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The advantages of IoT and its implications in today technology

Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) is an technological trend in which objects, animals and people are provided with unique identifiers and the ability to automatically transfer the data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction. In this paradigm, a thing from Iot can be a person with a heart monitor implant, a farm animal with a biochip transponder or an automobile that has built-in sensors to alert the driver when the tire pressure is low, or any other natural or man-made object that can be assigned an IP address and provided with the ability to transfer data over a network. In this paper we will present and discuss some of the advantages of this paradigm and what it the impact on people lives by presenting some of IoTs applications used nowadays. As these technologies mature, the range of deployments will increase. In this paper, we will discuss the impact of five emerging applications, which fall in two broad categories: data gathering and analysis and automation and control in industry.

Information and analysis


As the new networks link data from products, company assets, or the operating environment, they will generate better information and analysis, which can enhance decision making significantly. 1. Tracking behavior When products are embedded with sensors, companies can track the movements of these products and monitor the interactions with them. Some insurance companies, for example, are offering to install location sensors in customers cars. This allows these companies to base the price policy on how a car is driven, and where its driven to. Pricing can be customized to the actual risks of operating a vehicle rather than based on information like the age of the driver, gender or place of residence. Furthermore, if an rental car is equipped with sensors and network connections, then it can be leased for short time spans to registered members; like so, rental centers become unnecessary, and each the use of each car can be optimized for higher revenues. This has an advantage from the drivers point of view also: the registered members, based on their profile data collected, can be offered discounts and additional information 2. Enhanced situational awareness Data from large number of sensors, deployed in infrastructure (roads, buildings) or to report on environmental conditions (weather, earthquakes), can give a bigger awareness in the decision making

process of real-time events, especially where the sensors used are paired with advanced visualization techniques. For example, security personnel can use sensor networks that combine video, audio and vibration detectors to observe unauthorized people who enter restricted areas. Or, logistics managers for airlines and transportation lines are already tapping some capabilities to get updated with weather conditions, traffic patterns and vehicle locations. In this way, these managers increase their ability to make constant routing changes and adjustments, to reduce congestion costs and increase their business capacity.

Automation and control


Making data the basis for automation and control means converting the data and analysis collected through the Internet of Things into instruction that feedback the system in order to change and adapt processes. Closing the loop from data to automated applications can raise productivity, as systems that adjust automatically to complex situations make many human interventions unnecessary. 1. Complex autonomous systems The most demanding use of the IoT involves the sensing of unpredictable conditions and instantaneous responses in real-time, guided by automated systems. This kind of machine decision mimics the human reactions, but at enhanced performance levels in one particular field. For instance, the automobile industry is stepping up the development of systems that can detect imminent collisions and take evasive actions. Certain basic applications, such as automatic braking systems (ABS), are available on most cars and its regarded already as a standard. The potential accident reduction savings flowing from wider deployment of the pre-emptive systems could surpass 100.000.000.000 $. Some companies and research organizations are experimenting with a form of automotive autopilot for networked vehicles driven in coordinated patterns at highway speeds. Scientists in other industries are testing swarms of robots that maintain facilities or clean up toxic waste, and systems under study in the defense sector would coordinate the movements of groups of unmanned aircraft. Even though such autonomous systems will have to be flawless, they promise important gains in safety, risks and costs. These experiments could also spur fresh thinking about how to approach tasks in unwelcoming physical environments (such as deep water, radioactive contaminated areas, etc.) that are difficult or dangerous for humans. 2. Preserving natural resources While greater efficiencies and new business models will have a positive economic impact, the human aspect, in many ways, will provide the most important benefit of IoT. One of the areas where IoT can make a significant difference is in closing the poverty gap. Dr. C.K. Prahalads book, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid: eradicating Poverty Through Profits provides some disturbing statistics comparing Dharavi (poorest neighborhood in Mumbai) to Warden Road (the better side). The amount people from Dharavi pay for municipalgrade water is 1,12$ per cubic meter. This compares to 0,03$ for resident from Warden Road. The main source of the difference between the costs of delivering utility

services to poorer neighborhoods because of infrastructure inefficiencies or problems such as leaks or theft. IoT, because of its sensors and connected systems, provides authorities with more information and control in order to identify and fix these problems. This will allow utilities to operate more profitably, giving them extra incentive to improve infrastructures in poorer parts of the city. More efficiency will also allow for lower prices, which, in turn, will encourage those taking services for free to become paying customers.

The Internet of Things: My Conclusion The Internet of things can be used for practically anything as it requires cheap hardware and can be easily implemented anywhere. Contrary to 90s and 2000 where Internet was more of luxury and part of computer systems, computers are now just things on the Internet! While a decade back you were just a consumer of the Internet, now you play the role of resource as well! Isnt your data: your personal profile, your card details, your favorite topics and much more information available or stored somewhere on the many servers of the Internet?

Bibliografie 1. Guillemin, Patrick, and Friess, Peter Internet of Things Strategic Research Roadmap (2009).
http://sintef.biz/upload/IKT/9022/CERP-IoT%20SRA_IoT_v11_pdf.pdf

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