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Information and Knowledge Management ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper) ISSN 2224-8 !" (#nline) $ol.%& No.

5& 2'(%

www.iiste.org

Online Social Networking and the Academic Achievement of University Students The experience of selected Nigerian Universities
#nasan)a Sam*el +den*,i(- .a/)a& Sa/eed #lale0an( +0ing,emisil* +,iola +fola,i2 and +)elaag,e& Sina #peol*wa% (. 1epartment of S2ien2e 3d*2ation& 4a2*lt) of 3d*2ation 5ni6ersit) of Ilorin& P. M. 7. (5(5& Ilorin& Nigeria 2. 1epartment of S2ien2e and 8e2/ni2al 3d*2ation& +de0*nle +9asin 5ni6ersit)& +0*ng,a-+0o0o& #ndo State& Nigeria %. 1epartment of 3d*2ational 8e2/nolog) +de)emi :ollege of 3d*2ation& #ndo. #ndo State& Nigeria -3-mail of t/e 2orresponding a*t/or; ,onasan)a2''%<)a/oo.2om Abstract 8/e main o,9e2ti6e of t/is st*d) was to in6estigate t/e relations/ip ,etween online so2ial networ0ing and t/e a2ademi2 a2/ie6ement of st*dents in *ni6ersities in Kwara State. 8/e st*d) also in6estigated t/e n*m,er of so2ial networ0ing sites st*dents s*,s2ri,e to& t/e n*m,er of so2ial networ0ing sites st*dents *se& t/e n*m,er of /o*rs t/e st*dents spend dail) on so2ial networ0ing sites& t/e relations/ip ,etween fre=*en2) of *se of so2ial networ0ing sites and t/e st*dents> a2ademi2 a2/ie6ement& t/e relations/ip ,etween gender and t/e st*dents> *se of So2ial networ0ing sites& t/e relations/ip of st*dents> *se of so2ial networ0ing sites and t/eir a2ademi2 a2/ie6ement from *ni6ersit) to *ni6ersit). +22ording to :e22oni (2''7)& So2ial Networ0ing is all a2ti6ities 2arried o*t wit/in spe2ifi2 online ser6i2es t/at pro6ide free spa2e and software tools w/i2/ allow t/e 2reation of networ0s of people. 8/e so2ial networ0ing we,sites *sers intera2t ,) adding friends& 2onne2ting on profiles& 9oining gro*ps and /a6ing dis2*ssions. So2ial Networ0ing te2/nolog) was not originall) de6eloped for instr*2tional p*rpose. +s o,ser6ed ,) :lement (( ')& *sers de6eloped informal 2olla,orati6e networ0s in organi?ations. St*dies /a6e s/own t/at one of t/e most effe2ti6e 2/annels for gat/ering information and e@pertise wit/in an organi?ation is its informal networ0s of 2olla,orators& 2olleag*es and friends. eywords; Aelations/ip& So2ial networ0ing& +2ademi2 a2/ie6ement& #nline& 5ni6ersit) st*dents. !ntroduction 8/e need for 6er) effe2ti6e and effi2ient wa)s of /andling modern 2omm*ni2ation is 6er) important& as 2omm*ni2ation remains t/e ma9or s*stenan2e of world e@isten2e. In6aria,l)& wit/o*t good 2omm*ni2ation& t/e world wo*ld ,e a diffi2*lt pla2e to li6e in (Aa9i B +,d*lKareem 2'' ). Networ0ing is referred to as t/e 2onne2tion of two or more 2omp*ters to 2omm*ni2ate wit/ one anot/er& t/at is w/en millions of 2omp*ters in different lo2ations aro*nd t/e world are 2onne2ted toget/er to allow *sers send and re2ei6e message to one anot/er (#lawepo B #)edepo 2''8). Ca99ala& (2''7) opined t/at So2ial Networ0ing is an online ser6i2e& platform& or site t/at fo2*ses on ,*ilding and refle2ting of so2ial networ0s or so2ial relations among people& w/o& for e@ample& s/are interests andDor a2ti6ities. + so2ial networ0 ser6i2e 2onsists of a representation of ea2/ *ser (often a profile)& /isD/er so2ial lin0s& and a 6ariet) of additional ser6i2es (Ca99ala& 2''7). +22ording to t/e New Media :onsorti*m (2''8)& 2*rrent so2ial networ0ing s)stems li0e facebook and myspace are attempts to /elp people define t/emsel6es in wa)s t/at pro6ide some of t/at 2onte@t& ,*t t/e information a6aila,le to *s a,o*t friends of friends is still s*perfi2ial and is often related more to personal interests t/an professional wor0& /en2e s*,s2ri,ers to So2ial Networ0ing we,sites simpl) open t/eir we, ,rowsers and are a,le to edit gro*p do2*ments& /old online meetings& swap information and data wit/o*t e6en lea6ing t/eir des0s. Most so2ial networ0 ser6i2es are we,-,ased and pro6ide means for *sers to intera2t o6er t/e Internet& s*2/ as e-mail and instant messaging. #nline 2omm*nit) ser6i2es are sometimes 2onsidered as a so2ial networ0 ser6i2e& t/o*g/ in a ,roader sense& so2ial networ0 ser6i2e *s*all) mean an indi6id*al-2entered ser6i2e w/ereas online 2omm*nit) ser6i2es are gro*p-2entered. So2ial networ0ing sites allow *sers to s/are ideas& a2ti6ities& e6ents& and interests wit/in t/eir indi6id*al networ0s. 8/e main t)pes of so2ial networ0ing ser6i2es are t/ose t/at 2ontain 2ategor) pla2es (s*2/ as former s2/ool )ear or 2lassmates)& means to 2onne2t wit/ friends (*s*all) wit/ self-des2ription pages)& and a re2ommendation s)stem lin0ed to tr*st. Pop*lar met/ods now 2om,ine man) of t/ese& wit/ Facebook and Twitter widel) *sed worldwide. 8/ere /a6e ,een attempts to standardi?e t/ese ser6i2es

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Information and Knowledge Management ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper) ISSN 2224-8 !" (#nline) $ol.%& No.5& 2'(%

www.iiste.org

to a6oid t/e need to d*pli2ate entries of friends and interests. +22ording to Colder& Eil0inson& and F*,erman (2''7) So2ial Networ0 Sites (SNSs) also pro6ide ri2/ so*r2es of nat*ralisti2 ,e/a6ioral data. Profile and lin0age data from SNSs 2an ,e gat/ered eit/er t/ro*g/ t/e *se of a*tomated 2olle2tion te2/ni=*es or t/ro*g/ datasets pro6ided dire2tl) from t/e 2ompan)& ena,ling networ0 anal)sis resear2/ers to e@plore large-s2ale patterns of friends/ip& *sage& and ot/er 6isi,le indi2ators& and 2ontin*ing an anal)sis trend t/at started wit/ e@aminations of ,logs and ot/er we,sites. #nasan)a& +)elaag,e and Gale)e (2'(2) on t/eir st*d) 2ond*2ted on mo,ile p/ones and ad*lt ed*2ation in Nigeria dis2o6ered t/at t/e *se of mo,ile p/ones /as not ,een f*ll) in2orporated into ad*lt ed*2ation programmes in Nigeria. 8/e) re2ommended t/at poli2) ma0ers and t/e 2*rri2*l*m planners of ed*2ation programmes in Nigeria need to in2orporate into ad*lt ed*2ation 2*rri2*l*m t/e *se of mo,ile p/ones& an inno6ation w/i2/ /a6e made t/e 2(st 2ent*r) *ni=*e. Colder& Eil0inson& and F*,erman (2''7) e@amined a dataset 2onsisting of %!2 million messages e@2/anged ,) o6er fo*r million Facebook *sers for insig/t into 4riends/ip and messaging a2ti6ities. Gampe& 3llison& and Steinfield (2''7) e@plored t/e relations/ip ,etween profile elements and n*m,er of Facebook friends& finding t/at profile fields t/at red*2e transa2tion 2osts and are /arder to falsif) are most li0el) to ,e asso2iated wit/ larger n*m,er of friends/ip lin0s. SNS resear2/ers /a6e also st*died t/e networ0 str*2t*re of 4riends/ip. +nal)?ing t/e roles people pla)ed in t/e growt/ of Flickr and Yahoo! 360's networ0s& K*mar& No6a0& and 8om0ins (2''!) arg*ed t/at t/ere are passi6e mem,ers& in6iters& and lin0ers Hw/o f*ll) parti2ipate in t/e so2ial e6ol*tion of t/e networ0H. 1ana/ 7o)d and Ni2ole (2''!) stated t/at So2ial Networ0ing Sites (SNSs) are in2reasingl) attra2ting t/e attention of a2ademi2 and ind*str) resear2/ers intrig*ed ,) t/eir affordan2es and rea2/& sin2e t/eir introd*2tion& so2ial networ0 sites (SNSs) s*2/ as MySpace, Facebook, Cyworld, and ebo /a6e attra2ted millions of *sers& man) of w/om /a6e integrated t/ese sites into t/eir dail) pra2ti2es. +s of t/is writing& t/ere are /*ndreds of SNSs& wit/ 6ario*s te2/nologi2al affordan2es& s*pporting a wide range of interests and pra2ti2es. E/ile t/eir 0e) te2/nologi2al feat*res are fairl) 2onsistent& t/e 2*lt*res t/at emerge aro*nd SNSs are 6aried. Most sites s*pport t/e maintenan2e of pre-e@isting so2ial networ0s& ,*t ot/ers /elp strangers 2onne2t ,ased on s/ared interests& politi2al 6iews& or a2ti6ities. Some sites 2ater to di6erse a*dien2es& w/ile ot/ers attra2t people ,ased on 2ommon lang*age or s/ared ra2ial& se@*al& religio*s& or nationalit)-,ased identities. Sites also 6ar) in t/e e@tent to w/i2/ t/e) in2orporate new information and 2omm*ni2ation tools& s*2/ as mo,ile 2onne2ti6it)& ,logging& and p/otoD6ideo-s/aring. 36eland& 7rown and Matto20s (( 4) stated t/at t/e networ0s are not 2onne2ted and do not generall) follow wor0gro*p alignments rat/er t/an te2/ni2al spe2iali?ation. 8/erefore& it is signifi2ant to *se mem,ers> interpersonal 2onne2tions effe2ti6el) in t/eir a2ti6ities. +lt/o*g/& *sers of So2ial Networ0ing engage in 6arieties of meaningf*l a2ti6ities& some of t/em emplo) t/e fa2ilities for =*estiona,le and fra*d*lent pra2ti2es& ,*t man) new *sers s*,s2ri,e to t/e networ0s on dail) ,asis for t/e p*rpose of 2olla,orating wit/ ot/ers aro*nd t/e world. #nasan)a& Nat/aniel B +0ing,emisil* (2'(2) 2ond*2ted a st*d) on t/e infl*en2e of satellite 2omm*ni2ation de6i2es on st*dents> a2=*isition of /idden 2*rri2*l*m in Nigeria senior se2ondar) s2/ools. 8/e) reported in t/eir findings t/at st*dents 2*lti6ated great deal of interest for wat2/ing m)riads of satellite programmes (a*dio-6is*al) for f*n and entertainments rat/er t/an medi*m of instr*2ting t/em a2ademi2all). Similarl)& sports 2/annels and programmes were fre=*entl) wat2/ed d*e to interest de6eloped for t/em. 3d*2ation t/e) sa) is t/e ,est lega2) parent 2an gi6e to t/eir 2/ildren& it is e@pe2ted t/at e6er) 2/ild sent to s2/ool s/o*ld learn to t/e ma@im*m& ,*t some fa2tors 2an infl*en2e t/e learning pro2ess (+2ademi2 a2/ie6ement) of t/e st*dents w/ile in s2/ool (Molag*n B 8aiwo 2''(). 8/ese fa2tors 2o*ld eit/er ,e at t/e so2ietal le6el or indi6id*al le6el. +t t/e so2ietal le6el& t/e fa2tors in2l*de 2*lt*re& /ome (famil))& politi2al insta,ilit)& non-a6aila,ilit) of tea2/ing materials among ot/ers. +t t/e indi6id*al le6el& some of t/e fa2tors en*merated in2l*de; st*dent> Intelligent I*otients (II)& serio*snessDreadiness on t/e part of t/e st*dent& earl) marriage w/i2/ is mostl) 2ommon among t/e female st*dents. 8/e ,*ild*p of a ,od) of 0nowledge is ed*2ation& /en2e w/en one see0s 0nowledge& )o* are tr)ing to ,e ed*2ated& and t/e /ig/est pla2e to see0 0nowledge of ed*2ation is t/e *ni6ersities. +t t/e *ni6ersities& st*dents are free to rig/tl) *se or e@plore all fa2ilities wit/in and o*tside t/eir s2/ool en6ironment to fa2ilitate t/eir tea2/ing and learning pro2ess& part of w/i2/ is t/e So2ial Networ0ing. Fig/er instit*tion is o,6io*sl) t/e /ig/est pla2e w/ere we see0 0nowledgeJ /en2e no StateD:o*ntr) 2an de6elop a2ademi2all) or te2/nologi2all) wit/o*t relati6el) eno*g/ /ig/er instit*tions wit/in t/e State or t/e :o*ntr). Some social networking sites and date lunched 8/e n*m,er of e@isting So2ial Networ0ing sites /as greatl) in2reased o6er t/e )ears. In realit)& nearl) e6er) da)& an Internet *ser gets onlineJ an in6itation to s*,s2ri,e to one So2ial Networ0ing site or t/e ot/er is flas/ed. 7o)d and 3llison (2''7) reported a list and timelines of t/e la*n2/ed dates of man) ma9or SNs and w/en 2omm*nit) sites re-l*n2/ed wit/ t/e SNs feat*res. 8/is is as s/own in 4ig*re (.

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Information and Knowledge Management ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper) ISSN 2224-8 !" (#nline) $ol.%& No.5& 2'(%

www.iiste.org

S)ed (2'(2) identified t/e following as some positi6e and negati6e effe2ts of so2ial networ0ing; (. 4riends and Aelations; So2ial networ0s started as a pla2e to 2onne2t wit/ )o*r friends in an eas) and 2on6enient wa). 8r*l) spea0ing& man) of )o* mig/t /a6e fo*nd )o*r old pals from s2/ool or 2ollege w/o were o*t of to*2/ d*e to one reason or ot/er& well I wo*ld sa) I /a6e and I t/an0 so2ial networ0s for t/is. So2ial networ0s /as pro6ided *s t/e opport*nit) to 2onne2t wit/ people and ,*ild ,etter relations/ips wit/ friends wit/ w/om we are *na,le to meet personall)& and let t/em 0now a,o*t o*r life and ta0e inp*t a,o*t t/eir li6es and e6ents /appening wit/ t/em. 2. Aed*2ing :omm*ni2ation 7arriers; Eit/ so2ial networ0s we are a,le to 2omm*ni2ate o*r t/o*g/ts and per2eptions o6er different topi2s wit/ a large n*m,er of a*dien2es& and raise o*r 6oi2e. 8/e s/aring feat*re a6aila,le on t/e so2ial networ0s ma0es )o*r opinion a,o*t an) topi2 rea2/ /*ge n*m,er of people (e6en to t/ose w/o are not on )o*r friends list). Ee /a6e t/e option to ma0e gro*ps wit/ people w/o are li0e minded and s/are t/e related news wit/ t/em and as0 for t/eir opinion or inp*t a,o*t t/e topi2. Simpl) t/ere are a n*m,er of options a6aila,le for *s to 2omm*ni2ate wit/ ot/ers on t/ese so2ial networ0s. %. #pport*nities for 7*sinesses; So2ial networ0s /a6e ,e2ome a 2r*2ial part of man) of *s. Ee don>t e6en noti2e t/is ,*t as soon as we open o*r des0tops or laptops to a22ess t/e we,& we s*,-2ons2io*sl) open o*r fa6orite so2ial networ0 9*st to see a,o*t t/e *pdates re2ei6ed. 7*sinesses /a6e noti2ed t/e 6al*e of so2ial networ0s in o*r life& and t/e) are *sing different te2/ni=*es to promote t/eir prod*2ts. 8/ere are a n*m,er of 2*stomi?ed appli2ations ,eing made on t/e so2ial platforms& w/ose main p*rpose is to promote t/e prod*2t or ,rand. +s so2ial mar0eting is 2ost effe2ti6e and ,rands /a6e a /*ge a*dien2e& t/e) are s/ifting more towards so2ial mar0eting. #n t/e ot/er /and& /e e@plained t/e negati6e effe2ts as t/*sJ (. Geads to +ddi2tion; Man) st*dies /a6e s/own t/at t/e e@tensi6e *se of so2ial media 2an a2t*all) 2a*se addi2tion to t/e *sers. 8/ro*g/o*t t/eir da)& t/e) feel to post somet/ing on t/eir pages or 2/e20 ot/ers posts as it /as ,e2ome an important part of o*r life. 2. Gead to Isolation; 3@treme *sage of so2ial media /as red*2ed t/e le6el of /*man intera2tion. 7e2a*se of so2ial networ0s t/e intera2tion wit/ ot/er people /as ,e2ome effortless and people /a6e isolated t/eir li6es ,e/ind t/eir online identities. 4a2e to fa2e 2omm*ni2ation and meetings /as ,een red*2ed and man) of *s /a6e lost t/e fla6or and 2/arm to ,e toget/er *nder one roof. %. +ffe2ting Prod*2ti6it); Mostl) ,*sinesses *se so2ial media to find and 2omm*ni2ate wit/ 2lients. 7*t it is a great distra2tion to emplo)ees& w/o ma) s/ow more interest in w/at t/eir friends are posting t/an in t/eir wor0 tas0s. Eired.2om posted two st*dies w/i2/ demonstrated damage to prod*2ti6it) 2a*sed ,) so2ial networ0ing. N*2le*s Aesear2/ reported t/at Facebook s/a6es (.5K off offi2e prod*2ti6it) w/ile Morse 2laimed t/at 7ritis/ 2ompanies lost 2.2 ,illion a )ear to t/e so2ial p/enomenon. New te2/nolog) prod*2ts /a6e ,e2ome a6aila,le t/at allow so2ial networ0s to ,e ,lo20ed& ,*t t/eir effe2ti6eness remains spott). Garr) (2'(() in a paper presented at t/e (( t/ +nn*al :on6ention of t/e +meri2an Ps)2/ologi2al +sso2iation& said pre-teens and teenagers w/o *se te2/nolog)& li0e t/e Internet and 6ideo games& on a reg*lar ,asis will /a6e more stoma2/ a2/es& sleeping pro,lems& an@iet) and depression. In /is paper entitled& HPo0e Me; Fow So2ial Networ0s :an 7ot/ Felp and Farm #*r Kids&H /e opined t/at 8eens w/o *se Facebook 2ontin*o*sl) ma) s/ow nar2issisti2 tenden2ies and )o*ng ad*lts s/ow more signs of ot/er ps)2/ologi2al disorders. Spending more time on Facebook ma) also ,ring /ealt/ related pro,lems. "aterials and methods #esearch $ypothesis% 8/e following /)pot/esis were form*lated from t/e resear2/ =*estions and tested at '.'5 le6el of signifi2ant; 8/e following n*ll /)pot/eses were tested; $O&% t/ere is no signifi2ant relations/ip ,etween t/e a2ademi2 a2/ie6ement of st*dents w/o spend more time on so2ial networ0ing sites and t/ose w/o spend less time. $O'% t/ere is no signifi2ant relations/ip ,etween st*dents> *se of so2ial networ0ing sites and t/eir a2ademi2 a2/ie6ement ,ased on gender. $o( t/ere is no signifi2ant relations/ip ,etween st*dents> *se of so2ial networ0ing sites and t/eir a2ademi2 a2/ie6ement w/en *ni6ersities are 2ompared. Sample and sampling techni)ues 8/e pop*lation for t/e st*d) 2omprises of all *ni6ersit) *ndergrad*ates in Kwara State& Nigeria& w/ile t/e target pop*lation 2onsisted of t/ree (%) sele2ted *ni6ersities in Kwara State. In all& 22% (55.8K) of t/e respondents were male and (77 (44.2K) were female& w/ile ('' (5' K) of t/e respondents were st*dents from 5ni6ersit) of Ilorin& ('' (25K) of t/e respondents were from Kwara State *ni6ersit)& Malete and ('' (25K) are respondents from +l-Fi0ma/ 5ni6ersit)& Ilorin. 8/e pro2ed*res *sed in sele2ting sample for t/is st*d) were p*rposi6e sampling and proportional stratified sampling te2/ni=*es. 8/e p*rposi6e sampling met/od was *sed to sele2t t/ree 5ni6ersities

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Information and Knowledge Management ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper) ISSN 2224-8 !" (#nline) $ol.%& No.5& 2'(%

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in Kwara state. 8/e instit*tions 2o6ered in2l*de; 5ni6ersit) of Ilorin& Ilorin& Kwara State 5ni6ersit) Malete and +l-Fi0ma/ 5ni6ersit)& Ilorin. P*rposi6e sampling te2/ni=*es was 2onsidered appropriate for t/e st*d) ,e2a*se it is a form of non-pro,a,ilit) sampling te2/ni=*e w/i2/ is 2/ara2teri?ed ,) t/e *se of 9*dgment and deli,erate effort to o,tain representati6e samples ,) in2l*ding pres*ma,le t)pi2al areas of gro*ps in t/e sample (Fassan& ( 8). In addition& t/e proportional stratified sampling te2/ni=*e was *sed to sele2t fo*r /*ndred (4'') respondents from t/e t/ree (%) *ni6ersities sele2ted for t/e st*d). + proportionall) stratified sampling a22ording to Lames (2'(') pro6ides t/e resear2/ers t/e opport*nit) to sele2t respondents at random from t/e s*,gro*p in proportion to t/e si?e of t/e gro*p in t/e total pop*lation. 8/*s& t/e proportional stratified sampling te2/ni=*e was adopted to sele2t t/e respondents a22ording to t/e pop*lation of t/e sampled *ni6ersities& 6is two /*ndred respondents from *ni6ersit) of Ilorin& one /*ndred respondents ea2/ from Kwara State 5ni6ersit)& Malete& and +l-Fi0ma/ 5ni6ersit)& Ilorin ma0ing a total of fo*r /*ndred respondents all at 4'' le6els of ea2/ of t/e t/ree *ni6ersities. !nstrumentation 8/e resear2/ instr*ment t/at was *sed to gat/er t/e rele6ant data for t/is st*d) was a resear2/ers M designed =*estionnaire wit/ two se2tions. Se2tion + deals wit/ respondents> personal information s*2/ as name of instit*tion& department& a2ademi2 le6el and genderJ w/ile se2tion 7 2omposed of (2 =*estions w/i2/ was formatted wit/ N)esO or NnoO =*estions& m*ltiple 2/oi2e =*estions and open ended =*estions w/ere respondents are to e@press t/emsel6es on t/e =*estion(s) as0ed. Aespondents ti20ed ( ) as appropriate for t/eir response& and filled in t/e ,lan0 spa2e to s*ppl) answer w/ere appli2a,le. 8/e Pearson Prod*2t Moment :orrelation 2oeffi2ient was emplo)ed to test for 2orrelation ,etween t/e two set of data 2olle2ted and t/e 2orrelation 2oeffi2ient of r P '.8( indi2ated t/at t/ere is a /ig/ relations/ip ,etween t/e two sets of data& /en2e 2onfirming t/e relia,ilit) of t/e =*estionnaire *rocedure for data collection 8/e 2opies of t/e resear2/ =*estionnaire was administered to t/e *ni6ersities> st*dents t/ro*g/ personal 2onta2t ,) t/e resear2/ers to ens*re t/e =*estionnaire items are properl) filled wit/o*t dela)& t/e 2ompleted =*estionnaires was 2olle2ted ,) t/e resear2/ers and data gat/ered from t/e =*estionnaire was *sed to find o*t t/e relations/ip ,etween online so2ial networ0ing and a2ademi2 a2/ie6ement of *ni6ersit) st*dents. Pearson Prod*2t Moment :orrelation :oeffi2ient was *sed to test t/e stated /)pot/esis. +nal)ses were 2ond*2ted at '.'5 le6el of signifi2an2e. #esults $ypothesis &% There is !o si"!ifica!t relatio!ship betwee! the academic achie#eme!t of st$de!ts who spe!d more time o! social !etworki!" sites a!d those who spe!d less time% 8a,le ( presents data on t/e relations/ip on a2ademi2 a2/ie6ement of st*dents and time spent on so2ial networ0ing sites. 8/e ta,le s/ows a 2al2*lated r-6al*e of '.787 and 2riti2al r-6al*e of .( 5 wit/ (45 degree of freedom at '.'5 le6el of signifi2an2e at 2 /o*rs. Sin2e t/e 2al2*lated r-6al*e is greater t/an t/e 2riti2al r-6al*e 2 /o*rs& t/e n*ll /)pot/esis ( was not a22epted and t/e alternate /)pot/esis was a22epted. 8/*s& t/ere is a signifi2ant relations/ip ,etween t/e a2ademi2 a2/ie6ement of st*dents w/o spend more time on so2ial networ0ing sites and t/ose w/o spend less time. $ypothesis '% There is !o si"!ifica!t relatio!ship betwee! st$de!ts& $se of social !etworki!" sites a!d their academic achie#eme!t based o! "e!der% 8a,le 2 presents data on t/e relations/ip ,etween st*dents> *se of so2ial networ0ing sites and t/eir a2ademi2 a2/ie6ement ,ased on gender. 8/e ta,le s/ows 2al2*lated r-6al*es of '.'%( and '.'57 and a 2riti2al r-6al*e of .( 5 wit/ 22( and (75 degree of freedom respe2ti6el) at '.'5 le6el of signifi2an2e. Sin2e t/e 2al2*lated r-6al*es are less t/an t/e 2riti2al r-6al*e& t/e n*ll /)pot/esis was a22epted. 8/*s& t/ere is no signifi2ant relations/ip ,etween st*dents> *se of so2ial networ0ing sites and t/eir a2ademi2 a2/ie6ement ,ased on gender% $ypothesis (% There is !o si"!ifica!t relatio!ship betwee! st$de!ts& $se of social !etworki!" sites a!d their academic achie#eme!t whe! $!i#ersities are compared% 8a,le % presents data on t/e relations/ip ,etween st*dents> *se of so2ial networ0ing sites and t/eir a2ademi2 a2/ie6ement w/en *ni6ersities are 2ompared. 8/e ta,le s/ows a 2al2*lated r-6al*e of '.'44 and a 2riti2al r-6al*e of .( 5 wit/ % 8 degree of freedom at '.'5 le6el of signifi2an2e. Sin2e t/e 2al2*lated r-6al*e is less t/an t/e 2riti2al r-6al*e& t/e n*ll /)pot/esis was not re9e2ted. 8/*s& t/ere is no signifi2ant relations/ip ,etween st*dents> *se of so2ial networ0ing sites and t/eir a2ademi2 a2/ie6ement w/en *ni6ersities are 2ompared.

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Information and Knowledge Management ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper) ISSN 2224-8 !" (#nline) $ol.%& No.5& 2'(%

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+iscussion Sin2e t/eir introd*2tion& so2ial networ0ing sites /a6e attra2ted millions of *sers& man) of w/om w/o /a6e integrated t/ese sites into t/eir dail) li6es. +doles2ents /a6e espe2iall) em,ra2ed t/is new wa) of 2omm*ni2ating wit/ 2lassmates and 0eeping in to*2/ wit/ friends. 8/o*g/ t/ere ma) ,e ,enefits to 0eeping 2onne2ted wit/ ot/ers ,) *se of t/ese sites& t/ere is also t/e danger t/at t/e) ma) negati6el) affe2t st*dents> a2ademi2 a2/ie6ement. 8/is st*d) /as s/own t/at alt/o*g/ man) st*dents find t/eir SNS mem,ers/ips to ,e important in t/eir li6es& t/e) are also aware of t/e ,enefits of ed*2ation. 8/o*g/ some admit to spending a lot of time on t/ese sites& t/e iss*e remains to ,e /ow t/e) are parti2ipating and /ow t/is is affe2ting t/eir a2ademi2 a2/ie6ement. :omm*ni2ation is rapidl) 2/anging& and more emp/asis m*st ,e pla2ed on /ow ed*2ators 2an /elp st*dents en9o) t/e ,enefits of so2ial networ0ing w/ile also re2ogni?ing t/e pro,lems t/e) ma) 2reate. It was also indi2ated in t/e res*lt t/at o*t of t/e t/ree n*ll /)pot/eses t/at were generated and tested at '.'5 alp/a le6els& one was not a22epted and two were a22epted. 8/e ma9or findings of t/e st*d) t/erefore in2l*de t/at; 8/ere is a signifi2ant relations/ip ,etween t/e a2ademi2 a2/ie6ement of st*dents w/o spend more time on so2ial networ0ing sites and t/ose w/o spend less time. 8/ere is no signifi2ant relations/ip ,etween st*dents> *se of so2ial networ0ing sites and t/eir a2ademi2 a2/ie6ement ,ased on gender% 8/ere was signifi2ant differen2e in t/e se@*al ,e/a6io*r of t/e respondents on t/e ,asis of gender. t/ere is no signifi2ant relations/ip ,etween st*dents> *se of so2ial networ0ing sites and t/eir a2ademi2 a2/ie6ement w/en *ni6ersities are 2ompared. ,onclusions and recommendations 8/e res*lts of t/is pro9e2t /a6e s/own t/at more attention needs to ,e pla2ed on *nderstanding so2ial networ0ing sites and t/eir impa2t on st*dents> a2ademi2s. S2/ool administrators need to not onl) ,e aware of w/at sites st*dents are parti2ipating on& ,*t also t/e signifi2ant role t/at t/ese sites /a6e in t/e a2ademi2 a2/ie6ement of st*dents. 8/o*g/ t/ese sites /a6e t/e potential to distra2t st*dents from st*d)ing& /omewor0& or ot/er a2ademi2 re=*irements& t/e) 2an also ,enefit st*dents if *sed properl) and appropriatel). It is t/erefore re2ommended t/at st*dents s/o*ld gi6e priorit) to t/eir a2ademi2 st*dies t/an so2ial networ0ing S2/ool administrators s/o*ld ,*ild *pon t/e positi6e attri,*tes t/at t/ese sites /a6e& s*2/ as t/e a,ilit) for st*dents to 9oin st*dents> gro*ps or meet ot/ers from s2/ool. 8/is 2an ,e done ,) gi6ing 2lassroom presentations on t/e ris0s and ,enefits of so2ial networ0ing& /ig/lig/ting t/e pro,lemati2 ,e/a6iors asso2iated wit/ t/ese sites ,*t also ed*2ating st*dents on /ow it 2o*ld ,e *sed effe2ti6el) to s*pport learning. S2/ool 2o*nselors s/o*ld also 2omm*ni2ate wit/ parents a,o*t t/eir 2/ildren and Internet *se in t/e /ome& also t/e) s/o*ld /old meetings to ed*2ate parents on t/e iss*es t/at o22*r online& s*2/ as 2),er-,*ll)ing& and /ow to monitor t/eir 2/ild>s Internet *se. Parents also need to ,e aware t/at t/ere are times w/en t/eir 2/ild>s so2ial networ0ing parti2ipation is interfering wit/ /omewor0 and st*d)ing. 4*rt/er resear2/ needs to ,e done on t/e infl*en2e of so2ial networ0ing parti2ipation on st*dent a2ademi2 performan2e andDor attit*des. 8/is resear2/ s/o*ld ,e done wit/ a larger pop*lation of st*dents and to en2ompass man) different grade le6els. In addition& t/ere s/o*ld ,e a st*dents> s*r6e) a,o*t /ow t/is te2/nolog) 2o*ld impa2t on t/eir a2ademi2s& m*2/ more importan2e s/o*ld ,e fo2*sed on /ow t/ese sites impa2t t/eir relations/ips wit/ ot/er st*dents. I*alitati6e resear2/ s/o*ld ,e done to find o*t /ow t/is 2omm*ni2ation tool affe2ts teens and t/eir relations/ips wit/ t/eir peers. #eferences 7o)d 1.M. and 3lision N.7 (2''7). So2ial Networ0 sites; 1efinition& /istor) and s2/olars/ip. 'o$r!al of Comp$ter( mediated Comm$!icatio!, )3*)+, ,rticle ))%-etrie#ed from http.//0cmc%i!dia!a%ed$/#ol)3/iss$e)/boyd%ellisio!%html, o! 'a!$ary )1, 10)1% 7o)d 1.M. and 3lision N.7 (2''7). 8imeline of t/e la*n2/ dates of man) ma9or So2ial Networ0ing Sites :e22oni& +. (2''7). So2ial networ0ing% Ma!a"eme!t a!d 2#al$atio! of 3!str$ctio!al Tech!olo"y a!d 4ista!ce 2d$catio! 5ro"rammes% 6o#a% 6o#a So$theaster! 7!i#ersity% :lement& +. (( '). :ooperati6e s*pport for 2omp*ter wor0. a so2ial perspe2ti6e on t/e empowering of end *sers. 5roceedi!"s of cooperati#e s$pport for comp$ter work *CSC8+ 90, ,CM 5ress, pp%113(136 1ana/ +. & 7o)d 1.M. B Ni2ole (2''!). http.//ischool%berkely%ed$ !otes o! !etworki!" site 36eland& 1.L& 7rown& E. and Matto20s& L. (( 4). 8/e role of N/elp networ0O in fa2ilitating *se of :SE: tools. 5roceedi!"s of CS8C 9:% ,CM 5ress, pp%16;(1<: Ca99ala& A. (2''7). S/ifting frames; -ace, eth!icity, a!d i!terc$lt$ral comm$!icatio! i! o!li!e social !etworki!"

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Information and Knowledge Management ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper) ISSN 2224-8 !" (#nline) $ol.%& No.5& 2'(%

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a!d #irt$al work% -etrie#ed o! :/;/10)1 http.//with% =S7%ed$/files/radhik/lestemplate"a00ala%doc Colder& S. +.& Eil0inson& 1.& B F*,erman& 7. +. (2''7). A/)t/ms of so2ial intera2tion; Messaging wit/in a massi6e online networ0. In :. Steinfield& 7. Pentland& M. +20erman& B N. :ontra2tor (3ds.)& 5roceedi!"s of Third 3!ter!atio!al Co!fere!ce o! Comm$!ities a!d Tech!olo"ies*pp% :)(66+% >o!do!. Spri!"er% Fassan& 8. (( 8). 7!dersta!di!" -esearch i! 2d$catio!% Gagos; Merrifield P*,lis/ing :ompan). Lames& P... (2'('). -esearch desi"! i! occ$patio!al ed$catio!. #0la/oma State 5ni6ersit); 5S+ K*mar& A.& No6a0& L.& B 8om0ins& +. (2''!). Str*2t*re and e6ol*tion of online so2ial networ0s. 5roceedi!"s of )1th 3!ter!atio!al Co!fere!ce o! ?!owled"e 4isco#ery i! 4ata Mi!i!" *pp% 6))(6)<+% 6ew York. ,CM 5ress% Gampe& :.& 3llison& N.& B Steinfeld& :. (2''7). + familiar 4a2e,oo0; Profile elements as signals in an online so2ial networ0. 5roceedi!"s of Co!fere!ce o! @$ma! Factors i! Comp$ti!" Systems *pp% :3;( :::+%6ew York. ,CM 5ress% Molag*n F.M and M.7 8aiwo (2''(). ,! $!p$blished lect$re ma!$al for 6C2 st$de!ts of the ?wara state colle"e of ed$catio! o! sociolo"y of ed$catio!% New Media :onsorti*m (2''8).Social !etworki!" "oes "lobal. Aeston&$+. -etrie#ed September 9, 10)) from /ttp;DDwww.2oms2ore.2omDpressDrelease.aspQpressP(555 #lawepo C.8. and #)edepo 4.S. (2''8).4ata comm$!icatio! a!d comp$ter !etworks, 3lori!. ,dlek p$blisher% #nasan)a S. +.& Nat/aniel S.& +0ing,emisil* +. +. (2'(2); Infl*en2e of Satellite :omm*ni2ation 1e6i2es on St*dents> +2=*isition of Fidden :*rri2*l*m in Nigeria Senior Se2ondar) S2/ools. 'o$r!al of 2d$catio! a!d 5ractice %&((!) !-('2 1ownloada,le at; /ttp;DDwww.iiste.orgDLo*rnalsDinde@.p/pDL3PDarti2leD6iewD%7'(D%75' #nasan)a S. +.& +)elaag,e S. #.& Gale)e +. M. (2'(2); Mo,ile P/ones and +d*lt 3d*2ation in Nigeria; Prospe2ts and 4*t*re :/allenges% 6ew Media a!d Mass Comm$!icatio! (8)(-! 1ownloada,le at /ttp;DDwww.iiste.orgDLo*rnalsDinde@.p/pDNMM:Darti2leD6iewD%775D%824 Aa9i +.K. and 8.G +,d*lKareem (2'' ).Introd*2tion to t/e internet and F8MG. 3lori!, -afmik i!ter!atio!al pri!t limited%

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Information and Knowledge Management ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper) ISSN 2224-8 !" (#nline) $ol.%& No.5& 2'(%

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-igure &. Timeline of the launch dates of many ma/or Social Networking Sites Source% 0oyd and 1llison 2'3345

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Information and Knowledge Management ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper) ISSN 2224-8 !" (#nline) $ol.%& No.5& 2'(%

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Table &% *earson6s *roduct "oment ,orrelation ,oefficient showing relationship on academic achievement of students and time spent on social networking sites 7ariables g.p %'mins (/r (/r%'mins 2/rs No 4'' %74 2%8 (25 (4 "ean 5.88 %.'% %.5' %.%! %.'2 Standard +eviation %.47! (.4%% (.2!2 (.22( (.%'2 % 8 %72 2%! (2% (45 '.'74 '.'82 '.(' '.787-+f ,alculated r8value ,ritical r8value '.( 5 '.'5 Sig.

--P :orrelation is signifi2ant at t/e '.'5 le6el (2 tailed) Table '% *earson6s *roduct "oment ,orrelation ,oefficient Showing relationship on students6 use of social networking sites and their academic achievement based on gender 7ariables g.p. Cender Male 4emale 22% (77 5.5( !.(( %.7!7 %.2!8 22( (75 '.'%( '.'57 No 4'' "ean %.%! Standard +eviation (.%%4 % 8 +f ,alculated r8value ,ritical r8value '.( 5 '.'5 Sig.

--P :orrelation is signifi2ant at t/e '.'5 le6el (2 tailed) Table (% *earson6s *roduct "oment ,orrelation ,oefficient Showing relationship on students6 use of social networking sites and their academic achievement based on sampled universities 7ariables Networ0 :CP No 4'' 4'' "ean !.%5 %.( Standard +eviation %.%7' (.%4 % 8 % 8 +f ,alculated r8value '.'44 ,ritical r8value '.( 5 '.'5 Sig.

--P :orrelation is signifi2ant at t/e '.'5 le6el (2 tailed)

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