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Loyalist migration development in wake of AR of diaspora of 60-100,000 people embracing full scope of r!

! Atlantic world and beyond lot of attention recently, most obviously "aya #asanoff$s Libertys Exiles interest in %ow AR and loyalism contributes to development & reonfig! of notions of allegiance, sub'ects%ip, citi(ens%ip etc! wit%in ritis% empire! )ne aspect of t%is is t%e so-called *black loyalist$ diaspora- per%aps +-10,000 African Americans w%o left t%e ,- wit% t%e ritis% to start new lives as free people- .-, London, -ierra Leone, etc!- steadily growing %istoriograp%y relatively recent work by /ybus, 0ra%am Russell 1odges, #o%n /ulis, - gone fairly mainstream, even popular wit% -imon -c%ama$s Rough Crossings 2$m going to talk about one aspect of t%e loyalist diaspora, t%e migration of about almost 3000 w%ites and blacks to t%e a%amas after 14+5! different from #asanoff$s numbers, but leave it unless someone 6uestions it! 7%ere are at least 5,600 black people w%o come to t%e a%amas but rarely taken very seriously as part of t%e *black loyalist$ diaspora because, wit% t%e e8ception of 900 people from .:, t%ese people %ave been assumed to be largely or w%olly t%e slaves of t%e mostly -out%ern w%ite loyalists w%o came to t%e a%amas by way of ;ast <lorida, ritain$s last mainland colony sout% of =anada t%at was returned to -pain by t%e terms of t%e peace treaty of 14+5! 2n t%is paper, 2$m talking about t%ese African Americans from ;ast <lorida w%o end up in t%e a%amas, and seeking to s%ow t%at t%eir status was actually far more comple8 and ambiguous t%an %as generally been realised, and to outline somet%ing of %ow t%ese ambiguities were played out in t%e a%amas in t%e decade or so after t%eir arrival! 2$m going to argue t%at t%is process suggests t%at in fact t%e black and w%ite >migr>s %ad a great deal in common in terms of t%eir relations%ip to t%e idea of loyalism! <irst point we don$t actually know t%at muc% about African Americans leave wit% t%e ritis% army w%en -out% =arolina and 0eorgia evacuated ?nd @ 14+? evacuations pretty c%aotic, limited records, not%ing to compare to .: ook of .egroes /ybus 1?,300 leave, 1,?00 from -out% =arolina free 0eorgia no idea At least +,000 of t%ese people end up in ;ast <lorida, along wit% at least 3,000 w%ites! 1owever, almost immediately, news emerges t%at, by prelim! Articles #an +5, <lorida back to -pain contributes to a c%aotic situation colonial aut%orities overw%elmed by influ8 of problem, contend wit% mutinous provincial corps, bandit gangs - *rapacious, lawless and abandoned men$, disgruntled =reek 2ndians lacks in ;ast <lorida<ree -laves in possession of t%eir legal owners ;ntitled to freedom for t%eir wartime services to t%e ritis% by terms of proclamations- A, =linton /eople w%o belong to Americans but were evacuated by t%e ritis%, some of w%om %eld as slaves by people w%o aren$t t%eir legal owners

/eople wit%out known masters, but wit%out documentation of t%eir legal freedom racial logic- vulnerability 3,000 -e6uestered slaves- w%o are t%ey noone really decides w%at s%ould %appen to t%em, t%ey largely disappear from t%e record as a distinct category -laves continually running away, being kidnapped -till more ambiguous- even for people formally %eld as slaves from 144+, plantation discipline largely broken down in t%e -out% *6uite t%eir own masters$, *under little or no -ub'ection to )verseers$ =# #ames 1ume reckoned t%at for 3 of every 6 slaves %eld in <lorida, no formal documentation of property rig%ts etween 14+5-3, t%is messy situation gets transposed to a%amas- no compre%ensive migration records at all- rely on a%amian figures, suggesting pop! 2ncreases from 1400 w%ites ?500 blacks in 14+5, 1?00 w%ites and 5,600 blacks arrive by 14+3 a%amas marginal non-plantation colony rudimentary state apparatus, largely maritime and communingB e8tractive economy, slavery well-establis%ed, but also substantial free coloured population, racial boundaries notably ambiguous Read ;lding, #o%n Cemp D%ite loyalists elite group- per%aps 100 male %eads of families, mostly substantial slave%olders see a%amas as means of realising *t%ose rewards, and t%at compensation, we %ave a rig%t to e8pect from t%e 'ustice, and benevolence of t%e nation$ take for granted t%at t%ey s%ould dominate a%amian politics, seek to build a plantation economy on a%amian )ut 2slands, organise t%emselves in oard of American loyalists- involves establis%ing, confirming t%e enslaved status of black >migr>s as a labour force )utrig%t re-enslavement- not well-documented- fre6uently free black >migr>s w%o agree to indenture t%emselves to w%ite employers, end up being claimed as slaves Agar and -ambo -criven- owner #ames -criven dies during t%e revolution, agree to work for 2saac aillou, w%o goes to <lorida, t%en a%amas, eventually advertises -ambo as a runaway slave -ara% "oultrie former slave of American general #o%n "oultrie, claimed in a%amas by #o%n "artin #ames 0reen, - mulatto man serves in engineers, cavalry regiment, goes to <lorida, Aeveau8$s e8pedition claimed as a slave by Ric%ard /earis 0eorge arry, R0, 14+6- *it is wit% great pain of mind t%at 2 every day see t%e .egroes, w%o came %ere from America, wit% t%e ritis% 0eneral$s free passes, treated wit% un%eard of cruelty, by "en w%o call t%emselves Loyalists$- *every day stolen away$, in spite of */romises of <reedom and t%e Cing$s /rotection$

"atson, 14+4 blacks *deluded under false ideas of liberty to leave America, and to bind t%emselves for one or two years, were now claimed as t%e absolute /roperty of t%eir "asters$- *forged or illegal ills of sale and letters of attorney$ At t%e same time t%at t%is is %appening, %owever, black people in t%e a%amas finding more opportunities to live more independent lives! .assau %ugely increased black population, self-%ire system people w%o effectively live like free people- own %omes, negotiate wit% employers, etc! Aistinct black suburb *.egro 7own$ *riotous and tumultuous assemblies$, etc! )ut 2slands not muc% %ard evidence of w%at$s going on, but task system cotton economy considerable degree of autonomy y t%e late 14+0s, rising tensions between conflicting agendas breaking out into open, violent confrontations Runaways establis%ed as maroons in interior of .ew /rovidence, seems to be a rising problem if numbers of adverts are anyt%ing to go by Abaco .ovember 14+4 *numbers of t%e outlying .egroes went about wit% muskets and fi8$d ayonets, robbing and plundering$, confrontation wit% w%ites .egro 7own- *an Asylum for runaways and .egro )ffenders of every description$, w%ere *no w%ite /erson dares make %is appearance wit%in it, but at t%e risk of %is life! "any %ave been assaulted, and nearly destroyed t%ere!$ Dylly Aecember, a gang of Loyalists *five or si8 gentlemen wit% swords and pistols went in t%e nig%t to t%e 1ouse of a free mulatto woman wit% 4 or + c%ildren, broke open t%e doors,E beat t%e poor old woman,E abused or alarmed t%e rest of t%e family$ 7attnall tells t%e governor$s servants *%e cared neit%er for %is ma'esty nor any ot%er man$, *swore %e would burn every 1ouse belonging to t%e free .egroes in t%at 6uarter of t%e town$! -ituation facing A! w%en %e arrives as governor w%en %e arrives in )ctober! Aunmore last governor Firginia, first ritis% official to offer freedom to slaves 1443 proclamation- *arc% traitor to t%e rig%ts of %umanity$ 0D 1443 Aunmore rapidly comes to conclusion like arry t%at Loyalists *%eld in bondage$ *a great number of t%em poor blacks w%o deserted from t%eir Rebel "asters, and came into t%e ritis% Lines, on t%e ritis% 0enerals issuing t%eir /roclamations promising t%ose freedom t%at did so$, and tells London t%at %e intends to *do everyt%ing in my power to give t%ese poor people redress$ /roclamation )ctober, .ovember 14+4 of *1is "a'esty$s most gracious and free pardon$ to runaways, promise t%at runaways *appre%ensive of surrendering t%emselves lest t%ey may still be deemed slaves, notwit%standing t%eir claiming t%eir freedom$ will %ave t%eir claims properly looked into!

<ebruary 14++, amendment passed to colony$s slave code, establis%ing a tribunal of R0 arry-and two magistrates, to meet mont%ly to e8amine claims to freedom! 0overnor empowered to issue certificates of freedom! Rat%er infuriatingly, alt%oug% t%ere was a book of t%e proceedings of t%is *negro court$, mentioned in researc% notes from t%e 1G90s or 30s, noone knows w%ere it is but we do know t%at 1?+ people freed by *0overnor$s =ertificate$, *#ustices$, */roclamation$ between 14++-G5 a few of t%em like t%e cases mentioned above t%ere$s some detail about t%e background of t%e people involved! conte8t 13G recorded manumissions in a%amas in t%e same period total black population maybe G-10,000, >migr>s 5,600is% /rocedure *t%e 'ustices, upon t%ese trials, begin wit% putting t%e owner or claimant to prove %is title Ha t%ing w%ic% is often impracticalI$ Dylly ambiguity now comes into play looks alarmingly like a legal presumption t%at any >migr> black people might be free- *every .egroe in t%e a%amas now t%inks %imself entitled to %is freedom, w%o %appened at any period of t%e war to be employed about any of t%e works or departments of our Army$ 7%is very muc% similar to t%e process of en6uiry supervised in .: by =arleton, "organn oral testimony accepted- notion t%at black people, even if enslaved, were ritis% sub'ects, bound to t%e crown and ritain by reciprocal ties of duty and obligation- t%is very muc% t%e discourse employed by w%ite loyalists w%en arguing as t%ey did a great deal- for t%e ritis% state$s obligation to compensate t%em for t%eir *losses and services$ during t%e AR- seems to %ave been done wit% full approval of London Loyalist slave%olders of course outraged by all t%is- Dylly to London, memorial to /itt 14++ 0# *subversive of t%e rig%ts of ritis% sub'ects, and contrary to t%e spirit of our %appy constitution$ *a direct 7endency to deprive t%e -ub'ect of w%at is declared /roperty by t%e =olonial Laws and =ustoms, wit%out a 7rial by #ury$ suggestion t%at Aunmore$s *personal interference$ *manifest 7endency to influence t%e magistrates$ arbitrary, despotic government try to repeal t%e Act establis%ing t%e court wit%out success, increasingly bitter political conflict eventually succeed in frustrating it by cutting off t%e money to pay t%e 'udges, in a protracted constitutional crisis t%at s%uts down t%e colonial government for ? years 6uestion of Revenue ill, rig%t of Assembly to control ta8ation