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December 3, 2012

Exponents

9 and 10th Grade Algebra

th

Contents

Unit Overview Rationale Reaching Students Content Analysis Benchmarks Objectives Benchmarks Map Concept Map Annotated Bibliography Pre-Assessment of Students Explanation of Pre-Assessment Pre-Assessment for Students Lessons Day 1 & 2: Exponential Growth: Inductive Lesson Plan One Grain of Rice a Mathematical Folktale by Demi Exponential Growth Notes Exponential Growth Worksheet Exponential Growth Quiz Exponential Growth Quiz Key Day 3: Linear Growth vs Exponential Growth: Enrichment Lesson Plan Linear Growth vs Exponential Growth Notes Linear Growth vs Exponential Growth Homework Day 4: Exponential Decay: Direct Lesson Plan Exponential Decay Notes Exponential Decay Homework Exponential Decay Homework Key Day 5: Exponential Growth and Decay of a Population: Cooperative Lesson Plan Population Growth and Decay Notes Population Growth and Decay Homework In Class Worksheet 20 24 27 28 29 30 31 36 38 42 45 46 48 50 53 55 56 17 18 8 9 11 12 13 3 4 7

Day 6: Products and Exponents of Exponents Products and Exponents of Exponents Notes Products and Exponents of Exponents Homeworks and Keys Day 7: Negative Exponents Negative Exponents Notes Negative Exponents Homework Day 8: Quotients of Powers and Scientific Notation Quotients of Powers and Scientific Notation Notes Quotients of Powers and Scientific Notation Homeworks and Keys Day 9: Exponents of Products and Quotients Exponents of Products and Quotients Notes Exponents of Products and Quotients Homework and Key Day 10: Radicals and Fractional Exponents Radicals and Fractional Exponents Radicals and Fractional Exponents Homework and Key Letter to the Parent(s)/Guardian(s) Reflection

Unit Overview This unit was made for 9th and 10th grade algebra I. The unit focuses on exponential functions and exponent properties. This unit will cover the following: Day 1 & 2: Exponential Growth Definition: A situation in which the original amount is repeatedly multiplied by a growth factor greater than one. Exponential Growth Formula: y =b( 1 + g ) x Day 3: Linear Growth vs Exponential Growth Linear Growth Formula: y=mx+b Day 4: Exponential Decay Definition: A situation in which the original amount is repeatedly multiplied by a growth factor between 0 and 1. Exponential Decay Formula: y = a(1 -b)x Day 5: Population Growth and Decay Day 6: Products and Exponents of Exponents Product of Powers Property: For all m and n, and all nonzero b, b m * b n = b( m+ n) Exponent of an Exponent Property: For all m and n, and all nonzero b, ( b m)n =b( mn ) Day 7: Negative Exponents 1 Negative Exponent Property: For any nonzero b and all n, b n = , the reciprocal n b of b n . Day 8: Quotients of Exponents and Scientific Notation bm ( m n ) Quotient of Exponents Property: For all m and n, and all nonzero b, =b n b Scientific Notation: A number represented as x10 n , where 1 x < 10 and n is an integer. Day 9: Exponents of Products and Quotients Exponents of a Product Property: For all nonzero a & b, and for all n, ( ab )n = a nbn n an a Exponent of a Quotient Property: For all nonzero a and b, and for all n, ( ) = n b b Day 10: Radicals (aka Square Roots) and Fractional Exponents

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Curriculum Rationales Why is this important to learn? Students will be able to quickly calculate a number multiplied to itself several times very quickly. This is important in the real world when trying to calculate population growth for example. It also helps students do very quick mathematical calculations. Exponents are also used in every area of math. Knowing how to do exponential properties is needed to go into higher areas of math.

What important concepts are addressed? Students will learn what an exponent does and how to calculate it by hand and using a calculator for bigger numbers. Students will also learn how to multiply exponents that have the same base number or variable as well as take the quotient of exponents. The students will learn what happens to a number when the exponent is a negative, zero, or fraction. Students will also learn the difference between exponential growth and decay while learning how to graph these functions.

What higher level cognitive (thinking) skills are emphasized? Using Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge: Students will be able to recall what negative and zero exponents do to the numbers. Students will also be able to apply the properties of exponents when given a function with exponents. Comprehension: Students will understand what the difference between exponential growth and decay is. Students will understand what exponents do to numbers and each other;

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this includes negative exponents, multiplying exponents, fractional exponents, etc.) Application: Students will be able to multiply small and large exponents. Students will be able to graph exponential growth and decay. Students will also be able to apply exponents to real life situations such as calculating interest rate. Analysis: Students will be able to explain exponential growth and decay as well as the properties of exponents in their own words. Synthesis: Students will bring the understanding of exponential growth and decay through calculating the growth of a population. Evaluation: Students will present their findings about the population growths of countries around the world and see if the numbers sound realistic.

What higher level affective (feeling, appreciations, values, etc.) outcomes are emphasized? Students will gain a deep understanding of the population growth of the earth's human population. Discussion of if the earth can support this will help students gain their opinion on the earth's population.

How will students benefit? Students will be able to multiply a number to itself quickly. If the number is small they will be able to quickly answer the question. If the exponent is larger the student will be able to use a calculator, however, the student will still know how to do this by hand. Students will also be able to do advanced mathematical functions that involve exponents and understand why the exponent works the way it does on a deeper level.

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How will you make the unit relevant to students' lives? I would have the students choose a country of their choice and research how many people are born each year. The students would then proceed to figure out how big the population will be in 10, 20, 50, and 100 years from now. This will give them insight at how fast the population is growing and one way that exponents are used in real life. In one lesson students will figure out how many ancestors they come from by using exponential growth. Students will also use exponential growth to compare it against linear growth to see which is a better deal in money or other situations in life.

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Reaching Students Math is a struggle for students. Even if a student is really good at math, (s)he will still have a difficult time with some concepts. One way that I will help students learn the math I will be teaching them is by using repetition. Repetition is beneficial in math because math is the same problem with different numbers plugged in. Students that get the concept quickly will not do as many problems but students that are struggling can do extra problems if they feel it is needed. I will encourage students to use Khan Academy in order to practice more problems for tests and to brush up on anything they may have forgotten. I find this website to be beneficial because students can go at their own pace and even go ahead in math if they are interested. I anticipate students to struggle with combining previous math skills with the new math skills that they learn. There are a few skills, such as order of operations and how to multiple and divide, that students should be really good at by the time they get to exponents, but I know from observing students that these are problem areas for some. I will have to make sure to show examples of how to do things, such as add or multiply fractions, during lessons as a reminder to help students relearn previous knowledge that should already be known. This is not only helpful for struggling students but it will also benefit the students that already know how to do the functions because they will get a refresher on the skills. For this unit I can see students struggling with using several exponent properties in one problem. I plan to address this by using homework as building blocks. Every time they get a homework the problems will go from easy to harder with the harder problems including more and more properties.

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Benchmark A3.2.1 A3.2.5 A1.1.2 Write the symbolic form and sketch the graph of an exponential function given appropriate information. Relate exponential functions to real phenomena, including half-life and doubling time. Construction, Interpretation, and Manipulation of Expressions: Know the definitions and properties of exponents and roots transition fluently between them, and apply them in algebraic expressions. Use the properties of exponents to interpret expressions for exponential functions. Understand and use the fact that the base of an exponential function determines whether the function increases or decreases and understand how the base affects the rate of growth or decay.

Day(s) Used 1, 2 1, 2, 5 3, 6, 7, 8, 9

F.IF.8b A3.2.4

3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9 4

F.LE.1c Recognize situations in which a quantity grows or decays by a constant percent rate per unit interval relative to another. F.BF.1b Combine standard function types using arithmetic operations. For example, build a function that models the temperature of a cooling body by adding a constant function to a decaying exponential, and relate these functions to the model. A1.1.2 Construction, Interpretation, and Manipulation of Expressions: Know the definitions and properties of exponents and roots transition fluently between them, and apply them in algebraic expressions.

4 4

10

A.REI.2 Solve simple rational and radical equations in one variable, and give examples showing how extraneous solutions may arise. L2.1.2 Calculate fluently with numerical expressions involving exponents; use the rules of exponents; evaluate numerical expressions involving rational and negative exponents; transition easily between roots and exponents. Explain how the definition of the meaning of rational exponents follows from extending the properties of integer exponents to those values, allowing for a notation for radicals in terms of rational exponents. For example, we define 5( 1 /3) to be the cube root of 5 because we want ( 5(1 /3) )3 = 5((1 /3) 3) to hold, so 5((1 /3) 3) must equal 5.

10 10

N.RN.1

10

N.RN.2 Rewrite expressions involving radicals and rational exponents using the properties of exponents.

10

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Objective Students will hypothesize how quickly the number of grains of rice will grow after x amount of days. Students will be able to define in their own words what exponential growth is. Students will be able to calculate the exponential growth of a function by hand. Students will be able to calculate the exponential growth of a function with a TI-89 calculator. Students will be able to keep track of the data, organize it on a spreadsheet, and graph it Students will be able to define linear growth. Students will be able to explain the difference between linear growth and exponential growth. Students will be able to graph linear and exponential growth. Students will be able to define in their own words what exponential decay is. Students will be able to calculate the exponential decay of a function by hand. Students will be able to calculate the exponential decay of a function with a TI-89 calculator. Students will gain a higher knowledge of how big the world's population is. Students will be able to see how globalization is effecting the countries of the world. Students will be able to identify that a number with the same base raised to a power means to add the powers. Students will be able to identify that when an exponent is raised to an exponent, they are multiplied together. Students will be able to identify that a number or variable raised to a negative exponent can be re-written in fraction form. Students will be able to transform a number with an exponent in the fraction into an a number of variable with a negative exponent. Students will be able to identify that a fraction with the same bases in the denominator and numerator with the same or equal exponents can be simplified. Students will be able to identify that two variable multiplied by each other in parentheses raised to an

Cognitive Psychomotor Psychomotor Cognitive Cognitive Psychomotor Cognitive Cognitive Psychomotor Affective Affective Cognitive Cognitive Cognitive

1,2 1,2 1, 2, 4 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 7

Cognitive

Cognitive

Cognitive

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exponent means that both variables inside the parentheses are raised to the exponent. Students will be able to identify that two variable divided by each other in parentheses raised to an exponent means that both variables inside the parentheses are raised to the exponent. Students will be able to solve rational exponents and rewrite them. Students will be able to understand the definition of rational exponents. Students will use the properties of exponents learned in previous lessons. Cognitive 9

10 10 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

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Page 11

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Annotated Bibliography Day One and Two: This resource helped with figuring how to assess a student's knowledge after the lesson is taught as well as how to teach the lesson. I modified the lesson to fit my teaching style though. Rheam, David M. "Lesson Plan 1 Exponential Growth." Buffalo State University of New York, n.d. Web. Oct. 2012. <http://www.google.com/url? sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CB8QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F %2Fphysicsed.buffalostate.edu%2Fpubs%2FPHY690%2FRheamExponential2008%2FLesson %2520Plan%25201%2520-%2520Exponential %2520Growth.doc&ei=sc1fUM7uNoW6yAGAioHICw&usg=AFQjCNEq91IH4weTOQ_0QY sL9B5TK_eIeQ&sig2=3mxTj06SfEq_jPHjNBcm4Q>.

This story goes along with the lesson and is to be read before the lesson begins. It will help students get an understanding of exponential growth through a story that is easy to remember. Demi. One Grain of Rice. N.p.: n.p., n.d. One Grain of Rice (exponential Growth). University of Georgia. Web. Oct. 2012. <http://jwilson.coe.uga.edu/EMT668/EMAT6680.F99/Martin/instructional %20unit/day4.exponential/excel/grainofrice.html>.

Day Three: I will use this to help parents become more involved in their student's learning. After learning about how many people they're from they'll figure out just a few names of those people. Familytree3.gif. N.d. Photograph. Journey Folki. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://www.journeyfolki.org.uk/Portals/13/images/familytree3.gif>.

I used this assignment to base my lesson plan on Linear vs Exponential Growth. This lesson will help parents get involved because students will have to ask their parents for help to fill in a family tree and, hopefully, a parent will come in and talk about their collected family tree. Harel, Barzilai, Ph.D. "Generation E: Modeling Exponential Growth." Generation E: Modeling Exponential Growth. Http://barzilai.org/, n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://barzilai.org/cr/generations.html>. Day Four: This worksheet was the skeleton for what I made my worksheet out of. This worksheet is a good assessment that helps students understand how exponential decay can relate to them in real life. Ledwith, Jennifer. "Exponential Function - Exponential Decay Worksheet 2." Mathematics. About.com, n.d. Web. Oct. 2012. <http://math.about.com/od/exponents/a/deca.htm>.

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This activity is very engaging. The students will learn how exponential decay works and be rewarded with candy in the end. The students will be able to focus on this better than a lecture. DeRosa, Tom. "Lesson Idea: Model Exponential Decay with Skittles (or M&Ms)." Web log post. I Want to Teach Forever: Information, Inspiration and Ideas to Help Teachers in and out of the Classroom. Blogger, 1 Dec. 2008. Web. Oct. 2012. <http://www.teachforever.com/2008/12/lesson-idea-model-exponential-decay.html>.

Day Five: This table helps me present data about Australia to the class so that they'll get an understanding of what they are doing in their groups. "Demographics of Australia." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 27 Nov. 2012. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_Australia>.

For the other worksheets I will use this website to get the populations of countries. Database on Developed Countries. Institut National D'etudes Demographiques, n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://www.ined.fr/en/pop_figures/developed_countries/developed_countries_database>.

This link goes to a document. The document would help students practice and gain knowledge of real world problems that exponential growth and decay can be used in. This would be used for homework. "Exponential Growth and Decay Problems." Http://www.mathvizza.com, n.d. Web. Oct. 2012. <http://www.google.com/url? sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CCkQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F %2Fwww.mathvizza.com%2Flessons %2Falgebra2_5%2Fchapter6%2Fwrksht_1_exp_growth_decay.doc&ei=SupfUO2FHsSCyAHG gYGoCg&usg=AFQjCNFX9hV6a1DKkRisQjbJmG4vFIr5wQ&sig2=kz_DlFjxBqlCuPgL0VB PkQ>.

Day Seven: Mr. Zaborowski has a few worksheets that are really helpful for students. The questions stay on one topic and do not bounce to things that I plan to teach after day seven. Zaborowski. "Worksheet 8.1 : Zero and Negative Exponents." Mr. Zab's Math Shop. Franklin Road Academy, n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://www.frapanthers.com/teachers/zab/AlgebraI/Worksheets/Worksheet8.1.pdf>.

Days Seven and Eight: This website has great worksheets for math. The worksheets come with keys so that the teacher does not have to waste time solving the problems. The worksheets go nicely with my daily lessons. Used for days seven, eight, "Exponent Worksheets." Exponents Worksheets. Math Worksheets 4 Kids, n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://www.mathworksheets4kids.com/exponents.html>.

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Day Nine: This website can create tests, worksheets, and quizzes for math. Kuta Software. "Powers of Products and Quotients." Test and Worksheet Generators for Math Teachers. Kuta Software, n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://www.kutasoftware.com/FreeWorksheets/PreAlgWorksheets/Powers%20of %20Products%20and%20Quotients.pdf>. Day Ten: This worksheet is for the last day. It uses all the rules of exponents that the students have learned but focuses mainly on radicals. Kuta Software. "Radicals and Rational Exponents." Test and Worksheet Generators for Math Teachers. Kuta Software, n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2012. <http://www.kutasoftware.com/FreeWorksheets/Alg2Worksheets/Radicals%20and %20Rational%20Exponents.pdf>.

The Algebra Book: This book is a really good source for me to find problems for students to do as test questions in the future. I will be using whatever book the school provides me to teach the students the material. I also really like how this book set up the exponents chapter. There are several orders in which exponents can be taught and I like how this book chose to do it. This book also helped me realize how to teach the lessons. Usiskin, Zalman. "Chapter 8: Exponents and Powers." Algebra. By John W. McConnell and Susan Brown. 2nd ed. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman/Addison Wesley, 1998. 484545. Print.

Kahn Academy: For these resources I would use them as tools for the students. If the students are struggling while at home they can reference these videos to try to get another understanding or reminder of top. Khan Academy also has exercises the students can do. I would use this to give the students extra credit. For every ten problems they do they can receive one point towards either homework or the exam. Khan, Salman. "Exponents." Khan Academy. N.p., n.d. Web. Oct. 2012. <http://www.khanacademy.com/>. Days 1 and 2 Exponential Growth Video: http://www.khanacademy.org/math/algebra/ck12-algebra-1/v/exponential-growthfunctions Day 3 The Zero Video: http://www.khanacademy.org/math/algebra/exponents-radicals/v/zero--negative--andfractional-exponents Start to 3 mins Day 4 Exponential Decay Video: http://www.khanacademy.org/math/algebra/ck12-algebra-1/v/exponential-decayfunctions Day 6 Products and Exponents of Exponents Video: Page 15

http://www.khanacademy.org/math/algebra/exponents-radicals/v/exponent-propertiesinvolving-products Day 7 Negative Exponents Video: http://www.khanacademy.org/math/algebra/exponents-radicals/v/zero--negative--andfractional-exponents 3:16 to 5:10 http://www.khanacademy.org/math/algebra/exponents-radicals/v/negative-exponentintuition Day 8 Quotients of Exponents Video: http://www.khanacademy.org/math/algebra/exponents-radicals/v/exponent-propertiesinvolving-quotients Day 8 Scientific Notation Video: http://www.khanacademy.org/math/algebra/exponents-radicals/v/scientific-notation-1 Day 10 Radicals Video: http://www.khanacademy.org/math/algebra/exponents-radicals/v/understanding-squareroots 5:10 to end http://www.khanacademy.org/math/algebra/exponents-radicals/v/simplifying-squareroots http://www.khanacademy.org/math/algebra/exponents-radicals/v/finding-cube-roots http://www.khanacademy.org/math/algebra/exponents-radicals/v/simplifying-radicals

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Pre-Assessment I will test my student's knowledge on exponents through a pre-assessment test. The students will not initially be graded on the assignment. I will collect it at the end of the unit for a grade worth 20 points. The students will be expected to answer the questions as the lessons are taught. I will give it to them to see if they know anything at all about exponents. This will allow me to know who will not need as much help with the unit. I do not expect the students to spend too much time on this. The students will be given this assessment on a Friday before the unit starts so that I can assess them over the weekend.

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Name

Date

Pre-Assessment

Exponents, Scientific Notation, and Radicals You will NOT be graded on this until the end of this chapter. If you know how to do the problem go ahead and answer it. If not leave it blank and as we do the lesson fill in the correct answer. Use the following to answer questions 1-2. 1) What value represents the base? A. 4 C. 7 2) What value represents the exponent? A. 4 C. 7 3) 40 = A. 1 C. 12 4) What is 22 + 3 X 2 A. 64 C. 49 5) What is A. 104 C. 10-4 6) Which of the following is NOT a perfect square ? A. 16 C. 36

1 expressed as a power of 10 ? 10000

B. 28 D. 2401

B. 16 D. 0

B. 14 D. 10

B. 10-5 D. 105

B.144 D. 216

7) Which of the following is written in correct form for scientific notation ? A. 12.45 X 1000 B. 0.0012 X 103 C. 1.245 X 105 D. 123 X 10-1 8) Which is 6.3 104? A. 630 000 C. 63 000 9) What is (-3) X (-3) X (-3) expressed as a power ? A. (-3)-3 C. -27 10) What do you think exponential growth is?

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13) ( x 3) 4 A. x 7 C. x 12 x7 2 x x9 x7 2 x

1 ( ) 2

B. x 1 D. x (3 /4 )

14) A. C.

B.

x5 x2 D. 7 x

15) A. C.

x x 1 2 x

2

is equivalent to: B. D.

x2

x

1 ( ) 2

16) ( k 6 )( k 5) A. k 65 C. k 30

3

B. k 1 D. k 11

4 17) ( ) 3 3 4 A. 3 3 C. 1.333

B. D.

4 3 4 3 3

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Inductive Lesson Plan Exponential Growth Day 1 and 2 Grade Levels: 9-10 (Algebra I) Content Areas Addressed: Math, life skills, technology Purpose: The student will learn the meaning of exponential growth, how to calculate it by hand, and how to use a TI-89 calculator to calculate exponential growth. The student will also learn how exponential growth can be used in real life. Objectives: 1. Students will hypothesize how quickly the number of grains of rice will grow after x amount of days. 2. Students will be able to define in their own words what exponential growth is. 3. Students will be able to calculate the exponential growth of a function by hand. 4. Students will be able to calculate the exponential growth of a function with a TI-89 calculator. 5. Students will be able to keep track of the data, organize it on a spreadsheet, and graph it Connections to Standards: A3.2.1 Write the symbolic form and sketch the graph of an exponential function given appropriate information. A3.2.5 Relate exponential functions to real phenomena, including half-life and doubling time. Materials: Shower curtain with 4x4 grid Rice TI-89 calculators Measuring cups Worksheet with table on it Homework sheets Copy of One Grain of Rice by Demi Advanced and Struggling Students Accommodations: Students that are advanced will be put into groups with students that are struggling. The advanced students will be encouraged to be group leaders in order to guide the struggling students in the activity. The advanced students will be encouraged to encourage the other students of the group to actively think about the activity. For example, the students will have to deeply think of the growth of the rice. Procedure: Day 1: 1. Introduce the story of a girl who tricked a greedy raja to share his rice with an entire starving country. One way to do this is to read the beginning of One Grain of Rice by Demi.

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Inductive Lesson Plan Ask the students what they think of the payment that the girl asked for. i. Have students think independently about the strange request and make predictions about how much rice they think it would be. It may also be beneficial to ask students whether they think the man would be better off taking 10,000 grains of rice per day, or some other linear relationship to compare it to. 2. Go over the definition of what exponential growth is and have the students rewrite the definition in their own words in their notes. Definition of Exponential Growth: i. A situation in which the original amount is repeatedly multiplied by a growth factor greater than one. 3. Tell the students that they are going to record their findings on a spreadsheet. (HAND OUT BLANK WORKSHEET FOR ONE MEMBER OF GROUP TO FILL OUT) 4. Have the students break up into groups of 3 or 4 students with each group getting 1 quartsize bag of rice, a shower curtain separated into 16 sections (representing days), and 1 set of measuring spoons. Instruct the students to start to carry out what the girl asked for as payment by putting the rice on the grid with the top left corner being day one. In order to make this part go faster some helpful measurements are listed below. 1 Teaspoon = Approximately 256 grains of rice Cup = 12 Teaspoons Cup = 24 Teaspoons At least 1 student should be recording the groups data on a spreadsheet. This allows students that are advanced and struggling to work together. A filled in sample is provided below:

Grains of Rice Written with Exponents 2^0 2^1 2^2 2^3 2^4 2^5 2^6 2^7 2^8 2^9 2^10 2^11 2^12 2^13 2^14 2^15 # Grains of Rice 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512 1024 2048 4096 8192 16384 32768 Difference of Rice ------1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512 1024 2048 4096 8192 16384

Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Grains of Rice Written with Multiplication 1 1x2 1x2x2 1x2x2x2 1x2x2x2x2 1x2x2x2x2x2 1x2x2x2x2x2x2 1x2x2x2x2x2x2x2 1x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2 1x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2 1x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2 1x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2 1x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Inductive Lesson Plan 5. When the students get to the last square on their grid they should run out of rice because the last square in the 4 x 4 grid should have 32,768 grains of rice on it, which is approximately 1 pound of rice (it may be helpful to an extra bag to show them what would go on the last square). 6. Students should then graph the results they have so far (with the x being the day and the y being the grains of rice as shown below). 7. Students should also be working hard at finding the equation that relates the number of grains of rice on each square as a function of the number of the square. Day 2: Using the previous day's example of One Grain of Rice, I will explain to students how an exponent works using numbers. We will start off with one to the x power and then move on to two to the x power. I will have the students figure out up to three to the x power but then use a calculator after three. To do this I will help them fill in their guided notes while referring back to the story. Check for Understanding: Compare the number of grains of rice on the 16th square to how much rice had been used on the previous 15 squares? When did you notice that you were going to run out of rice? What is surprising or interesting about the graph? How much rice would be on the 32nd square? How much rice would be on the last square? How many squares do you have to move to quadruple the number of rice? How many squares do you have to move to have ten times as much rice? Procedure and 'Check for Understanding' questions borrowed from: Closure: We saw how quickly the number of grains of rice grew within a month. Can you think of anything else that this could happen to and how it could be useful in today's world? Please write this in your journal as I hand out tonight's homework. Assessment: Homework Day 1: If not finished in class, ask the students to come up with a scenario like the one from One Grain of Rice that relates to their own life. Homework Day 2: Give the students problems from book (#1-19) which includes 2 story problems. They will calculate exponential functions by hand for anything ten to the x power. They will calculate exponential functions using a calculator for all other functions. (Make sure students write this in their planners) Day 2 of Class: Give students a 2 question quiz the following day.

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Inductive Lesson Plan Resource(s): http://jwilson.coe.uga.edu/EMT668/EMAT6680.F99/Martin/instructional %20unit/day4.exponential/excel/grainofrice.html http://www.google.com/url? sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CB8QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F %2Fphysicsed.buffalostate.edu%2Fpubs%2FPHY690%2FRheamExponential2008%2FLesson %2520Plan%25201%2520-%2520Exponential %2520Growth.doc&ei=sc1fUM7uNoW6yAGAioHICw&usg=AFQjCNEq91IH4weTOQ_0QY sL9B5TK_eIeQ&sig2=3mxTj06SfEq_jPHjNBcm4Q

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Long ago in India, there lived a raja who believed he was wise and fair, as a raja should be. The people in his province were rice farmers. The raja decreed that everyone must give nearly all of their rice to him. "I will store the rice safely," the raja promised the people, "so that in time of famine, everyone will have rice to eat, and no one will go hungry." Each year, the raja's rice collectors gathered nearly all of the people's rice and carried it away to the royal storehouses. For many years, the rice grew well. The people gave nearly all of their rice to the raja, and the storehouses were always full. But the people were left with only enough rice to get by. Then one year the rice grew badly and there was famine and hunger. The people had no rice to give to the raja, and they had no rice to eat. The raja's ministers implored him, "Your highness, let us open the royal storehouses and give the rice to the people, as you promised." "No!" cried the raja. How do I know how long the famine will last? I must have the rice for myself. Promise or no promise, a raja must not go hungry!" Time went on, and the people grew more and more hungry. But the raja would not give out the rice. One day, the raja ordered a feast for himself and his court--as, it seemed to him, a raja should now and then, even when there is famine. A servant led an elephant from a royal storehouse to the palace, carrying two full baskets of rice. A village girl named Rani saw that a trickle of rice was falling from one of the baskets. Quickly she jumped up and walked along beside the elephant, catching the falling rice in her skirt. She was clever, and she began to make a plan. At the palace, a guard cried, "Halt, theif! Where are you going with that rice?" "I am not a thief," Rani replied. "This rice fell from one of the baskets, and I am returning it now to the raja." When the raja heard about Rani's good deed, he asked his ministers to bring her before him. "I wish to reward you for returning what belongs to me," the raja said to Rani. "Ask me for anything, and you shall have it." "Your highness," said Rani, "I do not deserve any reward at all. But if you wish, you may give me one grain of rice." "Only one grain of rice?" exclaimed the raja. "Surely you will allow me to

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reward you more plentifully, as a raja should." "Very well," said Rani. "If it pleased Your Highness, you may reward me in this way. Today, you will give me a single grain of rice. Then, each day for thirty days you will give me double the rice you gave me the day before. Thus, tomorrow you will give me two grains of rice, the next day four grains of rice, and so on for thirty day." "This seems to be a modest reward," said the raja. "But you shall have it." And Rani was presented with a single grain of rice. The next day, Rani was presented with two grains of rice. And the following day, Rani was presented with four grains of rice. On the ninth day, Rani was presented with two hundred fifty-six grains of rice. She had received in all five hundred and eleven grains of rice, enough for only a small handful. "This girl is honest, but not very clever," thought the raja. "She would have gained more rice by keeping what fell into her skirt!" On the twelfth day, Rani received two thousand and forty-eight grains of rice, about four handfuls. On the thirteenth day, she received four thousand and ninety-six grains of rice, enough to fill a bowl. On the sixteenth day, Rani was presented with a bag containing thirty-two thousand, seven hundred and sixty-eight grains of rice. All together she had enough rice for two bags. "This doubling up adds up to more rice than I expected" thought the raja. "But surely her reward won't amount to much more." On the twentieth day, Rani was presented with sixteen more bags filled with rice. On the twenty-first day, she received one million, forty-eight thousand, five hundred and seventy-six grains of rice, enough to fill a basket. On the twenty-fourth day, Rani was presented with eight million, three hundred and eighty-eight thousand, six hundred and eight grains of rice--enough to fill eight baskets, which were carried to her by eight royal deer. On the twenty-seventh day, thirty-two brahma bulls were needed to deliver sixty-four baskets of rice. The raja was deeply troubled. "One grain of rice has grown very great indeed," he thought. "But I shall fulfill the reward to the end, as a raja should." On the twenty-ninth day, Rani was presented with the contents of two royal

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storehouses. On the thirtieth and final day, two hundred and fifty-six elephants crossed the province, carrying the contents of the last four royal storehouses--Five hundred and thirty-six million, eight hundred and seventy thousand, nine hundred and twelve grains of rice. All together, Rani had received more than one billion grains of rice. The raja had no more rice to give. "And what will you do with this rice," said the raja with a sigh, "now that I have none?" "I shall give it to all the hungry people," said Rani, "and I shall leave a basket of rice for you, too, if you promise from now on to take only as much rice as you need." "I promise," said the raja. And for the rest of his days, the raja was truly wise and fair, as a raja should be.

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My Definition:

Equation:

g is x is

x2 x3

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Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Grains of Rice Written with Exponents Grains of Rice Written with Multiplication # Grains of Rice Difference of Rice

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4) 126

5) 20 3

6) 910

4) 126

5) 20 3

6) 910

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Key

Bonus: What do you think anything to the 0th power is? Any base to the 0th power is equal to 1.

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Enrichment Lesson Plan Linear Growth vs Exponential Growth Day 3 Grade Levels: 9-10 (Algebra I) Content Areas Addressed: Math Purpose: The students will understand the difference between linear and exponential growth and be able to identify this in different life situations. Objectives: 1. Students will be able to define linear growth. 2. Students will be able to explain the difference between linear growth and exponential growth. 3. Students will be able to graph linear and exponential growth. Connections to Standards: A1.1.2 Construction, Interpretation, and Manipulation of Expressions: Know the definitions and properties of exponents and roots transition fluently between them, and apply them in algebraic expressions. F.IF.8b Use the properties of exponents to interpret expressions for exponential functions. Materials: Family tree overhead Worksheets Advanced and Struggling Student Accommodations: All students that are on all levels will get the chance to ask their parents for help with the assessment of this lesson. I will have these students go home and write down as many grandparents as they can. Students that are more advanced will be expected to research their name online, while learning impaired students will only use their parents. Enrichment: In my letter home to the parents I will ask if any anyone has a family tree that their family has kept. If someone does I will ask them to come in and present it so that we can see how big a family can get. I will project any pictures using the ELMO. The parent will speak for about 10-20 minutes. Procedure: On Monday and Tuesday we learned what exponents are and how they exponentially grow. We saw that when something is exponentially growing it's being multiplied several times by the same number. Was the number increasing by a constant rate? Wait for students to answer. Correct answer: No. The number increases by a different larger number each time. Very good. How do we figure out if a number is increasing at a linear or constant rate? Let students guess. Page 31

If you recall we learned about linear functions. Does anyone remember that equation? y=mx+b y=mx+b is a linear or constant rate. Let's take a look at how this works. You just got a job with the local newspaper delivering papers to a large neighborhood. You start out with 10 customers because the boss doesn't want to overwhelm you. He says he'll give you 2 new customers every week. How long will it be until you get 50 customers? Let's figure out what this is saying. We need to first look for our b. Does anyone know what b would be in this situation? Yes, b equals 10 because it's the number of customers we first start out with. Now we need to know how many customers we're getting every week. This means our m equals 2. The x in this situation is the number of weeks. Since the number of weeks is going up at a constant rate of 2, this is a linear growth. We will add this constant rate to our original 10 customers.Let's calculate this using the equation y = 2x + 10 x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 y 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

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Enrichment Lesson Plan Now let's graph this so that we can see what that looks like.

Newspaper Customers

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5

Weeks

Number of Customers

10

As you can see this linear growth forms a straight line on the graph. Now let's look at the exponential growth to compare the two. You move to a new city from your small home town but when you get there you realize you want the same type of job. Your boss starts you off with 10 people because he doesn't think you can handle the big city. He agrees to add 20% more people to your paper route every week. As before our b stays the same so it's 10. Now let's look at the other data we can collect from this situation. We know that our number of customers will increase by 20% or .2 every week. So from that we get percentage of change and weeks. We need a new formula. Thinking back to Monday and Tuesday we learned about growth factors. What is our growth factor for this problem? Growth Factor is 1.2 x We also learned that when you have a growth factor you multiply it by the initial amount. In this case it's 10. Let's see how quickly this grows. Uh-oh, we have a problem. What happens when we take a number with an exponent of zero? It's always 1. No matter what! The reason is because you're not multiplying the base number by anything.

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Newspaper Customers

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5

Weeks

Number of Customers

10

Think for a minute about what shape you think this graph is going to have. As you can see this graph curves as it increases. Does anyone know why it does this? The growth rate is not constant and increases faster. I would then hand out the homework worksheet and discuss what they are to do at home.

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Enrichment Lesson Plan Check for Understanding: What was the biggest difference between linear growth and exponential growth? What is the equation for: Exponential growth? Linear growth? If you want a constant rate, which equation should you use? Closure: You will now work on your homework. We will be looking at your family to help us understand growths. You can get help from parents and the internet in order to do this. I want you to write two paragraphs about how you found the information that's asked on the homework worksheet. Assessment: Students will be assigned homework to go home and make their own family tree as far back as possible. The students will be encouraged to go online to find out more history on their family. They will write two paragraphs explaining the process they went through to find this information. Resource(s): http://barzilai.org/cr/generations.html

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My Definition:

Equation:

m is

x is

b is

Linear Growth Problem: You just got a job with the local newspaper delivering papers to a large neighborhood. You start out with 10 customers because the boss doesn't want to overwhelm you. He says he'll give you 2 new customers every week. How long will it be until you get 50 customers? a) What are your variables and equation in this situation?

b) Fill in the chart and graph the data. y= x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 c) How many weeks until you get 50 customers? y x 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Number of Customers

Customers on My Route

60

y

50 40 30 20 10 0

Weeks

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Exponential Growth Problem: You move to a new city from your small home town but when you get there you realize you want the same type of job. Your boss starts you off with 10 people because he doesn't think you can handle the big city. He agrees to add 20% more people to your paper route every week. How many weeks will it take you to get 50 customers? a) What are your variables and equation in this situation?

b) In this problem we have to start with week 0. What happens when the exponent is 0?

Number of Customers

Customers on My Route

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5

Weeks

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

10

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Name: ______________________________ Family Tree Have you ever looked through old family pictures and wondered how many people made you who you are? In this activity you will explore some mathematics related to family trees, and also the (sometimes tricky) question of how to properly apply mathematics to real-world situations. I. For the purpose of the following questions ignore divorces, second marriages, adoptions, etc. a) With the above understanding, how many parents do you (or did you) have? __________ b) How many grandparents -- i.e. two generations before yours do you (does anyone) have? (Hint: Look at your family tree) __________ c) Since each person has four grandparents, and since, also, each grandparent has two parents, this suggests that every person has ____ great-grandparents (direct ancestors "three generations above them"). II. Identifying patterns and relationships a) Since every person has exactly two biological parents this gives us a base of 2. What is our exponent?

b) Knowing the equation from part a, how many direct ancestors did you have 7 generations ago?

III. Assume that the average number of years per generation is 30. If we take the current year and subtract a year in the past we get the difference. Since a new generation is born every 30 years, divide that difference by 30. That's your total generations. Using the equation in part II, estimate the number of direct ancestors you had (show your work): a) In the year 1750? __________

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Name: ______________________________ We've calculated our past ancestors using an exponential growth function. Now let's figure out how big your family can get. Assume you have a total of 58 people in your family including cousins, aunts, uncles, siblings, grandparents, etc. Assume 2 babies are born into your family every year. a) What are the variables? m is b is x is b) What is the equation for this situation? . .

e) How many big will your family be in 15 years (assuming no one passes away)?

g) Was it easier to calculate the exponential growth or linear growth? Explain your answer.

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Name: ______________________________ Now ask your parents to help you fill in your family tree. We only want to know about your, your parents, their parents, their parent's parents, etc. We do not care about siblings, aunts, uncles, and cousins for this exercise. If your parents don't know a lot about your family tree, try asking your grandparents (or great-grandparents). If these options don't work look online. I then want you to write two paragraphs telling me how you found the information, what difficulties you faced. If you were not able to find any information focus on the struggles you faced and why you couldn't find this information. I would also like you to tell me in a few sentences why the first part of your homework may or may not have surprised you.

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Direct Lesson Plan Exponential Decay Day 4 Grade Levels: 9-10 (Algebra I) Content Areas Addressed: Math, life skills, technology Purpose: The student will learn the meaning of exponential decay, how to calculate it by hand (to an extent), and how to use a TI-89 calculator to calculate exponential decay. The student will also learn how exponential decay can be used in real life. Objectives: 1. Students will be able to define in their own words what exponential decay is. 2. Students will be able to calculate the exponential decay of a function by hand. 3. Students will be able to calculate the exponential decay of a function with a TI-89 calculator. 4. Students will be able to keep track of the data, organize it on a spreadsheet, and graph it Connections to Standards: A3.2.4 Understand and use the fact that the base of an exponential function determines whether the function increases or decreases and understand how the base affects the rate of growth or decay. F.IF.8b Use the properties of exponents to interpret expressions for exponential functions. For example, identify percent rate of change in functions such as y = (1.02)t, y = (0.97)t, y = (1.01)12t, y = (1.2)t/10, and classify them as representing exponential growth and decay. F.LE.1c Recognize situations in which a quantity grows or decays by a constant percent rate per unit interval relative to another. F.BF.1b Combine standard function types using arithmetic operations. For example, build a function that models the temperature of a cooling body by adding a constant function to a decaying exponential, and relate these functions to the model. Materials: Worksheets Notebooks/journals 1 lb bags of Skittles or M&Ms (one bag should be enough for about 5 pairs of students, so figure 2 bags for a class of 20-25 students) paper plates (1 per pair) paper towels or napkins (1 per pair) small plastic cups (1-2 per pair) Set: 1. Number off students into pairs Try placing the kids that are struggling with kids that are excelling 2. Each pair of students gets a cup, plate, and napkin. Fill each cups about 2/3 or 3/4 full of your Page 42

Direct Lesson Plan candy of choice. Let students know they're free to eat everything AFTER the activity is complete. 3. Students will also grab worksheets to go along with activity 4. Students will do the following activity: 1. Pour out your candy onto the plate and count all of them. Record this as Trial 0 in your table. 2. Put all the candy back into the cup. Pour out the candy onto the plate again, but this time only count the ones that are face up--that is, have the "s" or "m" showing. Record this in your table. 3. Put only the candies that were face up back into the cup. Remove all of the candy that was face down--you can eat those now. 4. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until you have no candy left. 5. On the graph on the worksheet, plot your data as coordinate points. 1. Ask yourself, "Which is the independent and dependent variable in this experiment?" Your answer will help you decide how to graph the data. 2. What do you notice about the graph this data creates? Purpose: Students need to know this because it will help them in real life situations such as with money, amount of sunlight per day, population decrease, etc. Information and Modeling: Give the students the definition of exponential decay and then have them rewrite it in their own words using the activity to help. Explain to students how exponential decay effects them in real life. A student crams for a Friday French test, learning 100 vocabulary words Thursday night. Each day the student expects to forget 20% of the words known the day before. If the test is delayed from Friday to Monday, what will happen if the student does not review? Day Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Monday Day Number 0 1 2 3 4 100 100(.80) = 80 100(.80)(.80) = 100(.80)^2 = 64 100(.80)(.80)(.80) = 100(.80)^3 = 51 100(.80)(.80)(.80)(.80) = 100(.80)^4 = 41 Words Known

Give the students the equation y = a(1 -b)x a is the original number

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Direct Lesson Plan 1-b is equal to the growth of the population with b being the amount leaving Example, if a population is decreasing by 5% per year, we multply by the population that is staying (95%). So after 10 years it would be 67,000(.95)^10 = 40,115 x is the number of years. Check for Understanding: Have the students calculate the two problems on their worksheet

Guided Practice: Ask the students in pairs to write in their math journals an example of exponential decay that effects them. Have the students calculate their example.

As you can see, calculating exponential growth has many advantages. In tonight's homework you will look at how a newspaper's clientele will decrease within the next few years. Independent Practice: Students will get their homework on the way out the door. They will work on the worksheet called Exponential Decay in Real Life: The Decline of Newspaper Readership

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My Definition:

Equation:

b is x is

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

What did you observe?

Another Example:

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New York Times, a nationwide newspaper, is experiencing a reduction in circulation. These days, the NY Times' audience increasingly prefers the Internet for news. In 2005, the New York Times counted 800,000 readers. The publisher predicts that its readership will decrease by 3% each year. Use this information to answer the following questions. 1. What was the original number of readers (a)?

3. Write a function describing the diminishing number of New York Times readers. Hint: y = a(1 -b)x

4. Predictions: 2010 A. Write a function that can be used to predict New York Time's readership in 2010.

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5. Calculate the following years in the table below.(Round to the nearest ones place) Year 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 2055 6. Graph the function: Function Prediction Number of Readers

7. Predict year do you think the New York Times will go out of business.

Name:

Teacher's Key

New York Times, a nationwide newspaper, is experiencing a reduction in circulation. These days, the NY Times' audience increasingly prefers the Internet for news. In 2005, the New York Times counted 800,000 readers. The publisher predicts that its readership will decrease by 3% each year. Use this information to answer the following questions. 1. What was the original number of readers (a)? 800,000

3. Write a function describing the diminishing number of New York Times readers. Hint: y = a(1 -b)x y = 800,000(1-.03)x

4. Predictions: 2010 A. Write a function that can be used to predict New York Time's readership in 2010. y = 800,000(1-.03)5

B. Based on the function, predict the number of readers in 2010. Students may guess any number

C. Now calculate the number of readers using the function in part A. 686,987

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5. Calculate the following years in the table below. (Round to the nearest ones place) Year 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 2055 Function y = 800,000(1-.03)5 y = 800,000(1-.03)10 y = 800,000(1-.03)15 y = 800,000(1-.03)20 y = 800,000(1-.03)25 y = 800,000(1-.03)30 y = 800,000(1-.03)35 y = 800,000(1-.03)40 y = 800,000(1-.03)45 y = 800,000(1-.03)50 Prediction --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Number of Readers 686,987 589,939 506,601 435,035 373,580 320,806 275,487 236,570 203,151 174,452

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Cooperative Lesson Plan Exponential Growth and Decay of a Population Day 5 Grade Levels: 9-10 (Algebra I) Content Areas Addressed: Math, Social Studies Purpose: Students will connect exponential growth and exponential decay to real life by looking at the growth or lack there of the populations of countries around the world. Objectives: 1. Students will gain a higher knowledge of how big the world's population is. 2. Students will be able to see how globalization is effecting the countries of the world. Connections to Standards: A3.2.5 Relate exponential functions to real phenomena, including half-life and doubling time. Materials: Map of continent for each group One per student Overhead of the world to be projected on a whiteboard Advanced and Struggling Students Accommodations: Students will be placed in groups where struggling students can gain help from advanced students. Advanced students will be given a leadership role in order to help them stay focused on the content. The advanced students will be asked help guide students by thinking of questions that they would like answered about population movement. Procedure: Desks will be placed into 5 groups of 6 desks. Each group will consist of six countries. Groups are: Africa Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Rwanda, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Chad, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, South Africa, or Nigeria Asia Europe Afghanistan, Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Jordan, North Korea, South Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, or Thailand Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, United Kingdom, Ukraine, Sweden, Spain, Russia, Portugal, Poland, Norway, Italy, Ireland, Iceland, Hungary, Greece, Germany, or France

North America Mexico, United States, Canada, Dominican Republic, Cuba, Costa Rica, Jamaica, Greenland, or Haiti South America Brazil, Argentina, Venezuela, Peru, Chile, Ecuador, Bolivia, Paraguay, or Urguay Today we're going to figure out how our world's population differs between country to country. Can anyone tell me how this relates to what we learned last week with exponential growth and Page 50

Cooperative Lesson Plan decay? Corrected answer is that over x amount of years a population will either increase or decrease at a decently constant rate unless a major event happens. You're grouped by continent. In your groups I first want you to each pick a country of your choice. There should be several countries left after each of you have picked a country. If more than one person wants a specific country you will play rock, paper, scissors to see who gets that country. When you get your country you are taking the role of the country's leader. Each of you has your country's population for the years 2001 to 2011. I will use Australia to show you how to calculate if your population has an exponential growth or decay. This will take approximately 10 minutes to show them the Australian example. Country Australia Year 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Population (x1000) Growth Rate 19,153 19,419 1.39% 19,651 1.19% 19,895 1.24% 20,127 1.17% 20,394 1.33% 20,697 1.49% 21,015 1.54% 21,262 1.18% 22,183 4.33% 22,485 1.36% Average: 1.62%

Explain why the growth rate fluctuates as time goes on but the population keeps growing exponentially. There are years where the population increase is much larger than the year before. The overall growth rate gets smaller each year because the same amount of people enter the country but the initial population stays the same. Students will calculate the growth rate for every year using the formula and then find the average.

Now find the future population for x amount of years in the future using the formula.

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Cooperative Lesson Plan Future Population = 22,485,000 * (1+.0162)^n How many new people will there be in Australia in 2016? 24,366,258.36-22,485,000 = 1,881,258.358 new people How many people is this in just one year? Future Population = 22,485,000 * (1+.0162)^1 = 22849257 so we take this number minus the initial population of 22,485,000 which is 364,257 new people Now that you have your country's demographic information calculate your populations 5, 10, 25, and 50 years from now. If your country has a decreasing population your numbers will be in the negatives. Also remember that your numbers may be much higher than other countries because some countries are having a population boom. We will figure out our populations by ourselves and then talk with out groups in about 20 minutes to compare answers. So in 30 minutes we need to be ready to discuss this as a class and put our answers on the board. This will take approximately 30 minutes, maybe more. To look for while students are working in groups: 1. Are the students working well together? 2. Are the students asking each other questions on the material? 3. Are the students trying to think deeper about why the populations are vastly different? 4. Is everyone participating? 5. Is someone shying away because (s)he didn't understand the math behind the problem

Check for Understanding: Students will fill out a worksheet that is provided to them that answers questions related to their country and exponential decay or grow. Closure: After the students are done I will project a map of the world onto the whiteboard. I will ask someone from each group to present their growth rate findings. As a class we will analyze the data to see if there is pattern such as a lot of people seem to be migrating to the USA. Where are they coming from? Assessment: As the students pack up I will also have them grab a half sheet of paper that explains the homework. The home is that the students will use their data to make up a fictional story of why the population decreases or increases within the next 50 years. This story has to be a minimum of one typed page long. Resource(s): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_Australia http://www.ined.fr/en/pop_figures/developed_countries/developed_countries_database

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GR is

F is

P is

FP is i is

P is n is

The five groups in the classroom make up the 5 continents of the world. Each continent has several countries. Pick a country and write it below.

You are now the leader of this country. Your first order of business is to help the UN figure out what the world's population will be in 50 years. To figure this out answer the problems below about your country: a) Fill in the chart below. Use the growth rate formula from above. Year 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Population (x1000) Growth Rate

Average: Page 53

b) Is your country's growth rate positive or negative? If your country's growth rate is positive that means you have a country that's population is increasing. If the growth rate is negative your country's population is decreasing. c) We need to know what the population will be in x amount of years. Use the Future Population equation to find that our for the following years: Next year

2020

2035

2050

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Population Homework In one to two pages write a story using the data you have calculated explaining why your population has increased or decreased within the next 50 years. Populations can increase because of the job market, refugees, a baby boom, etc. A population can decrease because of war, job exporting, etc. This is a fictional story. Keep it clean.

Population Homework In one to two pages write a story using the data you have calculated explaining why your population has increased or decreased within the next 50 years. Populations can increase because of the job market, refugees, a baby boom, etc. A population can decrease because of war, job exporting, etc. This is a fictional story. Keep it clean.

Population Homework In one to two pages write a story using the data you have calculated explaining why your population has increased or decreased within the next 50 years. Populations can increase because of the job market, refugees, a baby boom, etc. A population can decrease because of war, job exporting, etc. This is a fictional story. Keep it clean.

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Europe

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Products and Exponents of Exponents Day 6 Grade Levels: 9-10 (Algebra I) Content Areas Addressed: Math Purpose: There are several rules for exponents. Students will be able to know what to do when given two exponents or more with the same base or a base with two exponents. Objectives: 1. Students will be able to identify that a number with the same base raised to a power means to add the powers. 2. Students will be able to identify that when an exponent is raised to an exponent, they are multiplied together. 3. Students will use the properties of exponents learned in previous lessons. Connections to Standards: A1.1.2 Construction, Interpretation, and Manipulation of Expressions: Know the definitions and properties of exponents and roots transition fluently between them, and apply them in algebraic expressions. F.IF.8b Use the properties of exponents to interpret expressions for exponential functions. Materials: Guided Notes Homework Advanced and Struggling Students Accommodations: Students that are struggling in math will get easier problems in their guided notes along with further explanation. Students that are more advanced will get harder problems in their guided notes and on homework in order to challenge them. Procedure: Students will pick up the guided notes on the way to their seats and turn in their homework. I will begin the lecture after attendance I will give the 'Product of Powers Property' and then do examples on the overhead with the class. The Product of Powers Property is For all m and n, and all nonzero b, b m * b n = b( m+ n) How does this work? I will then give the example 5352 = (5*5*5) * (5*5) = 55 Then I'll give an example with two bases that are the same and one that differs. 3 4 8 9 3 9 = (9*9*9)(3*3*3*3)(9*9*9*9*9*9*9*9) = (3*3*3*3) (9*9*9*9*9*9*9*9)(9*9*9) Commutative Property of Multiplication 4 11 3 9 Page 57

Now I will give the students the following problems 5 50 = x 55 x x 3234 = 36 a 3a5b0a 2b 9 = a 10b 9 b3 ( a3b5 ) = a 3b 8 z 7 y 4 = can't combine because the bases are not the same u 9u 0 = u 9 I will call on students that volunteer to answer a few of the problems. We will then move on to the 'Exponent of an Exponent Property' and I will do a few examples on the overhead. The Exponent of an Exponent Property is: For all m and n, and all nonzero b, ( b m)n =b( mn ) How does it work? ( 83) 4 The 4 in this problem means that we are taking the inside of the parentheses and multiply it 4 times. 3 3 3 3 8 8 8 8 Looking at what we just did with product of powers we know me must add powers with like bases. ( 3+ 3 + 3 + 3) = 812 8 Now I will give students the following problems ( k 10)3 = k 30 ( 72 )3 = 76 ( n 2)6 = n 12 ( w 0)9 = w 0 = 1 3 10 2 3 20 23 4n ( n ) = 4n ( n ) = 4n Remind them of PEMDAS ( 32 )x = 38 x=4 I will call on students that volunteer to answer a few of the problems.

Check for Understanding: 1. I will call on students during lecture to answer the problems in the notes. 2. I will ask students to come up with their own example in their notes. 3. I will go around the room while the students are doing homework to see if I can tell from their worksheets if they're struggling or not. Closure: The students will then be given homework to work on for the rest of the class. Assessment: Students will be given homework worksheets found online. For extra credit the students can go on khanacadamey.com to receive extra. Resource(s): http://www.mathworksheets4kids.com/exponents.html Page 58

Date: Products and Exponents of Exponents Notes Product of Powers (Exponents) Property:

x 5 x50

2) 32 34

3) a 3a5b0a 2b 9

4) b3 ( a3b5 )

5)

z y

6) u 9u 0

Page 59

3) ( n 2)6

4) ( w 0)9

5) 4n 3 ( n10)2

6) ( 32 )x

= 38

Page 60

Score:

Work Space

5 ____________________

2 ____________________

11 ____________________

9 ____________________

10 ____________________

6 ____________________

3 ____________________

8 ____________________

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Free Math Worksheets @ http://www.mathworksheets4kids.com

Score:

Answers

5 5

2 2

11 11

9 9

10 10

6 6

3 3

8 8

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Free Math Worksheets @ http://www.mathworksheets4kids.com

Score:

Rewrite the following as single exponent using power rule: 4 ____________________ 2 ____________________ 12 ____________________ 7 ____________________ 2 ____________________ 5 6 ____________________ 9 14

Work Space

____________________

5 ____________________

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Score:

Answers 4 4 2 2 12 12 7 7 5 2 2 5 6 6 9 14

9 14

5 5

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Score:

Work Space

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

Page 65

Free Math Worksheets @ http://www.mathworksheets4kids.com

Score:

Answers

Page 66

Free Math Worksheets @ http://www.mathworksheets4kids.com

Score:

Rewrite the following as single exponent using power rule: __________________ __________________

Work Space

__________________

Page 67

Free Math Worksheets @ http://www.mathworksheets4kids.com

Score:

Answers 1 1

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Score:

Rewrite the following as single exponent using product rule: Example: 3 3 3 Work Space

5 5 _______________

8 8 _______________

2 2 2 _______________

7 7 _______________

4 4 4 _______________

9 9 _______________

11 11 _______________

3 3 3 _______________

Page 69

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Score:

Answers

5 5 5

8 8 8

2 2 2 2

7 7 7

4 4 4 4

9 9 9

11 11 11

3 3 3 3

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Score:

Rewrite the following as single exponent using product rule: 9 9 _____________________ 7 7 _____________________ 1 1 _____________________ 3 3 4 4 _____________________ 9 9 _____________________ 4 4 _____________________ 7 7 8 8 _____________________ 6 6 _____________________ 3 3 _____________________ 8 8

Work Space

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Score:

Answers 9 9 9 7 7 7 1 1 1 3 3 3 1 4 1 9

4 4

9 9

4 4 4 7 7 7 1 8

8 8

6 6 6 3 3 3 8 8 8

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Score:

Work Space

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

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Free Math Worksheets @ http://www.mathworksheets4kids.com

Score:

Answers

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Free Math Worksheets @ http://www.mathworksheets4kids.com

Score:

Work Space

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Free Math Worksheets @ http://www.mathworksheets4kids.com

Score:

Answers

1 1 1 1

1 1 1

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Free Math Worksheets @ http://www.mathworksheets4kids.com

Direct Lesson Plan Negative Exponents Day 7 Grade Levels: 9-10 (Algebra I) Content Areas Addressed: Math Purpose: There are several rules for exponents. Students will be able to know what to do when given an exponent that is a negative number and an exponent that is in the denominator of a fraction. Objectives: 1. Students will be able to identify that a number or variable raised to a negative exponent can be re-written in fraction form. 2. Students will be able to transform a number with an exponent in the fraction into an a number of variable with a negative exponent. 3. Students will use the properties of exponents learned in previous lessons. Connections to Standards: A1.1.2 Construction, Interpretation, and Manipulation of Expressions: Know the definitions and properties of exponents and roots transition fluently between them, and apply them in algebraic expressions. F.IF.8b Use the properties of exponents to interpret expressions for exponential functions. Materials: Guided Notes Homework Worksheets Advanced and Struggling Students Accommodations: Students that are struggling in math will get easier problems in their guided notes along with further explanation. Students that are more advanced will get harder problems in their guided notes and on homework in order to challenge them. Procedure: Students will pick up the guided notes on the way to their seats and turn in their homework. I will begin the lecture after attendance I will first ask the students if they have wondered what happens when the exponent is a negative number considering we have only dealt with positive numbers thus far. I will give the 'Negative Exponent Property' and explain what this means exactly. The Negative Exponent Property 1 For any nonzero b and all n, b n = , the reciprocal of b n . n b

Page 77

2 2 2

2

= = = =

1 2 1 4 1 8 1 16

I will then give examples and have the students help solve them. n n x x n n x x = x (n + n) = x 0 = 1

( x 3)

2

=

p p

4

x n

7

1 = n x

xn =1 n x

= x

6 y

=

9

1 6 x

5 5 =5 We know that you need to add the exponents when the bases are multiplied. What do we add to 6 to get to -9? y= -15

=

2

p

4

( 3 +( 7))

1 3 p

(t ) = t8

I will then give students examples where they reverse the order. They will go from the simplified form back to the negative exponent. 5 m7 q 84 3 h t = m7h 84 = q 5t 3 What happens if an integer or variable has a negative exponent in the denominator? 1 1 Let's look at an example first. We'll use . This equals y 1 x ( y) x A negative exponent tells us to take the reciprocal. We can't have a fraction in the denominator so we have to take the reciprocal, which puts the integer or variable into the numerator.

Page 78

3 6

k 12 m = k 3m 12

8 2 p = 8p2

a6 3 a

= a 3a6 =

5

x=5

Check for Understanding: 1. I will call on students during lecture to answer the problems in the notes. 2. I will ask students to come up with their own example in their notes. 3. I will go around the room while the students are doing homework to see if I can tell from their worksheets if they're struggling or not. Closure: The students will then be given homework to work on for the rest of the class. Assessment: Students will be given homework worksheets found online. For extra credit the students can go on khanacadamey.com to receive extra. Resource(s): http://www.frapanthers.com/teachers/zab/AlgebraI/Worksheets/Worksheet8.1.pdf

Page 79

x n x

n

2)

x n x

3) ( x 3)

4)

p 4 p

5) 565 y =5

6) ( t 2)

5

2)

m 84 h

Page 80

Examples: 1) 5 x 3

x

2)

k3 12 m

3)

3m 72 n 3

4)

8 2 p

5)

a b

3 6

6)

c3 = c3 d 4 y d

7)

n x m15 4 0 n m

= n 9 m15

8)

7s0 t 5 1 2 2 m

Page 81

01 2 3 4 5 6 6 7 9

6 2 1 6 7 6 1 6 7 4

6 56 2 6 4 4 1 & "# ! "# $ # % # $ (1 6 7 66 56 ) * 7 1

-. $ + $, # ,

0 / #1 - . #0 "'1 $ ' 3 4 2 '4 -.'

"$ $ ! "' %

-. '0 5 '6 7 + 1

6 56 2 6 4 4 1

& "$; & & 3 8 '9 :

* 7 66 56 2 6 4 4 1 1 22?@ A 4?B

"# "' "$= # $ ! #= % + C ' =

/ C "#= #

Page 82

Direct Lesson Plan Quotients of Powers and Scientific Notation Day 8 Grade Levels: 9-10 (Algebra I) Content Areas Addressed: Math Purpose: There are several rules for exponents. Students will be able to know what to do when given identical bases in the numerator and denominator with exponents. Objectives: 1. Students will be able to identify that a fraction with the same bases in the denominator and numerator with the same or equal exponents can be simplified. 2. Students will be able to do the first objective without a calculator. 3. Students will use the properties of exponents learned in previous lessons. Connections to Standards: A1.1.2 Construction, Interpretation, and Manipulation of Expressions: Know the definitions and properties of exponents and roots transition fluently between them, and apply them in algebraic expressions. F.IF.8b Use the properties of exponents to interpret expressions for exponential functions. Materials: Guided Notes Homework Worksheets Advanced and Struggling Students Accommodations: Students that are struggling in math will get easier problems in their guided notes along with further explanation. Students that are more advanced will get harder problems in their guided notes and on homework in order to challenge them. Procedure: Students will pick up the guided notes on the way to their seats and turn in their homework. I will begin the lecture after attendance We have gone over what happens to exponents when their bases are multiplied. Can someone remind me what happens? b m * b n = b( m + n ) And what happens when we get a base with a power to a power? ( b m)n =b( mn ) We know what happens with multiplication, so what happens when division is thrown into the mix? Give students the Quotient of Exponents Property. bm ( m n ) For all m and n, and all nonzero b, =b n b Looking at this we see that there is a minus sign. So you can think of it as multiplication and Page 83

addition go together and division and subtraction go together. Let's figure out how this works. 6 x Let's say we have . What does that equal? 4 x When we write it out the exponent in the numerator means there is 6 xes multiplying each other and on the bottom there are 4. We can write this out like so. Then we're going x to take like bases and pair them up. When we do this it means we have . What does x that equal?

That equals 1. So every time we get a pair it means that we get one. In this example that means we have only two xes left in the numerator so our answer is x 2 . x3 Let's say we have a larger exponent in the denominator. For example 4 x Once again we can pair like terms. So in this case we end up with one x in the denominator.

1 . x

3

x (3 4 ) 1 . We learned about negative If we look at this using the equation we get =x =x 4 x exponents yesterday. What happens to negative exponents? Now let's do some examples: 296 396 1) 5 2 6 9 x 29666999999 = 6666699 x 296561 190269 2994 = = = = 2 36x 36x 6 x 2) 5x y z 3 2 5y z 5 x x xx x x x y y y y y z z = 5 y y yz z = ( x3 )2 = ( x 4 )2 y3 x6 = 8 3 x y x 2 3 y

7 5 2

x y

3)

1 3 x y

2

Page 84

4)

7 a 3 b2 c 6 = 2 5 28 a b c 81 m n 5 6 9m n u v 12 2u v

11 13 5

1 ( 3 2) ( 2 a b 4

5)

c( 6

1)

1 1 1 1 1 ac 5 3 5 5 a b c = a ( 3 )c = 3 4 4 4b b

18

5)

= 9m(

1 (11 u 2

13 5 )

( 5 6)

= 9m

11

9 m n

18 11

6)

( 12 ))

v( 1

( 1))

1 23 2 u23v 2 u v = 2 2

We can also simplify very large numbers using scientific notation. A number represented as x10 n , where 1 x < 10 and n is an integer. 38,100,000 Let's look at the example . Earlier we learned that we can cross out like 9,000,000 variables. We need to transform this number into scientific notation in order to understand how these are similar. We need to get rid of the zeros. The decimal place is currently right before the one's place. We need to move it to right before the biggest place.

9 000 000 . 00

Now count the number of times the decimal moved. This is the n in the scientific notation equation. 38,100,000 = 3.81 x 10^7 9,000,000 9.00 x 10^6 Simplify the problem: 7 3.81 3.81 107 3.8110 1 101 = 4.2 3 10 = .42 3 = ( )( 6 ) = 6 9.00 9.00 9.0010 10 If you divide the big number out, you will see that we get the same answer. A shortcut for this is to do what we did on the very first page of this. We crossed out like numbers. For scientific notation this only applies to zeroes.

We can divide quickly. This works really well for when we need easy fractions like one-half or one-third.

Check for Understanding: 1. I will ask review questions that focus on what was taught earlier that week when we come to those types of problems that involve such things. 2. I will call on students during lecture to answer the problems in the notes. 3. I will go around the room while the students are doing homework to see if I can tell from their worksheets if they're struggling or not.

Page 85

Closure: The students will then be given homework to work on for the rest of the class, and ask questions from that day's lecture or clean up things from previous days. Assessment: Students will be given homework worksheets found online. For extra credit the students can go on khanacadamey.com to receive extra.

Page 86

How does this work? Let's first look at an exponent that is larger in the numerator: x 4 x

6

x3 4 x

Examples: For 1 & 2 write out the problem like we did in the examples above. 1) 296 396 5 2 6 9 x 2) 5 x7 y5 z 2 3 2 5y z

Page 87

For problems 3-6 solve using the property and knowledge from previous days. 3)

(x ) 4 2 3 (x ) y

3 2

4)

7 a 3 b2 c 6 2 5 28 a b c

5)

81 m 13 n 5 6 9m n

6)

u 11 v 12 2u v

We can also simplify very large numbers using scientific notation. Definition of Scientific Notation:

38,100,000 . Earlier we learned that we can cross out like variables. We 9,000,000 need to transform this number into scientific notation in order to understand how these are similar. We need to get rid of the zeros. The decimal place is currently right before the one's place. We need to move it to right before the biggest place.

9 000 000 . 00

Now count the number of times the decimal moved. This is the n in the scientific notation equation.

38,100,000 = 9,000,000

x 10 x 10

Page 88

Score:

Work Space

9 _____________________ 9

7 _____________________ 7

15 15 _____________________

8 _____________________ 8

3 3 _____________________

12 _____________________ 12

4 _____________________ 4

Page 89

Free Math Worksheets @ http://www.mathworksheets4kids.com

Score:

Answers

9 9 9

7 7 7

15 15 15

8 1 8 8

3 3 3

12 12 12

4 1 4 4

Page 90

Free Math Worksheets @ http://www.mathworksheets4kids.com

Score:

Work Space

Page 91

Free Math Worksheets @ http://www.mathworksheets4kids.com

Score:

Answers

3 3 3 1 1 1 5 5 5 7 7 7 1 2 2 2 7 7 11 11 11 7 1 6

6 6

4 1 4 4

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Free Math Worksheets @ http://www.mathworksheets4kids.com

Score:

Work Space

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

Page 93

Free Math Worksheets @ http://www.mathworksheets4kids.com

Score:

Answers

Page 94

Free Math Worksheets @ http://www.mathworksheets4kids.com

Score:

Work Space

__________________

Page 95

Free Math Worksheets @ http://www.mathworksheets4kids.com

Score:

Answers 1

1 1

1

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Free Math Worksheets @ http://www.mathworksheets4kids.com

V

(1) (2) (3)

A

4.114 10

2

Scientific Notation

Name: Date:

(6)

4.781 10

4.357 10

-3

(7)

5.499 10

6.937 10

(8)

1.895 10

-6

(4)

2.554 10

-5

(9)

1.581 10

(5)

5.883 10

-3

(10)

4.538 10

-1

V

(11) (12)

(16)

0.002886

516,900

0.4534

(17)

0.0008877

(13)

4.563

(18)

0.002223

(14)

757.2

(19)

0.007254

(15)

117.5

(20)

34,210

Page 97

V

(1) (2) (3)

A

4.114 10

2

Name:

3

(6)

4.781 10

411.4 4.357 10

-3

4,781

(7)

5.499 10

0.004357 6.937 10

2

5,499,000

(8)

1.895 10

-6

693.7

(4)

0.000001895

(9)

2.554 10

-5

1.581 10

0.00002554

(5)

1.581

(10)

5.883 10

-3

4.538 10

-1

0.005883

0.4538

V

(11) (12)

(16)

-3

-1

516,900 5.169 10

5

(17)

0.0008877 8.877 10

-4

(13)

4.563 4.563 10

0

(18)

0.002223 2.223 10

-3

(14)

757.2 7.572 10

2

(19)

0.007254 7.254 10

-3

(15)

117.5 1.175 10

2

(20)

34,210 3.421 10

4

Page 98

V

(1) (2) (3)

A

7.458 10

1

Scientific Notation

Name: Date:

(6)

4.559 10

7.642 10

-1

(7)

3.353 10

-2

9.119 10

-3

(8)

1.012 10

-6

(4)

4.864 10

(9)

7.638 10

-6

(5)

8.782 10

(10)

3.815 10

V

(11) (12)

(16)

0.009111

913.3

4,793,000

(17)

0.00006269

(13)

0.007637

(18)

3.254

(14)

169.8

(19)

1,655,000

(15)

85,560

(20)

378.9

Page 99

V

(1) (2) (3)

A

7.458 10

1

Name:

1

(6)

4.559 10

74.58 7.642 10

-1

45.59

(7)

3.353 10

-2

0.7642 9.119 10

-3

0.03353

(8)

1.012 10

-6

0.009119

(4)

0.000001012

(9)

4.864 10

7.638 10

-6

4,864,000

(5)

0.000007638

(10)

8.782 10

3.815 10

8,782

3,815

V

(11) (12)

(16)

-3

6

913.3 9.133 10

2

(17)

0.00006269 6.269 10

-5

(13)

0.007637 7.637 10

-3

(18)

3.254 3.254 10

0

(14)

169.8 1.698 10

2

(19)

1,655,000 1.655 10

6

(15)

85,560 8.556 10

4

(20)

378.9 3.789 10

2

Page 100

Exponents of Products and Quotients Day 9 Grade Levels: 9-10 (Algebra I) Content Areas Addressed: Math Purpose: There are several rules for exponents. Students will be able to know what to do when given two variables multiplied or divided by each other in parentheses raised to an exponent. Objectives: 1. Students will be able to identify that two variable multiplied by each other in parentheses raised to an exponent means that both variables inside the parentheses are raised to the exponent. 2. Students will be able to identify that two variable divided by each other in parentheses raised to an exponent means that both variables inside the parentheses are raised to the exponent. 3. Students will use the properties of exponents learned in previous lessons. Connections to Standards: A1.1.2 Construction, Interpretation, and Manipulation of Expressions: Know the definitions and properties of exponents and roots transition fluently between them, and apply them inalgebraic expressions. F.IF.8b Use the properties of exponents to interpret expressions for exponential functions. Materials: Guided Notes Homework Advanced and Struggling Students Accommodations: Students that are struggling in math will get easier problems in their guided notes along with further explanation. Students that are more advanced will get harder problems in their guided notes and on homework in order to challenge them. Procedure: Students will pick up the guided notes on the way to their seats and turn in their homework. I will begin the lecture after attendance I will give the 'Exponents of a Product Property' and then do examples on the overhead with the class. The Exponents of a Product Property is For all nonzero a and b, and for all n, ( ab )n = a nbn . Why does this happen? As we learned before ( a 1) n = a n therefore, ( ab )n = ( a 1 b1)n = a nbn Examples: 1) ( xy )6 = ( 1 x y )6 = ( 1 )6 x 6 y 6 = 1 x6 y 6 = 2) ( 3x 3)2 = 32 x( 32) = 9x 6

x y

Page 101

3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

(y z )

4 0

y( 50) z ( 40) =

y0 z0 = 1

( 4m 3) x = 16x6

with x=2

1a 27b 45 = a 27 b 45

( 2q )5( 3q 4)2

1 2 2 ( 6x ) = 2

1 7 (5 k ) 8

1 2 4 6 x = 2 1 1 7 8 (5 k )

=

36 x 2

36 x 2

= 18x 4

390625 56 k

8)

1 58 = 8 56 56 = 5 k k

I will give the 'Exponent of a Quotient Property' and then do examples on the overhead with the class. The Exponent of a Quotient Property is an a n For all nonzero a and b, and for all n, ( ) = n b b Why does this happen? If we take a fraction and only apply the exponent to the top it makes the numerator too big and if we only apply it to the numerator it makes the results too tiny. We have to apply the exponent to the top and bottom. Examples: 32 25 2 5 1) ( ) = 5 = 243 3 3 3(

1 4 4 16x 4 16x 4 48x 4 2x 4 ) = 3 ( 2 x ( 4 )) = 3 ( 4 ) = 3 ( 4 ) = 4 y y y y y

2)

3)

ab4 3 a3 a 3 ) = = ( ) 5 3 b b b

4)

x6 y 5 x6 y 5 x6 y z8 5 x 30 y 5z 40 ( 8 2 0) = ( 8 2) = ( ) = 2 10 z w x z w w w u ( ) = 3

t

5)

ut t 3

6)

2 52 k 2 25 k 2 100 k 2 L 5k 2 100 k 4L ( ) 4L ( ) = = = 4L ( ) = 2 2 2 L L L L L 3 3 3

7)

3 ( ) 4

3 4

64 43 3 = 27 3

8)

Page 102

Check for Understanding: 1. I will call on students during lecture to answer the problems in the notes. 2. Students will demonstrate prior knowledge from earlier in the week within the examples. 3. I will go around the room while the students are doing homework to see if I can tell from their worksheets if they're struggling or not. Closure: The students will then be given homework to work on for the rest of the class. Assessment: Students will be given homework worksheets found online. For extra credit the students can go on khanacadamey.com to receive extra. Resource(s): http://www.kutasoftware.com/FreeWorksheets/PreAlgWorksheets/Powers%20of %20Products%20and%20Quotients.pdf

Page 103

Examples: 1) ( xy )6 2) ( 3x 3)2

3) ( y 5 z 4)0

4) ( 4m 3) x

5) ( a 3 b 5)9

6) ( 2q )5( 3q 4)2

7)

1 ( 6x 2)2 2

8) ( 5 1 k 7)

Page 104

Examples: 2 1) ( ) 3

5

2) 3 (

2x 4 ) y

3) (

ab4 3 ) 5 b

4) (

x6 y 5 ) 8 2 0 z w x

u 5) ( ) 3

6) 4L (

5k 2 ) L

3 7) ( ) 4

4 2 8) ( z ) z 7

Page 105

Simplify. Your answer should contain only positive exponents. 1) (3a 2 )

3

2) (2n 4 )

4 3) (3 x )

4) (6b 2 )

5) (7 y

4 2

6) (3ab

4 4

7) (2 x y

4 4 3

8) (5mn

3 3

9) ( x 2 y 2 )

10) (6 y x 4 )

4 3 11) (u v )

12) (2 x 4 y 4 )

13) (3 x 2 2 x 2 )

14) (2 p 3 2 p)

15) (4n 3 n 2 )

16) (3 x 2 x)

17) (4 x x

4

4 3

18) (4n n)

4

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Simplify. Your answer should contain only positive exponents. 1) (3a 2 )

3

2) (2n 4 )

27a 6

16n 16

4 3) (3 x )

4) (6b 2 )

81 x 16

36b 4

5) (7 y

4 2

6) (3ab

4 4

49 y 8

81a 4 b 16

7) (2 x y

4 4 3

8) (5mn

3 3

8 x 12 y 12

125m 3 n 9

9) ( x 2 y 2 ) x4y4

10) (6 y x 4 )

36 y 2 x 8

11) (u 4 v 3 ) u8 v6

12) (2 x 4 y 4 )

16 x 16 y 16

13) (3 x 2 2 x 2 ) 36 x 8

14) (2 p 3 2 p) 16 p 8

16) (3 x 2 x) 36 x 4

17) (4 x x

4

4 3

18) (4n n)

4

64 x 24

Create your own worksheets like this one with Infinite Pre-Algebra. Free trial available at KutaSoftware.com

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Radicals (aka Square Roots) and Fractional Exponents Day 10 Grade Levels: 9-10 (Algebra I) Content Areas Addressed: Math Purpose: There are several rules for exponents which include rational exponents. Students will be able to know what to do when given an exponent that is a fraction. Students will also be able to turn a radical into an exponent. Objectives: 1. Students will be able to solve rational exponents and rewrite them. 2. Students will be able to understand the definition of rational exponents. 3. Students will use the properties of exponents learned in previous lessons. Connections to Standards: A1.1.2 Construction, Interpretation, and Manipulation of Expressions: Know the definitions and properties of exponents and roots transition fluently between them, and apply them in algebraic expressions. A.REI.2 Solve simple rational and radical equations in one variable, and give examples showing how extraneous solutions may arise. L2.1.2 Calculate fluently with numerical expressions involving exponents; use the rules of exponents; evaluate numerical expressions involving rational and negative exponents; transition easily between roots and exponents. Explain how the definition of the meaning of rational exponents follows from extending the properties of integer exponents to those values, allowing for a notation for radicals in terms of rational exponents. For example, we define 5( 1 /3) to be the cube root of 5 because we want ( 5(1 /3) )3 = 5((1 /3) 3) to hold, so 5((1 /3) 3) must equal 5.

N.RN.1

N.RN.2 Rewrite expressions involving radicals and rational exponents using the properties of exponents. Materials: Guided Notes Homework Advanced and Struggling Students Accommodations: Students that are struggling in math will get easier problems in their guided notes along with further explanation. Students that are more advanced will get harder problems in their guided notes and on homework in order to challenge them. Procedure: "We've covered exponents with integers. Can someone remind me of what an integer is?" Integers are non-decimal numbers and can be negative or positive. "What about a rational number?" A number that can be written as the ratio of two integers. A fraction. "Now we're going to look at rationals or fractions as exponents. Of course you can just type them into a calculator and get the answer but it's really useful to know what the numerator

Page 108

and denominator do as an exponent. Before we know this we need to know what a radical is. Has anyone ever heard of a square root symbol? That's also called a radical in the math world. It looks like this." 2 x "Do you see this two I put in there? Generally we don't put the two. When you don't see a number in this little area it means that the standard 2 is there." "Now we can write this square root as a fractional exponent. The the number in the area that the 2 is in is always the denominator of the fraction. The exponent of the variable or number inside of the square root is the numberator of the fractional exponent. Let's write that out."

"Now let's go from square root to exponent." 3 x 2 = x ( 2 / 3) "Now that we have an understanding of what fractional exponents transform into, what does the square root actually do? We can't say that we half the number because that doesn't work. If we have 92 and that equals 81, half of that is 40.5. We need to take the radical or square root of it." 3 Let's take x 5 and analyze it. 3 We have 5 x's in the square root. x xx x x The 3 means that we can only take 3 x's out or x 3 but we still have two x's in the square root because they don't fit the requirement of 3 x's. We end up writing this 3 2 problem as x x . 2 Let's try a problem with numbers. 32x3 2 Let's first take out what we already know can be taken out. x 32x Now let's figure out what to do with the 32 2 We know that 2 is a factor of 32. We can rewrite this as x 22222x 2 2 2 We can rewrite this as x 2 2 2x 2 2 2 2 And finally write it as 22x 2x = 2 x 2x = 4x 2x "Instead of having problems in your notes today we're going to be working on homework right away. The worksheet that you picked up mainly focuses on radicals and rational exponents, but in order to do this worksheet you need to be able to apply the exponent properties we learned earlier this week. I want you to first work on the first problem for each section. Then each group will get to write one of the answers on the board and we'll go over it."

Check for Understanding: 1. I will call on students during lecture to answer the problems in the notes. 2. Students will demonstrate prior knowledge from earlier in the week within the examples. 3. I will go around the room while the students are doing homework to see if I can tell from their worksheets if they're struggling or not. Closure: The students will then be given homework to work on for the rest of the class. Assessment: Students will be given homework worksheets found online. For extra credit the students can go on khanacadamey.com to receive extra.

Page 109

Page 110

Date: Radicals (aka Square Roots) and Fractional Exponents Define Ration Numbers:

What does the radical symbol look like? What is another name for it? What is the invisible number that is in most radicals?

Page 111

Write each expression in radical form. 1) 7

1 2

2) 4

4 3

3) 2

5 3

4) 7

4 3

5) 6

3 2

6) 2

1 6

10 )

8)

9)

( 4 2 )5

10)

( 4 5 )5

11)

12)

10

5 4

14) (5 x)

1 2

15) (10n)

3 2

16) a

6 5

Page 112

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-1-

17) (6v)

1.5

18) m

1 2

( 4 m )3

20)

( 3 6 x )4

21)

22)

6p

23)

( 3 3a ) 4

24)

3k )

Simplify. 25) 9

1 2

26) 343

4 3

27) 1000000

1 6

28) 36

3 2

29) ( x

1 6 2

30) (9n

1 4 2

31) (64n

12

1 6

32) (81m

1 6 2

Page 113

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-2-

Write each expression in radical form. 1) 7

1 2

2) 4 7

4 3

( 3 4 )4

4) 7

4 3

3) 2

5 3

( 3 2 )5

5) 6

3 2

( 3 7 )4

6) 2

1 6 6

6)

10 ) 10

3 2

8)

2 2

1 6

9)

( 4 2 )5

2

5 4

10)

( 4 5 )5

5

5 4

11)

2

1 3

12)

10

1 6

10

5 4

14) (5 x) 1

1 2

( 4 5 x )5

15) (10n)

3 2 3

5x

6 5

16) a

10n )

( 5 a )6

Page 114

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-1-

17) (6v)

1.5

18) m

3

1 2

6v )

1 m

( 4 m )3

m

4 3 4

20)

( 3 6 x )4

(6 x)

4 3

21)

v

1 4

22)

6p

v 23)

(6 p)

24) 1

1 2

( 3 3a ) 4

(3a)

4 3

3k )

5 2

(3k)

Simplify. 25) 9

1 2

26) 343

4 3

1 2401

1 6 3 2

27) 1000000 10

28) 36

216

29) ( x

1 6 2

30) (9n

1 4 2

x3

3n 2

31) (64n 1 2n 2

12

1 6

32) (81m 9m 3

1 6 2

Create your own worksheets like this one with Infinite Algebra 2. Free trial available at KutaSoftware.com

Page 115

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-2-

Hello Parents and Guardians: Within the next few weeks your student(s) will be learning about exponents. For example, 2*2 = 2 2 = 4. There are several rules for exponents that we will be covering over the next two weeks. The rules include: Products of Exponents Exponents of Exponents Negative Exponents Quotients of Exponents Scientific Notation Exponents of Products and Quotients Square Roots in Relation to Exponents

The benefits of your child learning this is: 1. Quick math calculation skills 2. Used in calculations for money 3. Used in every form of math. The first lesson will help your student(s) understand exactly what exponential growth is. In order to do this I request your help. We need one page of rice for your student to work with. You are more than welcome to come in this day to learn about how exponential growth works in our fun activity. We will also be learning about population growth. I hope you will help your student(s) write the short story that will be given as homework that day. It is a fictional story tied into the population growth of the country your child chooses. Have fun with this! Speaking of fun, I would like to invite you or a member of your family that keeps a family tree to participate with us when we learn about Linear vs. Exponential Growth. It would be interesting to see where your student came from! If you have any questions, please feel free to contact me anytime through e-mail at kbiering@emich.edu or you can call me during my lunch period (11:00 am until 11:30 am) at (734) 347 3205. Sincerely, Miss Bieringer

Page 116

Reflection At the beginning of the semester I thought writing lesson plans would be a piece of cake. I had written lesson plans in the past but those were for one day lessons. This time I had to write lessons that connected to each other, be unique, and target several types of students. Every lesson plan I did I would eventually get stuck. One of the top things that would make me pause during writing lesson plans was that I would start wondering if the lesson was at the right age level as in was it too hard or not. From that train of thought I would then wonder if I was hitting enough learning styles. There would be times where I would have to walk away from the lesson for a few hours, or even an entire day, before I could continue. I learned through observing two teachers that these few things are very important to think about when writing lesson plans. Mr. Tuttle taught me that the lack of lesson plans and targeting several learning styles is key for students to succeed. Mrs. Sirman is an example of how planning lessons benefits students. One of her ESL students, for example, did not speak English a year prior, but from planning detailed lessons out the student now speaks English very well. Each of my lessons focuses on students that are visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learners. The lessons are visual because there are problem examples done on the board. The auditory learners will be able to hear an explanation of the math problems as I lecture. They will also be able to learn from their peers as they help explain the problems or definitions to each other. The kinesthetic learners will be able to learn when doing hands on lessons such as using rice to see how exponents make numbers grow quickly. In my lessons I will also focus on advance and struggling learners. I have decided that when I give out worksheets I will assign the more advanced students the harder problems whereas the students that are struggling will get basic problems. The struggling students will be given problems that are building blocks as they go on

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so that they slowly build up the knowledge to the level their peers are at. Overall, I feel like I was able to reach several different students. My unit's strongest section is the guided notes I made for students. In high school I remember hating the way math teachers gave notes. The notes were always sloppy and no two students had the same notes. If one missed a day and asked someone for notes it never actually helped the student because the notes were not universal. My goal for my unit was to have the students have an equal understanding of exponents. One step I took towards this was to have my entire class have universal notes. This way students that miss a day can quickly catch up. The notes include key definitions, explanations, and sample problems. Since math is learned through repetition, having the students do these sample problems helps reinforce what was just taught. After the students are done with the problems they can discuss the answers they got in their groups. I will then go over them in class. The weakness of my unit is the last five lessons. Those lessons are mainly lecture based. I am worried they are considered boring. It is hard to make every lesson as fun as the first five I made which were very hands-on. I think the way to make the lessons interesting is by using story problems that the students can relate to. I did not include story problems in my unit because I was more focused on the basic math rather than the deeper, analytical math. I will eventually add these type of problems to my unit but right now I do not feel ready for that step. Another weakness of my portfolio is assuming that everyone knows how to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. I realized while helping students in Mr. Tuttle's class that a lot of students still struggle with these. I will have to make sure that students have constant practice with these in order to make sure it become automatic knowledge. This will be difficult because the average student knows these thing by the end of 4th grade. One way that my unit kind of solves this is that

Page 118

I give students the option to use KhanAcademy.com as a learning resource for extra points. If the student is struggling with basic math (addition/subtraction and multiplication/division), (s)he can use Khan Academy to practice these skills on their own. This semester has opened my eyes when it comes to teaching. I did not realize how much thought goes into planning a lesson for so many different students let alone a whole unit. I probably put more than 50 hours into this unit (more than a full-time job work week). This class has made me realize just how much work teacher put into teaching.

Page 119

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