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Chris Jones, Medium Voltage Power ProductsSEMA 2012

Distribution Components Smart Grid Overview, Components, Applications


ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 1

Distribution Grid Sensors Agenda


Energy Distribution Challenge Adressing the Challenges: Application Overview The Market for Grid Modernization Smart Grid Sensors What, Where, Why, and How Fault Detection Asset Management FDIR/FLISR VVO/CVR Feeder Metering The CT/PT Sensor Solution Line Post Senorse Sensor Design Project Installation in Pinetops, NC

ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 2

Distribution Grid Sensors Agenda


Energy Distribution Challenge Addressing the Challenges: Application Overview The Market for Grid Modernization Smart Grid Sensors What, Where, Why, and How Fault Detection Asset Management FDIR/FLISR VVO/CVR Feeder Metering The CT/PT Sensor Solution Line Post Senorse Sensor Design Project Installation in Pinetops, NC

ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 3

Distribution Grid Sensors Need for improved energy efficiency and reliability
40% of losses occur on the distribution network Reducing losses by 10% could save 65 billion kWh For each 1% reduction of peak demand, (32) 250MW power plants do not need to be built Reducing outage frequency and duration saves maintenance and regulatory costs

The future of power distribution relies on utilities to maximize their efficiency and optimize the network to consistently deliver power to consumers at minimal cost.

ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 4

* Volt/VAR Optimization Reduces Losses, Peak Demands By: Xiaoming Feng, ABB Corporate Research and William Peterson, ABB Power Systems Raleigh, North Carolina US

Top benefits of the Smart Grid Distribution Automation


Survey: What are the Top 3 benefits of implementing Smart Grid technologies?

Source: GreenTech Media Research, 2012


ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 5

Distribution Automation Projects Current and Future Market


71 Smart Grid Projects with DA Components in U.S. today Distribution Automation Market Forecast United States 2012-2016

Source: GreenTech Media Research, 2012

ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 6

Distribution Intelligent Grid Landscape Functional Tiers


Meter & Billing CIS GIS

Communications

AMI Head- Mobile Data System end

Communications

Substation

Substation

SCADA/DMS

Control Center
Gateway

Feeder
LTC, Voltage Regulator, Capacitor Control Protection Feeder Monitor

Communications Wide Area Network (WAN)

Feeder Automation Network (FAN) Voltage Regulator Control

Line Recloser

Capacitor Control Switch Control

Revenue Meters

Home Area Network (HAN) Building Automation System

Switch Control Customer Generation & Energy Storage

ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 7

Typical Sensor Block Diagram


4KV 38KV

Fundamental building blocks for DA Devices: Relays, Meters, FCIs, Reclosers, Cap Bank Controllers, Voltage Regulators, etc.!
Sensor (3) V A/D (3) I

Tier 2
Solicited & unsolicited communications Substation Gateway

Tier 3

RF

DNP / TCP/IP

RF DNP / TCP/IP

Functional Requirements
1. N samples / cycle, M samples per second 2. (3) V, (3) I, Freq, Timestamp 3. Peak V & I, Watts, Vars, and VA computations 4. Harmonic content Network Manager SCADA

Tier 1

ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 8

Distribution Sensor Applications Focus on Distribution Automation


1.

Volt-Var Control
Volt-Var Optimization (VVO)Eliminate Waste Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR)Reduce Excess

2.

Protection and ControlBetter Manage Resources


Fault, Detection, Isolation, & Restoration (FDIR): Reclosers, Sectionaliziers

3.

Fault IndicationInformation to assist


Fault Current Indication (FCI): Overhead and Underground Power Line Monitor: Load & Peak Current Waveforms, Conductor Temperature

4.

Monitoring & Diagnostics--Maintenance


Asset Health Services for Switchgear, Breakers: Temperature, Aging

5.

Feeder Metering-Comparison of what is going out vs coming in


Power Quality Theft Detection

ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 9

Key Application: Fault Indication (>10%) FCI and Power Line Monitoring
S S S S S S S S

Sensor

Tripped

Fault Current Indicator (FCI):

Power Line Monitor

Visually identifies and locates high-current Remotely measures fault events, timestamps, events remotely to assist maintenance crews temperature, power quality, and waveforms Low-cost, lightweight, & hot-stick mountable Fully integrated wireless solution, containing A/D, design for fast and easy installation microcontroller, power supply and radio

Reliability Benefits of FCIs:


Reduces interruption time and lost revenue Improves customer satisfaction Reduces SAIDI, SAIFI penalties Lowers OPEX (i.e. crew cost)
ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 10

Provides all Benefits of FCI, plus:


Faster outage detection and location search Remote configuration of fault parameters Visibility of fault signatures Event recording and tracking

Sensors for Fault Indication Overhead & Underground FCIs

Line Monitor or FCI: O/H & URG

Remote Terminal Unit (RTU)


Gateway

Wireless or Wired communications Substation gateway (ABB COM600)


ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 11

RF Radio

Key Application: Monitoring & Diagnostics (1% - >2%) Asset Health Indication
Monitoring and Diagnostic sensors measure
key health indicators of critical power systems assets, such as Switchgear and Breakers.

Asset Health Indication:


Records diagnostics history Monitors temperature and aging wear Reduces risk of a catastrophic event Predicts health trends and alarms

Sensors & Components:


Temperature sensors Current Transducers Pressure Sensors Partial Discharge Gateway/Webserver

ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 12

Key Applications: Distribution Automation (0.5% - 2%) FDIR/FLISR


S S S S

Sensor

Fault Detection, Isolation, and Restoration (FDIR): Prevents outages that cause loss of revenue and customer dissatisfaction Identifies and locates faults remotely and automatically restores power with loop scheme

Reliability Benefits of FDIR:


Improve customer satisfaction Reduces interruptions Avoids SAIDI, SAIFI penalties Lowers OPEX (i.e. crew cost, tree trimming)
ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 13

Sensors for FDIR/FLISR


Embedded, Line-Post Sensors and Voltage Transformers
Pole-Embedded or Line-post Sensor:
Voltage and/or Current

IED: Relay or Controller (RER620 or REF615) Wireless or Wired communications

(3) V

(3) I

Substation gateway (ABB COM600)


ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 14

RF Radio Gateway

Key Applications: Distribution Automation (0.5% - 2%) Conservation voltage reduction


Challenges Utilities must regulate the voltage delivered to within 5% of the required nominal voltage for each consumer. Conservation voltage reduction Allows utilities to deliver consistent power to all consumers and allow for lowering of demand during peak hours if necessary Conservation voltage reduction helps utilities:

~124v

Power/resource savings
~ 122v

save as much as 3-5% on generation costs improve customer satisfaction limit wasted energy and lower costs lessen the potential for brownouts

~118v

ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 15

Key Applications: Distribution Automation (0.5% - 2%) Volt/VAr optimization


Challenges Reactive power can account for a significant portion of distribution losses. Volt/VAr optimization Allows utilities to balance the amount of active and reactive power on the network to conserve energy and reduce power losses. Volt/VAr optimization helps utilities reduce: CO2 emissions peak demand and associated costs generation load by as much as 4-6%

ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 16

Sensors for CVR/VVO Line-Post Sensors


Line-post Sensor:
Voltage and/or Current

IED: Cap Bank Controller (CQ900R)


(3) V (3) I

Wireless or Wired communications

Substation gateway (ABB COM600)


ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 17

RF Radio Gateway

Sensors for CVR/VVO SCC-125 capacitor bank controller sensor


Taking advantage of the wide range of capacitor controller capabilities with: Standard current/voltage output Strong performance at high harmonic levels Limited phase angle and ratio correction compensation Control power for the controller and the switches

ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 18

Output Values SCC-125 capacitor bank controller sensor


Delivers traditional 5A and 120V output of the standard current transformers No additional programming or hardware necessary for the controller Strong signal, not dependant on input impedance Split core design allows for easy, live installation Combines the benefits of current/voltage transformer technology with the innovative design of a line post sensor.

ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 19

Phase Angle / Ratio Correction SCC-125 capacitor bank controller sensor


More reliability, less complexity Phase angle shift not required Provides real-time reading of the current wave form Exceeds 0.3 metering class accuracy Additional ratio correction factor compensation not necessary Saves installation time, maintenance and training costs

ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 20

Performance SCC-125 capacitor bank controller sensor


Supports readings up to the 66th harmonic, or 4kHz Meets C100 relay accuracy in addition to IEEE revenue class metering accuracy Inherent ability to identify fault currents with integrated with a controller Displays values up to 12kA

ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 21

Key Application Feeder metering maximize revenues


Challenges Utilities can lose millions annually through errors in metering, losses, and theft. Feeder Metering Measures the distribution of energy to commercial and residential sectors and compares those readings with revenue to ensure the utility is properly billing for energy consumption. Feeder metering helps utilities: Improve system planning Identify other issues such as phase imbalances, poor power factor, voltage sags. Maximize revenue Reveal instances of energy theft Discover problems with meter accuracy

SCADA meets AMI


ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 22

Feeder analysis No energy theft / metering errors


Source: Accenture Analysis

Energy balance feeder analysis using linear regression Comparing customer metered loads with utility supplied load Ideally should be a one-one relationship Slight difference in slope indicates typical 4% technical losses from transformers and conductors. Maximized revenue in terms of non-technical losses
ABB Inc. November 7, 2012 | Slide 23

Feeder analysis Constant theft


Source: Accenture Analysis

Y-intercept significantly greater than zero


Even if metered load goes to zero, the utility will still be supplying power to point(s) on the feeder Incurring the cost of delivering power without any compensation erodes profitability

Data indicates a relatively consistent loss of 100kW throughout the day


ABB Inc. November 7, 2012 | Slide 24

Feeder analysis Periodic theft


Source: Accenture Analysis

Two trend lines developed via linear regression


Energy theft levels changes during different periods of the day Most likely dealing with a more sophisticated partial bypass scenario

Data indicates at period 2 with over triple the energy loss due to theft and over double the technical losses
ABB Inc. November 7, 2012 | Slide 25

Sensors for Feeder/Primary Metering ABB GridSyncTM Monitoring System


Sensor: Split-core CT/PT (ABB SCC-125)

Smart meter
(3) V (3) I

Gateway

Wireless or Wired communications Substation gateway (ABB COM600)


ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 26

RF Radio

Customer Preferred Wireless Network

SCC-125 Easy installation, revenue class accuracy


Appropriate for applications where easy installation is important and metering class accuracy is required. Unique split-core design Proven instrument transformer technology Hydrophobic cycloaliphatic epoxy (HCEP) insulation IEEE revenue-class accuracy Provides any phase, 120 V control power

ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 27

GridSyncTM feeder monitoring system Focused on Flexibility


Pole mounted NEMA 4X rated enclosure available in: Polycarbonate (Standard) Aluminum Voltage/Current Protection: Voltage fuses (Standard) Current shorting block (Standard) FlexiTest (FT) switch Other Options include: Amphenol Connections (Standard) 120VAC power outlet Power supply (Standard) Laird antenna (Standard) Mounted height based on location Integration experts will customize the enclosure to ensure desired results in both design and data acquisition.

ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 28

Line Post Sensors Voltage and/or current line post sensor


Voltage-Only Sensor Multi-Ratio 120V output Lightweight, simple retrofit <2% ratio accuracy HCEP Insulation Provides reliable primary voltage sensing at points all throughout the grid
15kV Voltage-only sensor design

Voltage/Current Combination Sensor Voltage sensing 120V output


Voltage divider / multi-ratio <2% ratio accuracy

Current Sensing 600:1A output


<1% accuracy Live installation on existing cross arm or rack Supports fault current detection up to 12kA 15kV Current/voltage combination sensor design
ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 29

Simple, cost effective integration with IEDs (meter, relay, controller) for accurate power measurements HCEP Insulation

Line Post Sensor VLS-110 Voltage Line post sensor


Voltage-Only Sensor Installs live Lightweight, simple retrofit 120V output <1% ratio accuracy Used with: Reclosers Cap banks FDIR VVO/VVC/CVR

ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 30

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Sensors Line post sensor - Combo


Current/Voltage Combination Sensor Current Sensing <1% accuracy 600:1A output Current transformer technology Detects fault currents Cleaner wave forms Used with: Cap banks FDIR VVO/VVC/CVR 3-ph Switches
ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 31

DistribuSense VLS-110 Voltage Sensor Installation

ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 32

New Sensors - ViziSense Low Voltage Transformer Monitoring Sensor


Current/Voltage sensing of poletop distribution transformers Outdoor Rated Design
Weight 2lbs. 1 inner diameter

Voltage clamp
Insulation piercing provides direct voltage signal
Integral Voltage Clamp

Split-Core current transformer


600:1A ratio, rating factor= 2 <1% accuracy
LV sensors integrated design Pole DT

Built-in CT/voltage leads


Simple field retrofit creating a smart transformer to enhance distribution grid optimization applications
Asset Management Revenue Protection System Planning Operations Support
ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 33

CT sensors

LV cables Smart meter

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Sensors Low Voltage Transformer Monitoring Sensor


Distribution transformer monitoring for: Revenue Protection System Planning Operations Support Asset Management

Outdoor Rated Design Voltage clamp Split-Core current transformer 0.5% accuracy 600:1A ratio
Smart meter
ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 34

LV sensors integrated design Pole DT

CT sensors

LV cables

Data from the smart grid Distribution Transformer Metering


Source: Elster Low Voltage AGI Node transformer monitoring use case

ABB Inc. November 7, 2012 | Slide 35

Grid Modernization with Distribution Sensors Increased visibility for effective control
A distribution grid with sensors enable utilities to navigate feeder complexity, identify lost revenue and increase overall:
Efficiencyprecise management and control of power usage Optimizationimproved power quality through volt var management Reliabilityprovide real time voltage and power status and control 24/7

The future of power distribution relies on utilities to optimize the network and deliver power to consumers with greater reliability and efficiency at minimal cost know the sensors that best fit your application.
ABB Inc November 7, 2012 | Slide 36

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Chris Jones, Medium Voltage Power Products/ SEMA 2012

GridSync Medium Voltage Sensors Pinetops Design Project Installation


ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 37

Pinetops Design Project Installation


Preparation at the top of the pole.

Simultaneous preparation of the GridSync sensors on the ground.

ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 38

Pinetops Design Project Installation

Beginning the assembly lift by the eye-bolt located on the frame.


ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 39

Mounting the frame to the pole with keyed slot on the frame.

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Pinetops Design Project Installation


Securing the mounting frame on the pole.

Connecting grounded wire to the mounting frame.

ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 40

Pinetops Design Project Installation

Securing the cables/conduit to the pole and connecting to the SCC-125 junction boxes.
ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 41

Mounting the communication box to the base of the pole and making ground connection.

Pinetops Design Project Installation

Running the cables/conduit into the control box.

Laying bare conductor in split core groove and attaching clamps/cap.

ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 42

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Pinetops Design Project Installation

Installation Complete: BucketTruck View.

Control Box View: Phases color-coded.

ABB Group November 7, 2012 | Slide 43

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