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Chapter 34 - Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Shadow of War 1933-1941 Khang Luu Period 1 I. The London Conference 1.

London Economic Conference (1933)-Comprised of 66 countries that convened to propose a solution to the Great Depression o FDR decided to send Secretary of State Cordell Hull 1. Ended up withdrawing Hull as well as using the basis of the attempt to stabilise currencies to criticise other countries o The Conference was a bust and promptly adjourned 1. Increased Americas isolationist attitude II. Freedom for (from?) the Filipinos and Recognition for the Russians 1. Americans, suddenly on hard times sought to discard the liability that lay with the Philippine Islands o Producers of sugar in the US were also eager to eliminate the competition from the Philippines 2. Tydings-McDuffie Act (1934)-Declared Filipino independence in 1946, after being taught over a period of 12 years in economics and politics o Naval bases held fast in Philippine bays whereas army bases departed 3. American withdrawal from Asia matched their movements away from Europe o The Japanese, now heavily militaristic, saw this as an opportunity to conquer the Pacific without running into the Americans 4. FDR finally recognised the USSR officially in the hopes of stimulating American-Soviet trade and keep the Germans and Japanese at bay III. Becoming a Good Neighbor 1. Abandoning their ambitions to become a global power, the Americans improved their terms with Latin America, becoming good neighbours 2. 1933-FDR withdrew the troops staging an armed intervention in Latin America which he announced at the Seventh Pan-American Conference in Montevideo, Uruguay o In 34, Americans Marines would depart Haiti 3. Americans also withdrew from Panama which triggered Mexican seizure of American oil properties o Instead of doing something rash and drastic, FDR negotiated a peaceful deal o Americans adopting the good neighbour persona improved the Americans public image in Latin America IV. Secretary Hulls Reciprocal Trade Agreement

1. Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act (1934)-was passed by Congress with the help of Secretary of State Hull which sought to provide relief and recovery via upping American trade by enacting low-tariff policies o The Act would reverse and amend parts of the Hawley-Smoot law by almost halving tariffs 1. This was based on the hopes that other nations would provide the US with the same treatment 2. This Act would be the basis for converting the US from depending on high-tariff policies to leading free trade across the globe which would be brought into effect following the Second World War V. Storm-Cellar Isolationism 1. Following the Great War, dictators such as Stalin, Mussolini, and Hitler reared their ugly heads in Europe o Hitler was the biggest threat, being a fantastic speaker who managed to convince the German people that they could shed their poverty and depression by following him 2. 1936-the Rome-Berlin Axis is formed with the teaming up of Hitler and Mussolini 3. In the Far East, the Japanese would gather their strength, being uncooperative, calling quits on the Washington Naval Treaty in 34, and bailing on the London Economic Conference 4. 1935-Ethiopia is attacked by Mussolini and the League of Nations fails to act in any effective way whatsoever 5. The Americans were convinced that they could hole themselves up and wait out the international storm raging outside o Johnson Debt Default Act (1934)-kept countries indebted to America from borrowing any more VI. Congress Legislates Neutrality 1. Nye Committee (1934)-created to inquire into whether or not munitions manufacturers encouraged war of which they would profit from o The media blamed these manufacturers for brining the US into the Great War 2. Neutrality Acts (35-37)-passed to keep the US from the War, it declared that whenever the president acknowledged foreign war, three restrictions would automatically go up: Americans could not provide loans to, legally sail on the ship of, or sell munitions to, belligerents o These Acts had a crucial flaw in that they were devised to keep the US from a war such as the Great War, not the much-different WWII VII. America Dooms Loyalist Spain 1. Spanish Civil War (1936-39)-General Francisco Franco, a fascist, led forces against his Leftist republican government o To maintain neutrality, the Americans would embargo both sides

The Loyalists were Soviet backed whereas the rebels were German and Italian backed America stood by twiddling its thumbs as Franco walked all over the Loyalists The US also failed to increase their fleet size due to the belief that large fleets led to large wars Congress would only pass a naval construction act in 1938, proving to be too late

VIII. Appeasing Japan and Germany 1. 1937-China is invaded by Japan o FDR didnt declare this a war and allowed Americans to assist the Chinese by sending them munitions o Additionally, he made a Quarantine Speech in which he made a call for Japanese Quarantine via economic embargoes 1. This speech called for American Neutrality with a moral opposition of the fascists 2. This famous speech undoubtedly pissed off isolationists and discouraged FDR from making any more direct manoeuvres 2. December, 1937-American gunboat, the Panay, is sunk by the Japanese who apologised properly and necessarily afterwards keeping the US from the war o To ease their frustrations in failing to drag Americans into the conflict, the Japanese slapped and stripped white civilians in China o This bombing would increase American neutral desires to stay neutral 3. Over in Europe, Hitler became more confident and took bolder actions; he established compulsory military service in Germany, conquered the Rhineland, exterminated six million Jews, and occupied Austria all the tune of European appeasement o The appeasement was driven by the hope that each conquered territory would be the last 4. Munich Conference (September, 1938)-Hitler was given the green-light to take Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia which ended up with him conquering the entirety of Czechoslovakia in March of 39 o Funny enough, British PM Chamberlain would return to Britain touting that hed achieved peace in our time IX. Hitlers Belligerency and U.S. Neutrality 1. August 23, 1939-The Soviets did the unthinkable and promised nonaggression with the Germans o Germany was now free to swallow Europe wholly now that Russia didnt pose a threat if the Germans decided on a two-front war o This pact basically allowed the Germans to seize Poland 2. 1939-German invasion of Poland o Triggered French and British involvement in the war, but not American o Despite supporting the British and French and opposing the Nazis, the Americans wouldnt let themselves get involved with more fighting and bloodshed

3. Neutrality Act of 1939-passed in response of European need for American supplies, it acted on the basis that Europeans could buy munitions and supplies from the Americans if they provided their own ships and paid for the supplies in cash o The Germans, who did not control the seas like their opponents were kept from buying American supplies X. The Fall of France 1. With Poland conquered, Hitler set his sights on France which led to a brief delay which was to be interrupted with Soviet conquest of Finland which was successful despite $30 million from the Americans (for non-military reasons, of course) 2. 1940-Hitler bulldozed Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, and Belgium o He followed up with a blitz into France, marching into Parisian streets triggering French surrender in June of 1940 o With France down, the only thing standing between Hitler and the rest of the world was the British 3. With this harrowing realisation, Roosevelt moved to bolster American armed forces which cost upwards of 37 million. o September 6, 1940-The first peacetime draft in US history was also put into action which resulted in 1.2 million troops with 800,000 reserves being trained 4. During the Havana Conference, the US called off=limits on American orphan colonies declaring that they wouldnt tolerate any German attempts to take them XI. Bolstering Britain with the Destroyer Deal (1940) 1. With Britain standing as the last defence between Hitler and the world, FDR had to decide if he was to keep the US neutral or provide the Brits with aid o August, 1940-Hitler begins bombing Britain with his Luftwaffe but is deterred by the efforts of the British Royal Air Force in the famous Battle of Britain 2. Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies-this mouthful of a committee was formed by those pro-British aid 3. America First Committee-created by those supported isolationism of which Charles A. Lindbergh was a member o Both would campaign politically to bring their views on the American people 4. September 2, 1940-The US traded 50 four-funnel destroyers from the Great War for defensive base sites which were scattered from Newfoundland to South America with desperate-for-destroyers Britain o Americans would own these bases for the next 99 years o Despite the controversy, this showed FDR was willing to stop messing around with isolationist diversions XII. FDR Shatters the Two-Term Tradition (1940) 1. Instead of the anticipated Robert A. Taft of Ohio or Tomas E. Dewey stepping up as the Republican candidate, Wendell L. Willkie who was magnetic and colourful would rise up from anonymity to challenge FDR.

FDR would wait until last-minute to break the two-term tradition 2. Willkie and FDR in regards to foreign affairs were rather similar but Willkie attacked heavily with objections against a third FDR term 3. Americans still went with FDR due to the belief that should America go to war, FDR was the best man to lead the nation

XIII. Congress Passes the Landmark Lend-Lease Law 1. Facing a cash-strapped Britain, FDR decided not to call back debts and instead go with a program which would lease munitions, ships, and other things needed for war and require the return of them when no longer of use o Taft would criticise FDR for this decision saying the US wouldnt want those things back, comparing the leased items to chewing gum 2. Congress would debate heavily over this lend-lease bill but it would pass, resulting in $50 billion worth of arms and equipment being sent o This Act marked the end of American neutrality which was recognised by Hitler o German subs kept from torpedoing American ships but after the Act fired without hesitation as indicated by the attack on the Robin Moor on May 21, 1941 XIV. Hitlers Assault on the Soviet Union Spawns the Atlantic Charter 1. June 22, 1941-Hitler breaks the pact of non-aggression and attacks Russia o Neither Hitler or Stalin trusted the other despite the pact and had in fact planned to stab each other in the back o The falsely-cocky Hitler was shocked when his invincible troops were deterred by the valiant Red Army 1. German troops would be stranded in Moscow due to the efforts of the Soviets who leased war equipment from the Americans 2. Atlantic Conference (August, 1941)-created the Atlantic Charter with its eight points o Territorial changes would not be made against native wishes o Self-determination-the right for people to choose their own rulers o A new League of Nations, disarmament, and the peace of security were also declared 3. Those against these points argued that neutral Americans were interfering XV. U.S. Destroyers and Hitlers U-Boats Clash 1. FDR wanted to guarantee that the British receive the leased arms and sent a convoy to accompany the shipment to Iceland 2. German U-Boats would attack the Greer, Kearny, and Reuben James 3. Only in November, 1941 did Congress annul the now-irrelevant Neutrality Act XVI. Surprise Assault at Pearl Harbour 1. Occupied with occupying China, the Japanese faced American embargoes on crucial supplies in 1940.

1. They now had to withdraw from China or attack the US. They surprisingly and foolishly chose the second option 2. The US couldnt attack the Japanese and thought that the Japanese would attack British Malaya or the Philippines 3. Bombing of Pearl Harbour (December 7, 1941)-Japanese air bombers made a devastating strike on Pearl Harbour of which contained most of the US fleet and killed 3000 men. 4. FDR would declare that day one which would live in infamy and promptly declared war on Japan which triggered German and Italian declaration of war on the US XVII. Americas Transformation from Bystander to Belligerent 1. All the way up to Pearl Harbour, Americans still wanted to keep out of the war, but it was that event that pissed them off into a war-ready frenzy 2. American enthusiasm for the war was imminent seeing as to how they had been backing the British and opposing Japanese aggression 3. Appeasement was finally abandoned and that all out war was necessary to eradicate anarchy and dictatorship