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Increasing and Decreasing Functions HelloSorry I am away today.

The following sheets should help guide you through increasing and decreasing functions. Any questions you have will be discussed on Tuesday as well. Read the following notes and complete the questions at the end. The homework from the calendar is: Pg.156: C1-C3; Pg.156: #1, 2, 4-7(a)(b), 10, 11 Have a good day, Mr. Goos

I NCREASING AND D ECREASING F UNCTIONS


f (x) = x3 x2 2x + 3.5
5 4

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0 -1

0.5

1.5

increasing

Walking uphill means the function is increasing

I NCREASING AND D ECREASING F UNCTIONS


f (x) = x3 x2 2x + 3.5
5 4

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0 -1

0.5

1.5

increasing

decreasing

Walking uphill means the function is increasing Walking downhill means the function is deceasing

I NCREASING AND D ECREASING F UNCTIONS


f (x) = x3 x2 2x + 3.5
5 4

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0 -1

0.5

1.5

increasing

decreasing

increasing

Walking uphill means the function is increasing Walking downhill means the function is deceasing

I NCREASING AND D ECREASING F UNCTIONS


f (x) = x3 x2 2x + 3.5
5 4

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0 -1

0.5

1.5

increasing

decreasing

increasing

Walking uphill means the function is increasing Walking downhill means the function is deceasing
Neither increasing nor decreasing at a peak or valley.

I NCREASING AND D ECREASING F UNCTIONS


Denition
Let f be a function dened on some interval, and let x1 and x2 be any real numbers in the interval with x1 < x2 . We say that f is increasing on the interval if f (x1 ) < f (x2 ) We say that f is decreasing on the interval if f (x1 ) > f (x2 )

I NCREASING AND D ECREASING F UNCTIONS


Below is the graph of the function f (x).

Determine the interval(s) in which f (x) is increasing and decreasing.


increasing: (3, 0) (2, ) decreasing:(, 3) (0, 2)

I NCREASING AND D ECREASING F UNCTIONS


Consider the previous graph.
5 4

slope > 0
2 1

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0 -1

0.5

1.5

increasing

decreasing

increasing

positive slope (f 0 (x) > 0) the function is increasing.

I NCREASING AND D ECREASING F UNCTIONS


Consider the previous graph.
5 4

slope = 0
3 2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0 -1

0.5

1.5

increasing

decreasing

increasing

positive slope (f 0 (x) > 0) the function is increasing. slope of zero (f 0 (x) = 0) the function is neither increasing nor decreasing.

T HE D ERIVATIVE T EST
Consider the previous graph.
5 4

slope < 0

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0 -1

0.5

1.5

increasing

decreasing

increasing

positive slope (f 0 (x) > 0) the function is increasing. slope of zero (f 0 (x) = 0) the function is neither increasing nor decreasing. negative slope (f 0 (x) < 0) the function is decreasing.

I NCREASING AND D ECREASING F UNCTIONS


Consider the previous graph.
5 4

slope = 0
0.5 1 1.5 2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0 -1

increasing

decreasing

increasing

positive slope (f 0 (x) > 0) the function is increasing. slope of zero (f 0 (x) = 0) the function is neither increasing nor decreasing. negative slope (f 0 (x) < 0) the function is decreasing.

I NCREASING AND D ECREASING F UNCTIONS


Consider the previous graph.
5 4

slope > 0

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0 -1

0.5

1.5

increasing

decreasing

increasing

positive slope (f 0 (x) > 0) the function is increasing. slope of zero (f 0 (x) = 0) the function is neither increasing nor decreasing. negative slope (f 0 (x) < 0) the function is decreasing.

I NCREASING AND D ECREASING F UNCTIONS


Derivative Test for Increasing and Decreasing
Suppose f (x) is a function whose derivative exists at every point in some interval. if f 0 (x) > 0 for all x in the interval, the function is increasing on the interval. if f 0 (x) < 0 for all x in the interval, the function is decreasing on the interval. if f 0 (x) = 0 for all x in the interval, the function is constant on the interval. How can we determine these intervals from the equation of the function?

I NCREASING AND D ECREASING F UNCTIONS


If f 0 (x) goes from positive to negative (or vice verse) at a point x = a, then one of two things must be true: (1) f 0 (c) = 0, or (2) f 0 (x) does not exist at x = c We call these points critical points. We can use the critical points of a function to determine the intervals over which it is increasing and decreasing.

I NCREASING AND D ECREASING F UNCTIONS


Let f (x) = 2.3 + 3x x2 . Determine the open intervals where the f is inc./dec.
Step 1: Find the critical points of f

To do this, we rst nd f 0 (x): Next, we determine for which x-values either f 0 (x) = 0 or f 0 (x) is undened. 3 3 2x = 0 3 = 2x x = 2 Any other critical point would be where f 0 (x) = 3 2x is undened. However, f 0 (x) is a polynomial so it is dened for all real numbers, so... 3 Critical point: x = 2 f 0 (x) = 3 2x

I NCREASING AND D ECREASING F UNCTIONS


Let f (x) = 2.3 + 3x x2 .
what will be called the rst derivative test

Determine the open intervals where the f is inc./dec.


Step 2: Use the derivative test

From Step 1 we know that we have a critical point at 3/2 Our one critical point divides the real line into two intervals.
0 1.5 Choose one point a from the rst interval and check if f 0 (a) > 0 or f 0 (a) < 0. f 0 (1) = 3 2(1) = 5 > 0

So our original function f is increasing on the rst interval f is increasing on (-!,1.5)


-1 0 1.5

I NCREASING AND D ECREASING F UNCTIONS


Let f (x) = 2.3 + 3x x2 . Determine the open intervals where the f is inc./dec.
Step 2: Use the derivative test

Next, choose a point in the second interval So our original function f is decreasing on the rst interval
f is decreasing on (1.5,!) 0 1.5 2

f 0 ( 2) = 3 2( 2) = 1 < 0

Putting this all together: f is increasing: (, 1.5) f is decreasing: (1.5, )

I NCREASING AND D ECREASING F UNCTIONS


Determine the open intervals where the following functions are increasing and decreasing (1) f (x) = x2/3 (2) g(t) = 3t + 6 (3) h(x) = x2 + 1

I NCREASING AND D ECREASING F UNCTIONS


A county realty group estimates that the number of housing starts per year over the next three years will be 300 1 + 0.03r2 where r is the mortgage rate (in percent): H(r) = (a) Where is H(r) increasing? (b) Where is H(r) decreasing?