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Submitted to RAMESH THAKUR SUBMITTED BY: N me: Ni!"i# !um $ ! mbo% Ro##: R&'(A)* B+,+-.Hon,/ Biot"e-"no#o01

Hair gel
A gel (from the lat gelufreezing, cold, ice or gelatusfrozen, immobile) is an apparently solid, jelly-like material formed from a colloidal solution. By eight, gels are mostly li!uid, yet they beha"e like solids due to the addition of a gelling agent. #ecent e$perimental studies%&' indicate colloidal gel formation can be described as a (pinodal decomposition, analogous to a gas-li!uid phase separation. )air styled ith hair gel Hair gel is a hairstyling product that is used to stiffen hair into a particular hairstyle *he results it produces are usually similar to but stronger than those of hair spray and eaker than those of hair glue or hair a$. A "ersion of gel, kno n as +,ousse+, as patented in the mid-&-./s by ,ichael 0. )oo"er.

,any brands of hair gel in 1orth America and the 2nited 3ingdom come in numbered "ariants. )igher numbered gels maintain a greater +hold+ on hair, hile lo er numbers do not make the hair as stiff and in some products gi"e the hair a et look. A category typically referred to as +ethnic+ gels are designed and manufactured specifically for sculpting the hair te$ture common to African Americans Ampro 4ndustries is a common e$ample of this category. (ome forms of hair gel include temporary )air coloring for the hair, including "ariants in unnatural colors associated ith "arious subcultures, and is popular ithin the goth and ra"er subcultures.

Cationic polymers

5ationic polymers are one of the main functional component of hair gel. *he positi"e charges in polymer cause it to stretch, making the gel more "iscous. )air gel ithholds procedures that allo men and omen to make their hair styled and te$tured in ays they desire.*his is because the stretched-out polymer takes up more space than a coiled polymer and thus resists the flo of sol"ent molecules around it. *he positi"e charges also bind the gel to the negati"ely charged amino acids on the surface of the keratin molecules in the hair. ,ore complicated polymer formulas e$ist, e.g. a copolymer of "inylpyrrolidone, methacrylamide, and 1-"inylimidazole

A solid net ork spans the "olume of a li!uid medium. Both by eight and "olume, gels are mostly li!uid in composition and thus e$hibit densities similar to li!uids. )o e"er, they ha"e the structural coherence of a solid. *he net ork can be composed of a ide "ariety of materials, including particles, polymers and proteins.

Cationic polymers
5ationic polymers are positi"ely charged polymers. *heir positi"e charges pre"ent the formation of coiled polymers. *his allo s them to contribute more to "iscosity in their stretched state, because the stretched-out polymer takes up more space than a coiled polymer and this resists the flo of sol"ent molecules around it. 5ationic polymers are a main functional component of hair gel, because the positi"e charged polymers also bind the negati"ely charged amino acids on the surface of the keratin molecules in the hair. ,ore complicated polymer formulas e$ist, e.g., a copolymer of "inylpyrrolidone, methacrylamide, and hydrogel 1-"inylimidazole.%6'

Types of gels
Hydrogel is a net ork of polymer chains that are ater-insoluble, sometimes found as a colloidal gel in hich ater is the dispersion medium. )ydrogels are superabsorbent (they can contain o"er --7 ater) natural or synthetic polymers.

)ydrogels also possess a degree of fle$ibility "ery similar to natural tissue, due to their significant ater content. 5ommon uses for hydrogels include

currently used as scaffolds in tissue engineering. 8hen used as scaffolds, hydrogels may contain human cells in order to repair tissue. en"ironmentally sensiti"e hydrogels. *hese hydrogels ha"e the ability to sense changes of p), temperature, or the concentration of metabolite and release their load as result of such a change. as sustained-release deli"ery systems pro"ide absorption, desloughing and debriding capacities of necrotics and fibrotic tissue. hydrogels that are responsi"e to specific molecules, such as glucose or antigens can be used as biosensors as ell as in 99(. used in disposable diapers here they +capture+ urine, or in sanitary napkins contact lenses (silicone hydrogels, polyacrylamides) medical electrodes using hydrogels composed of cross linked polymers (polyethylene o$ide,polyA,:( and poly"inylpyrrolidone) 8ater gel e$plosi"es

;ther, less common uses include

breast implants granules for holding soil moisture in arid areas dressings for healing of burn or other hard-to-heal ounds. 8ound gels are e$cellent for helping to create or maintain a moist en"ironment. reser"oirs in topical drug deli"ery< particularly ionic drugs, deli"ered by iontophoresis (see ion e$change resin)

5ommon ingredients are e.g. poly"inyl alcohol, sodium polyacrylate, acrylate polymers and copolymers ith an abundance of hydrophilic groups.

1atural hydrogel materials are being in"estigated for tissue engineering, these materials include agarose, methylcellulose, hylaronan, and other naturally deri"ed polymers.

An organogel is a non-crystalline, non-glassy thermore"ersible solid material composed of a li!uid organic phase entrapped in a structuring net ork. *he li!uid can be e.g. an organic sol"ent, a mineral oil or a "egetable oil. *he solubility and particle dimensions of the structurant are important characteristics for the elastic properties and firmness of the organogel. ;ften, these systems are based on selfassembly of the structurant molecules%='%>'. ;rganogels ha"e potential for use in a number of applications, such as in pharmaceuticals %?', cosmetics, art conser"ation%@', and food%A'. An e$ample of formation of an undesired thermore"ersible net ork is the occurrence of a$ crystallization in crude oil %.'.

A xerogel is a solid formed from a gel by drying ith unhindered shrinkage. Berogels usually retain high porosity (6?7) and enormous surface area (&?/--// m6Cg), along ith "ery small pore size (&-&/ nm). 8hen sol"ent remo"al occurs under hypercritical (supercritical) conditions, the net ork does not shrink and a highly porous, lo -density material kno n as an aerogel is produced. )eat treatment of a $erogel at ele"ated temperature produces "iscous sintering (shrinkage of the $erogel due to a small amount of "iscous flo ) and effecti"ely transforms the porous gel into a dense glass.

,any gels display thi$otropy - they become fluid hen agitated, but resolidify hen resting. 4n general, gels are apparently solid, jelly-like materials. By replacing the li!uid ith gas it is possible to prepare aerogels, materials ith e$ceptional properties including "ery lo density, high specific surface areas, and e$cellent thermal insulation properties.

Sound-induced gelation

*he palladium comple$ is synthesised from palladium acetate and 1,1DBis(salicylidene)pentamethylenediamine in boiling benzene and forms the anti conformer (left) and the syn conformer (right) (ound induced gelation is described in 6//? %-' in an organopalladium compound that in solution transforms from a transparent li!uid to an opa!ue gel upon application of a short burst (seconds) of ultrasound. )eating to abo"e the so-called gelation temperature *gel takes the gel back to the solution. *he compound is a dinuclear palladium comple$ made from palladium acetate and a 1,1D-Bissalicylidene diamine. Both compounds react to form an anti conformer (gelling) and a syn conformer (non-gelling) hich are separated by column chromatography. 4n the solution phase the dimer molecules are bent and selflocked by aromatic stacking interactions hereas in the gel phase the conformation is planar ith interlocked aggregates. *he anti conformer has planar chirality and both enantiomers ere separated by chiral column chromatography. *he (-) anti conformer has a specific rotation of -=A?E but is unable to gelate by itself. 4n the gel phase the dimer molecules form stacks of alternating (F) and (-) components. *his process starts at the onset of the sonication and proceeds e"en ithout further sonication.

,any substances can form gels hen a suitable thickener or gelling agent is added to their formula. *his approach is common in manufacture of ide range of products, from foods to paints, adhesi"es. 4n fiber optics communications, a soft gel resembling +hair gel+ in "iscosity is used to fill the plastic tubes containing the fibers. *he main purpose of the gel is to pre"ent ater intrusion if the buffer tube is breached, but the gel also buffers the fibers against mechanical damage hen the tube is bent around corners during installation, or fle$ed. Additionally, the gel acts as a processing aid hen the cable is being constructed, keeping the fibers central hilst the tube material is e$truded around it.

How to

el !our Hair

Gel can be especially useful for a"y and curly hair, to hold those a"es and curls throughout the day. )ereDs the !uick and easy ay to apply gel to your hair.

1. Wash hair thoroughly.

2. Rinse hair, just as thoroughly.

3. Towel dry hair with paper towels or soft cotton. If you have hair that frizzes

easily you

ay want to dry your hair after applying gel.

!. "ispense a s all da# of hair gel onto your pal . $. Ru# hands together, spreading the gel evenly. %. &onsider so e of the several ways for applying gel'

(tarting at the front of the head, )uic*ly, and evenly apply the gel to your hair, wor*ing it in deeply using your fingers. +a*e sure you apply the gel through to the root. ,lip your head over and scrunch in the gel evenly. This is good to o#tain volu e for curly or wavy hair, especially at the roots.

-. .rush or shape hair to desired style. /ou can also scrunch or twist your hair with your fingers to encourage curls.


0fter you put the gel on your fingers wave the in the air for a few seconds, then apply. This helps to get the right consistency #efore application. 1se only the needed gel strength for your hair. Too uch hold gives you 2hel et head,2 and that just doesn3t loo* good on anyone #ut "456. (a e thing goes for a ount of hair gel. 7ust a s all a ount is usually sufficient. Try using a leave in conditioner under gel to soften its effects. Re e #er that certain styles, if *ept for a long ti e, will use a large a ount of gel. 6pt for high8 aintenance hairstyles only for special occasions. If you can, try using stronger gel around the tips rather than nor al strength throughout your head.

9el ta*es ti e to freeze over. .e patient, and do not use #ecause it hasn3t frozen.

ore just

/our hair ay have a crunchy te:ture if you use a lot of gel. ,lip your hair forward and use your fingers to gently scrunch your hair. This should leave you with soft, yet defined hair.


Wash your hair out 0(0; if your gel causes discoloration or itchiness of the scalp8 you could #e allergic to an ingredient. "o not go over#oard on gel. "o not spend a huge a ount of oney if you have short hair, #ut do spend a fair a ount if you have a de anding style. 6ther than that, you can purchase <38<% gel at your local super ar*et and it will do the e:act sa e thing the <2= #rand8na e gel will do. /our gel ay leave a white residue #ehind and fla*e off. This is not an inherent pro#le with gel> it is caused #y several factors. /ou could #e using too uch gel8 so use less gel or upgrade to a higher strength for the sa e a ount of hold. /ou could #e using too high a strength of gel8 so use a lower strength. /ou also could #e using cheap gel of low )uality. 0void using gel near or on the roots if you have oily hair or if you wear your hair for ore than one day without washing.

T#ings !ou$ll %eed

9el &o #?.rush