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# CHAPTER 3 - Discrete Random Variables and Probability Distributions

SHORT ANSWER 1. Three automobiles are selected at random, and each is categorized as having a diesel (S) or nondiesel (F) engine (so
outcomes are SSS, SSF, etc.). If X = the number of cars among the three with diesel engines, list each outcome in S and its associated X value.

2. Let

= the number of nonzero digits in a randoml! selected zi" code. #hat are the "ossible values of \$ %ive three "ossible outcomes and their associated values. is an infinite set, does this necessaril! im"l! that an! random variable X defined from S will have an infinite set of "ossible values\$ If !es, sa! wh!. If no, give an e'am"le.

## &. If the sam"le s"ace

(. )n automobile service facilit! s"ecializing in engine tune*u"s +nows that ,-. of all tune*u"s are done on four*c!linder
automobiles, (-. on si'*c!linder automobiles, and 1-. on eight*c!linder automobiles. Let X = the number of c!linders on the ne't car to be tuned. #hat is the "mf of X\$

,. The n candidates for a store manager have been ran+ed 1,2,&,/,n. Let X = the ran+ of a randoml! selected candidate, so
that X has "mf

(this is called the discrete uniform distribution). 0om"ute E(X) and V(X) using the shortcut formula. 1Hint: The sum of the first n "ositive integers is n(n 2 1)32, whereas the sum of their s4uares is n(n 2 1)(2n 2 1)35.6

5. ) chemical su""l! com"an! currentl! has in stoc+ 1--lb of a certain chemical, which it sells to customers in ,*lb lots. Let X
= the number of lots ordered b! a randoml! chosen customer, and su""ose that X has "mf x P( x) 1 .2 .& 2 .& & .2 (

0om"ute E(X) and V(X). Then com"ute the e'"ected number of "ounds left after the ne't customer7s order is shi""ed, and the variance of the number of "ounds left. (Hint: The number of "ounds left is a linear function of X.)

8. Twent!*five "ercent of all tele"hones of a certain t!"e are submitted for service while under warrant!. 9f these, 5-. can be
re"aired whereas the other (-. must be re"laced with new units. If a com"an! "urchases ten of these tele"hones, what is the "robabilit! that e'actl! two will end u" being re"laced under warrant!\$

:. ) geologist has collected 1- s"ecimens of basaltic roc+ and 1- s"ecimens of granite. The geologist instructs a laborator!
assistant to randoml! select 1, of the s"ecimens for anal!sis. a. b. c. #hat is the "mf of the number of granite s"ecimens selected for anal!sis\$ #hat is the "robabilit! that all s"ecimens of one of the two t!"es of roc+ are selected for anal!sis\$ #hat is the "robabilit! that the number of granite s"ecimens selected for anal!sis is within 1 standard deviation of its mean value\$

;. ) famil! decides to have children until it has three children of the same gender. )ssuming P(B) = P(G) = .,, what is the "mf
of X = the number of children in the famil!\$

1-. Three brothers and their wives decide to have children until each famil! has two female children. #hat is the "mf of X = the
total number of male children born to the brothers\$ #hat is E(X), and how does it com"are to the e'"ected number of male children born to each brother\$

11. <u""ose the number X of tornadoes observed in =ansas during a 1*!ear "eriod has a >oisson distribution with
a. b. c. 0om"ute 0om"ute 0om"ute

12. )ssume that 1 in 2-- "eo"le carr! the defective gene that causes inherited colon cancer. In a sam"le of 1--- individuals,
what is the a""ro'imate distribution of the number who carr! this gene\$ ?se this distribution to calculate the a""ro'imate "robabilit! that a. b. @etween 5 and ; (inclusive) carr! the gene. )t least 1- carr! the gene.

1&. The number of tic+ets issued b! a meter reader for "ar+ing*meter violations can be modeled b! a >oisson "rocess with a rate
"arameter of five "er hour. a. b. c. #hat is the "robabilit! that e'actl! three tic+ets are given out during a "articular hour\$ #hat is the "robabilit! that at least three tic+ets are given out during a "articular hour\$ Aow man! tic+ets do !ou e'"ect to be given during a (,*min "eriod\$ = 1- "er hour.

1(. )utomobiles arrive at a vehicle e4ui"ment ins"ection station according to a >oisson "rocess with rate
<u""ose that with "robabilit! ., an arriving vehicle will have no e4ui"ment violations. a. b. c. #hat is the "robabilit! that e'actl! ten arrive during the hour and all ten have no violations\$

Bor an! fi'ed what is the "robabilit! that y arrive during the hour, of which ten have no violations\$ #hat is the "robabilit! that ten Cno*violationD cars arrive during the ne't hour\$ 1Hint: <um the "robabilities in "art (b) from y = 1- to 6

1,. ) mail*order com"uter business has five tele"hone lines. Let X denote the number of lines in use at a s"ecified time.
<u""ose the "mf of X is as given in the accom"an!ing table. x P( x) .11 .1, 2 .2& .2, ( .22 , .-:

0alculate the "robabilit! of each of the following events. a. Eat most & lines are in useF b. Efewer than & lines are in useF c. Eat least & lines are in useF d. Ebetween 2 and , lines, inclusive, are in useF e. Ebetween 2 and ( lines, inclusive, are not in useF f. Eat least ( lines are not in useF

15.
a. b. c.

<u""ose that in one area in 0alifornia, (-. of all homeowners are insured against earth4ua+e damage. Bour homeowners are to be selected at randomG let X denote the number among the four who have earth4ua+e insurance. Bind the "robabilit! distribution of X. 1Hint: Let S denote a homeowner who has insurance and F one who does not. Then one "ossible outcome is SFSS, with "robabilit! (.&)(.8)(.&)(.&) and associated X value &. There are 1, other outcomes.6 #hat is the most li+el! value for X\$ #hat is the "robabilit! that at least two of the four selected have earth4ua+e insurance\$

18. )n insurance com"an! offers its "olic!holders a number of different "a!ment o"tions. Bor a randoml! selected "olic!holder,
let X = the number of months between successive "a!ments. The cdf of X is as followsH

a. b. c.

#hat is the "mf of X\$ ?sing Iust the cdf, com"ute ?sing Iust the "mf, com"ute >( J5).

1:. The "mf for X = the number of maIor defects on a randoml! selected gas stove of a certain t!"e is
x P(x) .11 .1, 2 .(, & .2, ( .-,

0om"ute the followingH a. E(X) b. V(X) directl! from the definition c The standard deviation of X d. V(X) using the shortcut formula

1;. )n a""liance dealer sells three different models of u"right freezers having 1&.,, 1,.;, and 1;.1 cubic feet of storage s"ace,
res"ectivel!. Let X = the amount of storage s"ace "urchased b! the ne't customer to bu! a freezer. <u""ose that X has "mf x P( x) a. b. c. d. 1&., .2 1,.; .( 1;.1 .(

0om"ute If the "rice of a freezer having ca"acit! X cubic feet is 2,X K :.,, what is the e'"ected "rice "aid b! the ne't customer to bu! a freezer\$ #hat is the variance of the "rice 2,X K :., "aid b! the ne't customer\$ <u""ose that although the rated ca"acit! of a freezer is X, the actual ca"acit! is e'"ected actual ca"acit! of the freezer "urchased b! the ne't customer\$ #hat is the

2-. 0om"ute the following binomial "robabilities directl! from the formula for b(xGn,p).
a. b. c. d. b(&G :, .8) b(,G :, .8)

21. ?se the cumulative binomial "robabilities table available in !our te't to obtain the following "robabilitiesH
a. b. c. d. e. f. g. B((G 1-, .() b((G 1-, .() b(5G 1-, .5) when when when when @in(1-,.() @in(1-,.&) @in(1-,.8) @in(1-,.&)

22. <u""ose that onl! 2,. of all drivers come to a com"lete sto" at an intersection having flashing red lights in all directions
when no other cars are visible. #hat is the "robabilit! that, of 2- randoml! chosen drivers coming to an intersection under these conditions, a. b. c. d. )t most 5 will come to a com"lete sto"\$ L'actl! 5 will come to a com"lete sto"\$ )t least 5 will come to a com"lete sto"\$ Aow man! of the ne't 2- drivers do !ou e'"ect to come to a com"lete sto"\$

2&. Lach of 12 refrigerators of a certain t!"e has been returned to a distributor because of the "resence of a high*"itched
oscillating noise when the refrigerator is running. <u""ose that , of these 12 have defective com"ressors and the other 8 have less serious "roblems. If the! are e'amined in random order, let X = the number among the first 5 e'amined that have a defective com"ressor. 0om"ute the followingH a. b. (X = 1)

2(. The number of "um"s in use at both a si'*"um" station and a four*"um" station will be determined. %ive the "ossible
values for each of the following random variables. a. b. c. d. T = the total number of "um"s in use X = the difference between the numbers in use at stations 1 and 2 U = the ma'imum number of "um"s in use at either station Z = the number of stations having e'actl! two "um"s in use