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Math 300 Homework 7 Graded Problems

Worksheet Q3 Problem.

Use the Euclidean algorithm to ﬁnd the greatest common divisor of 45823 and 6409. Then,

ﬁnd x and y so that gcd(45823, 6409) = 45823x + 6409y.

Solution

 42823 = (6409)(6) + 4369 6409 = (4369)(1) + 2040 4369 = (2040)(2) + 289 2040 = (289)(7) + 17 289 = (17)(17).

Therefore, gcd(42823, 6409) = 17 and we have

17

= 2040 (289)(7)

= 2040 (4369 (2040)(2))(7)

= (2040)(15) (4369)(7)

= (6409 4369)(15) (4369)(7)

= (6409)(15) (4369)(22)

= (6409)(15) (42823 (6409)(6))(22)

= (6409)(147) (42823)(22).

Comment.

It is a simple computation problem, and all of you did well.

 6.4 Q3 a. Problem. Prove that √ 6 is irrational. Solution For sake of contradiction, suppose √ 6 is rational. Then there are integers a, b, with b = 0,

s.t. √ 6 = a .
b

Consider the set {n Z + :

m Z( m

n

=

6)}. Since

6 = a

b

=

a

b ,

and one of b, b is positive (since b

= 0), S is non-empty. By Well-Ordering Principle, there is a smallest

element in S. Call it n 0 . By deﬁnition, there is m 0 Z s.t.

square both sides, we have 6 = m 0 . Multiply both sides by n 0 and

n

0

2

m 0 = 6n

2

0 .

Since 3n 0 is an integer, 2 divides m 0 . By Example 3.4.2 in the book or Q17a below, we have 2 | m 0 . Let

m 1 Z s.t.

2

2

m 0 = 2m 1 . Then,

6n 0 = m 0 = 4m 2 ,

1

2

2

2m 2 = 3n

1

2

0 .

1

is an integer, we have 2 | 3n 0 . By Q17a below, we have 2 | 3 or 2 | n 0 . Clearly 2 | 3 is false, so

2 | n 0 . Apply Example 3.4.2 or Q17a again, we have 2 | n 0 . Let n 1 Z s.t. n 0 = 2n 1 . Since n 0 > 0, we

have

Since m 2

2

2

1

2

0 < n 1 = 1 2 n 0 < n 0 . Also,

m

1

1

2

m 0

= m 0 = 6,

n

0

n

1

1

2

n 0

=

so n 1 S by deﬁnition, which contradicts that n 0 is the smallest element in S. irrational.

Therefore, 6 is

Alternative Solution We ﬁrst prove a lemma

Lemma 1. Suppose d 1 , d 2 are integers s.t. gcd(d 1 , d 2 ) = 1. If d 1 | n and d 2 | n for some integer n, then d 1 d 2 | n.

Proof

Suppose d 1

|

n and

d 2

|

n for some integer n.

By deﬁnition, there are integers k, l s.t.

 n = kd 1 = ld 2 . Since gcd(d 1 , d 2 ) = 1, there exist integers x, y s.t. d 1 x + d 2 y = 1. Multiply both sides by n = kd 1 , we have

n

= kd 1 = kd 2 x + kd 1 d 2 y = d 1 (ld 2 x +

1

kd 2 y) = d 1 d 2 (lx + ky).

Since lx + ky is an integer, n is divisible by d 1 d 2 .

Now we can prove that 6 is irrational. For sake of contradiction, suppose 6 is rational. Then there

exists a, b Z, b

= 0 s.t. 6 = a . Consider the set {n Z + :

b m Z( m

n

= 6)}. Since

6 = a

b

= a

b ,

and one of b, b is positive (since b

= 0), S is non-empty. By Well-Ordering Principle, there is a smallest

element in S. Call it n 0 . By deﬁnition, there is m 0 Z s.t.

6 = m 0 . Multiply both sides by n 0 and

square both sides, we have

(1)

so 6 divides m 0 , i.e. 2 and 3 both divide m 0 = (m 0 )(m 0 ). Since 2 is a prime, by Problem 17a below we have 2 | m 0 . Similarly, 3 | m 0 . Since 2,3 are relatively prime, by Lemma 1 we have 6 | m 0 . Thus, there exist an integer m 1 s.t. m 0 = 6m 1 . Hence we have

m 0 = 6n 0 , n

0

2

2

2

2

(6m 1 ) 2 = 6n 0 ,

2

6m 2 = n

1

2

0

.

By similar arguments, n 0 is divisible by 6, so there is an integer n 1 s.t. n 0 = 6n 1 . Since n 0 > 0, we have n 0 n 1 = 5 6 n 0 > 0, so 0 < n 1 < n 0 . Note that

m

1

1

6

m 0

= m 0 = 6,

n

0

n

1

1

6

n 0

=

so n 1 S and n 1 < n 0 , contradicting that n 0 is the smallest element in S. Therefore, 6 is irrational.

 b. Problem. Prove that √ 2 + √ 3 is irrational. Solution For sake of contradiction,suppose √ 2 + √ 3 is rational. Then there is a, b ∈ Z, b = 0 s.t.

2 + 3 = a . Square both sides, we have 5 + 2 6 = a 2 , and 6 = a 2 5b 2 . Since a 2 5b 2 and 2b 2 are

integers, with 2b 2 = 0, this contradicts that 6 is irrational. Therefore, 2 + 3 is irrational. b b
2 2b 2

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Comment. To show that the existence of q 1 contradicts that q 0 is the smallest element in S, you must state that q 1 > 0, since it is part of the deﬁnition of S. Also, note that p | n 2 implies p | n is true for prime numbers (reason in Q17a), but not true for all positive integer p. In particular, 4 | 2 2 , but 4 2. Be sure that you know the reasoning behind each step you are making.

6.4 Q4 Problem.

3 Martian credits, and a red bead is worth 7 Martian credits. combination of blue and red beads that is worth n credits.

Solution We will prove it by strong induction. For n = 12, we have 12 = 3(4) + 7(0). For n = 13, we

Suppose n 15 and the claim is true for all

In particular, the claim is true for n 3 (note that 12 n 3 < n), so

Thus, n = 3(a + 1) + 7b, so the claim is true for n. By Strong

positive integer k with 12 k < n.

there exist natural a, b s.t.

have 13 = 3(2) + 7(1).

there is some

Prove that for all

For n = 14, we have 14 = 3(0) + 7(2).

n 3 = 3a + 7b.

n

12,

Induction, the statement is true for all n 12.

Alternative Solution We will show by induction that for all integer n 12, there are natural numbers

a, b, with a 2 or b 2, such that

For base case, note that 12 = 3 · 4, so we can let a = 4 2, and b = 0. Thus the base case is true.

Suppose the statement is true for some n 12. Then there exist natural a, b with a 2 or b 2 s.t.

n = 3a + 7b. Note that

n = 3a + 7b.

n + 1 = 3a + 7b + 1 = 3(a 2) + 7(b + 1) = 3(a + 5) + 7(b 2).

If a

a 2 2. If b 1, then b + 1 2, so the claim for n + 1 is true for a 2.

If b 2, then a + 5 and b 2 are natural, with a + 5 5 2, so the claim is also true for this case.

By Principle of Mathematical Induction, for all integer n 12 there are natural a, b with a 2 or b 2 s.t.

Note that if b = 0, then since n = 3a 12, we have a = 4 and

2, then a 2 and b + 1 are natural.

 n = 3a + 7b. In particular, there is some combination of blue and red beads that is worth n credits for all n ≥ 12.

6.4 Q17

Comment.

don’t mix up 12 k < n and 12 k n.

Good performance in general. Remember to distingiush clearly between and <. For instance

a. Problem. p | a or p | b. Solution

Suppose a, b, p are some positive integers and p is prime. Prove that if p | ab then either

We will ﬁrst prove a lemma

Lemma 2. If a, p are positive integers s.t. p a, then gcd(a, p) = 1.

Proof

However, p a, so d

Let d = gcd(a, p). By deﬁnition,

d | a and d | p. Since p is a prime and d > 0, d = 1 or d = p.

= p. Therefore, d = 1, as desired.

Now we will prove the initial claim. If p | a, then we are done. Suppose p a. We will prove that p | b.

Since p | ab, there exists k Z s.t.

Lemma 2. Then there exists x, y Z s.t. ax + py = 1. Multiply both sides by b, we have

ab = pk.

Since p a and p is a prime, we have gcd(a, p) = 1 by

b = abx + pby = pkx + pby = p(kx + by).

Since kx + by is an integer, b is divisible by p.

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b. Problem. Suppose a 1 , a 2 ,

, a n is a sequence of positive integers and p is a prime number. Prove

that if p | (a 1 a 2 ··· a n ), then p | a i for some 1 i n.

Solution

Suppose the claim is true for some positive integer n. Suppose a 1 ,

integers and p is a prime such that p | (a 1 ··· a n+1 ) = [(a 1 ··· a n )a n+1 ]. Since a 1 ··· a n is a positive

integer, by 17a we have p | a 1 ··· a n or p | a n+1 . If the latter is true, then we are done by letting i = n + 1. If the former is true, then by induction assumption we have p | a i for some 1 i n, which also shows that the claim is true. Therefore, by Principle of Mathematical Induction, the claim is true for all positive integer n.

, a n+1 is a sequence of positive

We will prove it by induction on n. For n = 1 it is trivial.

Comment. For 17a, remember that to prove a statement (A or B), you just have to suppose A is false, and prove B (please refer to Ch3 for more reference). For 17b, some of you try to prove it recursively. I would prefer a proof by induction on n, since it seems more persuasive.

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