, an association that in turn forces a slower reading of the lines, enabling some reflection on the emotional tone that each image evokes. Now follows the couplet addressed to the youth that makes clear the conclusion to be drawn from the preceding lines: "This thou perceiv'st, which makes thy love more strong, / To love that well, which thou must leave ere long." Believing that he will soon die and never see the young man again, the poet's love for the youth intensifies.

4. Sonnet 116 Despite the confessional tone in this sonnet, there is no direct reference to the youth. The general context, however, makes it clear that the poet's temporary alienation refers to the youth's inconstancy and betrayal, not the poet's, although coming as it does on the heels of the previous sonnet, the poet may be trying to convince himself again that "Now" he loves the youth "best." Sonnet 116, then, seems a meditative attempt to define love, independent of reciprocity, fidelity, and eternal beauty: "Love's not Time's fool, though rosy lips and cheeks / Within his bending sickle's compass come." After all his uncertainties and apologies, Sonnet 116 leaves little doubt that the poet is in love with love. The essence of love and friendship for the poet, apparently, is reciprocity, or mutuality. In Sonnet 116, for example, the ideal relationship is referred to as "the marriage of true minds," a union that can be realized by the dedicated and faithful: "Let me not to the marriage of true minds / Admit impediments." The marriage service in the Episcopal Book of Common Prayer "If any of you know cause or just impediment" provides the model for the sonnet's opening lines. In them, we see the poet's attitude toward love, which he proceeds to define first negatively. He explains what love is not, and then he positively defines what it is. The "ever-fixed mark" is the traditional sea mark and guide for mariners the North Star whose value is inestimable although its altitude its "height" has been determined. Unlike physical beauty, the star is not subject to the ravages of time; nor is true love, which is not "Time's fool." The poet then introduces the concepts of space and time, applying them to his ideal of true love: "Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks, / But bears it out even to the edge of doom." Note that the verb "alters" is lifted directly from line 3, in which the poet describes what love is not. "Bears it out" means survive; "edge of doom," Judgment Day. Finally, with absolute conviction, the poet challenges others to find him wrong in his definition: "If this be error and upon me proved, / I never writ, nor no man ever loved." Just how secure the poet is in his standards of friendship and love, which he hopes that he and the

youth can achieve, is evident in this concluding couplet; he stakes his own poetry as his wager that love is all he has described it to be.

5. Sonnet 130 Sonnet 130 is a parody of the Dark Lady, who falls too obviously short of fashionable beauty to be extolled in print. The poet, openly contemptuous of his weakness for the woman, expresses his infatuation for her in negative comparisons. For example, comparing her to natural objects, he notes that her eyes are "nothing like the sun," and the colors of her lips and breasts dull when compared to the red of coral and the whiteness of snow. Whereas conventional love sonnets by other poets make their women into goddesses, in Sonnet 130 the poet is merely amused by his own attempt to deify his dark mistress. Cynically he states, "I grant I never saw a goddess go; / My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground." We learn that her hair is black, but note the derogatory way the poet describes it: "black wires grow on her head." Also, his comment "And in some perfumes is there more delight / Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks" borders on crassness, no matter how satirical he is trying to be. The poet must be very secure in his love for his mistress and hers for him for him to be as disparaging as he is, even in jest a security he did not enjoy with the young man. Although the turn "And yet" in the concluding couplet signals the negation of all the disparaging comments the poet has made about the Dark Lady, the sonnet's last two lines arguably do not erase the horrendous comparisons in the three quatrains.

UNIT - III
John Donnes - Song
In interpreting John Donnes poem, Song: Go, and Catch a Falling Star, it would be quick to assume he holds some religiously pious distain for women who, by Biblical nature, where liars and deceivers. True, it seems to be something of a sermon for young clergymen to be weary of the female seductress and, true, he probably did write it when he was still stinging from an unfaithful young lover he had when he was himself a young man of reputation, but its entertaining wit and imaginative conceit almost dictates a humorous jest at female stereotypes. After all, what lover, after finding a partner unfaithful, doesnt go through a phase of distaining the offending sex. John Donne, in his classic style, avenges himself with a sonnet sharp enough to draw blood, yet still softly touched with humor so to keep it in circulation well after his death. Song: Go, and Catch a Falling Star, is one of John Donnes most famous early poems about female nature. Its lines of witty stereotypical prose would serve as a rallying banner for betrayed young men throughout London; striking at those femme-fatals of the gentlemans heart. Yet, the female reader should not loose any love for Donne. He was, after all, a young poet whose satirical works were his main focus in his early period. In the end, however, he did marry his loving wife, Anne, to whom he stayed passionately involved until her death in 1617, and never remarried even though they had a large f amily of eleven children together. Tone The tone is very cynical and satiric It is not known, but one can assume that Donne or someone he cared about very much was hurt by a woman's infidelity, and Donne expressed that frustration in this poem. It seems he's lost all hope in honest and fair women completely; since he goes on about how hard one would have to search to find a trace of an honest woman. Therefore, we can assume that he believed the woman who betrayed him was special as well: that he had searched far and wide to find a very special woman. The speaker first asks who he is speaking to to do impossible things (catching falling stars, recite history perfectly, see who grabs the devils foot), and then he asks the m to do something a little more feasible: not to be hurt when one is envious - not to be bothered by envy. Then, he says that if this person is born with the natural ability to see unbelievable sights or things that are rare if not non-existent, to go search ten thousand days and nights (about 27 years) until

the hair on their head is white (they are older - the person who he is speaking to is older already, understands the "whips and scorns" of life). After searching for such a long time with such an amazing seeing ability, the speaker says that this person will see all sorts of strange wonders but never "a woman true and fair." IF this supernatural person happens to come across one woman who happens to be honest, the speaker says that even she will fall short of true morality - "yet she / will be/ false." Donne also uses to poem's structure to emphasize his points throughout the poem. After the person would search everywhere and see fantastic things, they would "swear /No where"lives an honest women. Even on a web page, that separation has a very separate, rigid, firm, definite connotation that affirms his belief. In the last stanza, Donne uses that effect again. Even if the seeker finds one woman who happens to seem slightly honest and good, even She /Will be"dishonest eventually as well. The separation of the 7th and 8th lines is a very efficient method of defining the meaning of this poem. By using comparisons and poem structure, Donne achieves an effect of utter cynicism and satire.

Poetic Devices

Besides comparisons and poetic shape, there are several other devices used in the poem to convey Donne's meaning. The rhyme scheme is abab ddd: more than the scheme, the words that are used in each stanza are emphasized more by the scheme. For example, in the last stanza, Donne writes about the pleasantly surprising event of finding an honest women. The "abab" scheme has a very singsongy sound to it that sounds as if Donne is actually making fun of someone who would believe the possiblity of finding an honest women. To exaggerate the satire even more, he rhymes the next 2 lines as if to tease the reader into finding out what happanes next in this soap opera. In the last 3 lines, he confrims the female's infidelity and defines it with the solid pounding of the rhyming line endings.

Some more poetic devices include alliteration, echo, and diction. The first use of alliteration is in line 10: "strange sights." Obviously that repetition is used to emphasize just how "invisible" (line 11) honest women are. In line 22, Donne uses "might meet" almost as an oxymoron to emphasize woman's predictability in being unfaithful. The continuous idea that is repeated throughout this poem is that of woman's unfaithfulness: "No where / Lives a women true and fair... Yet she / Will be / False." There are some word choices by Donne that pin-point the message he's trying to convey in the poem: "ten thousand" as a hyperbole to emphasize how hard one should search to fi nd a trace of an honest women; "Age snow white hairs" - by personifying Air, Donne zeroes in on the audience to let us really

understand why he's using so much reprtition in the 2nd stanza - by saying the seeker is getting focused on by Age, he's really asking us to understand his point of view in realizing how rare honest and fair women are; "Lives" - in line 18,there is an interesting idea that since Donne differentiated between all women and those living women, he could be saying that the only honest women who ever lived was his wife, and this could change the poem's tone to very reminiscient and wistful - however, that idea is repudiated by the fact that the his Songs and Sonnets were released long before he even married Anne More; "pilgrimage" - once again, Donne is simply reinforcing the massive efforts one would have to make to find an honest women.

John Donne, as a metaphysical poet, was very colloquial in his poems as far as their rhythm. He wrote in a similar fashion to how his peers communicated. That, as well as the other devices, achieves a very matter-of-fact tone as if he were telling one of his friends, "by the way, there is no honest women alive."

JOHN DONNES THE BAIT

The Bait, John Donnes poem four lines of two pairs of rhymed couplets, or quatrains, with the exception of an added stanza is not, at first glance, unlike that of the earlier poem, in which a would-be lover entices his beloved by calling up scenes of exquisite bliss. Before and after Donne, this type of poem found a wide.
John Donne's poem "The Bait" is an excellent example of the way in which metaphysical poetry is able to parody other, more romantic poems. This poem is particularly useful in analyzing the traits of metaphysical poetry as a whole since it is in direct response to a non-metaphysical poem. In fact, it might be said that metaphysical poetry such as this may be closer to realism (though it is certainly not realistic, in the normal sense of the word) than the romantic genre of poetry as epitomized by Marlowe's "Passionate Shepherd to his Love." The first way in which John Donne's poem differs from Marlowe's is the prominence of explicitly sexual imagery. Marlowe's poem might suggest a bit of sexual imagery, but it is not swimming in it like "The

Bait." The Shepherd poem focuses much more on the relationship and the "romantic" side of things. The tone itself in "The Bait" seems to be very different from the first stanza, and this is achieved even as early as the first two lines simply by changing a few words.

The rest of the poem is awash in fish and fishing imagery, something that would be unusual for a romantic poem, but not for one of the metaphysical variety. This is certainly debatable, but the fishing imagery probably has something to do with the sexual tone of the poem. It is should also be made clear, however, that the prevalence of this awkward fishing metaphor also does another thing for the poem. There are a sufficient number of lines dealing with metaphors that are "disgusting and different" enough to maintain the seriousness of the poem (ex. "let others freeze with angling reeds, and cut their legs with shells and weeds"). The Shepherd poem, on the other hand, is much more pastoral and, instead, rife with flowery imagery and language. In this way, "The Bait" almost seems to be mocking Marlowe's poem in a skeptical manner about the existence of such honestly romantic relationships.

HERBERT-VIRTUE
In "Virtue," he presents a vision of an eternal world beyond the one available to sense perception. Implicit in "Virtue" is a delicately expressed struggle between rebellion and obedience. The understated conflict lies between the desire to experience worldly pleasures and the desireor as Herbert would insist, the needto surrender to the will of God. The battle waged between rebellion and obedience can be seen more clearly in one of the best-known poems in The Temple, "The Collar." Therein, the poet "raves" against the yoke of submission that he must bear until he hears the voice of God call him "child"; then, he submissively yields, as the poem ends with the invocation "My Lord!" This conclusion indicates that what the narrator feels about the experience of the natural world is of less authenticity than an inner voice of authority that directs him toward God.

Herbert's poetry displays a conjunction of intellect and emotion. Carefully crafted structures, like the first three quatrains, or four- line stanzas, of "Virtue," all of which are similarly formed, contain sensuously perceived content, like depictions of daytime, nightfall, a rose, and spring. Such a combination of intellect and emotion, in which the two forces, expressed in bold metaphors and colloquial language, struggle with and illuminate each other, is most apparent in the poetry of one of Herbert's contemporaries, John Donne, and is called metaphysical poetry. In "Virtue," an example of this combination of the intellectual and the sensuous can be seen in the second line of the third quatrain, when the spring is compared to a box of compressed sweets. In "Virtue," which comprises four quatrains altogether, Herbert reflects on the loveliness of the living world but also on the reality of death. Building momentum by moving from the glory of a day to the beauty of a rose to the richness of springtime, while reiterating at the end of each quatrain that everything "must die," Herbert leads the reader to the last, slightly varied quatrain. There, the cherished thing is not a tangible manifestation of nature but the intangible substance of "a sweet and virtuous soul." When all else succumbs to death, the soul "then chiefly lives." Not through argument but through an accumulation of imagery, Herbert contrasts the passing glories of the mortal world with the eternal glory of the immortal soul and thereby distinguishes between momentary and eternal value. "Virtue" and many other poems from The Temple can be found in Seventeenth-Century Prose and Poetry, edited by Alexander M. Witherspoon and Frank J. Warnke and published by Harcourt, Brace & World, in 1963.

Virtue Summary
Lines 1-4
Herbert begins "Virtue" with an apostrophe, or invocation. That is, here, he starts with a direct rhetorical address to a personified thing: as if speaking to the day, the narrator says, "Sweet day" and then characterizes the day as "cool," "calm," and "bright." Thus, for one noun, "day," he provides four adjectives. The rest of the line is made up of the adverbial "so," signifying intensity, repeated three times.

Herbert is presenting a fairly generic image, without any action, as no verb appears among these eight words. Nor can a verb be found in the next line, which is a kind of appositive, or a noun phrase placed beside the noun that it describes. "The bridal of the earth and sky," which describes the "day," indicates no action, instead merely illustrating and amplifying the conditions depicted in the first line. That is, the "sweet day" is the bridalthe marriage, conjunction, or unionof the earth and the sky. In sum, Herbert presents a serene yet invigorating day and locates the reader in the celestial and terrestrial realms simultaneously, for the day in its loveliness brings them together. Day, however, gives way to night, just as life gives way to death: "The dew shall weep thy fall tonight," the narrator asserts, turning a daily natural event, nightfall, into a metaphor. Beyond death, the line also suggests grief at the loss of paradise on Earth, the Fall, which is the original cause of death in the Judeo-Christian story of the Creation. The evening dew, invested with emotion and made to represent grief, is equated with tears, which are shed at nightfall over the Fall, the sin that brought death into the world.

Lines 5-8
In beginning the second quatrain with the word "sweet," Herbert continues to connect the beauty of nature with impermanence, as any "sweet" thing must, over time, lose its sweetness. Like the day, the rose is an emblem of earthly splendor. It is "sweet" like the day, saturated with color, and graced with magnificence.

Herbert The Collar


Herbert's style: What is striking about Herbert's style is its clarity and directness; Herbert regularly defends his plainness or commends a commonplace expression of praise, as in the two Antiphons or the first

Jordan poem. He is not like the heathen who think to be heard of God because of their many words. Herbert is never needlessly obscure, for effect, say. He becomes obscure when he treats difficult matters, as in Jordan (I). The notion of restraint, temperance and self-discipline, as recommended in The Church Porch and in the argument of many of the poems is reflected in their structure. This is taken to its extreme in Discipline. George Herbert was born on April 3, 1593 at Montgomery Castle, thefifth son of an eminent Welsh family. Herbert's religious beliefs caused him to be an active opponent of the puritans and the Calvinists. Herbert became the cannon of Lincoln Cathedral and in 1630 he took holy orders. During the years Herbert spent at Bemerton he worked on a collection of verses known as The Temple. Upon his death they published the manuscript. The poem "The Collar" is a complaint voiced by person embittered against the constraints that bind him. Impatient with the human condition, the writer resolves to break free. "My lines and life are free, free as the road, / Loose as the wind, as large as store" he insists. The accompanying gesture, "I struck the board and cried, 'No more!'" is a dramatic, and boastful act. The tone of these lines is recognized as an exaggeration. The writer is impatient with the need to recognize one's dependence and to accept one's need to worship and serve God. The poem as a whole is about blowing off steam. Herbert develops two quite vivid major images to build the poem's theme. The images of restraints such as "collars / cages / cable / rope"suggests something stiff and restrictive, but not harmful, like a noose or shackles. The title of the poem, "The Collar," an article of clothing a man wears when he must be at his best. The word "Collar" also refers to the white band worn by the clergy, and it is the role of priest the poem alludes to. This collar symbolizes the priest's role as servant. The writer chafes at being "in suit." The image has at least a double meaning. The word "suit" refers to the clerical "suit" and connotatively to the attendance required of a vassal at his lord's court. "Forsake thy cage, / Thy rope of sands." The word "cage" suggests a contraption for animals. The purpose is not to harm but merely to restrict movement, and keep from harm. This prevents the creature from getting hurt by its impulses and curiosity about what lies beyond the confines. This imagery of restraints suggests the writer of being in an animalistic state. This animalistic condition is clear when "as I raved and grew more fierce and wild/ At every word." The writer is getting himself worked up. He is unreasoning, like an animal. Even the text, seems to bark: "What? Shall I ever sigh and pine?/ My lines and life are free, free as the road, / Loose as the wind, as large as store." The feeling is that the restraints are perhaps appropriate. Yet, this is not a jail, if the writer can "forsake" it, then he can get out. His confinement contains an element of choice. However, "Ropes of sand" is something else. Ropes are not chosen, and "sand" describes the way they feel on the skin, the discomfort of being chafed by them when one struggles to get them off. "Which petty thoughts have made, and made to thee/ Good cable, to enforce and draw, / And be thy law, / while thou didst wink and wouldst not see." Then the fuller meaning that Herbert intended for this image is realized. The whole image of the ropes represents a

turn in thought. Service to God, makes us sometimes feel strained. The writer is also enslaved by "petty thoughts," the writer's tirade is an example of such thoughts. Such thoughts are true shackles, and not the disciplinary kind of restraint which "collar" or even "cage" is. Another important image pattern in the poem is that of the harvest. The clergy, are workers in the vineyard. The writer, however, feels his only harvest has been a thorn that has made him bleed. His "sighs" and "tears" have made him ruin the fruits of his labors. Herbert means that, when done in the wrong spirit, service is fruitless; self-pity cancels the good. The writer mourns for "bays to crown" the year, for "flowers [and] garlands gay," emblems of personal rewards, accomplishments, and pleasures. He wishes for greater recognition for his talents. He wonders if he has given up too much, let many of life's rewards pass him by. The Collar is George Herberts most extensive and detailed poem of rebellion. Thirty-two of its thirty- six lines describe what the poem itself calls the ravings of a person growing more fierce and wild as he strains to release himself from the restrictive pressures that surround him. Much like John Donnes energetic complaints to God in several of his Holy Sonnets, The Collar gives full expression to the speakers resentment of the pain and rigor of leading a life that is moral and holy. Only after these complaints are freely, almost...

Abraham Cowley - THE WISH

THE WISH By Abraham Cowley Nature is a common aspect in the renaissances poems and Abraham Cowley is one of the poets who were really devoted to nature. He considered nature as his source of inspiration be cause, hes also an agriculturere. In his poem The Wish Cowley appears as a nature protector and lover. He has a wish, which is to live alone with nature and far away from city and people. He explained his wish in five stanzas; in each stanza he gives nature, which is the countryside, a beautiful image. In the first stanza Cowley criticize the city and describe it as a hive, in the way that you love to see it from a distance but when you get nearer to it you get hurt by the bees stings. City is similar to the hive in the crowed buzzing and murmuring.

Nature is a common aspect in the renaissances poems and Abraham Cowley is one of the poets who were really devoted to nature. He considered nature as his source of inspiration because, hes also an agriculturere. In his poem The Wish Cowley appears as a nature protector and lover. He has a wish, which is to live alone with nature and far away from city and people. He explained his wish in five stanzas; in each stanza he gives nature, which is the countryside, a beautiful image.In the first stanza Cowley criticize the city and describe it as a hive, in the way that you love to see it from a distance but when you get nearer to it you get hurt by the bees stings. City is similar to the hive in the crowed buzzing and murmuring. Cowley also thinks that city people deserve his pity for theyre enduring the bees stings, which are the murmuring, crowed and buzz.

In the first sentence of the second stanza, Cowley described countryside as a grave, for most city people think its like that, because of the lack of modernization. Well he says let me live in that grave happily better that living in the city. Then he clarifies his wish after the gloomy introduction about city in the first stanza, which is some how a reason of his wish. He wishes to be in nature with books and friends. We always connect books and best friends, and Cowley gives the description of honest and wise to those chosen friends and books and he completes his image with a lover which is nature. So Cowleys wish is completed now, honest friends, wise books, and loving nature.

Andrew Marvel To His Coy Mistress


Andrew Marvell's famous lyric To His Coy Mistress is a metaphysical poem. For those who didn't major in English, metaphysical poems are brief, intense meditations employing wit, irony and wordplay. Underlying the formal structures of rhyme, meter, and stanza is the poem's logicbased argument. In To His Coy Mistress the explicit argument (the spe aker's request that the coy lady yield to his passion) is a whimsical statement bristling with humorous hyperbole but leading to a deadly serious argument about the shortness of life and the quick passage of libidinal pleasure. The theme expressed in it is carpe diem or seize the day. Marvell's poem is usually excluded from secondary level textbooks because of its explicit sexuality, despite its author being a Puritan and the son of a Calvinist Anglican preacher.This seduction poem is presented in the unromantic form of a logical syllogism. The opening "if" segment lacks that subordinating conjunction that is more elegantly presupposed by the subjunctive mood of "Had we but world enough and time." The mediate inference is presented in the second verse paragraph beginning with "But," and the deduction in the concluding stanza commencing with "Now therefore." Such strict adherence to logical argument befits the author who was an important political figure in the Cromwell protectorate in England. Current readers of Marvell's poem are often upset to learn that the adjective "coy" at the time of writing had none of its modern suggestions of playful teasing or coquetry. In Marvell's day the word was a synonym for reluctant, modest, even disdainful. [Shorter Oxford English Dictionary] In "the mother tongue: english and how it got that way" [page 73], Bill Bryson points out that "'coy' and 'quiet' both have the same grandparent in the Latin 'quietus'."The lady addressed in the poem remains silent - reluctant to accede to the speaker's pleas because she wishes to maintain her "quaint Honour" or virginity. There is none of the dalliance or playing-hard-to-get that we usually assume with coyness.

UNIT IV
John Milton - Lycidas
"Lycidas" is a poem by John Milton, written in 1637 as a pastoral elegy. It first appearing in a 1638 collection of elegies, entitled Justa Edouardo King Naufrago, dedicated to the memory of Edward King, a collegemate of Milton's at Cambridge who drowned when his ship sank in the Irish Sea off the coast of Wales in August 1637. The poem is 193 lines in length, and is irregularly rhymed. While many of the other poems in the compilation are in Greek and Latin, "Lycidas" is one of the poems written in English. [1] Milton republished the poem in 1645. The name "Lycidas" comes from Theocritus' Idylls, where Lycidas () is most prominently a poet-goatherd encountered on the trip of Idyll vii. The name later occurs in Virgil and is a typically Doric shepherd's name, appropriate for the pastoral mode. Milton's poem makes extensive references to these classical authors, and is difficult for most modern readers without the help of explanatory footnotes. The classical themes of the poem are blended with particularly British mythology, such as Druids, Mona and Camus, the river spirit of the Cam, as well as Christian allegory. The topic of the poem is a shepherd who mourns his drowned friend, Lycidas, first alluding to the immortal fame of a poet (King had also written verse, but not with particular distinction; Milton is using the occasion for much more general sentiments not necessarily directed at King personally). Then, the metaphor of "shepherd" for priests is explored. King and Milton were both preparing to become ministers, and the death of one good shepherd mourned as a severe loss to the flock The phrase "blind mouths" describes the corrupt clergy who "creep, intrude and climb into the fold", i.e. who acquire their position with dishonest means, referring to their greed, and uselessness as guardians. The "Wolf" has been interpreted as an allegory for the Catholic Church, and the "two- handed engine at the door" may refer to Judgement Day, although the precise metaphor intended is uncertain, and the lines are among the most discussed in English literature. An "engine" in Milton's day needed not be a mechanical machine, but could also refer to a simpler device or weapon, such as a two handed sword used for execution. The final lines of the poem, may refer to Milton's imminent departure to Italy, and they are reminiscent of the end of Virgil's 10th Eclogue,