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Department of Mathematics, UMIST

MATHEMATICAL FORMULA TABLES

Version 2.0

September 1999

CONTENTS
1. Greek Alphabet

2. Indices and Logarithms

3. Trigonometric Identities

4. Complex Numbers

5. Hyperbolic Identities

6. Series

7. Derivatives

8. Integrals

11

9. Laplace Transforms

12

10. Z transforms

15

11. Fourier Series and Transforms

16

12. Numerical Formulae

18

13. Vector Formulae

22

14. Mechanics

24

15. Algebraic Structures

26

16. Statistical Distributions

28

17. F-Distribution

28

18. Normal Distribution

29

19. t-Distribution

31

20. (Chi-Squared) Distribution

32

21 .Physical and Astrophysical constants

32

GREEK ALPHABET

alpha

nu

beta

xi

gamma

Oo

omicron

delta

pi

E ,

epsilon

rho

zeta

sigma

eta

tau

theta

upsilon

iota

phi

kappa

chi

lambda

psi

mu

omega

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS

am an = am+n

(am )n = amn

log(AB) =

log A + log B

log(A/B)

log A log B

log(An )

logb a

n log A
logc a
logc b

TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES

tan A = sin A/ cos A


sec A = 1/ cos A
cosec A = 1/ sin A
cot A = cos A/ sin A = 1/ tan A
sin2 A + cos2 A = 1
sec2 A = 1 + tan2 A
cosec 2 A = 1 + cot2 A
sin(A B) = sin A cos B cos A sin B
cos(A B) = cos A cos B sin A sin B
tan(A B) =

tan A tan B
1 tan A tan B

sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A


cos 2A = cos2 A sin2 A
= 2 cos2 A 1
= 1 2 sin2 A
tan 2A =

2 tan A
1 tan2 A

sin 3A = 3 sin A 4 sin3 A


cos 3A = 4 cos3 A 3 cos A
tan 3A =

3 tan A tan3 A
1 3 tan2 A

AB
sin A + sin B = 2 sin A+B
2 cos 2
AB
sin A sin B = 2 cos A+B
2 sin 2
AB
cos A + cos B = 2 cos A+B
2 cos 2
AB
cos A cos B = 2 sin A+B
2 sin 2

2 sin A cos B = sin(A + B) + sin(A B)


2 cos A sin B = sin(A + B) sin(A B)
2 cos A cos B = cos(A + B) + cos(A B)
2 sin A sin B = cos(A + B) cos(A B)
a sin x + b cos x = R sin(x + ), where R =
If t = tan 12 x then sin x =
cos x =

1
2

eix + eix

eix = cos x + i sin x ;

a2 + b2 and cos = a/R, sin = b/R.

2t
1 t2
, cos x =
.
2
1+t
1 + t2
ix

1
sin x = 2i
e eix

eix = cos x i sin x

i=

COMPLEX NUMBERS

Note:- j often used rather than i.

Exponential Notation

ei = cos + i sin

De Moivres theorem
[r(cos + i sin )]n = rn (cos n + i sin n)

nth roots of complex numbers


If z = rei = r(cos + i sin ) then

z 1/n =

n
rei(+2k)/n ,

k = 0, 1, 2, ...

HYPERBOLIC IDENTITIES

cosh x = (ex + ex ) /2
tanh x = sinh x/ cosh x
sechx = 1/ cosh x

sinh x = (ex ex ) /2
cosechx = 1/ sinh x

coth x = cosh x/ sinh x = 1/ tanh x


cosh ix = cos x

sinh ix = i sin x

cos ix = cosh x

sin ix = i sinh x
cosh2 A sinh2 A = 1
sech2 A = 1 tanh2 A
cosech 2 A = coth2 A 1

SERIES

Powers of Natural Numbers


n
X

k=1

k=

n
n
X
X
1
1
1
n(n + 1) ;
k 3 = n2 (n + 1)2
k 2 = n(n + 1)(2n + 1);
2
6
4
k=1

k=1

Sn =

Arithmetic

n1
X

(a + kd) =

k=0

n
{2a + (n 1)d}
2

Geometric (convergent for 1 < r < 1)


Sn =

n1
X

ark =

k=0

a
a(1 rn )
, S =
1r
1r

Binomial (convergent for |x| < 1)



n 2
n r
(1 + x) = 1 + nx +
x + ...
x + ... +
2
r
n


n(n 1)(n 2)...(n r + 1)
n
n!
=
where
=
r
r!
r! (n r)!
Maclaurin series
f (x) = f (0) + xf 0 (0) +
where Rk+1 =

xk (k)
x2 00
f (0) + ... +
f (0) + Rk+1
2!
k!

xk+1 (k+1)
f
(x), 0 < < 1
(k + 1)!

Taylor series
f (a + h) = f (a) + hf 0 (a) +
where Rk+1 =

hk (k)
h2 00
f (a) + ... +
f (a) + Rk+1
2!
k!

hk+1 (k+1)
f
(a + h) , 0 < < 1.
(k + 1)!

OR
f (x) = f (x0 ) + (x x0 )f 0 (x0 ) +
where Rk+1 =

(x x0 )k (k)
(x x0 )2 00
f (x0 ) + ... +
f (x0 ) + Rk+1
2!
k!

(x x0 )k+1 (k+1)
f
(x0 + (x x0 )), 0 < < 1
(k + 1)!

Special Power Series

ex = 1 + x +

x2
x3
xr
+
+ ... +
+ ...
2!
3!
r!

(all x)

sin x = x

(1)r x2r+1
x3
x5
x7
+

+ ... +
+ ...
3!
5!
7!
(2r + 1)!

(all x)

cos x = 1

x4
x6
x2
(1)r x2r
+

+ ... +
+ ...
2!
4!
6!
(2r)!

(all x)

tan x = x +

x3
2x5
17x7
+
+
+ ...
3
15
315

(|x| <

2)

1 x3
1.3 x5
1.3.5 x7
+
+
+
2 3
2.4 5
2.4.6 7

sin1 x = x +

... +

tan1 x = x

1.3.5....(2n 1) x2n+1
+ ...
2.4.6....(2n) 2n + 1

x2n+1
x5
x7
x3
+

+ ... + (1)n
+ ...
3
5
7
2n + 1

`n(1 + x) = x

xn
x3
x4
x2
+

+ ... + (1)n+1
+ ...
2
3
4
n

(|x| < 1)

(|x| < 1)

(1 < x 1)

sinh x = x +

x3
x5
x7
x2n+1
+
+
+ ... +
+ ...
3!
5!
7!
(2n + 1)!

(all x)

cosh x = 1 +

x2n
x2
x4
x6
+
+
+ ... +
+ ...
2!
4!
6!
(2n)!

(all x)

tanh x = x

x3
2x5
17x7
+

+ ...
3
15
315

(|x| <

sinh1 x = x

1 x3
1.3 x5
1.3.5 x7
+

+
2 3
2.4 5
2.4.6 7
... + (1)n

tanh1 x = x +

2)

1.3.5...(2n 1) x2n+1
+ ...
2.4.6...2n 2n + 1

x3
x5
x7
x2n+1
+
+
+ ...
+ ...
3
5
7
2n + 1

(|x| < 1)

(|x| < 1)

7
function

DERIVATIVES
derivative

nxn1

ex

ex

ax (a > 0)

ax `na

`nx

1
x

loga x

1
x`na

sin x

cos x

cos x

sin x

tan x

sec2 x

cosec x

cosec x cot x

sec x

sec x tan x

cot x
sin1 x

cosec 2 x
1

1 x2

cos1 x

1 x2

sinh x

1
1 + x2
cosh x

cosh x

sinh x

tanh x

sech 2 x

cosech x

cosech x coth x

tan1 x

sech x

sech x tanh x
cosech2 x
1

1 + x2

coth x
sinh1 x
cosh1 x(x > 1)

2
x 1

tanh1 x(|x| < 1)

1
1 x2

coth1 x(|x| > 1)

Product Rule
d
du
dv
(u(x) v(x)) = u(x)
+ v(x)
dx
dx
dx
Quotient Rule

1
x2 1

d
dx

u(x)
v(x)

dv
v(x) du
dx u(x) dx
[v(x)]2

Chain Rule
d
(f (g(x))) = f 0 (g(x)) g 0 (x)
dx
Leibnitzs theorem

n(n 1) (n2) (2)
n (nr) (r)
dn
(n)
(n1) (1)
+
.g
...
(f.g)
=
f
.g
.g
f
+
+
+
nf
f
.g + ... + f.g (n)
n
r
dx
2!

8
function
dg(x)
f (x)
dx
xn (n =
6 1)

integral
f (x)g(x)
xn+1
n+1

1
x
x

df (x)
g(x)dx
dx
Note:- `n|x| + K = `n|x/x0 |

`n|x|
x

sin x

cos x

cos x

sin x

tan x

`n| sec x|

cosec x

`n| cosec x + cot x|

or
`n tan x2

`n| sec x + tan x| = `n tan 4 + x2

sec x
cot x
1
2
a + x2

`n| sin x|
1
x
tan1
a
a

1
a2 x2

1
a+x
`n
2a a x

or

1
x
tanh1
a
a

1
x2 a2

xa
1
`n
2a x + a

or

2
a x2

sin1

2
a + x2

sinh1

x
a

or

2
x a2
sinh x

cosh1

x
a

or

cosh x

cosh x

sinh x

tanh x

`n cosh x

cosech x

`n |cosech x + coth x|

coth x
Double integral

x
a

(|x| > a)

(a > |x|)

`n x + x2 + a2
`n|x +

x2 a2 |

or

`n| sinh x|

Z Z

(|x| < a)

x
1
coth1
a
a

2 tan1 ex

sech x

where

INTEGRALS

f (x, y) dx dy =

Z Z

(x, y)
=
J=
(r, s)

x
r
y
r

g(r, s) J dr ds
x
s
y
s

(|x| > a)

`n tanh x2

LAPLACE TRANSFORMS
f(s) =
function

R
0

est f (t)dt

transform
1
s
n!
sn+1

tn

1
sa

s2 + 2
s
s2 + 2

eat
sin t
cos t
sinh t

s2

cosh t

s
s2 2

t sin t

2s
(s2 + 2 )2

t cos t

s2 2
(s2 + 2 )2

Ha (t) = H(t a)

eas
s

(t)

eat tn

n!
(s a)n+1

eat sin t

(s a)2 + 2

eat cos t

sa
(s a)2 + 2

eat sinh t

(s a)2 2

eat cosh t

sa
(s a)2 2

Let f(s) = L {f (t)} then

L eat f (t)

f(s a),

d
L {tf (t)} = (f(s)),
ds

Z
f (t)
f(x)dx if this exists.
L
=
t
x=s

Derivatives and integrals


Let y = y(t) and let y = L {y(t)} then


dy
L
dt
2
d y
L
dt2

y( )d

y y0 ,
s

= s2 y sy0 y00 ,
1
y
s

=0

where y0 and y00 are the values of y and dy/dt respectively at t = 0.


Time delay

Let

then

0
t<a
g(t) = Ha (t)f (t a) =
f (t a) t > a
L {g(t)} = eas f(s).

Scale change

L {f (kt)} =

1 s
f
.
k
k

Periodic functions
Let f (t) be of period T then

L {f (t)} =

1
1 esT

t=0

est f (t)dt.

Convolution
Let
then

f (t) g(t) =

Rt

x=0

f (x)g(t x)dx =

L {f (t) g(t)} = f(s)


g (s).

Rt

x=0

f (t x)g(x)dx

RLC circuit
For a simple RLC circuit with initial charge q0 and initial current i0 ,

=
E

r + Ls +

1
1 e
q0 .
i Li0 +
Cs
Cs

Limiting values
initial value theorem

lim f (t) = lim sf(s),


s

t0+

final value theorem

lim f (t) =

f (t)dt

provided these limits exist.

lim sf(s),

s0+

lim f(s)

s0+

10

Z TRANSFORMS

Z {f (t)} = f(z) =

f (kT )z k

k=0

function

transform

t,nT
eat

z n (n 0)
z
z eaT

teat

T zeaT
(z eaT )2

t2 eat

T 2 zeaT (z + eaT )
(z eaT )3

sinh at

z2

z sinh aT
2z cosh aT + 1

cosh at

z(z cosh aT )
z 2 2z cosh aT + 1

eat sin t

zeaT sin T
z 2 2zeaT cos T + e2aT

eat cos t

z2

z(z eaT cos T )


2zeaT cos T + e2aT

teat sin t

T zeaT (z 2 e2aT ) sin T


(z 2 2zeaT cos T + e2aT )2

teat cos t

T zeaT (z 2 cos T 2zeaT + e2aT cos T )


(z 2 2zeaT cos T + e2aT )2

Z {f (t + nT )} = z n f(z)

Shift Theorem

Initial value theorem


f (0) = limz f(z)

Pn1
k=0

z nk f (kT ) (n > 0)

Final value theorem


h
i
f () = lim (z 1)f(z)
z1

provided f () exists.

Inverse Formula
1
f (kT ) =
2

11

eik f(ei )d

FOURIER SERIES AND TRANSFORMS

Fourier series

f (t) =

X
1
{an cos nt + bn sin nt}
a0 +
2
n=1

where

an
bn

=
=

2
T
2
T

t0 +T

t0
Z t0 +T
t0

f (t) cos nt dt
f (t) sin nt dt

(period T = 2/)

Half range Fourier series

an = 0, bn =

sine series

cosine series

bn = 0, an =

4
T

4
T

T /2

f (t) sin nt dt
0

T /2

f (t) cos nt dt
0

Finite Fourier transforms


sine transform

Z
4 T /2
f (t) sin nt dt
T 0

X
fs (n) sin nt

fs (n) =
f (t)

n=1

cosine transform

fc (n)
f (t)

=
=

4
T

T /2

f (t) cos nt dt

X
1
fc (0) +
fc (n) cos nt
2
n=1

Fourier integral

1
2

lim f (t) + lim f (t)

t%0

t&0

1
2

eit

f (u)eiu du d

Fourier integral transform

Z
1
= F {f (t)} =
eiu f (u) du
2
Z
n
o
1
1

f () =
f (t) = F
eit f() d
2

f()

12

NUMERICAL FORMULAE

Iteration
Newton Raphson method for refining an approximate root x0 of f (x) = 0
xn+1 = xn
Particular case to find

f (xn )
f 0 (xn )

N use xn+1 =

1
2

xn +

N
xn

Secant Method
xn+1 = xn f (xn )/

f (xn ) f (xn1 )
xn xn1

Interpolation

fn = fn+1 fn
fn = fn fn1

, fn = fn+ 21 fn 21

1
fn+ 21 + fn 21
, fn =
2

Gregory Newton Formula



p(p 1) 2
p
fp = f0 + pf0 +
f0 + ... +
r f0
2!
r
where p =

x x0
h

Lagranges Formula for n points


y=

n
X

yi `i (x)

i=1

where
`i (x) =

nj=1,j6=i (x xj )
nj=1,j6=i (xi xj )

Numerical differentiation
Derivatives at a tabular point
hf00
h2 f000
hf00
h2 f000

1
1
= f0 3 f0 + 5 f0 ...
6
30
1 6
1 4
2
= f0 f0 + f0 ...
12
90
1 2
1 3
1
1
= f0 f0 + f0 4 f0 + 5 f0 ...
2
3
4
5
11 4
5 5
3
2
= f0 f0 + f0 f0 + ...
12
6

Numerical Integration
Z

Trapezium Rule

x0 +h

f (x)dx '

x0

fi = f (x0 + ih), E =

where

h
(f0 + f1 ) + E
2

h3 00
f (a), x0 < a < x0 + h
12

Composite Trapezium Rule


Z

x0 +nh

f (x)dx '

x0

h2
h
h4 000
{f0 + 2f1 + 2f2 + ...2fn1 + fn } (fn0 f00 ) +
(f f0000 )...
2
12
720 n
where f00 = f 0 (x0 ), fn0 = f 0 (x0 + nh), etc
Z

Simpsons Rule

x0 +2h

x0

E=

where

f (x)dx '

h5 (4)
f (a)
90

h
(f0 + 4f1 + f2 ) + E
3

x0 < a < x0 + 2h.

Composite Simpsons Rule (n even)


Z

x0 +nh
x0

f (x)dx '

where

h
(f0 + 4f1 + 2f2 + 4f3 + 2f4 + ... + 2fn2 + 4fn1 + fn ) + E
3

E=

nh5 (4)
f (a).
180

x0 < a < x0 + nh

Gauss order 1. (Midpoint)


Z

f (x)dx = 2f (0) + E
1

where

E=

2 00
f (a).
3

1<a<1

Gauss order 2.
Z

f (x)dx = f

+f

E=

where

+E

1 0v
f (a).
135

1<a<1

Differential Equations
To solve y 0 = f (x, y) given initial condition y0 at x0 , xn = x0 + nh.
Eulers forward method
yn+1 = yn + hf (xn , yn )

n = 0, 1, 2, ...

Eulers backward method


yn+1 = yn + hf (xn+1 , yn+1 )

n = 0, 1, 2, ...

Heuns method (Runge Kutta order 2)


yn+1 = yn +

h
(f (xn , yn ) + f (xn + h, yn + hf (xn , yn ))).
2

Runge Kutta order 4.


yn+1 = yn +

h
(K1 + 2K2 + 2K3 + K4 )
6

where
K1
K2
K3
K4

f (xn , yn )

hK1
h
= f xn + , yn +
2
2

h
hK2
= f xn + , yn +
2
2
= f (xn + h, yn + hK3 )

Chebyshev Polynomials

Tn (x) = cos n(cos1 x)

To (x) = 1

T1 (x) = x

sin n(cos1 x)
Tn0 (x)

Un1 (x) =
=
n
1 x2

Tm (Tn (x))

Tn+1 (x) =
Z

Tmn (x).
2xTn (x) Tn1 (x)

Un+1 (x) =

2xUn (x) Un1 (x)

1 Tn+1 (x) Tn1 (x)

+ constant,
=
2
n+1
n1

Tn (x)dx

f (x) =

where

and

1
a0 T0 (x) + a1 T1 (x)...aj Tj (x) + ...
2

aj =

f (cos ) cos jd

f (x)dx = constant +A1 T1 (x) + A2 T2 (x) + ...Aj Tj (x) + ...

where Aj = (aj1 aj+1 )/2j

n2

j1

j0

13

VECTOR FORMULAE

Scalar product a.b = ab cos = a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a3 b3

n = a1
Vector product a b = ab sin

b1

a3

b3

j
a2
b2

= (a2 b3 a3 b2 )i + (a3 b1 a1 b3 )j + (a1 b2 a2 b1 )k

Triple products

a
1

[a, b, c] = (a b).c = a.(b c) = b1

c1

a2
b2
c2

a (b c) = (a.c)b (a.b)c

Vector Calculus


,
,
x y z

grad , div A .A, curl A A


div grad .( ) 2 (for scalars only)
div curl A = 0

curl grad 0

2 A = grad div A curl curl A


() = +
div (A) = div A + A.()
curl (A) = curl A A ()
div (A B) = B. curl A A. curl B
curl (A B) = A div B B div A + (B. )A (A. )B
grad (A.B) = A curl B + B curl A + (A. )B + (B. )A
Integral Theorems
Divergence theorem

A.dS =
surface

div A dV
volume

a3

b3

c3

Stokes theorem

( curl A).dS =

A.dr

contour

surface

Greens theorems

Z
Z

(
volume

volume

)dV

2 + ()() dV

|dS|
n
n
surface

surface

|dS|
n

where

|dS|
dS = n

Greens theorem in the plane

(P dx + Qdy) =

Z Z

Q P

x
y

dx dy

14

MECHANICS

Kinematics
Motion constant acceleration
v = u + f t,

1
1
s = ut + f t2 = (u + v)t
2
2
v2 = u2 + 2f .s

General solution of

d2 x
dt2

= 2 x is
x = a cos t + b sin t = R sin(t + )

where R =

a2 + b2 and cos = a/R, sin = b/R.

= re
and the acceleration is
In polar coordinates the velocity is (r,
r)
r +re
2
.
(
r r )er + (r + 2r )e

Centres of mass
The following results are for uniform bodies:
hemispherical shell, radius r
hemisphere, radius r
right circular cone, height h
arc, radius r and angle 2
sector, radius r and angle 2

1
2r
3
8r
3
4h

from centre

(r sin )/

from centre

( 23 r sin )/

from centre

from centre
from vertex

Moments of inertia
i. The moment of inertia of a body of mass m about an axis = I + mh2 , where I is the moment
of inertial about the parallel axis through the mass-centre and h is the distance between the
axes.
ii. If I1 and I2 are the moments of inertia of a lamina about two perpendicular axes through a
point 0 in its plane, then its moment of inertia about the axis through 0 perpendicular to its
plane is I1 + I2 .
iii. The following moments of inertia are for uniform bodies about the axes stated:
rod, length `, through mid-point, perpendicular to rod

1
2
12 m`
2

hoop, radius r, through centre, perpendicular to hoop

mr

disc, radius r, through centre, perpendicular to disc

1
2
2 mr
2
2
5 mr

sphere, radius r, diameter

h
2
r r , r +

Work done
W =

tB

F.
tA

dr
dt.
dt

15

ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURES

A group G is a set of elements {a, b, c, . . .} with a binary operation such that


i. a b is in G for all a, b in G
ii. a (b c) = (a b) c for all a, b, c in G
iii. G contains an element e, called the identity element, such that e a = a = a e for all a in G
iv. given any a in G, there exists in G an element a1 , called the element inverse to a, such that
a1 a = e = a a1 .
A commutative (or Abelian) group is one for which a b = b a for all a, b, in G.
A field F is a set of elements {a, b, c, . . .} with two binary operations + and . such that
i. F is a commutative group with respect to + with identity 0
ii. the non-zero elements of F form a commutative group with respect to . with identity 1
iii. a.(b + c) = a.b + a.c for all a, b, c, in F .

A vector space V over a field F is a set of elements {a, b, c, . . .} with a binary operation + such

that

i. they form a commutative group under +;


and, for all , in F and all a, b, in V ,
ii. a is defined and is in V
iii. (a + b) = a + b
iv. ( + )a = a + a
v. (.)a = (a)
vi. if 1 is an element of F such that 1. = for all in F , then 1a = a.

An equivalence relation R between the elements {a, b, c, . . .} of a set C is a relation such that, for
all a, b, c in C

i. aRa (R is reflextive)

ii. aRb bRa (R is symmetric)

iii. (aRb and bRc) aRc (R is transitive).

16

Name

Binomial

PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS

Parameters

Probability distribution /

Mean

Variance

n, p

density function

P (X = r) = nr pr (1 p)nr ,

np

np(1 p)

n = 0, 1, 2, ......

2
f (x) = 12 exp{ 21 x
},

f (x) = ex ,

1
2

r = 0, 1, 2, ..., n

Poisson
Normal

P (X = n) =

e n
n! ,

< x <

Exponential

x > 0,

17

>0

THE F -DISTRIBUTION

The function tabulated on the next page is the inverse cumulative distribution function of Fishers
F -distribution having 1 and 2 degrees of freedom. It is defined by

P =

Z x
1
1
21 1 + 12 2
1
1

1 1 12 1 22 2
u 2 1 1 ( 2 + 1 u) 2 ( 1 + 2 ) du.
2 1 2 2
0

If X has an F -distribution with 1 and 2 degrees of freedom then P r.(X x) = P . The table lists

values of x for P = 0.95, P = 0.975 and P = 0.99, the upper number in each set being the value
for P = 0.95.

1 : 1 1 : 2

161
648
4052
18.51
2 38.51
98.50
10.13
3 17.44
34.12
7.71
4 12.22
21.20
6.61
5 10.01
16.26
5.99
6
8.81
13.75
5.59
7
8.07
12.25
5.32
8
7.57
11.26
5.12
9
7.21
10.56
4.96
10
6.94
10.04
4.75
12
6.55
9.33
4.54
15
6.20
8.68
4.35
20
5.87
8.10
4.24
25
5.69
7.77
4.03
50
5.34
7.17
3.94
100 5.18
6.90
1

18

199
799
5000
19.00
39.00
99.00
9.55
16.04
30.82
6.94
10.65
18.00
5.79
8.43
13.27
5.14
7.26
10.92
4.74
6.54
9.55
4.46
6.06
8.65
4.26
5.71
8.02
4.10
5.46
7.56
3.89
5.10
6.93
3.68
4.77
6.36
3.49
4.46
5.85
3.39
4.29
5.57
3.18
3.97
5.06
3.09
3.83
4.82

10

12

15

20

25

50

100

216
864
5403
19.16
39.17
99.17
9.28
15.44
29.46
6.59
9.98
16.69
5.41
7.76
12.06
4.76
6.60
9.78
4.35
5.89
8.45
4.07
5.42
7.59
3.86
5.08
6.99
3.71
4.83
6.55
3.49
4.47
5.95
3.29
4.15
5.42
3.10
3.86
4.94
2.99
3.69
4.68
2.79
3.39
4.20
2.70
3.25
3.98

225
900
5625
19.25
39.25
99.25
9.12
15.10
28.71
6.39
9.60
15.98
5.19
7.39
11.39
4.53
6.23
9.15
4.12
5.52
7.85
3.84
5.05
7.01
3.63
4.72
6.42
3.48
4.47
5.99
3.26
4.12
5.41
3.06
3.80
4.89
2.87
3.51
4.43
2.76
3.35
4.18
2.56
3.05
3.72
2.46
2.92
3.51

230
922
5764
19.30
39.30
99.30
9.01
14.88
28.24
6.26
9.36
15.52
5.05
7.15
10.97
4.39
5.99
8.75
3.97
5.29
7.46
3.69
4.82
6.63
3.48
4.48
6.06
3.33
4.24
5.64
3.11
3.89
5.06
2.90
3.58
4.56
2.71
3.29
4.10
2.60
3.13
3.85
2.40
2.83
3.41
2.31
2.70
3.21

234
937
5859
19.33
39.33
99.33
8.94
14.73
27.91
6.16
9.20
15.21
4.95
6.98
10.67
4.28
5.82
8.47
3.87
5.12
7.19
3.58
4.65
6.37
3.37
4.32
5.80
3.22
4.07
5.39
3.00
3.73
4.82
2.79
3.41
4.32
2.60
3.13
3.87
2.49
2.97
3.63
2.29
2.67
3.19
2.19
2.54
2.99

237
948
5928
19.35
39.36
99.36
8.89
14.62
27.67
6.09
9.07
14.98
4.88
6.85
10.46
4.21
5.70
8.26
3.79
4.99
6.99
3.50
4.53
6.18
3.29
4.20
5.61
3.14
3.95
5.20
2.91
3.61
4.64
2.71
3.29
4.14
2.51
3.01
3.70
2.40
2.85
3.46
2.20
2.55
3.02
2.10
2.42
2.82

239
957
5981
19.37
39.37
99.37
8.85
14.54
27.49
6.04
8.98
14.80
4.82
6.76
10.29
4.15
5.60
8.10
3.73
4.90
6.84
3.44
4.43
6.03
3.23
4.10
5.47
3.07
3.85
5.06
2.85
3.51
4.50
2.64
3.20
4.00
2.45
2.91
3.56
2.34
2.75
3.32
2.13
2.46
2.89
2.03
2.32
2.69

241
963
6022
19.38
39.39
99.39
8.81
14.47
27.35
6.00
8.90
14.66
4.77
6.68
10.16
4.10
5.52
7.98
3.68
4.82
6.72
3.39
4.36
5.91
3.18
4.03
5.35
3.02
3.78
4.94
2.80
3.44
4.39
2.59
3.12
3.89
2.39
2.84
3.46
2.28
2.68
3.22
2.07
2.38
2.78
1.97
2.24
2.59

242
969
6056
19.40
39.40
99.40
8.79
14.42
27.23
5.96
8.84
14.55
4.74
6.62
10.05
4.06
5.46
7.87
3.64
4.76
6.62
3.35
4.30
5.81
3.14
3.96
5.26
2.98
3.72
4.85
2.75
3.37
4.30
2.54
3.06
3.80
2.35
2.77
3.37
2.24
2.61
3.13
2.03
2.32
2.70
1.93
2.18
2.50

244
977
6106
19.41
39.41
99.42
8.74
14.34
27.05
5.91
8.75
14.37
4.68
6.52
9.89
4.00
5.37
7.72
3.57
4.67
6.47
3.28
4.20
5.67
3.07
3.87
5.11
2.91
3.62
4.71
2.69
3.28
4.16
2.48
2.96
3.67
2.28
2.68
3.23
2.16
2.51
2.99
1.95
2.22
2.56
1.85
2.08
2.37

246
985
6157
19.43
39.43
99.43
8.70
14.25
26.87
5.86
8.66
14.20
4.62
6.43
9.72
3.94
5.27
7.56
3.51
4.57
6.31
3.22
4.10
5.52
3.01
3.77
4.96
2.85
3.52
4.56
2.62
3.18
4.01
2.40
2.86
3.52
2.20
2.57
3.09
2.09
2.41
2.85
1.87
2.11
2.42
1.77
1.97
2.22

248
993
6209
19.45
39.45
99.45
8.66
14.17
26.69
5.80
8.56
14.02
4.56
6.33
9.55
3.87
5.17
7.40
3.44
4.47
6.16
3.15
4.00
5.36
2.94
3.67
4.81
2.77
3.42
4.41
2.54
3.07
3.86
2.33
2.76
3.37
2.12
2.46
2.94
2.01
2.30
2.70
1.78
1.99
2.27
1.68
1.85
2.07

249
998
6240
19.46
39.46
99.46
8.63
14.12
26.58
5.77
8.50
13.91
4.52
6.27
9.45
3.83
5.11
7.30
3.40
4.40
6.06
3.11
3.94
5.26
2.89
3.60
4.71
2.73
3.35
4.31
2.50
3.01
3.76
2.28
2.69
3.28
2.07
2.40
2.84
1.96
2.23
2.60
1.73
1.92
2.17
1.62
1.77
1.97

252
1008
6303
19.48
39.48
99.48
8.58
14.01
26.35
5.70
8.38
13.69
4.44
6.14
9.24
3.75
4.98
7.09
3.32
4.28
5.86
3.02
3.81
5.07
2.80
3.47
4.52
2.64
3.22
4.12
2.40
2.87
3.57
2.18
2.55
3.08
1.97
2.25
2.64
1.84
2.08
2.40
1.60
1.75
1.95
1.48
1.59
1.74

253
1013
6334
19.49
39.49
99.49
8.55
13.96
26.24
5.66
8.32
13.58
4.41
6.08
9.13
3.71
4.92
6.99
3.27
4.21
5.75
2.97
3.74
4.96
2.76
3.40
4.41
2.59
3.15
4.01
2.35
2.80
3.47
2.12
2.47
2.98
1.91
2.17
2.54
1.78
2.00
2.29
1.52
1.66
1.82
1.39
1.48
1.60

NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

The function tabulated is the cumulative distribution function of a standard N (0, 1) random variable,
namely
1
(x) =
2

1 2

e 2 t dt.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
12
15
20
25
50
100

If X is distributed N (0, 1) then (x) = P r.(X x).


x

0.00

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9

0.5000
0.5398
0.5793
0.6179
0.6554
0.6915
0.7257
0.7580
0.7881
0.8159
0.8413
0.8643
0.8849
0.9032
0.9192
0.9332
0.9452
0.9554
0.9641
0.9713
0.9773
0.9821
0.9861
0.9893
0.9918
0.9938
0.9953
0.9965
0.9974
0.9981
0.9987
0.9990
0.9993
0.9995
0.9997
0.9998
0.9998
0.9999
0.9999
1.0000

0.5040
0.5438
0.5832
0.6217
0.6591
0.6950
0.7291
0.7611
0.7910
0.8186
0.8438
0.8665
0.8869
0.9049
0.9207
0.9345
0.9463
0.9564
0.9649
0.9719
0.9778
0.9826
0.9864
0.9896
0.9920
0.9940
0.9955
0.9966
0.9975
0.9982
0.9987
0.9991
0.9993
0.9995
0.9997
0.9998
0.9998
0.9999
0.9999
1.0000

0.5080
0.5478
0.5871
0.6255
0.6628
0.6985
0.7324
0.7642
0.7939
0.8212
0.8461
0.8686
0.8888
0.9066
0.9222
0.9357
0.9474
0.9573
0.9656
0.9726
0.9783
0.9830
0.9868
0.9898
0.9922
0.9941
0.9956
0.9967
0.9976
0.9982
0.9987
0.9991
0.9994
0.9995
0.9997
0.9998
0.9999
0.9999
0.9999
1.0000

0.5120
0.5517
0.5910
0.6293
0.6664
0.7019
0.7357
0.7673
0.7967
0.8238
0.8485
0.8708
0.8907
0.9082
0.9236
0.9370
0.9484
0.9582
0.9664
0.9732
0.9788
0.9834
0.9871
0.9901
0.9925
0.9943
0.9957
0.9968
0.9977
0.9983
0.9988
0.9991
0.9994
0.9996
0.9997
0.9998
0.9999
0.9999
0.9999
1.0000

0.5160
0.5557
0.5948
0.6331
0.6700
0.7054
0.7389
0.7704
0.7995
0.8264
0.8508
0.8729
0.8925
0.9099
0.9251
0.9382
0.9495
0.9591
0.9671
0.9738
0.9793
0.9838
0.9875
0.9904
0.9927
0.9945
0.9959
0.9969
0.9977
0.9984
0.9988
0.9992
0.9994
0.9996
0.9997
0.9998
0.9999
0.9999
0.9999
1.0000

0.5199
0.5596
0.5987
0.6368
0.6736
0.7088
0.7422
0.7734
0.8023
0.8289
0.8531
0.8749
0.8944
0.9115
0.9265
0.9394
0.9505
0.9599
0.9678
0.9744
0.9798
0.9842
0.9878
0.9906
0.9929
0.9946
0.9960
0.9970
0.9978
0.9984
0.9989
0.9992
0.9994
0.9996
0.9997
0.9998
0.9999
0.9999
0.9999
1.0000

0.5239
0.5636
0.6026
0.6406
0.6772
0.7123
0.7454
0.7764
0.8051
0.8315
0.8554
0.8770
0.8962
0.9131
0.9279
0.9406
0.9515
0.9608
0.9686
0.9750
0.9803
0.9846
0.9881
0.9909
0.9931
0.9948
0.9961
0.9971
0.9979
0.9985
0.9989
0.9992
0.9994
0.9996
0.9997
0.9998
0.9999
0.9999
0.9999
1.0000

0.5279
0.5675
0.6064
0.6443
0.6808
0.7157
0.7486
0.7794
0.8078
0.8340
0.8577
0.8790
0.8980
0.9147
0.9292
0.9418
0.9525
0.9616
0.9693
0.9756
0.9808
0.9850
0.9884
0.9911
0.9932
0.9949
0.9962
0.9972
0.9979
0.9985
0.9989
0.9992
0.9995
0.9996
0.9997
0.9998
0.9999
0.9999
0.9999
1.0000

0.5319
0.5714
0.6103
0.6480
0.6844
0.7190
0.7517
0.7823
0.8106
0.8365
0.8599
0.8810
0.8997
0.9162
0.9306
0.9429
0.9535
0.9625
0.9699
0.9761
0.9812
0.9854
0.9887
0.9913
0.9934
0.9951
0.9963
0.9973
0.9980
0.9986
0.9990
0.9993
0.9995
0.9996
0.9997
0.9998
0.9999
0.9999
0.9999
1.0000

0.5359
0.5753
0.6141
0.6517
0.6879
0.7224
0.7549
0.7852
0.8133
0.8389
0.8621
0.8830
0.9015
0.9177
0.9319
0.9441
0.9545
0.9633
0.9706
0.9767
0.9817
0.9857
0.9890
0.9916
0.9936
0.9952
0.9964
0.9974
0.9981
0.9986
0.9990
0.9993
0.9995
0.9997
0.9998
0.9998
0.9999
0.9999
0.9999
1.0000

19

THE t-DISTRIBUTION

The function tabulated is the inverse cumulative distribution function of Students t-distribution
having degrees of freedom. It is defined by
1 ( 21 + 21 )
P =
( 12 )

(1 + t2 /) 2 (+1) dt.

If X has Students t-distribution with degrees of freedom then P r.(X x) = P .

P=0.90

P=0.95

0.975

0.990

0.995

0.999

0.9995

1
2
3
4
5

3.078
1.886
1.638
1.533
1.476

6.314
2.920
2.353
2.132
2.015

12.706
4.303
3.182
2.776
2.571

31.821
6.965
4.541
3.747
3.365

63.657
9.925
5.841
4.604
4.032

318.302
22.327
10.215
7.173
5.894

636.619
31.598
12.941
8.610
6.859

6
7
8
9
10

1.440
1.415
1.397
1.383
1.372

1.943
1.895
1.860
1.833
1.812

2.447
2.365
2.306
2.262
2.228

3.143
2.998
2.896
2.821
2.764

3.707
3.499
3.355
3.250
3.169

5.208
4.785
4.501
4.297
4.144

5.959
5.405
5.041
4.781
4.587

11
12
13
14
15

1.363
1.356
1.350
1.345
1.341

1.796
1.782
1.771
1.761
1.753

2.201
2.179
2.160
2.145
2.131

2.718
2.681
2.650
2.624
2.602

3.106
3.055
3.012
2.977
2.947

4.025
3.930
3.852
3.787
3.733

4.437
4.318
4.221
4.140
4.073

16
17
18
19
20

1.337
1.333
1.330
1.328
1.325

1.746
1.740
1.734
1.729
1.725

2.120
2.110
2.101
2.093
2.086

2.583
2.567
2.552
2.539
2.528

2.921
2.898
2.878
2.861
2.845

3.686
3.646
3.611
3.579
3.552

4.015
3.965
3.922
3.883
3.850

24
30
40
50
60

1.318
1.310
1.303
1.299
1.296

1.711
1.697
1.684
1.676
1.671

2.064
2.042
2.021
2.009
2.000

2.492
2.457
2.423
2.403
2.390

2.797
2.750
2.704
2.678
2.660

3.467
3.385
3.307
3.261
3.232

3.745
3.646
3.551
3.496
3.460

80
100
200

1.292
1.290
1.286
1.282

1.664
1.660
1.653
1.645

1.990
1.984
1.972
1.960

2.374
2.364
2.345
2.326

2.639
2.626
2.601
2.576

3.195
3.174
3.131
3.090

3.416
3.391
3.340
3.291

20

THE 2 (CHI-SQUARED) DISTRIBUTION

The function tabulated is the inverse cumulative distribution function of a Chi-squared distribution
having degrees of freedom. It is defined by

P =

1

2/2 21

u 2 1 e 2 u du.
0

If X has an 2 distribution with degrees of freedom then P r.(X x) = P . For > 100,

approximately normally distributed with mean 2 1 and unit variance.

P = 0.005
4

P = 0.01
3

0.025
3

2X is

0.05

0.950

0.975

0.990

0.995

0.999

1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0

0.0 393
0.010003
0.07172
0.2070
0.4117
0.6757
0.9893
1.344
1.735
2.156

0.0 157
0.02010
0.1148
0.2971
0.5543
0.8721
1.239
1.646
2.088
2.558

0.0 982
0.05064
0.2158
0.4844
0.8312
1.237
1.690
2.180
2.700
3.247

0.00393
0.1026
0.3518
0.7107
1.145
1.635
2.167
2.733
3.325
3.940

3.841
5.991
7.815
9.488
11.070
12.592
14.067
15.507
16.919
18.307

5.024
7.378
9.348
11.143
12.832
14.449
16.013
17.535
19.023
20.483

6.635
9.210
11.345
13.277
15.086
16.812
18.475
20.090
21.666
23.209

7.879
10.597
12.838
14.860
16.750
18.548
20.278
21.955
23.589
25.188

10.828
13.816
16.266
18.467
20.515
22.458
24.322
26.124
27.877
29.588

11.0
12.0
13.0
14.0
15.0
16.0
17.0
18.0
19.0
20.0

2.603
3.074
3.565
4.075
4.601
5.142
5.697
6.265
6.844
7.434

3.053
3.571
4.107
4.660
5.229
5.812
6.408
7.015
7.633
8.260

3.816
4.404
5.009
5.629
6.262
6.908
7.564
8.231
8.907
9.591

4.575
5.226
5.892
6.571
7.261
7.962
8.672
9.390
10.117
10.851

19.675
21.026
22.362
23.685
24.996
26.296
27.587
28.869
30.144
31.410

21.920
23.337
24.736
26.119
27.488
28.845
30.191
31.526
32.852
34.170

24.725
26.217
27.688
29.141
30.578
32.000
33.409
34.805
36.191
37.566

26.757
28.300
29.819
31.319
32.801
34.267
35.718
37.156
38.582
39.997

31.264
32.909
34.528
36.123
37.697
39.252
40.790
42.312
43.820
45.315

21.0
22.0
23.0
24.0
25.0
26.0
27.0
28.0
29.0
30.0

8.034
8.643
9.260
9.886
10.520
11.160
11.808
12.461
13.121
13.787

8.897
9.542
10.196
10.856
11.524
12.198
12.879
13.565
14.256
14.953

10.283
10.982
11.689
12.401
13.120
13.844
14.573
15.308
16.047
16.791

11.591
12.338
13.091
13.848
14.611
15.379
16.151
16.928
17.708
18.493

32.671
33.924
35.172
36.415
37.652
38.885
40.113
41.337
42.557
43.773

35.479
36.781
38.076
39.364
40.646
41.923
43.195
44.461
45.722
46.979

38.932
40.289
41.638
42.980
44.314
45.642
46.963
48.278
49.588
50.892

41.401
42.796
44.181
45.559
46.928
48.290
49.645
50.993
52.336
53.672

46.797
48.268
49.728
51.179
52.620
54.052
55.476
56.892
58.301
59.703

40.0
50.0
60.0
70.0
80.0
90.0
100.0

20.707
27.991
35.534
43.275
51.172
59.196
67.328

22.164
29.707
37.485
45.442
53.540
61.754
70.065

24.433
32.357
40.482
48.758
57.153
65.647
74.222

26.509
34.764
43.188
51.739
60.391
69.126
77.929

55.758
67.505
79.082
90.531
101.879
113.145
124.342

59.342
71.420
83.298
95.023
106.629
118.136
129.561

63.691
76.154
88.379
100.425
112.329
124.116
135.807

66.766
79.490
91.952
104.215
116.321
128.299
140.169

73.402
86.661
99.607
112.317
124.839
137.208
149.449

21

PHYSICAL AND ASTRONOMICAL CONSTANTS

2.998 108 m s1

Speed of light in vacuo

Elementary charge

mn

Neutron rest mass

mp

Proton rest mass

me

Electron rest mass

Plancks constant

Diracs constant (= h/2)

Boltzmanns constant

Gravitational constant

Stefan-Boltzmann constant

c1

First Radiation Constant (= 2hc2 )

c2

Second Radiation Constant (= hc/k)

Permittivity of free space

Permeability of free scpae

NA

Avogadro constant

Gas constant

8.314 J K1 mol1

a0

Bohr radius

Bohr magneton

5.292 1011 m

Fine structure constant (= 1/137.0)

Solar Mass

Solar radius

Solar luminosity

Earth Mass

Mean earth radius

1 light year
1 AU

Astronomical Unit

1 pc

Parsec

1 year

1.602 1019 C

1.675 1027 kg

1.673 1027 kg

9.110 1031 kg

6.626 1034 J s

1.055 1034 J s

1.381 1023 J K1

6.673 1011 N m2 kg2

5.670 108 J m2 K4 s1
3.742 1016 J m2 s1
1.439 102 m K

8.854 1012 C2 N1 m2
4 107 H m1

6.022 1023 mol1

9.274 1024 J T1
7.297 103

1.989 1030 kg

6.96 108 m

3.827 1026 J s1

5.976 1024 kg

6.371 106 m

9.461 1015 m

1.496 1011 m

3.086 1016 m
3.156 107 s

ENERGY CONVERSION : 1 joule (J) = 6.2415 1018 electronvolts (eV)