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# B.E./B.TECH.

## DEGREE EXAMINATION ,NOV/DEC 2005

VII -SEMESTER
MICROWAVE ENGINEERING

TIME :3 hrs
MAX MARKS :100

## 2. State the 'PHASE SHIFTING' property of S- parameters

3. Stae the two parameters that describe a directional coupler. Define them

is 34 degrees

## 6. Drw the electronic admittance spiral of REFLEX KLYSTRON

7. Draw the equivalent circuits of pin diode under (a0 Reverse bias and (b)
Forward bias

8. Which two phase angle make the voltage and current on A valanche transmit time
device to be out of phase by 180 degrees?

## 9. Why is the SLOT located a the center of the SLOTTED SECTION?

10 What are LOW VSWR and HIGH VSWR and name the method followed to measure HIGH
VSWR?

PART -B (5 X 16 =80)

## (ii) Find the S parameters of an ideal transformer of turns ratio 1:n

OR
(b) A certain two -port microwave junction can be represented by the following
equivalent circuit. Determine the susceptance B and the turns ratio n of ideal
transformer if the measurements give S11= -(1 + j )/3 +j ,S22 = 1-j/3 +j

13(a) (i) From the first principle ,derive the scatttering matrix of an ideal
directional coupler. Hence or otherwise write down [s] matrix of HYBRID COUPLER
and MAGIC - T

## (ii) What is the value of DIRECTIVITY of an ideal DIRECTIONAL COUPLER ? why?

OR
(b) (i) An isolator, with a charecteristic impedence of 50 ohms has forward and
reverse losses of 0.9 dB and 32 dB respectivily. Its input and output VSWR's are
1.09 and 1.16 respectivily when it is terminated by a 50 ohms load. Determine its
S parameters. Assume zero phase components.

(ii) Explain how the inductances and capacitances can be varied using IRESES and
SCREWS (posts)

## 14 (a) Derive the expression for the gain of a TWT

(b) Derive 'HULL CUT OFF' condition and 'HARTEE' condition of a cavity type
mgnetron

## 15 (a) (i) Derive 'Manley Rowe Relations '.

(ii) Use the above relations to find the poer gain of an UP CONVERTER and a DOWN
CONVERTER

OR

(b) Write in detail the principle mechanism of operation and the application of
IMPATT diode.
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B.E./B.TECH.DEGREE EXAMINATION MAY/JUNE 2006
VII -SEMESTER
MICROWAVE ENGINEERING

TIME :3 hrs
MAX MARKS :100

## 1. Write down the transmissio parameters of an ideal transformer of turns ratio

n:1

2. Express S11 of two port microwave component in terms of its equivalent ABCD
parameters

## 3. For reciprocal two port microwave component the magnitude of scattering

coefficient S11 is 0.091. Find its VSWR.

## 4. Obtain the coupling coefficient in dB of a directional coupler if the magnitude

of its corresponding scattering parameter is 0.707.

## 5. What is C ring tuning with respect to Magnetron?

6. Write down two important difference between TWT and multi cavity klysron

7.Name two important materials that are used in Schottky -barrier diode.

8. Mention two basic difference between IMPATT and BARITT in terms of biasing and
NOISE

## 9. Write down the bsic difference between 'Barretters' and 'Thermistors'.

10. Write down the relationship of uide wavelength ,cut off wavelength and free
space wavelength of a waveguide.

PART -B (5 X 16 = 80)

11.(i) Name three different types of devices that are used to detect microwave
piwer.

## (ii) What is the specific application of 'Double minma method' of microwave

measurement?

(iii) How do you measure the micowave frequency without frequncy meter?

12 (b) (i) Obtain the ABCD parameters of a series impedance Z ohms from the first
priciple.

(ii) An ideal transformer has 1000 turns on its primary and 100 turns on its
secondry side. Assuming that it has a 50 ohms connectot on each side ,determine
its scaterring parameters.

13 (a) (i) Is it possible to match all the oorts of alossless reciprocal microwave
component ? Prove the same.

## (ii) The specification of a three port circulator are given as isolation = 30 dB ,

insertion loss = 2 , 5 dB and VSWR = 1.2. charecterize the circulator by its S-
parameters.
OR
(b) (i) One wishes to realize a power divider with a power ratio of 2.5:1 between
the two outputs. Determine the charecteristics impedence of the two output lines ,
with a 50 ohm input and evaluute all the terms of the scattering matrix

(ii) Determine the scatering matrix of a crossing between two lines having
charecteristic impedence of 50 ohms and 100 ohms

14 (a) (i) Draw any four types of SLOW WAVE STRUCTES used in TWT.

## (iv) What are 'pushing' and 'pulling' with respect to magnetron?

OR
(b) A two cavity klystron operates at 4.5 GHz . The DC beam voltage is 10 KV,
cavity gap spacing is 2 mm . For a given input, the magnitude of the gap voltage
is 100 volts , the DC component Io = 3.6 A and the drift regeion l= 3 cm .
Calculate (i) the item the electrons are in the gap 9ii0 the transit angle (iii )
the range of velocities of eletrons as they leave the gap reageion (iv) the
maximum voltage gain.

15 (a) (i) Draw the equivalent circuit of schottky diode and write down its
properties

(ii) Draw the equivalent circuit of pin diode and show how it can be used as a
TRANSMISSION TYPE SWITCHED LINE PHASE SHIFTER and as a SERIES SWITCH

OR
(b) (i) Pictorially represent the charecteristics (viz eletric field distribution
,the microwave voltage and the external current flow) of differnt regeions of the
IMPATT diode under reverse biased condition . Write down its typical
charecteristics.

(ii) Give the voltage current wavefrom with respect to time of a TRAPATT diode and
write down its charecteristics

## (iii) Write down the advantages and limitations of PARAMETRIC AMPLIFIER

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A 1201
B.E./B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY/JUNE 2007.
Seventh Semester
Electronics and Communication Engineering
EC 432 � MICROWAVE ENGINEERING
Time : Three hours
Maximum : 100 marks

V PART A �� (10 >< 2 : 20 marks)
1. Give the �K� band frequency range.
2. List the mode properties of a propagating waveguide.
3. Give the S �� matrix of H � plane Tee.
4. Define coupling co-efficient and directivity. I
5. What is the purpose of slow wave structures used in TWT?
6. Why Magnetron is called as crossed field device?
7. What is transferred electron effect?
8. State any two applications of parametric amplifier.
9. What is Bolometer? Give two examples. "
10. Name two methods to measure impedance.

## PART B'- (5 >< 16 : 80 marks)

I 11. (a) Discuss the following properties of �S� matrix. (16)
Y (i) Symmetry property
(ii) Unitary property
` (iii) Phase shift property.
, l Or

(b) (i) What is scattering matrix? Derive scattering matrix formulation for
�n� port network. _ (10)
(ii) Relate Z,Y and ABCD parameters with �S� parameters. (6)
12. (a) (i) � Derive the �S� matrix for Magic Tee. (10)
� (ii) Explain with diagrams Waveguide corners, bends and twists. (6)
Or
(b) (i) What is an isolator? Write down its �S� parameters. (4)
(ii) From the first principle derive the scattering matrix parameters of
a directional coupler. (12)
13. (a) (i) Draw a neat sketch showing ahelix type traveling wave tube and
describe the mechanism of electron bunching. (11)
(ii) How does a TWT differ from a Klystron amplifier? (3)
(iii) How are the oscillations that are spontaneously generated in a
TWT suppressed? (2)
Or
(b) (i) What is meant by velocity modulation? � (2)
(ii) Explain the operation of a two cavity klystron amplifier. Derive
expressions for bunched beam current and efficiency. (14)
14. (a) Derive the Manley Rowe power relation. Show how it can be applied to
find the gain of up converter and down converter. (16)
Or
(b) Write short notes on
(i) GUNN Diode (8)
(ii) IMPATT device _ (8)
15. (a) With neat block diagram explain how a Network Analyser can be used to
measure the amplitude and phase of a signal over a wide frequency
range. Also explain the measurement of reflection and transmission
parameters and �S� parameters. (16)
Or
' 2 A 1201

## (b) Explain the following :

- (i) Impedance measurement by reflectometer. (8)
(ii) Measurement of �Q� by Reflectometer method. (8)

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B.E./B.TECH.DEGREE EXAMINATION, NOV/DEC 2006
VII-SEMESTER
MICROWAVE ENGINERING

TIME : 3 HRS
MAX MARKS : 100

## 2. Define a reciprocal network.

3. What should be the minimum radius of curvature for E plane bend and H plane

4. When can you say that termination is matched to a system ? Give the structure
of any such termination and state the significance of that structure

5. What are the slow wave structures ? Why and where are they used?

## 9. For what measurements would you use a slotted line carriage?

10 What are the measurement that can be performed using (a) spectrum analyser (b)
Network analyser?

PART -B (5 X 16 = 80 )

## 11. Prove that it is not possible to construct a perfectly matched , lossless ,

reciprocal 3 port junction.
12 (a) (i) Expalin the working of a faraday rotation isolator

(ii) Explain how power splitting occurs in (i) E plane tee (ii) H plane tee (iii)
magic tee

OR
(b) (i) Define coupling factor and dirictivity of a directional coupler . Give
significance of these terms.

(ii) Explain the coupling mechanism in a Bethe -hole directional coupler and two
hole directional coupler.

## (ii)Derive the hull cutoff voltage equation for a magnetron

OR
(b) Derive the manley -rowe power relation.

14 (a) With the help of energy band diagrams explain the working of a tunnel
diode.
OR

(b) With mathematical substantiation expalin the velocity modulation and bunching
process in a reflex klstron.

## 15 (a) (i) Discuss the classification of Bolometers

(ii) Explain the frequency measurement technique using (i) slotted line (ii)
resonant cavities

## (iii) Exaplin the double minima method of VSWR measurement

OR
(b) Explain the waveguide method for measuring the dieletric constant of a
dieletric sample.
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## B.E. / B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, NOVEMBER/ DECEMBER 2007

Seventh semester
(Regulation 2004)
Electronics and Communication Engineering
EC 1403 � MICROWAVE ENGINEERING
(Common to B.E. part time) sixth Semester Regulation 2005)

PART A � (10*2=20marks)

## 1. What are waveguides corners, bends and twists?

2. Give the X-band frequency range.
3. What are HEMT�s?
4. What is MESFET?
5. What is transferred electron effect?
6. What is the other name for O-type tubes?
7. Mention the basic materials required for microwave integrated circuit.
8. List the various types of strip lines used in MMIC.
9. Mention two methods to measure impedance.
10. Define return loss and write its expression.
PART B � (5*16=80)

11. (a) (i) What is a hybrids ring. With the help of a neat diagram explain its
working principle.
(ii) Derive scattering matrix of E-plane Tee using S-parameters theory.
OR
(b) (i) What are the advantages of S-parameters over �Z� or �Y� parameters.
(ii) What is the directivity of an ideal directional coupler? Why.
(iii) From the first principles derive the scattering matrix of an ideal
directional coupler.

12. (a) (i) Explain the constructional details and operation of GaAs MESFET with
neat diagrams and characteristics curves.
OR
(b) (i) What are avalanche transit time devices.
(ii) With a neat diagram explain the construction and operating principle of
IMPACT diode.

## (iii) Mention any two applications of IMPATT diode.

13. (a) (i) write down RWH theory of Gunn diode.
(ii) Explain the various modes of operation of Gun diode.
OR
(b) (i) Describe with the neat sketch the constructional details and principle of
operation of a reflex klystron tube. With the help of Applegate diagram illustrate
the phenomenon of bunching.
(ii) Derive expression for bunched beam current and efficiency.

14. (a) (i) Explain in detail with suitable diagrams the fabrication techniques of
a monolithic microwave integrated circuit.
OR
(b) Explain in detail the various types of planar transmission lines with
appropriate diagrams.

15. (a) Describe in detail with block diagram the measurement of VSWR through
return loss measurement.
OR
(b) Explain in detail the measurement of load impedance through slotted line
method.
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## B.E / B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION,NOV/DEC 2007

MICROWAVE ENGINEERING
VII SEMESTER

Time : 3 Hrs
Max Marks : 100
PART A (10 X 2 = 20 )

## 4. What are MESFET ?

5. What is transferres electron effect?

## 10 Define return loss and write its expression

PART - B ( 5 X 16 =80)

11 (a) (i) What is a hybrid ring ? With the help of a neat diagram explain its
working principle.

## (ii) Derive scattering matricx of E- plane Tee using S- parametre theory

(OR)

(b) (i) What are the advantages of S-parameters over 'Z' or 'Y' parameters.

## (ii) What is the directivity of an ideal directional coupler ? Why?

(iii) From the first principles derive the scattwering matrix of an ideal
directional coupler?

## 12 (a) Explain the constructional details and priciples of operations of GaAs

MESFET with neat diagrams and charecteristic curves.

OR

## (b) (i) What are avalanche transit time devices?

(ii) With neat diagrams explain the construction and operating priciple of IMPATT
diode.

## (ii) Explain the various modes of operation of Gunn diode

OR

(b) (i) Describe with the neat sketch the constructional details and principles of
operation of a Reflex Klystron tube .With the help of Applegate diagram illustrate
the phenomenon of bunching.

## 14 (a) Explain in detail with suitable diagrams the fabrication techniques of a

monolithic microwave integrated circuit.

OR

(b) Explain in detail the various types of planer transmission lines with
appropriate diagrams.
15 (a) Describe in detail with block diagram the measurement of VSWR through
return loss measurements.
OR

(b) Explain in detail the measurements oF load impedeance through slotted line
method.
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