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WATERSHED Write a short note on vermi compost. Explain the importance of home stead gardens in watershed areas.

In order to improve the fertility of soil every year there should be rotation of crops. Justify. What are the different factors which effect runoff? Explain the evolution of watershed concept. Write a short note on gully erosion. Describe the different methods and techniques of water harvesting. By giving an example of NGO describe its role in the watershed development. Soil erosion is a major global environmental problem. Describe different types of soil erosion. Describe the different types of cropping systems adopted in the watershed area. Write a short note on contour bunding with diagram. Chemical fertilizer is more harmful than bio -fertilizer. Justify. Give an example of mixed cropping in practiced in watershed area. The success of a watershed depends on the participation of people living in that area. Comment. How conflict is managed inside a watershed. Write notes on the following with diagrams wherever required. a. Watershed b. Splash erosion c. Intercropping d. Homestead gardens 17. Explain in brief the causes and consequences of watershed deterioration. 18. Write an essay on the practice of different agro-forestry species in the watershed areas. 19. Explain each of the answers with diagrams Bench terracing Percolation tank Gully erosion Homestead garden Ground water. Soil profile 20. Describe in detail the concept of organic farming. 21. What are the different methods of conservation of soil in the non-agricultural lands. 22. Write a short essay on forest management practices. 23. Explain the different types of watersheds. 24. Write a short note on bio-fertilizers. 25. Livestock production plays an important role in the management and utilization of arid and semi-arid regions. Explain. 26. Agri-horti system plays an important role in rainfed areas where production of annual crops is inefficient and highly unstable. Justify. 27. Help the people to help themselves is ultimately the aim of the concept of community organization. How? 28. List out the advantages of intercropping. 29. What is watershed and illustrate the process of identification of watershed area? 30. Describe the different factors which effect runoff. 31. Write short notes on the following: a. Mulching b. Shifting cultivation c. Hydrologic cycle d. Vermi-compost e. Conflict management 32. Chemical fertilizer is more harmful than bio -fertilizer. Justify. 33. Describe in detail the concept of organic farming. 34. Write a short note on gully erosion. 35. List out the advantages of mixed cropping. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

36. The success of a watershed depends on the participation of people living in that area. Comment. 37. Explain each of the answers with diagrams a. Bench terracing b. Percolation tank c. Gully plugging 38. By giving an example of NGO describe its role in the watershed development. 39. Explain in brief the causes and consequences of watershed deterioration. 40. Write notes on the following with diagrams wherever required. e. Watershed f. Splash erosion g. Intercropping h. Homestead gardens

PANCHAYATIRAJ AND LOCAL DEVELOPMENT

1. The problem of education among the tribals is related with their economic problem. Explain. 2. Write a short note on Panchayati raj institution. 3. Illustrate the defects of PRIs in India. 4. Write a short essay on the 73rd amendment of constitution. 5. Elucidate the formation of district planning committees. 6. Briefly explain the concept of integrated rural development. 7. The main hurdle in empowering women is their illiteracy. Comment. 8. Land holding is a crucial factor in establishing dominance in the village. Explain 9. Describe the role of PRIs in grass root planning. 10. How devolution of financial powers is done in PRIs? 11. Explain the status and significance of gram sabha in todays villages. 12. How Panchayati raj helps in development of a watershed? Write with an example. 13. What are the social constraints for gender exclusion? 14. Give a brief account on rural livelihood generation. 15. Explain the present status of health infrastructure in rural India. 16. Explain the performance of women members in panchayats with specific examples in India. 17. Formal education is a way to the notion of lifelong learning. Describe with reference to the education of tribal societies. 18. List out the different commitments towards women in the ninth five year plan(19972002).
19. Write a short note on the village women empowerment. 20. Explain the different social issues which are prevalent in todays rural India. 21. Give a comparison of the present and erstwhile status of PRIs in India. 22. What are the different functions of PRIs? 23. Write a short essay on SARVA SIKHSHA ABHIYAN. 24. Illustrate the linkage between education and human rights in society. 25. Describe the role of different political parties in the village panchayat elections? 26. List out the different programmes and schemes implemented for the upliftment of rural society. 27. Briefly describe the NREGA programme of Govt of India.

28. Give a brief overview of rural health infrastructure. 29. Occupation is not only important in the distribution of status and prestige, but also a good measure of socio-economic mobility. Explain with reference to tribal society. 30. Poverty is a social and political phenomenon as much as an economic problem and thus requires political and social changes, particularly with in site of power. Illustrate. 31. Explain how gender exclusion has been a social constraint in the society? 32. Land holding is a crucial factor in establishing dominance in the village. Explain 33. Give a comparison of the present and erstwhile status of PRIs in India. 34. Womens education is an essential element in a society. Justify the statement with reference to performance of women as members in PRIs. 35. List out the different programmes and schemes implemented for the upliftment of rural society. 36. Formal education is a way to the notion of lifelong learning. Describe with reference to the education of tribal societies. 37. The main hurdle in empowering women is their illiteracy. Comment. 38. How Panchayati raj helps in development of a watershed? Write with an example. 39. Illustrate the linkage between education and human rights in society. 40. Poverty is a social and political phenomenon as much as an economic problem and thus requires political and social changes, particularly with in site of power. Illustrate. 41. Formal education is a way to the notion of lifelong learning. Describe with reference to the education of tribal societies. 42. Give a brief account on rural livelihood generation. 43. Occupation is not only important in the distribution of status and prestige, but also a good measure of socio-economic mobility. Explain with reference to tribal society 44. Describe the role of different political parties in the village panchayat elections? 45. Formal education is a way to the notion of lifelong learning. Describe with reference to the education of tribal societies. POST HARVEST AND COLD CHAIN TECHNOLOGY

1. Define the key metrics that track the performance of supply chain in terms of two drivers facilities and inventory. 2. How does Logistic and Supply Chain Management help deliver enhanced value to end consumer on a continued basis? 3. Briefly discuss the strategic and macro economic factors influencing supply chain network design decisions. 4. Discuss the importance and application of E Commerce in supply chain. 5. How do the location and size of warehouse affect the performance of a firm? 6. Describe how a company achieves strategic fit between supply chain strategy and its competitive strategy. 7. Information sharing technology is critical to facilitate logistics and supply chain planning and operations. Briefly describe.

8. Accommodating customer requirements in most supply chain arrangements inevitably requires a forecast to drive the process. Briefly describe the different techniques of forecasting and the importance of forecasting in detail. 9. Elucidate in detail the evolution of Logistics and Importance of Supply Chain Management in the overall organization functioning.
10. Write a short note on ERP. 11. Re-engineering is a change management programme in supply chain management. Justify. 12. How strategic fit is achieved in supply chain management? 13. What are the different ideas the manager should consider to help them make better network design decisions under uncertainty. 14. Write a short note on third party logistics. 15. How value chain helps to take decisions in supply chain management? 16. Describe in detail the different modes of transportation in supply chain management. 17. Globalization offers many opportunities and challenges for logistics and supply chain operations and strategies. Describe in detail how international supply chain operations can be managed? 18. Strategic alliances help in addressing many issues related to supply chain framework. Describe in detail. 19. What is RFID? Describe its significance in retailing? 20. Write a short note on JIT. 21. Vendors are an important entity in supply chain. Explain how a good relationship can be maintained with vendors. 22. How supply chain can be developed as a competitive focus for customer satisfaction? 23. Supply chain is nothing but managing the information flow in an organization. comment. 24. What are the policies and objectives of purchasing in supply chain? 25. List out the various aspects of supply chain to satisfy the customer in terms of service provided to them. 26. Explain in detail the role of supply chain in retailing. 27. The developments in IT have resulted in many possible alternative solutions for managing the supply chain effectively. What are the major developments in IT which have transformed the modern day supply chain? 28. ERP has been the most modern technology of supply chain. How it is implemented. 29. Write a short note on designing distribution channel in supply chain. 30. How inter functional coordination can be managed in supply chain network? 31. Supply chain optimization is the application of processes and tools to ensure the optimal operation of a manufacturing and distribution supply chain. Describe. 32. Write in brief the evolution of supply chain management. 33. Write a short note on logistics. 34. Define bench marking and how many different types of benchmarking are there? 35. IT has helped in making the supply chain faster, flexible and responsive. Describe in detail the role of IT in supply chain management.

36. If the Indian companies are to adopt global supply chain standards and benchmarks against the global companies there is a long way ahead. Write an essay on the status of supply chain management in Indian environment. 37. Discuss the importance and application of E Commerce in supply chain. 38. What are the different ideas the manager should consider to help them make better network design decisions under uncertainty. 39. Describe in detail the different modes of transportation in supply chain management. 40. Supply chain is nothing but managing the information flow in an organization. comment. 41. ERP has been the most modern technology of supply chain. How it is implemented. 42. Write a short note on JIT. 43. The developments in IT have resulted in many possible alternative solutions for managing the supply chain effectively. What are the major developments in IT which have transformed the modern day supply chain? 44. Elucidate in detail the evolution of Logistics and Importance of Supply Chain Management in the overall organization functioning. 45. What are the different ideas the manager should consider to help them make better network design decisions under uncertainty.