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CHAPTER 10.0 GROWTH


(3 hrs)

10.0 Growth (3 hrs)


10.1 Growth phases 10.2 Measurement of growth 10.3 Growth patterns 10.4 Growth rate () () (1) ()

Learning outcomes
At the end of this topic, students should be able to :

a) Define growth.
b) State 3 phases of individual growth:

i. Cell division
ii. Cell enlargement iii. Cell differentiation

Learning outcomes: 10.1 (a) Define growth

GROWTH
Is an increase in size of an organism Through cell division and cell enlargement Over a specific of time

Irreversible in nature Height (cm) Beginning from the Height (cm) zygote stage to adult stage.

Age (year)

Learning outcomes: 10.1 (a) Define growth

Growth parameters include :

- biomass - length - width - height - volume - cell number

Height (cm)

Height (cm)

Age (year)

Learning outcomes: 10.1 (b) State 3 phases of individual growth:

3 phases of individual growth :

i) cell division ii) cell enlargement iii) cell differentiation

Height (cm)

Age (year)

Learning outcomes: 10.1 (b) State 3 phases of individual growth:

Individual Growth Phases


1. Cell division
o Cell divides from new cell by mitosis o At root tips/shoot tips o Daughter cells have dense protoplasm o Daughter cells have same number of chromosomes/genetic constitution with the parent cells

Learning outcomes: 10.1 (b) State 3 phases of individual growth:

2. Cell enlargement
o The newly formed cell absorb water by osmosis o Resulting in increased turgidity/expansion/dilation of the elastic cell wall o Cell increase in size, volume and mass o In the initial stage, enlargement occurs in all directions o Later, enlargement confined to a specific directions

Learning outcomes: 10.1 (b) State 3 phases of individual growth:

3. Cell differentiation
o Cells mature to obtain a permanent size o The cell walls grow in thickness o Attain specialized /specific structure o And performed particular function

Learning outcomes: 10.1 (b) State 3 phases of individual growth:

10.0 Growth (3 hrs)


10.1 Growth phases 10.2 Measurement of growth 10.3 Growth patterns () () (1)

10.4 Growth rate

() ()

10.5 Growth under extreme condition

Learning outcomes
At the end of this topic, students should be able to : Explain how growth is measured.

Learning outcomes: 10.2 Explain how growth is measured.

Measurements of Growth
Growth can be measured by using a certain parameter over a period of time.

Parameter chosen must be appropriate to the organism whose growth is to be measured.


Eg: height, appropriate for human but not trees (cant measure growth of root)

Learning outcomes: 10.2 Explain how growth is measured.

Measurements of Growth
Measurements of Growth

Size

Biomass

Learning outcomes: 10.2 Explain how growth is measured.

length/height/width Size
surface area volume Advantage
Easy & quick to be carried out. No need to kill the organism. Can be measured continuously to observe growth.

Disadvantage
Measures in 1 or linear dimension. Doesnt measure/consider growth in other direction or dimension.

Learning outcomes: 10.2 Explain how growth is measured.

Biomass

Wet/fresh mass
Mass of an organism under normal conditions that is without removal of body water content.

Dry mass
Mass of an organism after removing all its water content from its body by drying.

Learning outcomes: 10.2 Explain how growth is measured.

Wet/fresh mass
Advantage Easy to measure, requires little preparation of the sample. Doesnt cause injury to an organism. Can be used to monitor growth of an organism over a period of time.

Disadvantage
Doesnt measure true growth because it may give inconsistent readings. Influenced & fluctuations in water content of the body.

Learning outcomes: 10.2 Explain how growth is measured.

Dry mass Advantage


Accurate measurement of the amount of organic matter present.

Disadvantage
(Many) organisms are killed. Growth of the same specimen cant be measured continuously. Need a large number of genetically identical specimen grown under similar condition to measure growth to obtain a representative reflection of growth. Cant be used to monitor growth of an organism over a period of time. Time consuming.

10.0 Growth (3 hrs)


10.1 Growth phases 10.2 Measurement of growth 10.3 Growth patterns () () (1)

10.4 Growth rate

() ()

10.5 Growth under extreme condition

Learning outcomes
a) Explain sigmoid growth curve (organism and population). b) Explain human growth curve. c) Explain limited growth curve (annual plants) and unlimited growth curve (perennial plants). d) Explain isometric growth (fish) and allometric growth (human organs). e) Explain intermittent growth curve (arthropods).

Learning outcomes: 10.3 a) Explain sigmoid growth curve

a) Sigmoid Growth Curve


a b c d e

Learning outcomes: 10.3 a) Explain sigmoid growth curve

a) Sigmoid Growth Curve

Learning outcomes: 10.3 a) Explain sigmoid growth curve

a) Sigmoid Growth Curve


Most growth curve of organisms is sigmoid. It has S-shaped growth curve.

Also known as actual / absolute growth curve.


Growth starts slowly at first, then a rapid period of growth until reach maturity, growth begins to slow down & stops.

Learning outcomes: 10.3 a) Explain sigmoid growth curve

a) Sigmoid Growth Curve


Can be plotted when absolute parameter (eg: height or mass) against time.
A growth curve is obtained which has Sshaped or sigmoid curve.

Learning outcomes: 10.3 a) Explain sigmoid growth curve

a) Sigmoid Growth Curve


Sigmoid curve is divided into 5 parts :
1. Lag phase 2. Log phase 3. Decelerating phase / linear growth 4. Stationary / plateau phase 5. Senescense

Learning outcomes: 10.3 a) Explain sigmoid growth curve

a) Lag phase
Slow growth occur due to very few cells at initial stage. These cells are actively dividing but actual increase in size is small.

Learning outcomes: 10.3 a) Explain sigmoid growth curve

b) Log phase/exponential phase


Growth proceeds exponentially.
The rate of growth increase & proportional to the number of cells present. There is no limiting factors. The rate of growth is maximum.

Learning outcomes: 10.3 a) Explain sigmoid growth curve

c) Linear growth phase/ decelerating phase


Growth becomes limited/slows down/decrease & rate of growth takes place at constant rate.

It is limited by internal (matured) or external factors (food sources, space, competition).

Learning outcomes: 10.3 a) Explain sigmoid growth curve

d) Stationary/plateau/equilibrium phase The organism has achieved maturity. Overall growth ceases/stop The rate of cell division = rate of cell mortality. Net growth rate is zero.

Learning outcomes: 10.3 a) Explain sigmoid growth curve

e) Senescense

When replacement of cells is slower than the death of cells, the curve slopes downward and senescence sets in.

Learning outcomes: 10.3 b) Explain human growth curve.

b) Human Growth Curve

Learning outcomes: 10.3 b) Explain human growth curve.

Prenatal Growth Pattern of Growth in Human

Postnatal Growth
Infant phase 0 3 yrs Childhood phase 3-12 yrs Adult phase > 18 yrs Adolescence phase 12 - 18 yrs

Learning outcomes: 10.3 b) Explain human growth curve.

Growth in Human
There are two growth spurts, one at infancy and the other at puberty. Between these two phases there is a period of relatively slow growth (steady).

Learning outcomes: 10.3 b) Explain human growth curve.

Growth in Human
When adulthood is reached, the growth process stops. Human growth curves appear as two sigmoid curves joined together.

Learning outcomes: 10.3 b) Explain human growth curve.

Human Growth Curve


. 4 phases :
a) Infant phase :

Growth rate is very rapid irrespective of whether the baby is male or female.

Learning outcomes: 10.3 b) Explain human growth curve.

b) Childhood phase : Growth rate is slower. Growth rate in male is slightly higher than to female.

Learning outcomes: 10.3 b) Explain human growth curve.

c) Adolescent phase : Growth is rapid when sexual maturity is reached at puberty : - at ~ 11 years female have more rapid growth rate. - at ~ 14 years male growth rate becomes higher than female.

Learning outcomes: 10.3 b) Explain human growth curve.

d) Adult phase : - Growth rate is zero and most individuals would have attained maturity. - Males achieve this phase at the age of about 18 while females at the age of about 16.

Learning outcomes: 10.3 b) Explain human growth curve.

e) Ageing phase : Growth rate is negative, that is, the size of cells will start to decrease starting from the age of about 30.

Learning outcomes: 10.3 c) Explain limited growth curve and unlimited growth curve.

c) Limited & Unlimited Growth Curve


Limited Growth Curve Unlimited Growth Curve

Learning outcomes: 10.3 c) Explain limited growth curve and unlimited growth curve.

Limited Growth Curve Definite/determinate growth The growth does not continue throughout life/until death Organism shows limited growth, up to certain size. Growth is stopped / declined when a maximum size is achieved. Eg : annual crops, pea, mammals.

Learning outcomes: 10.3 c) Explain limited growth curve and unlimited growth curve.

Limited Growth Curve


Consist of 3 stages (annual plant) : Stage I A slight decrease in dry mass in the initial stage of germination. Food reserve is used for respiration to provide energy.

Learning outcomes: 10.3 c) Explain limited growth curve and unlimited growth curve.

Limited Growth Curve Stage II Large increase in dry mass after 1st week. The first leaf emerges & start to photosynthesis. The dry mass increases.
2

Learning outcomes: 10.3 c) Explain limited growth curve and unlimited growth curve.

Limited Growth Curve


Stage III
3

Decrease in dry mass before death of plants. The negative growth is due to senescence (eg : fall of leaves).

Learning outcomes: 10.3 c) Explain limited growth curve and unlimited growth curve.

Unlimited Growth Curve

Also known as indefinite / indeterminate growth. Organisms grow continuously throughout its life/until death Growth pattern consists of cumulative series of sigmoid curves. Each sigmoid curve represents 1 years growth. Each sigmoid curve can be divided into 4 parts. Each part corresponding to a season. Eg : woody perennials plants.

Learning outcomes: 10.3 c) Explain limited growth curve and unlimited growth curve.

Unlimited Growth Curve In Spring

Temperature & light intensity are low. A small increase in the height of plant occurs due to very little photosynthesis.

Learning outcomes: 10.3 c) Explain limited growth curve and unlimited growth curve.

Unlimited Growth Curve In Summer

As the temperature & light intensity increase, the rate of photosynthesis increase. Results in a large increase in the height of plants.

Learning outcomes: 10.3 c) Explain limited growth curve and unlimited growth curve.

Unlimited Growth Curve In Autumn Temperature & light intensity are lower than in summer. Less photosynthesis occur. Small increase in the height of the plants.

Learning outcomes: 10.3 c) Explain limited growth curve and unlimited growth curve.

Unlimited Growth Curve In Winter Conditions is not suitable for photosynthesis. Growth is very slow because there is no/very little photosynthesis. The growth curve flattens.

Learning outcomes: 10.3 c) Explain limited growth curve and unlimited growth curve.

Unlimited Growth Curve

In the following spring, the entire process is repeated.


Perennial plants grow continuously, the graphs never flatten. Every season, the size & weight keep increasing. Except it is restricted by environmental factors. Such as the presence of parasites, natural predators, outbreak of diseases which will kill the organism.

Learning outcomes: 10.3 d) Explain isometric growth and allometric growth.

d) Isometric and Allometric Growth


Isometric Growth
Isos : same; metron : measure Growth in which the various organs within an organism grow at the same rate as the rest of the body. The organism increase in size without changing its shape. Its shape is consistent throughout development. The relative proportion of the organ & whole body remains the same. Eg : fish, insects Growth curve is typically sigmoid

Learning outcomes: 10.3 d) Explain isometric growth and allometric growth.

Isometric Growth

Learning outcomes: 10.3 d) Explain isometric growth and allometric growth.

d) Isometric and Allometric Growth


Allometric Growth
Allos : other

Growth in which the various organs/parts within an organism grow at different rate.
As the size of organism increase, the shape changes.

Occurs in animals & human.


In most animals, the last organ to develop & differentiate are reproductive organ.

Learning outcomes: 10.3 d) Explain isometric growth and allometric growth.

Allometric Growth

Learning outcomes: 10.3 d) Explain isometric growth and allometric growth.

Allometric Growth In human, head, lymphoid tissue & reproductive organs grow at very different rate. Head grows rapidly in the first 5 years after birth. After that, it doesnt grow much.

Learning outcomes: 10.3 d) Explain isometric growth and allometric growth.

Allometric Growth Lymphoid tissue grows rapidly from birth to early adolescence.
After that, the growth rate decreases to half of its maximum size by adult stage. The risk of infection is high in early life, as immunity has not yet been acquired.

Learning outcomes: 10.3 d) Explain isometric growth and allometric growth.

Allometric Growth Reproductive organs grow very little in the early life but rapidly at puberty. So, in allometric growth, the head of the baby is much larger relative to the rest of the body as compared to an adult.

Learning outcomes: 10.3 e) Explain intermittent growth curve.

e) Intermittent Growth Curve


Also known as discontinuous growth. Occurs in arthropods (crustaceans & insects).

Growth curve show a step-like pattern.


Due to the presence of inelastic exoskeleton which must be shed (via a process called moulting / ecdysis) before growth can occur. Before new exoskeleton hardened, arthropods take in air / water to expand the soft exoskeleton as much as possible. Causes a sudden increase in length (spurts).

e) Intermittent Growth Curve

5.0

Adult Ecdysis

Length (cm)

4.0

5th instar
3.0

4th instar
2.0

3rd 1st
2nd

1.0

10

20

30

40

50

Time (days)

Learning outcomes: 10.3 e) Explain intermittent growth curve.

e) Intermittent Growth Curve


After the exoskleleton becomes hardened, arthropods decrease to its original size.
Leaving some space within the new exoskeleton for growth to occur. A stage between sequential ecdysis called instar. 2 is

Learning outcomes: 10.3 e) Explain intermittent growth curve.

e) Intermittent Growth Curve


Increase in length during ecdysis is due to uptake of water or air. Which is not consider actual growth. Actual growth occurs at flat horizontal lines (instar), even though there is no increase in length. If growth curve is plotted using dry mass, a normal sigmoid curve is obtained (shows true growth which is continuous).

e) Intermittent Growth Curve.


150

125

100

Mass (mg)

75

50

25

10

20

30

40

50

Time (days)

10.0 Growth (3 hrs)


10.1 Growth phases 10.2 Measurement of growth 10.3 Growth patterns () () (1)

10.4 Growth rate

()

Learning outcomes
At the end of this topic, students should be able to : a) Describe absolute growth curve.

b) Describe absolute growth rate curve.

Learning outcomes: 10.4 a) Describe absolute growth curve.

a) Absolute Growth Curve


When a parameter is measured at intervals over a period of time (throughout the growth of an organism). Absolute / actual growth curve can be plotted. It is the cumulative increase in size over a period of time. It shows the overall growth pattern of an organism. Usually absolute growth curve is S-shaped, sigmoid curve.

Learning outcomes: 10.4 a) Describe absolute growth curve.

a) Absolute Growth Curve.

Learning outcomes: 10.4 b) Describe absolute growth rate curve.

a) Absolute Growth Rate Curve

When an increase in size is measured over a series of equal time intervals Plotting these increments against time produces an absolute growth rate curve Usually bell-shaped Absolute growth rate curve increases up to a maximum, then it decreases

Learning outcomes: 10.4 b) Describe absolute growth rate curve.

a) Absolute Growth Rate Curve

Reference
Campbell N.A & Reece, J.B., Biology, 6th ed. (2002), Pearson Education, Inc. Solomon E.P & Berg, L.R, Biology, 7th ed. (2005) Thomson Learning, Inc. Mader, S.S Biology, 8th ed. (2004) McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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