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Subject: Grade:

Chemistry 10

Type of Lesson: CSEC OBJ:

Laboratory Activity. Students should be able to investigate the reaction of non-oxidising acids with bases. Acids, Bases and Salts. Reaction of acids and bases 10

Term: Duration:

2 80 minutes

UNIT: Lesson 28: Week:

Objectives As a result of this lesson, you will be able to: 1) Investigate the reactions of acids with bases 2) Write balanced equations for these reactions Prerequisite Student Knowledge You should be familiar with: 1) The concept of an acid as a proton donor. 2) The concept of a base as a proton acceptor. 3) The concept of a salt as the substance formed when an acid reacts with a base.

Important Points Important points in this lesson: 1) The names of the salts formed are derived from the metal and the negative ion of the acid. 2) When a base reacts with an acid, heat is given off. 3) Bases include metallic oxides and hydroxides.

Key Terms Base

neutralization

Acid

Challenge Areas Write an equation for the reaction that takes place in your stomach, when you take baking soda to cure indigestion

Equipment/Material Needed: hydrochloric acid, beaker, pH metre, antacid tablet, phenolphthalein indicator

Note to Student Observe each reaction carefully and record your observations.

Introduction 1) Introductory Activity

a. Among the properties of an acid are its reactions with: bases to form a salt and water. This reaction is called neutralization.
Notes All alkalis are bases but not all bases are alkalis. Alkalis are the soluble hydroxides.

b. Observe your teacher demonstrating the addition of 1M sodium hydroxide to 1M hydrochloric acid. Wait for yur teacher to ask for volunteers to feel the beaker or take the temperature before and after addition. This shows that heat is released during this reaction.

Body of Lesson 1) Investigating the reaction of acids with bases a. Procedure: i. Fill a beaker of the way full with water. ii. Test the pH of the water. iii. Crush 1 antacid tablet and place into the beaker with the water. Add 1to 2 drops of phenolphthalein and record the color below. iv. Test the pH of this solution with the pH meter. v. Fill a beaker of the way full with hydrochloric acid. vi. Test the pH of the acid. vii. Crush 5 antacid tablets and place into the beaker with the acid. After the reaction stops test the pH of this solution with the pH meter. Note. A pH value of 7 is a neutral substance. A pH that is below 7 is acidic. A pH that is above 7 is basic.

b. Observation and Analysis: pH

Water Antacid + Water Acid Antacid + Acid c. Analysis i. Classify the antacid tablet as an acid or a base. How do you know?

ii. What affect does an antacid have on an acid? How do you know?

iii. Instead of antacid, the HCl was combined with NaOH. What do you think happened to the acid?

iv. The reaction between the acid and base is a double replacement. Write the balanced chemical reaction for the above reaction.

NaOH + HCl

v. What are the common names for the products that form when a base reacts with an acid? Come up with a name for this reaction?

Closure In-Class Assignments 1) Record your observations and answer the questions at the end of the activity.

2) Click on the following link and view the last slide. Complete the quiz there. http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/chang7/esp/folder_structure/cr/m3/s3/index.htm Out-of-Class Assignment 1) Design an experiment to test and compare the effectiveness of different over the counter antacid brands. Include antacids in different forms such as liquid, capsule, and tablet. On the internet research home remedies for heartburn and try to incorporate them in your experimental design. Explain why some of these remedies might work.

2) Write equations for the following reactions using dilute solutions: Ethanoic acid and calcium hydroxide Nitric acid and potassium hydroxide Sulphuric acid and ammonium hydroxide

3) Click on the link below to review concepts taught in the last three lessons: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks3bitesize/science/chemistry/acids_bases_intro.shtml

Supplemental Glossary of Terms Acid Base A proton donor A proton acceptor

Neutralization

The formation of molecules of water from hydroxide ions and hydrogen ions. A salt is formed at the same time.

CSEC Questions 1) Write a balanced equation for the neutralization of a. Sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid b. Potassium hydroxide and sulphuric acid (1998) 2) 25 cm3 of an acid were placed in a conical flask. 5 cm3 portions of 0.05M KOH were added to the acid. The maximum temperature was taken after each portion of alkali was added. The following results were obtained: Volume of KOH (cm3) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Temperature (oC) 25 26 28 29 30 31 27 27 26 a. Plot a graph of Temperature vs Volume of alkali used. b. What volume of alkali just neutralized the acid.

Recommended Materials Select this text, delete and start typing the instructional materials available to help teacher and student e.g. Internet-based materials Bibliography Ferguson & Hart: CXC Chemistry, Oxford University Press, 1994 Gallagher & Ingram: Complete Chemistry, Oxford University Press, 1997

Tindale Anne: Chemistry A Concise Revision Course for CXC, Stanley Thornes (Publishers) Ltd., 1998 http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks3bitesize/science/chemistry/acids_bases_intro.shtml http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/chang7/esp/folder_structure/cr/m3/s3/index.htm