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Course Code : FES 155 INTRODUCTION HISTORY OF COSTUME Lecture : Miss Norizan Binti Mohamed Date of Submission :

Content Introduction of Costume or Clothing Korea Culture Clothing Background Silhouette Colour Fabric Texture Pattern of Hanbok Page 3 4 5 - 15 16 -17 18 19 20 21 -46

Taiwan Culture Clothing Background Silhouette Colour Texture Fabric

47 48 - 60 61 - 65 66 69 70 71 72 73



Introduction of Costume

Costume is an essential element of the overall design of a film. Working within the directors vision for the film, costume designers try to replicate clothing by investigating the dress and fashion of the time, or historical period, and essentially dress actors to look or more fully become their characters. A costume can be tailor made, purchased, or rented. In the earliest days of cinema, actors wore their own clothing, but this would change with the advent of feature-length narrative films. The costume designer soon became an important part of the production design team. During the studio era in Hollywood, the costume designer helped to establish a symbiotic relationship with the fashion world, and helped to galvanize cinemas influence on fashion trends and interest around the world. Costume design research can be challenging. During the silent era, there were no screen credits. In the United States, by the 1950s, the studios disposed of many of the records related to costume design. Preservation of film and related documents was not much better elsewhere in the world. Beginning in the 1970s, several interesting histories of Hollywood helped to define the work of the costume designer and the importance of costume to the film. Much less has been written on costume design in the international film world. In the last several decades, scholarly discussion of costume and fashion in relation to film has emerged from multiple disciplines, including the study of costume, fashion and dress, gender and feminist theories, cultural studies, and the longer history of the study of clothing and material culture.

Korean Culture Clothing


Hanbok name from South Korea or Chosn-ot from North Korea is the traditional Korean dress. It is often characterized by vibrant colors and simple lines without pockets. Although the term literally means "Korean clothing", hanbok today often refers specifically to hanbok of the Joseon (Chosn) period and is worn as semi-formal or formal wear during traditional festivals and celebrations. Throughout history, Korea had a dual clothing tradition, in which rulers and aristocrats adopted different kinds of mixed foreign-influenced indigenous styles, while the commoners continued to use a distinct style of indigenous clothing that today is known as Hanbok.


Basic Composition and Design of Hanbok

Traditional women's hanbok consists of jeogori, a blouse shirt or a jacket and chima, a wraparound skirt, which is usually worn full. The ensemble is often called chima jeogori. Men's hanbok consists of jeogori and baji which means pants in Korea. The baji were baggy pants in traditional men's hanbok. Jeogori

Jeogori and chima Jeogori is the basic upper garment of the hanbok, which has been worn by both men and women. It covers the arms and upper part of the wearer's body. The basic form of a jeogori consists of gil, git, dongjeong, goreum and sleeves. Gil () is the large section of the garment in both front and back side and git () is a band of fabric that trims the collar. Dongjeong () is a removable white collar placed over the end of the git and is generally squared off. The goreum () are coat-strings that tie the jeogori. Women's jeogori may have kkeutdong (), a different colored cuff placed at the end of the sleeves. There are two jeogori that may be the earliest surviving archaeological finds. One from a Yangcheon Heo Clan tomb is dated 1400-1450, while the other was discovered inside a statue of Buddha at Sangwonsa Temple (presumably left as an offering) that has been dated to the 1460s. The form of Jeogori has changed over time. While men's jeogori remained relatively unchanged, women's jeogori dramatically shortened during Chosn dynasty, reaching its shortest length at the late 19th century. However, due to reformation efforts and practical reasons, modern jeogori for women is longer than its earlier counterpart. Nonetheless the length is still above the waist line. Traditionally, goreum were short and narrow, however modern goreum are rather long and wide. There are several types of jeogori according to fabric, sewing technique, and shape.

Chima Chima refers to "skirt" which is also called sang () or gun () in hanja. The underskirt, or petticoat layer is called sokchima. According to remaining murals of Goguryeo, and an earthen toy excavated from the neighborhood of Hwangnam-dong, Gyeongju, Goguryeo women wore a chima with jeogori over it, covering the belt. Although striped, patchwork and gored skirts are known from the Goguryeo and Jeoson periods, chima were typically made from rectangular cloth that was pleated or gathered into a skirt band.This waistband extended past the skirt fabric itself and formed ties so that the skirt could be fastened around the trunk of the body. Sokchima was largely made in a similar way to the overskirts until the early 20th century when straps were added,later developing into a sleeveless bodice or 'reformed' petticoat. By the mid-20th century, some outer chima had also gained a sleeveless bodice, that was then covered by the jeogori.

Baji refers to the bottom part of the men's hanbok. It is the formal term for 'pants' in Korean. Compared to western style pants, it does not fit tightly. The roomy nature of the cloth is due to a design aimed at making the cloth ideal for sitting on the floor. It performs similar role today for modern trousers, but Baji is commonly used in Korea for any kinds of pants. There are two in front of baji, and a person can tighten up whenever needed. Baji are classified as unlined trousers, leather trousers, silk pants, cotton pants according to dress, sewing way, and embroidery and so on.

Po Po is a generic term referring to an outer robe or overcoat, which was worn mostly by men since the Goryeo period until the Chosn period. Durumagi is a variety of po that was worn to protect the cold. It had been widely worn as an outer robe over jeogori and baji. It is also called jumagui, juchaui, or juui. "Po" is also called "Jeogori", written as "" in hangul. Jeogori inherited the Chinese Ming ao skirt's white collar and Jin. As buttoned blouse, skirt in front of the two on each seam have Jin, female's Jeogori has a long belt hung in front of the dress, also have an effect of adornment. Jeogori below the cuff is refers to the jacket sleeves, characterized by a traditional Korean house in the eaves of natural feminine curves. There are differences between the men and women's Jeogori. Men's Jeogori coarse to with line and flat; Women's Jeogoris have beautifully decorated curves which are short and beautiful.

Jokki and magoja Jokki () is a type of vest while magoja is an outer jacket. Although jokki and magoja were created at the end of the Chosn Dynasty in which the Western culture began to affect Korea, the garments have been considered parts of traditional clothing. Each is additionally worn over jeogori for warmth and style. Magoja was an originally Manchu style clothing, but was introduced to Korea after Heungseon Daewongun, the father of King Gojong returned from his political exile in Manchuria in 1887. Magoja derived from magwae that he wore at that time to protect cold weather of the region. It was good to keep warmth and easy to wear, so that magoja became popular in Korea. It is also called "deot jeogori" (literally "an outer jeogori") or magwae. Magoja does not have git, band of fabric that trims the collar, goreum (tying strings) unlike jeogori and durumagi (overcoat). Magoja was originally a male garment, but later became a unisex clothing. The magoja for men has seop (, overlapped column on the front) and its length is longer than women's magoja, so that its both sides of the bottom are open. A magoja is made of a silk and is adorned with one or two buttons which are usually made from amber. In a male magoja, buttons are attached to the right side on contrary to women's magoja. At first, women wore the magoja for style rather than as a daily outfit and especially Kaeseong people used to wear it a lot. It is made of a silk and the color for women tends to be a neutral color to harmonize with other garments such as jeogori and chima which are worn together. In spring and autumn, a pastel tone is used for the women's magoja, so that wearers could wear it over a jeogori for style. As for men's magoja worn during spring and summer, jade, green, gray, dark grey were used. Children's hanbok

Children's hanbok In old days, Kkachi durumagi (literally "a magpie's overcoat") were worn as seolbim (), new clothing and shoes worn on Seollal, New Year's Day in the Korean calendar, while at present, it is worn as a ceremonial garment for doljanchi, celebration for a baby's first birthday. It is a children's colorful overcoat. It was worn mostly by young boys. The clothes is also called obangjang durumagi which means "an overcoat of five directions". It was worn over jeogori (a jacket) and jokki (a vest) while the wearer could put jeonbok (a long vest) over it. Kkachi durumagi was also worn along with headgear such as bokgeon (a peaked cloth 7

hat),hogeon (peaked cloth hat with a tiger pattern) for young boys or gulle (decorative headgear) for young girls. Modern hanbok for children consists of only two or three pieces and can be put on easily. They are usually made of less expensive fabrics since they are only worn once or twice a year during bigger holidays like Chuseok and Seollal. Children are also dressed up in hanbok on their first birthday, dol.


Hwarot, bride clothes. Hanbok is classified according to its purposes: everyday dress, ceremonial dress and special dress. Ceremonial dresses are worn on formal occasions, including a child's first birthday, a wedding or a funeral. Special dresses are made for shamans and officials.

Antiquity The hanbok can trace its origin to nomadic clothing in the Scytho-Siberian cultural sphere of northern Asia, widespread in ancient times. The earliest evidence of this common style of northern Asia can be found in the Xiongnu burial site of Noin Ula in northern Mongolia,and earliest evidence of hanbok's basic design features can be traced to ancient wall murals of Goguryeo before the 3rd century BCE. Reflecting its nomadic origins in northern Asia, hanbok was designed to facilitate ease of movement and also incorporated many shamanistic motifs. From this time, the basic structure of hanbok, namely the jeogori jacket, baji pants, and the chima skirt, was established. Short, tight trousers and tight, waist-length jackets were worn by both men and women during the early years of the Three Kingdoms of Korea period. The basic structure and these basic design features of hanbok remains relatively unchanged to this day. Toward the end of the Three Kingdoms period, noblewomen began to wear full-length skirts and hip-length jackets belted at the waist and noblemen began to wear roomy trousers bound in at the ankles and a narrow, tunic-style jacket cuffed at the wrists and belted at the waist. 8

Although most foreign influence on Hanbok didn't last or was superficial, Mongolian clothing is an exception as the only foreign influence that made significant visible changes to Hanbok. After Goryeo Dynasty (9181392) signed peace treaty with the Mongol Empire in the 13th century, Mongolian princesses who married into Korean royal house brought with them Mongolian fashion which began to prevail in both formal and private life. As a result of this influence, the chima skirt was shortened, and jeogori was hiked up above the waist and tied at the chest with a long, wide ribbon, the goruem (instead of being belted) and the sleeves were curved slightly. Cultural exchange was not one way however. Goryeo had significant cultural influence on the Mongols court of Yuan Dynasty, the most visible of which was adoption of women's hanbok by the aristocrats, queens and concubines of the Mongol court.

A Goguryeo man in a hunting attire from Goguryeo tombs.

Goguryeo king and queen's attire.

Silla king and queen's attire.

A woman's attire during the Goryeo dynasty.

Chosn dynasty The early Chosn dynasty appeared to continue the women's fashion for baggy, loose clothing, such as those seen on the mural from the tomb of Bak Ik (13321398). However, by the 16th century, the jeogori had shortened to the waist, and appears to have become closer fitting, although not to the extremes of the bell-shaped silhouette of the 18th and 19th centuries. Today's hanbok is the direct descendant of hanbok as worn in the Chosn dynasty period, specifically the late 19th century. Hanbok had gone through various changes and "fashion fads" during the five hundred years under the reigns of Chosn kings and eventually evolved to what we now mostly relate to as a typical hanbok. Everyday wear During the Chosn Dynasty, the chima or skirt adopted fuller volume while the jeogori or blouse took more tightened and shortened form, which are features quite distinct from the hanbok of previous centuries, when chima was rather slim and jeogori baggy and long, reaching well below the waist level. After the Imjin War economic hardship on the peninsula may have influenced the closer-fitting styles that would use less fabric. However, this explanation doesn't take into account the ever expanding voluminous size of the dress which must have increased the use of fabric despite the disastrous effects of the war. In the eighteenth century, the short length of jeogori reached extremity as to scarcely cover the breasts. Therefore women of respectable social backgrounds began to wear a piece of long cloth called heoritti around the breast. Heoritti was originally worn as an undergarment beneath the jeogori, but was now worn as an outwear. The common and lowborn classes, however, often eschewed the heoritti altogether, as a way of indicating that they had given birth to a son. This also may have assisted with breastfeeding. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the fullness of the skirt was concentratrated around the hips, thus forming a silhouette similar to Western bustles. The fullness of the skirt reached its extreme around 1800. During the nineteenth century fullness of the skirt was achieved around the knees and ankles thus giving chima a triangular or an A-shaped silhouette, which is still the preferred style to this day. Many undergarments such as darisokgot, soksokgot, dansokgot, and gojengi were worn underneath to achieve desired forms. A clothes reformation movement, which aimed to lengthen jeogori, experienced quite a success in the early twentieth century and has continued to influence the shaping of modern hanbok. Modern jeogori are longer, although still halfway between the waistline and the breasts. Heoritti are sometimes exposed for aesthetic reasons. At the end of nineteenth century, Daewon-gun introduced magoja, a Manchu-style jacket, to Korea, which is often worn over jeogori to this day.


Women's hanbok consists of chima skirt and jeogori shirt.

Full skirt and tight jeogori were considered fashionable. 18th century.

A rare painting of yangban women. Yangban ladies were sensitive to "fashion fads" which worried Seonbi scholars. 18th century.

Soksokgot, similar to petticoat is shown under the woman's skirt. 18th century.

Male aristocrat dress; a gat that a horsehair hat on the head and yellow dopo or an overcoat.


Men's hanbok saw little change compared to women's hanbok. The form and design of jeogori and baji hardly changed. However, men's lengthy outwear, equivalent of modern overcoat went through quite a dramatic change. Before the late 19th century, yangban men almost always wore jungchimak when going abroad. Jungchimak had very lengthy sleeves and its lower part had splits on both sides and occasionally on the back so as to create fluttering effect when walking. To some this was considered fashionable, and to some, namely stoic scholars, it was nothing but pure vanity. Daewon-gun successfully banned jungchimak as a part of his clothes reformation program and jungchimak eventually disappeared. Durumagi, which was previously worn underneath jungchimak and basically a house dress substituted jungchimak as the formal outwear for yangban men. Durumagi differs from its predecessor in that it has tighter sleeves and does not have splits on either sides and the back. It is also slightly shorter in length. Men's hanbok has remained relatively the same since the adoption of durumagi.

A man wearing jungchimak. 18th century.

The "fluttering" effect. 18th century.

Waryonggwan and hakchangui in 1863.


Photograph taken in 1863

Photograph taken in 1863

Bokgeon and simui in 1880.

Black bokgeon and blue dopo in 1880.

Jeongjagwan on the head.


Hanbok for formal occasions

Gonryongpo or ikseongwanpo : business attire for king

Hongryongpo: everyday clothes for king

Hwangryongpo: everyday clothes for emperor. Gojong began to wear the clothes.

Tongcheongwan and Gangsapo

Hwangwonsam: everyday clothes for queen/empress


Heuk dallyeongpo in the late 18th century Gwanbok is a Korean term which refers to all formal attires of government officials. It began to be worn since Silla period until Chosn Dynasty. During the Silla period, the official robe systems of Central Asia was imported and put into practice. There were several types of gwanbok which differs in color and design according to the wearer's status, rank, and occasion such as jobok, jebok, sangbok, gongbok, yungbok, and gunbok. During the Chosn Dynasty, style of the formal attires system was influenced by the styles of Ming China. Jobok was the gwanbok worn for special occasions such as national festivals, or announcement of royal decrees. Jebok was the gwanbok worn while an ancestor veneration ritual called jesa was held. Sangbok was worn as a daily official clothing while gongbok was worn when officers had an audience with the king at the palace. Yungbok was related to military affairs. However, as the term in a narrow scope only denote the gongbok and sangbok, it means dallyeong, robe with a round collar.



Most people do not consider the hanbok, Korea's national costume, as daily wear, preferring to wear it on special occasions such as social gatherings and seasonal festivals. Still, for many modern Koreans, wearing a hanbok is a way to show pride in their cultural heritage. As is true with any national costume, the hanbok is a reflection of the nation's climate as well as its aesthetics. A study of the hanbok can thus provide insight into the character of the Korean people. A hanbok basically consists of an upper part and a lower part. The woman's hanbok is composed of a chogori, a bolero-like blouse, and a ch'ima, a skirt. A vest called paeja, a jacket called magoja, and a coat called turumagi may be worn over the outfit. A headgear called ayam or chobawi may be worn to complete the ensemble. A man's outfit is similarly composed of a chogori and paji, trousers. Whereas a vest or racket mayor may not be worn over the chogori, traditional etiquette requires a man to always wear a coat or turumagi over his hanbok when outside his house. In olden days, hanbok differed according to the wearer's gender, class, profession and social status, with other variations depending on individual preference and lifestyle. Ceremonial clothes for weddings, funerals and other important occasions, especially those worn by royalty and court officials, showed the most diversity.


However, it is the basic two-part out, fit for daily wear that has long been favored by Koreans, regardless of class or profession. It was even worn under ceremonial gowns on special occasions. Referred to as hanbok in the narrow sense of the word, it has become formal attire for modern Koreans. Like Korean art, the hanbok is characterized by flowing lines and curves The chogori is especially rich in subtle curves, such as in the collar, the underside of the sleeves, the hem and the fly, which are sometimes highlighted with dark lines. The silhouette of the dress also has curves that undulate into more curves as the wearer moves. The ties and folds of the dress also create flowing curves. A straight silhouette was the fashion in the mid-sixteenth century, but it gave way to voluminous curves in the mid-eighteenth century which evolved into more moderate, natural curves in the late-nineteenth century. The changes in the silhouette reflected changes in the lines of each part of the costume. Nonetheless, the hanbok has been characterized by flowing, supple lines throughout the centuries. In tang-ui, a jacket worn by court ladies during the Choson period, the curve of the front fly reverses sharply as it meets the curve of the hem, emphasizing the beauty of reversal The sharp angle thus formed at each corner is one of the aesthetic points commonly found in all forms of Korean arts. The curved line is visible not only in clothes but also in the eaves of traditional buildings, in dance movements and in handicrafts and paintings, and can even be heard in classical melodies. It is also visible in the eternal circle of t'aeguk on a fan and in a small iron, indu, used for pressing the collar of the chogori. The beauty of the curved line cannot be stressed enough when discussing the beauty of hanbok. Empty or open space is a characteristic common to Korean arts. The blank areas of a porcelain jar, free of any ornamentation, complement its beauty. The blank areas in a painting inspire the viewer to fill the canvas with empathy. The same holds true for the hanbok. As it covers most of the wearer's body, the hanbok abounds in blank areas. Women's skirts and men's coats and robes especially have large unadorned areas. Koreans have traditionally favored plain fabric for clothing and even when the fabric has decorations, they are generally patterns woven into the fabric rather than added later. This contributes to the look of empty spaces that characterizes the hanbok. Fabric pieces of contrasting colors appliqued on the collar, armpits, cuffs and ties enhance the beauty of the woman's chogori. At the same time, pleats along the upper rim of the skirt flow into long, fluid lines which, shifting as the wearer moves, serve as a decorative element for the great expanse of blank space that is the skirt. The empty spaces of the hanbok allow for versatility as testified to by plentiful anecdotes. When a woman soiled a skirt she had borrowed from her neighbor, Shin Saimdang, a famous poetess and painter of the Choson period (1392-1910), painted a grapevine on the skirt, thus solving the woman's dilemma for she could sell the decorated skirt at a high price and reimburse the owner. Men often painted on the skirts of their mistresses as an expression of their affection. In fact, it was the dream of every kisaeng (professional entertainer) to have her skirt painted by her gentleman friend and she would shamelessly flaunt such a skirt.


White represents purity, integrity, and chastity, and was the most common color for common clothes. The upper class and court figures wore clothes in red, yellow, blue, and black in addition to white. These colors, symbolize the five traditional elements in Oriental cosmology (fire, earth, water, metal, and wood). Dyes were made from natural materials such as flowers or bark.


Because of the diverse weather conditions, clothes have been made from hemp, ramie, cotton muslin, silk, and satin. Cooler weather demanded heavier fabric, lined with fur in the northern regions, while sumer clothes used thinner materials that allowed breezes to cool the body. In the autumn, many women would wear clothes of gossamer silk because it gave a rustling sound while walking that is similar to walking through dry leaves.


Texture is a significant characteristic of Hanbok. Korea is geographically located in a region with clear seasonal changes, and thus, various fabrics for each season were developed. Unlined clothes are worn in summer, while stuffed clothes are worn in winter. In spring and fall, lined clothes without stuffing are worn. The fabrics of Hanbok play major roles in expressing harmony of the pattern and the texture of fabrics and the color and the structure of Hanbok. The beauty of the human body is indirectly expressed through fabrics of Hanbok. Fabrics for spring and autumn clothes are made of silk such as Sukgosa, Jinjusa, Hangna, Eunjosa and Saenggosa. Lined jeogori and chima are worn over sokjeoksam (undershirt) and sokchima (underskirt) made of sheer silk or Sukgosa. Men wear unlined jeogori made of Sukgosa or Gwansa in light jade green or white colors and unlined baji made of wrinkle-free Busagyeon or twilled fabrics. Over these regular clothes, they wear durumagi made of sheer silk, starched cotton, or Sampalju. Women wear jeoksam (unlined summer jacket) made of ramie cloth and sheer silk, and chima made of similar fabrics in light colors in summer. Men wear durumagi over jeoksam, and goui (a kind of mens baji) made of ramie cloth, calico and sheer silk. In winter, people wear jeogori, chima and baji made of soft fabrics such as silk, taffeta and other Chinese silk. Brocaded fabrics or satin are popular materials for holidays or special occasions. In Hanbok, we can understand how the ancient Koreans protected themselves against the cold by wearing multiple layers of warm underwear and minimizing the bodys exposure in winter, and protected against the heat by wearing unlined clothes made of cool fabrics such as ramie cloth or hemp cloth in summer.


Patterns of Hanbok
Patterns were primarily used to enhance the beauty of Korean hanboks.Plant, animal, and other nature patterns were often added to the rim of the /chima and the areas around the shoulder.

Patterns were also used to represent the wearers wishes: Peonies embroidered on a bridal gown represented a wish for honor and wealth. Lotus flowers represented a wish for nobility. Bats and pomegranates represented a wish for children. An axe-shaped pendant represented a pregnant womans wish for a son. Chinese characters embroidered on hanboks such as ,, and were used to represent a wish for () good fortune, () happiness, and () a long life.


Dragons, phoenixes, cranes, and tigers symbolized royalty and high-ranking officials.



The Construction Process to sewing the pattern of Hanbok

The Jeogori The jeogori is only a small part of the whole of hanbok, yet it is a very busy piece. Lavish fabrics in bright colors and decorative stripes, embroidery or other ornamentation make the jeogori quite eye-catching. The jeogori closes with a pair of ties or sashes called otgureum, which are often brightly colored and adorned with designs of their own. The otgureum is tied into a single bow knot and the tails allowed to flutter as the women walks. Additionally, the neckband of the jeogori contains a narrow strip of detachable white paper or fabric which can easily be removed and replaced so that the jeogori itself requires less frequent laundering. The fabric for the jeogori is where this entire project began. Brought back from South Korea as a hostess gift, the fabric came in two colored parts, each with oddly shaped and arranged embroidered designs and bearing the same background pattern woven into the fabric. The fabric was 22.5 wide and the length split into two sections: 104 of aqua and 24 of the teal.

An initial mockup was made which was a true representation of Folkware #141 using scrap fabric. This step was crucial for me to learn how this garment of non-western construction would piece together. Particularly troublesome was understanding how the lining of the angled cuffs would fold back under and lay smoothly. Difficulties with this step led me to choose a more delicate lining material for the cuffs to facilitate ease of finishing. Adjustments were also made from this step to lengthen the arms, widen the neck opening and lengthen the body of the jacket to cover the waist ties of my chima. 24

A second mockup was cut, taking the above modifications into account. Having already established the assembly and finishing, my focus for this step was to adjust pattern pieces to best utilize the irregular placement of embroidered patterns on the irreplaceable piece of fashion fabric brought back from South Korea. Additional vertical seams were put into the right and left front pieces and the body of the sleeve was shortened in order to fit the narrow width of the fabric. The cuffs were lengthened to compensate for this change. The neck band piece was asymmetrically split into two pieces to allow for making the neckband out of darker contrasting color to match the cuffs.


Neckband and dongjeong top-stitching detail


Second mock up, showing divided front left piece.

In making the mock ups, I discovered that I was unhappy with the way the pattern handled the dongjeong, the strip of white around the neck band. The pattern called for a strip of twill tape or ribbon to be sewn into the neck-facing seam of the neckband and serve a decorative purpose only. As the dongjeong was originally made of paper and designed to be a replaceable mode of keeping the collar of the jeogori clean, I wanted to do something similar. As paper would have been uncomfortable against the skin, I instead used a 1.5 inch wide piece of white silk ribbon folded over the neckband seam and top-stitched into place.


The second mock up was disassembled and used as pattern pieces


The window was used as a backlight to check the placement of embroidered details on the jeogori pattern pieces prior to cutting.

Although the pattern called for a bag lining of the body and unlined sleeves, I was concerned that the seams would show through the somewhat transparent fabric. I instead flat-lined all jeogori pieces with either white habotai silk (for the lighter aqua pieces) or a dark teal silk from the stash for the darker fabrics of the neckband and cuffs. The lining fabric for the front pieces was cut against the selvedge and seams bisecting the front pieces were ironed flat and left unfinished to reduce bulk. Seams under the sleeves, at the arm and at the shoulders were hand-finished with a flat-felled seam and care was taken that the stitches not show through on the outside of the garment.


Dark colored basting stitches were used to flat line the fashion and lining fabric together to facilitate their removal later.


Snap closures and piping on garment displayed by Rosie Thorn in her panel Traditional Korean Clothing 101, presented at Nak-Kon Anime Convention in March of 2013.

I chose to add piping to the jeogori so that a contrasting color could be brought in to emphasize the borders between light and dark fabrics. A bright pink was chosen to echo some of the subtle coloring in the embroidered floral embellishments. I wanted to use the remnants of the habotai silk to keep the piping from being bulky. The silk and the cotton cord were dyed in the same dye bath using fuschia Rit dye, which is designed to work on both plant and animal protein fibers equally.


I also chose to add a snap closure to the front of the jeogori to bear any weight put on the front closure. This way, the shape of the otgureum, or bow, would not be affected by pull from wear. As the fabric from the cuffs and neck band of the jeogori was in short supply, I choose to instead make the otgureum out of ribbon in a complementary color. As the piecing of the body of the jeogori left one orphaned bit of embroidery, this was utilized as decoration at the end of the top ribbon.


My jeogori


Detail of otgureum with applique made from leftover jeogori fabric scraps.


Close up of my jeogori showing piping, otgureum and dongjeong.


The Chima

Chima refers to a wrap-skirt consisting of a number of panels sewn together and gathered at the waist with ties to tie the chima firmly, minimizing the prominence of the breasts. The chima did not undergo as many changes throughout history as the jeogori, however, in the late nineteenth century, the hem of the skirt was raised off of the ground and the waist pleats became wider among modern women, those who were open minded about Western culture and clothing styles. This modernized version of the chima, with suspender-like shoulder straps attached to the waistband, enabled women to move more freely and wear the waistband of their chima looser.


Traditional Korean Costume, page 251


Chima which had shoulder straps of a contrasting color.

Folkware #141 was only lightly referenced in the making of the chima. Modifications to the pattern: chima size adjusted to utilize three widths of the red poly satin in order to take advantage of the selvedges and avoid the need to finish seams, which limited bulk and kept a smooth line. The pleating guide disregarded in favor of a gathered waist. I added an organza overlay as I felt that the chima was too plain on its own. For the overlay, the width of the fabric was used as length so that there are no seams, only chiffon hemmed edges. The ties were changed to organza strips instead of pieced ties matching the body of the skirt because organza would hold the knot better than the poly satin. The lime green shoulder straps were made with a piece of grosgrain ribbon from the stash.



My chima, full frontal


My chima, back view


Sokchima The sokchima is the petticoat worn under hanbok. While many styles are available, I chose to recreate one which combines a breast-binding sleeveless top with a bodifying skirt.

I wanted my sokchima to serve multiple functions and so I chose to recreate a style of petticoat with an top portion which could provide some support across the breasts. I drafted my own pattern for a double-layered top out of white rayon which would be soft to the skin, breathe well and not show through the light colors of the jeogori. The neck and arm holes were bound with silk ribbon. I paired this with a dark purple skirt portion, largely to use up 42

the large quantity of dark purple synthetic lining fabric that I had leftover from making dresses for my wedding. Although the examples of petticoats that I could find were all white, I felt that it was not necessary to purchase additional fabric in white when the chima I was making was quite dark and opaque. The center back of the top portion closes with bra strap hook-and-eye closures. The skirt is made in two layers, with net ruffles attached to the base layer. Each layer of ruffle was cut approximately double the circumference of the petticoat and then pleated to fit. A wide band of white lace trims the hem of the sokchima so that it might be visible as I walk. The following diagram displays the math utilized to determine the appropriate size of skirt for the base layer of the petticoat. The top layer is cut to be the same diameter as the finished chima. The petticoat is intended to fall close to the same length as the chima, so that the lace detail may peak out.



My sokchima


Back of my sokchima


Taiwan Culture Clothing

Hanfu (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; literally "Han clothing"), also known as Hanzhuang () or Huafu (), is the traditional dress of the Han Chinese people. The term Hanfu derives from the Book of Han, which says, "then many came to the Court to pay homage and were delighted at the clothing style of the Han." The hanfu is now worn during some festivals or coming of age or rite of passage ceremonies, by hobbyists or historical re-enactors, by Taoist, Confucian or Buddhist monks and priests during religious ceremonies, or as a cultural exercise. It is often seen in Chinese television serials, films and other forms of media entertainment. There is also a movement in China and some overseas Chinese communities to revive Han Chinese clothing in daily life and incorporate it into Chinese festivals or celebrations. The concept of hanfu is distinguished from the broader concept of traditional Chinese clothing. This excludes many changes and innovations in the dress of the Han Chinese people since 1644, the founding of the Qing dynasty, on the basis that such changes were imposed by force (such as through the Queue Order) or adopted through cultural influence from the ruling Manchu ethnicity. Thus, the qipao, while widely regarded as an example of traditional Chinese clothing, is not an example of hanfu since it derives from a Manchu clothing style. Today, most Han Chinese wear Western-style clothing in everyday life. Some urban residents in China wear modified or modernized traditional clothing on some occasions, while many in the countryside still use distinctive peasant dress (though not necessarily identical with classical Hanfu). The only significant population segment which wear hanfu regularly on a day-to-day basis are religious priests and monks



A Tang Dynasty portrait of Confucius showing the Hanfu of the Spring and Autumn Period.

Hanfu has a history of more than three millennia, and is said to have been worn by the legendary Yellow Emperor. From the beginning of its history, Hanfu especially in elite circles was inseparable from silk, supposedly discovered by the Yellow Emperors consort, Leizu. The Shang Dynasty from 1600 BC-1000 BC, developed the rudiments of Hanfu; it consisted of a yi, a narrow-cuffed, knee-length tunic tied with a sash, and a narrow, anklelength skirt, called chang, worn with a bixi, a length of fabric that reached the knees. Vivid primary colors and green were used, due to the degree of technology at the time.

12th-century Chinese painting of The Night Revels of Han Xizai () showing musicians dressed in Hanfu

The dynasty to follow the Shang, the Western Zhou Dynasty, established a strict hierarchical society that used clothing as a status meridian, and inevitably, the height of ones rank influenced the ornateness of a costume. Such markers included the length of a skirt, the wideness of a sleeve and the degree of ornamentation. In addition to these class-oriented developments, the Hanfu became looser, with the introduction of wide sleeves and jade decorations hung from the sash which served to keep the yi closed. The yi was essentially wrapped over, in a style known as jiaoling youren, or wrapping the right side over before the left, because of the initially greater challenge to the right-handed wearer of the Chinese


discouraged left-handedness like many other historical cultures, considering it unnatural, barbarian, uncivilized and unfortunate. In the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, the "deep robe" (shenyi) appeared a combination of tunic and skirt. The upper and lower halves were cut separately but sewn as a single unit. An additional change was the shaping of the left side of the costume into a corner, fastened on the chest. Perhaps because of Confucian influence, disapproving of a hierarchical society in favour of social mobility based on personal merit, the shenyi was swiftly adopted. There still existed an elite however, and they monopolised the more ornate fabrics and grandiose details.

History of the term "Hanfu"

Since Song and Yuan, official record used Hanfu to indicate garments Hans wear. During Liao dynasty, the emperor of Liao and Han officials wear Hanfu, and Empress and Khitan officials wear their national clothing. During Yuan dynasty, when editing History of Liao, the officials especially made an entry for Hanfu. The term "Hanfu" to describe the clothing system of Hans, was not often used within Hans, but was more often used in other ethnic groups and nations, to distinguish the Hans clothing system and their own clothing system.

Hats and headwear

Phoenix Crown of the Empress

On top of the garments, hats (for men) or hairpieces (for women) may be worn. One can often tell the profession or social rank of someone by what they wear on their heads. The typical types of male headwear are called jin () for soft caps, mao () for a stiff hats and guan () for formal headdress. Officials and academics have a separate set of hats for them, typically the putou (), the wushamao (), the si-fang pingding jin (; or simply, fangjin: ) and the Zhuangzi jin (). A typical hairpiece for women is a ji () but there are more elaborate hairpieces.


Man's Headwear


Woman's Headwear



Phoenix crown














Zhuzi jin


Zhouzi jin

Zhuangzi jin










The most formal Hanfu that a civilian can wear is the xuanduan (sometimes called yuanduan [2]), which consists of a black or dark blue top garment that runs to the knees with long sleeve (often with white piping), a bottom red chang, a red bixi (which can have a motif and/or be edged in black), an optional white belt with two white streamers hanging from the side or slightly to the front called peishou (), and a long black guan. Additionally, wearers may carry a long jade gui () or wooden hu () tablet (used when greeting 53

royalty). This form of dress is mostly used in sacrificial ceremonies such as Ji Tian () and Ji Zu (), etc., but is also appropriate for state occasions. The xuanduan is basically a simplified version of full court dress of the officials and the nobility.

Men and women in xuanduan formal wear at a Confucian ceremony in China

Those in the religious orders wear a plain middle layer garment followed by a highly decorated cloak or coat. Taoists have a 'scarlet gown' () which is made of a large cloak sewn at the hem to create very long deep sleeves used in very formal rituals. They are often scarlet or crimson in color with wide edging and embroidered with intricate symbols and motifs such as the eight trigrams and the yin and yang Taiji symbol. Buddhist have a cloak with gold lines on a scarlet background creating a brickwork pattern which is wrapped around over the left shoulder and secured at the right side of the body with cords. There may be further decorations, especially for high priests. Those in academia or officialdom have distinctive gowns (known as shangfu in court dress terms). This varies over the ages but they are typically round collared gowns closed at the front. The most distinct feature is the headwear which has 'wings' attached. Only those who passed the civil examinations are entitled to wear them, but a variation of it can be worn by ordinary scholars and laymen and even for a groom at a wedding (but with no hat).


Court dress The Emperor's Mianfu

The Emperor in his court

The Empress's Diyi

Emperor's Yellow




Highest rank official's Gongfu

Official's Gongfu


Lower rank official's Gongfu

Official dressed with different colored Gongfu



Court dress is the dress worn at very formal occasions and ceremonies that are in the presence of a monarch (such as an enthronement ceremony). The entire ensemble of clothing can consist of many complex layers and look very elaborate. Court dress is similar to the xuanduan in components but have additional adornments and elaborate headwear. They are often brightly colored with vermillion and blue. There are various versions of court dress that are worn for certain occasions. Court dress refers to:

official dress Romanization Hanzi Mianfu Bianfu Chaofu Gongfu Changfu Definition

religious court dress of emperor, officials or nobility ceremonial military dress of emperor, officials or nobility a red ceremonial court dress of emperor, officials or nobility formal court dress according to ranks everyday court dress

The practical use of court dress is now obsolete in the modern age since there is no reigning monarch in China anymore. 58

Specific Style

Nicolas Trigault, a Flemish Jesuit, in Ming style Confucian-scholar costume, by Peter Paul Rubens. Historically, Han Clothing has influenced many of its neighbouring cultural costumes, such as Japanese kimono, yukata, and the Vietnamese o t thn. Elements of Hanfu have also been influenced by neighbouring cultural costumes, especially by the nomadic peoples to the north, and Central Asian cultures to the west by way of the Silk Road.
Tang Dynasty Hanfu

The Tang Dynasty represents a golden age in China's history, where the arts, sciences and economy were thriving. Female dress and personal adornments in particular reflected the new visions of this era, which saw unprecedented trade and interaction with cultures and philosophies alien to Chinese borders. Although it still continues the clothing of its predecessors such as Han and Sui dynasties, fashion during the Tang was also influenced by its cosmopolitan culture and arts. Where previously Chinese women had been restricted by the old Confucian code to closely wrapped, concealing outfits, female dress in the Tang Dynasty gradually became more relaxed, less constricting and even more revealing. The Tang Dynasty also saw the ready acceptance and syncretisation with Chinese practice, of elements of foreign culture by the Han Chinese. The foreign influences prevalent during Tang China included cultures from Gandhara, Turkistan, Persia and Greece. The stylistic influences of these cultures were fused into Tang-style clothing without any one particular culture having especial prominence. 59

Song Dynasty Hanfu

Some features of Tang Clothing carried into the Song Dynasty Such as court customs. Song court customs often use red color for their garments with black leather shoe and hats. Collar edges and sleeve edges of all clothes that have been excavated were decorated with laces or embroidered patterns. Such clothes were decorated with patterns of peony, camellia, plum blossom, and lily, etc. Song Empress often had three to five distinctive Jewelry-like marks on their face (Two side of the cheek, other two next to the eyebrows and one on the forehead). Although some of Song clothing have similarities with previous dynasties, some unique characteristics separate it from the rest. Many of Song Clothing goes into Yuan and Ming.
Ming Dynasty Hanfu

Ming Dynasty also brought many changes to its clothing as many dynasties do. They implemented metal buttons and the collar changed from the symmetrical type of the Song Dynasty (960-1279) to the main circular type. Compared with the costume of the Tang Dynasty (618-907), the proportion of the upper outer garment to lower skirt in the Ming Dynasty was significantly inverted. Since the upper outer garment was shorter and the lower garment was longer, the jacket gradually became longer to shorten the length of the exposed skirt. Young ladies in the mid Ming Dynasty usually preferred to dress in these waistcoats. The waistcoats in the Qing Dynasty were transformed from those of the Yuan Dynasty. During the Ming Dynasty, Confucian codes and ideals was popularized and it has significant effect on clothing.

Ethnic identity
According to Tang Dynasty scholar Kong Yingda's official commentary to Zuo Zhuan and Shang Shu, Chinese clothing plays an important role in the Chinese ethnic identity. It says, "In China, there is the grandeur of rites and social conduct; that is why it is called Xia (). There is the beauty of dress and decoration; this is called Hua (). " The words Hua and Xia combine to form the word Huaxia (), which is a name that is often used to represent the Chinese civilization.


Standard Style

The style of Han Chinese clothing can be summarized as containing garment elements that are arranged in distinctive and sometimes specific ways. This may be different from the traditional garment of other ethnic groups in China, most notably the Manchu-influenced Chinese clothes, the qipao, which is popularly assumed to be the solely recognizable style of "traditional" Chinese garb. A comparison of the two styles can be seen as the following provides:
Component Upper Garment Lower Garment Han Consist of "yi" (), which have loose lapels and are open Consist of skirts called "chang" () Generally, diagonally crossing each other, with the left crossing over the right Long and loose Sparingly used and concealed inside the garment Manchu Consist of "pao" (), which have secured lapels around the neck and no front openings Consist of pants or trousers called "ku" ()


Parallel vertical collars with parallel diagonal lapels, which overlap Narrow and tight Numerous and prominently displayed

Sleeves Buttons


Belts and sashes are used to close, Flat ornate buttoning systems are typically used to secure, and fit the garments around secure the collar and fit the garment around the the waist neck and upper torso


Shenyi () a type of Han Chinese clothing commonly worn from the pre-Shang periods to the Han Dynasty. This form is known as the quju () and worn primarily by women.

A complete Hanfu garment is assembled from several pieces of clothing into an attire:

Yi (): Any open cross-collar garment, and worn by both sexes Pao (): Any closed full-body garment, worn only by men in Hanfu Ru (): Open cross-collar shirt Shan (): Open cross-collar shirt or jacket that is worn over the yi Qun () or chang (): Skirt for women and men Ku (): Trousers or pants

People are also able to accessorize with tassels and jade pendants or various ornaments hung from the belt or sash, known as pei (). Style

Another type of Han Chinese Shenyi () commonly worn from the pre-Shang periods to the Ming Dynasty. This form is known as the zhiju () and worn primarily by men Han-Chinese clothing had changed and evolved with the fashion of the days since its commonly assumed beginnings in the Shang dynasty. Many of the earlier designs are more gender-neutral and simple in cuttings. Later garments incorporate multiple pieces with men commonly wearing pants and women commonly wearing skirts. Clothing for women usually accentuates the body's natural curves through wrapping of upper garment lapels or binding with sashes at the waist. Each dynasty has their own styles of Hanfu as they evolved and only few styles are 'fossilized'.


Informal wear

Girls wearing informal wear Types include tops (yi) and bottoms (divided further into pants and skirts for both genders, with terminologies chang or qun), and one-piece robes that wrap around the body once or several times (shenyi).

Zhongyi () or zhongdan (): inner garments, mostly white cotton or silk Shanqun (): a short coat with a long skirt Ruqun (): a top garment with a separate lower garment or skirt Kuzhe (): a short coat with trousers Zhiduo/zhishen (/): a Ming Dynasty style robe, similar to a zhiju shenyi but with vents at the side and 'stitched sleeves' (i.e. the sleeve cuff is closed save a small opening for the hand to go through) Daopao/Fusha (/): Taoist/Buddhist priests' full dress ceremonial robes

Two traditional forms of ruqun (), a type of Han Chinese clothing worn primarily by women. Cuffs and sleeves on the upper garment may be tighter or looser depending on style. A short skirt or weighted braid (with weight provided by a jade or gold pendant) is sometimes worn to improve aesthetics or comfort of the basic ruqun. 63

A typical set of Hanfu can consist of two or three layers. The first layer of clothing is mostly the zhongyi () which is typically the inner garment much like a Western T-shirt and pants. The next layer is the main layer of clothing which is mostly closed at the front. There can be an optional third layer which is often an overcoat called a zhaoshan which is open at the front. More complicated sets of Hanfu can have many more layers. For footwear, white socks and black cloth shoes (with white soles) are the norm, but in the past, shoes may have a front face panel attached to the tip of the shoes. Daoists, Buddhists and Confucians may have white stripe chevrons. Semi-formal wear A piece of Hanfu can be "made semi-formal" by the addition of the following appropriate items:

Chang (): a pleated skirt Bixi (): long front cloth panel attached from the waist belt Zhaoshan (): long open fronted coat Guan () or any formal hats

Generally, this form of wear is suitable for meeting guests or going to meetings and other special cultural days. This form of dress is often worn by the nobility or the upper-class as they are often expensive pieces of clothing, usually made of silks and damasks. The coat sleeves are often deeper than the shenyi to create a more voluminous appearance. Formal wear

Yuanlingshan In addition to informal and semi-formal wear, there is a form of dress that is worn only at confucian rituals (like important sacrifices or religious activities) or by special people who are entitled to wear them (such as officials and emperors). Formal wear are usually long wear with long sleeves except Xuanduan.


Formal garments may include:

Xuanduan (): a very formal dark robe; equivalent to the Western white tie Shenyi (): a long full body garment

Quju (): diagonal body wrapping Zhiju (): straight lapels

Yuanlingshan (), lanshan () or panlingpao (): closed, roundcollared robe; mostly used for official or academical dress


Before the Five Elements Theory was used and according to Taoists believe, there were only two colours: opposing, yet complementary principles, black and white, yin- yang. With the establishment of the Five Elements Theory, the spectrum of colours was enlarged, leading to the use of not only black and white, but red, green and yellow, a total of five main colours. It should be noted that the colour black is often considered black- blue or blueblack, hence the specifics of the two colours can be found combined. The same applies for the colour green, as it is often considered green- blue or blue- green. In Chinese believes, the cosmos mirrors the Five Elements, hence each single colour is representing and is associated with a symbolic meaning. The Five Element Chart shows associated properties or aspects of each element. Together, these aspects form the integrated whole of the Five Element Theory. Feng Shui incorporated the Five Elements while being based on the bagua. Hence, the bagua represents not only all elements, but the cosmos. Historically, people actually worshipped the colour yellow during the reign of the legendary Chinese sage king, a chief diety of Taoism, Huang Di or Huang Ti, better known as the Yellow Emperor. He is the emperor that is said to be the ancestor of all Han Chinese people and is believed to have reigned around 2697 BC to 2598 BC. Huang Di was coined the name Yellow Emperor because his army tribe honoured the value of the Yellow Earth which was the symbol of farming and the Yellow River of the central land (China). During Huang Di s reign, his tribe was able to practice traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture and acupressure, make bronze coins and his wife Lu Zu discovered silk and helped to create silk weaving for clothing. The emperor himself is said to have helped Fuxi to create the Chinese Calendar. At the end of his Huang Dis life, a yellow dragon is said to have appeared, carrying the Yellow Emperor off to the heavens by invitation of the gods. According to the Five Elements Theory, the colour yellow belongs to the element earth, represented through the direction center or zenith, a stabalising energy, a balanced yingyang. The associated grain is rice (which ripens in the yellow earth and as food stabilizes mankind).


The Chinese poems Songs of Chu describe the Five Emperors to which the Yellow Emperor belongs, as directional God, granting the Yellow Emperor the direction center. The colour yellow characterizes the center of a bagua chart. Regarding colours with the understanding of the Five Element theory allows to understand the five main colours as a process, showing the Chinese Taoistic thought of the Five Elements as a further and more refined step to understand and categorize or analyse the YinYang philosophy, as the Theory of the Five Elements describes the interaction and relation between Yin and Yang, between phenomena. The colours can consist of a main, dominating colour and a shade of another colour. Such a mixture of a colours can lead to a combined interpretation. BLACK - colour for young boys (who will continue the family/ ancestor lineages), delving into the depth of something, flowing, dormant, conserving, immortality, stability, knowledge, trust, adaptability, spontaneity, power, career, will, emotional protection, calmness vs lack of will Five Elements: Water; Direction: North; Season: winter; Condition: cold; Energy: conserving; Phase: full Yin; Development: dormant; Planet: Mercury; Animal: shelled, especially tortoise; Celestial creature: (Black) Tortoise; Fruit: chestnut; Grain: millet; Action: listening; Sense: hearing; Sound: moaning; Smell: rotten; Taste: salty; Trigram bagua: Kan BLUE - conserving, healing, relaxation, exploration, trust, calmness, immortality BROWN - industrious, grounded GOLD - completeness, wealth, metal, God consciousness GREEN - growing, generating, sprouting, striving, refreshing, balancing, calming, healing, self assurance, foundation, benevolence, health, harmony, sensitivity, patience vs anger Five Elements: Wood; Direction: East; Season: spring; Condition: windy, rain; Energy: generative; Phase: new Yang; Development: generative; Planet: Jupiter; Animal: scaled, especially dragon; Heavenly creature: (Azure, Green) Dragon; Fruit: plum; Grain: wheat; Action: countenance; Sense: sight; Sound: calling; Smell: rancid; Taste: sour; Trigram bagua: Xun/Sun, Zhen GREY - dull, indefinite, though also silver, hence income ORANGE - indicating change, adaptability, spontaneity, strengthens concentration PINK - love PURPLE - spiritual awareness, physical and mental healing, hence strength, abundance, red purple brings luck and fame. Purple (; z) refers to the North Star (Polaris), which in ancient China was called the Ziwei Star, the North Star was in traditional Chinese astrology 67

the abode of the Celestial Emperor. (see also: Purple Forbidden City) RED - traditional bridal colour, expansive, blooming, dynamic, enthusiastic, reaching upwards, good luck, celebration, happiness, joy, vitality, long life; red purple brings luck and fame, money, recognition, propriety, creativity, joy vs. over excitation Five Elements: Fire; Direction: South; Season: summer; Condition: heat; Energy: expansive; Phase: full Yang; Development: blooming; Planet: Mars; Animal: winged, especially poultry; Heavenly creature: Vermilion Bird, (Red) pheasant; Fruit: apricot; Grain: beans; Action: sight; Sense: touch; Sound: laughing; Smell: scorched; Taste: bitter; Trigram bagua: Li SILVER - metal (income, wealth), trustworthiness, romance WHITE - mourning, contracting, withering, righteousness, pureness, confidence, intuition, strength, organisation, death, ancestral spirits, ghosts, courage vs sadness Five Elements: Metal; Direction: West; Season: autumn; Condition: dry, clear; Energy: contracting; Phase: new Yin; Development: withering; Planet: Venus; Animal: furred, especially tiger; Celestial creature: (White) Tiger; Fruit: peach; Grain: hemp; Action: speech; Sense: smell; Sound: lamenting; Smell: putrid; Taste: pungent, spicy, acrid; Trigram bagua: Qian/ Quian, Dui YELLOW- nourishing, supporting, stabilizing, ripening, grounded, solid, reliability, sunbeam, warmth, clarity, royalty, good faith, empathy vs anxiety Five Elements: Earth; Direction: Centre, zenith; Season: change of season (every 3rd month); Condition: damp, wind; Energy: stabilising; Phase: Yin- Yang balance; Development: ripening; Planet: Saturn; Animals: naked (mankind); Celestial creature: (Yellow) Dragon, (Yellow) Qilin, Phoenix; Fruit: dates; Grain: rice; Action: thought; Sense: touch, taste; Sound: singing; Smell: fragrant; Taste: sweet, aromatic. Trigram bagua: Kun, Gen
Throughout the years, and even today, colours are very important to the existence of the Chinese people. Today: 1. Yellow is still reserved for royalty. Clothing and objects that are yellow in colour still resemble a higher social status. Although each dynasty designated each official rank with their own colour, yellow is reserved or the emperor himself. The colour yellow and its shades are also the main colour of Buddhism; thus it represents being free from worldly cares. 2. Red is still used for happiness and joy. In fact, after the Ming Dynasty, only the Emperor's close relatives could have homes with red walls and yellow roof tiles. Peasants could only live in homes made with blue bricks and roof tiles. Today though, most houses are made of black tiles and white walls.


3. Blue-green is still a symbol of spring when everything is filled with vigour and vitality. Therefore, someone that is hoping for longevity and harmony will decorate with blue-green colours. 4. White is a symbol of the unknown and purity. The colour white is used during the time of mourning, death, and during ghost festivals. Therefore Chinese people will wear white during a funeral or while summoning ghosts. 5. Black is used as the symbol of winter and the westerly skies which beholds the heavens. It is used for times of the unknown and for the winter months


(Myths & Garment) Myths and Garments The garments of the Taroko with their various totemic representations are very expressive of the tribes spirit and character, which shine through the style, design, coloring and patterns of the clothes, as well as the texture of the materials. This is the result of a conscious effort by clothesmakers to imbue the outfits with religious and ritual significance, something that also connects the Taroko attire with the tribes tradition of facial tattooing. Male and Female Attire of the Taroko:

The traditional Taroko attire combines two basic forms of clothing: sewn and wrapped clothing. It comes in three varieties, everyday clothes, working clothes and ceremonial dress. Everyday Clothes: These are worn during leisure time, mostly at home. These clothes are highly functional, and are mostly made from unicolor hemp cloth, serving to cover the body and keep the wearer warm. Working Clothes: Worn for work in the fields like plowing, sowing, weeding, made from coarse materials and designed to allow the wearer free movement. Ceremonial Dress: Worn for festivals and ritual ceremonies, and thus more stately and elaborate in style and design. Practically every member of the tribe has one set of traditional festive clothes, which features bright decorative patterns mostly in the colors red, black and white. The beautiful geometric designs on the dress itself are complemented by all kinds of exquisite finery, which traditionally was made of shells, conches, bones, bamboo or Jobstears beads. Later, when the Taroko started trading or bartering with other settlers, other items such as buttons, plastic beads, sequins and woolen yarn also began being used. In addition to all the above, ceremonial hats, headdresses, earrings, necklaces, bracelets, bangles, girdles and foot finery are also worn for ritual ceremonies and other festive events, when everybody will put on their finest outfit to do justice to the occasion and show off their attire.



The earliest known silk textiles excavated in China dated to circa 3630 BCE; earlier pseudo morphs (impressions left by a textile on bronze or jade) or patterned textiles date from the Shang dynasty (16th-11th century BCE). By the Warring States through Han Dynasty periods (circa 475 BCE-220 CE), elaborately patterned jin brocades (1), complex gauze weaves, and intricately embroidered textiles were all being produced; their artistry and technical accomplishment amaze modern viewers. Trade along the Silk Road, which began as early as the Han dynasty and reached its peak in the 5th through 12th centuries CE, created an environment in which Chinese culture interacted with the tastes of consumers from lands as distant as Iran and Rome. Weavers from a number of ethnic backgrounds, including Han Chinese and Central Asian (Uighur, Sogdian, and others) all produced textiles in different styles woven from silk. Formerly nomadic ruling dynasties, such as the Liao (907-1125), incorporated imagery of hunting and nature into gorgeous gold-brocaded textiles. Kesi (silk tapestry weave) became the vehicle for quintessentially Chinese aesthetics during the Song Dynasty (9601279) in textiles which feature traditional phoenix and peony motifs or which emulate styles of Chinese brush painting (3). During the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911) dynasties, court robes, rank badges, and Buddhist and Daoist Kesi were all used to denote status and wealth, as well as to express religious devotion. Typical of Chinese courtly garments are the large, standing dragons, their paws clutching clouds that emblazon most of an Imperial family's clothes. The dragons clutch the jewels they usually pursue; sometimes they are surrounded both front and back with large, gold-couched characters, some of them reading shou (long life). Others are adorned with the swastikas, which mean 'ten thousand,' and combine to form a popular birthday wish for longevity. This symbolism indicates these kinds of garments were intended for such an occasion like a birthday. The color red was very popular and became the Ming dynastic color, which has suggested the owner of these garments would be a woman of the imperial family. Silk-Knit Goods Fabrics made of silk consist of many types: brocade, satin, silk fabric, etc. This variety is due to different weaving skills and silk fabrics. Some are lined, some are unbleached, some are heavy, and some are thin. Silk-knit goods are one of great Chinese contributions to the world culture. The weaving skills emerged in the primitive society. They can demonstrate the culture tradition of one nation. Though they historically served as clothing material, its relation to the common people had never been severed. Many excellent weaving skills and patterns were first established by the common people and passed to all walks of life. Sichuan Brocade It is one of historical silk-knit brocade and a general term for the silk-knit brocades which were in produced in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, from the Han Dynasty to the Three Kingdom Period. Since Sichuan and the middle China was linked up, the weaving industry has boomed. The varieties, colors, and patterns have become abundant. It flourished until the Tang, Song and Yuan Dynasties. Of the


Sichuan brocades in the Tang Dynasty, the bundle flower lining brocade and the red lion and phoenix lining brocade were the most outstanding. Sichuan brocade is based on horizontally colored line. Cloud Brocade It is one of the traditional silk-knit brocade. It is named after its color as gorgeous as colorful cloud, for it is made of high quality silk and woven with exquisite skill. The silk industry consists of two trades: the pattern brocade trade and the unpatterned brocade trade since the end of the Qing Dynasty. Not until then the name "cloud brocade" came into use. Suzhou Brocade It is traditional silk-knit brocade in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province. It was lost at the end of the Ming Dynasty, and recovered at the beginning of the Qing Dynasty. It consists of big brocade and small brocade. Among them the big brocade is also called heavy brocade, which is mainly used for mounting picture and decoration, while small brocade is used for making box and decorating small articles. They are patterned geometrically and neatly decorated with bundles of flowers and flowers on twigs. They are colored in harmony instead of in contrast. Zhang Down It is also called "swans down" and one of the traditional silk -knit goods. It is produced in Zhengzhou, Fujian Province. It flourished in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. There are patterned down and unpatterned down. The patterned down is cut in accordance to the lines and constitutes patterns with the unsevered line circles. The unpatterned down is covered with down circles on its surface. Tapestry Brocade It is a type of silk-knit goods whose patterns are highlighted by the colorful horizontal silk. First the horizontal threads are installed on the common weaving machine. Under the horizontal threads there are colorful picture drafts. The vertical threads with various colors are woven in segment by the small shuttles according to the patterns. The horizontal thread of each color is interwoven with the vertical thread with every other color. This way of weaving is called "interweaving horizontal and vertical threads." Cotton Textiles Cotton textiles take cotton as material. In the southwest of China the minority nationalities had cotton textiles early in the Eastern Han Dynasty. They called it "white folded cloth. In Fujian Province of the Han Dynasty, they grew cotton. In the northwest of China of the Three Kingdom Period they also had cotton textiles. The cotton textiles have been produced in the south of the Changjiang River since the Tang Dynasty, especially since the Yuan Dynasty. In the areas populated by the minor nationalities the cotton used to serve as the material which was made into cotton textiles of various colors called brocades. The term "brocade" here refers to textile fabric and textile variety made with different weaving skills. There are silk- knit goods and cotton goods. Some textiles are woven with the blending of silk and cotton.


Korean Clothing http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanbok http://english.visitkorea.or.kr/enu/CU/CU_EN_8_1_2_1.jsp http://christinathepolyglot.wordpress.com/2013/05/25/korean-traditional-hanboks/

Taiwan Clothing http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_clothing_and_textiles http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Taiwan http://ticeda.moc.gov.tw/shenhuaEN/007tlge/007fushi.html http://www.textileasart.com/weaving.htm