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Electric Current Electricity and Electric Charge


Formulas and calculations
The relationship between Electrical voltage V, amperage I, resistivity R, impedance

Z, wattage P

The nominal impedance Z = 4, 8, and 16 ohms (loudspeakers) is often assumed as resistance R. Ohm's la e!uation (formula)" V = I R and the po er la e!uation (formula)" P = I V. P = po er, I or J = #atin" influare, international ampere, or intensit$ and R = resistance. V = %olta&e, electric potential difference or E = electro moti%e force ('() = %olta&e).

'nter an$ two of the follo in& %alues and click the calculation *utton. The missin& %alues ill *e calculated. 'nter onl$ t o %alues.

Voltage or volts E or V = mperage or current I = !esistivity or resistance R = #attage or power P = For R ta$e impedance Z

volts V amperes, amps ohms " watts #


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Fundamentals% Electric &aws ' Formulary ' E(uations

Formula wheel
Electrical engineering laws

+ Important formulas
Electronic engineering laws

V comes from ,%olta&e, and E from ,electromoti%e force,. E means also ener&$, so V is
chosen.

The )ig *ower Formulas


Electrical and mechanical power calculation
)ormula 1 - 'lectrical po er e!uation" *ower P = I V = R I2 = V2 R here po er P is in atts, %olta&e V is in %olts and current I is in amperes (./). 0f there is 1/, look also at the po er factor PF = cos and = po er factor an&le (phase an&le) *et een %olta&e and ampera&e. )ormula 2 - (echanical po er e!uation" *ower P = E t = W t here po er P is in atts, Energy E is in 3oules, and time t is in seconds. 1 4 = 1 56s. 7o er = force multiplied *$ displacement di%ided *$ time P = F s / t or" 7o er = force multiplied *$ speed (%elocit$) P = F v. 'lectrical Energy is E = P t - measured in atthours, or also in k4h. 8ndistorted po erful sound is not found in these formulas. 7lease, mind $our ears9 The eardrum and microphone diaphra&ms are reall$ onl$ mo%ed *$ the a%es of the

sound pressure. That does not do either the intensit$, nor the po er or the ener&$. 0f $ou are in the audio recordin& *usiness, it is ise not to care much a*out the ener&$, po er and intensit$ as the cause, care more a*out the e++ect of sound pressure and sound pressure le%el on the ears and the microphones and the correspondin& audio %olta&e. ,ound pressure and ,ound power - E++ect and Cause :er$ loud soundin& speakers ill ha%e a lot of po er, *ut look closer at the %er$ important e++iciency of loudspeakers. This includes the t$pical !uestion" .ow many decibels /d)0 are actually twice or three times as loud1 There is reall$ no ;(< po er. The ords ,;(< po er, are not correct. There is a calculation of po er hich is the multiplication of a ;(< %olta&e and a ;(< current. 4atts ;(< is meanin&less. 0n fact, e use that term as an e=treme shorthand for po er in atts calculated from measurin& the ;(< %olta&e. 7lease, read here" #hy there is no such thing as 2!3, watts2 or 2watts !3,2 and never has been4 7o er is the amount of ener&$ that is con%erted to a unit of time. '=pect to pa$ more hen demandin& hi&her po er.

The word 5power ampli+ier5 is a misnomer4 *ower is not really something that can be 5ampli+ied54 Voltage and current can be ampli+ied4 The term 5power ampli+ier5 although technically incorrect has become understood to mean an ampli+ier that is intended to drive a load such as a loudspea$er4

Tip% The electrical power triangle /power +ormula0


The ma&ic trian&le can *e used to calculate all formulas of the ,electric po er la ,. >ou hide ith a fin&er the %alue to *e calculated. The other t o %alues sho then ho to do the calculation.

7lease enter two %alues, the third %alue ill *e calculated. 'lectrical po er P" :olta&e V" 1mpera&e I"
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atts %olts amps

Calculations% 6hm2s law 7 6hm2s magic triangle


3easurement o+ input impedance and output impedance ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC) ~
Vl = line voltage (volts), Vp = phase voltage (volts), Il = line current (amps), Ip = phase current (amps) Z = impedance (ohms), P = power (watts), = power factor angle, VAR = volt-amperes (reactive) Current (single phase): I = P / Vpcos Power (single phase): P = VpIpcos Current (3 phases): I = P / 3 Vlcos or I = P / 3 Vpcos Power (3 phases): P = 3 VlIlcos or P = 3 VpIpcos

Power factor PF = cos = R/(R2 + X2)1/2, = power factor angle. For the purely resistive circuit, PF = 1 (perfect).

The apparent power S is calculated according to Pythagoras, the active power P and reactive power Q. S = (P2 + Q2)

The true power +actor and not the conventional 89:;9 .< displacement power +actor

=n acoustics we have an 5

coustic e(uivalent +or ohm2s law5

!elationships o+ acoustic (uantities associated with plane progressive sound waves

Conversions o+ many units, li$e power and energy


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