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Kagira
CAESAR II

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Kagira Drawing Solution


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Caesar Book
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Kagira Drawing Solution

CONTENT
Volume-I
Pipeline and Piping component compliance 1. 2. 3. 4. About Caesar......Page 1 Basic operation.....Page 2 Purpose of stress analysing...Page 2 Menu Commands.....Page 5 a. Node no & names, Element length, b. Pipe dia and Schedule, Temp& pressure 5. Tool menu...................................................................................................................................Page 13 6. Bend..............................................................................................................................................Page 19 7. Reducer........................................................................................................................................Page 24 8. Tee .........................................................................................................................................Page 25 9. Rigid(Valve and Flange)......................................................................................................Page 28 10. Restraints...................................................................................................................................Page 29 11. Hanger.........................................................................................................................................Page 36 12. Support Thick Calculation..................................................................................................Page 42 13. Nozzle..........................................................................................................................................Page 43 14. Displacement............................................................................................................................Page 53 15. Force and Movement............................................................................................................Page 54 16. Wind and Wave.......................................................................................................................Page 55 17. Stress Category.......................................................................................................................Page 58 18. Load combination..................................................................................................................Page 62 19. Allowable Stress.....................................................................................................................Page 63 20. Boiler Tube Calculation.......................................................................................................Page 74 21. Expansion Loop......................................................................................................................Page 76 22. Report Generation.................................................................................................................Page 79

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Volume-II
Equipment and Component Compliance 1. Intersection Stress Intensification Factors Analysing.. Page 81 2. Bend Stress Intensification Factors Analysing.. Page 84 3. WRC 107 (Vessel Stresses) Analysing.... Page 86 4. WRC Bulletin 297 Analysing. Page 92 5. Flange Leakage/Stress Calculations Analysing. Page 96 6. Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines, B31G Analysing Page 103 7. Expansion Joint Rating Analysing.. Page 107 8. NEMA SM23 (Steam Turbines) Analysing. Page 113 9. API 610 (Centrifugal Pumps) Analysing. Page 118 10. API 617 (Centrifugal Compressors) Analysing.. Page 122 11. API 661 (Air Cooled Heat Exchangers) Analysing Page 124 12. Heat Exchange.... Page 127 13. API 560 Page 129 14. ExercisePage 131

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Volume- I
What is CAESAR? CAESAR (Computer Aided Engineering Stress Analysing Reporter) is a PCbased pipe stress analysis software program developed, marketed and sold by COADE Engineering Software. This software package is an engineering tool used in the mechanical design and analysis of piping systems. The CAESAR user creates a model of the piping system using simple beam elements and defines the loading conditions imposed on the system. With this input, CAESAR produces results in the form of displacements, loads, and stresses throughout the system. Additionally, CAESAR compares these results to limits specified by recognized codes and standards. The popularity of CAESAR is a reflection of COADEs expertise in programming and engineering, as well as COADEs dedication to service and quality. What are the Applications of CAESAR? CAESAR is most often used for the mechanical design of new piping systems. Hot piping systems present a unique problem to the mechanical engineerthese irregular structures experience great thermal strain that must be absorbed by the piping, supports, and attached equipment. These structures must be stiff enough to support their own weight and also flexible enough to accept thermal growth. These loads, displacements, and stresses can be estimated through analysis of the piping model in CAESAR. To aid in this design by analysis, CAESAR incorporates many of the limitations placed on these systems and their attached equipment. These limits are typically specified by engineering bodies (such as the ASME B31 committees, ASME Section VIII, and the Welding Research Council) or by manufacturers of piping-related equipment (API, NEMA, or EJMA). CAESAR is not limited to thermal analysis of piping systems. CAESAR also has the capability of modeling and analyzing the full range of static and dynamic loads, which may be imposed on the system. Therefore, CAESAR is not only a tool for new design but it is also valuable in troubleshooting or redesigning existing systems. Here, one can determine the cause of failure or evaluate the severity of unanticipated operating conditions such as fluid/piping interaction or mechanical vibration caused by rotating equipment.

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Basic Operation Once you have started the program and opened the file, you will choose the required operation. Piping Input Generation Once the desired job name has been specified, users can launch the interactive model builder by selecting the Input-Piping entry of the Main Menu. The input generation of the model consists of describing the piping elements, as well as any external influences (boundary conditions or loads) acting on those elements. Each pipe element is identified by two node numbers, and requires the specification of geometric, cross sectional, and material data. The preferred method of data entry is the piping spreadsheet. WHAT IS STRESS ANALYSIS? Piping Stress analysis is a term applied to calculations, which address the static and dynamic loading resulting from the effects of gravity, temperature changes, internal and external pressures, changes in fluid flow rate and seismic activity. Codes and standards establish the minimum requirements of stress analysis. PURPOSE OF PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Safety of piping and piping components Safety of connected equipment and supporting structure Piping deflections are within the limits

Temperature Effects and Stress Due to Temperature Change As we know, for any material changes in temperature result in volume change. An increase or decrease in temperature results in the expansion or contraction of a structure. To better understand this phenomenon, consider a steel wire with a length, , fixed at one end and free on the other end, is subjected to a temperature rise of . The wire will elongate by , as shown below:

Change in the Wire Length Due to Increase in Temperature

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The increase in the length, following equation:

, is related to the changes in temperature by the (1)

thermal coefficient) with the units of depends on the material type. The following shows the values of for a few commonly used building materials: Material Copper Aluminum Mild Steel Concrete Masonry Wood Stainless Steel 0.00128 0.00099 0.00093 0.00065 0.00055 0.00035 0.00030

In this equation, represents changes in temperature in degrees Fahrenheit ( ), l is the original length, and is the coefficient of thermal expansion (or

As can be seen from the above table, aluminum has larger value than steel. This means that, subjected to the same temperature variations, aluminum structures undergo larger changes in volume than similar steel structures. If the structure is prevented from movements (restrained) while subjected to a temperature change, stresses will develop. Consider the same piece of wire used before with both ends restrained undergoing a temperature rise of . Since both ends of the wire are prevented from movement, stresses develop in the wire, forcing it to buckle.

Buckling of Restrained Wire Due to Increase in Temperature

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To find how much these stresses are and what parameters they depend on, we first consider the wire without one of the end supports subjected to a temperature increase of . The wire extends by , and the wires length becomes .

Change in the Wire Length Due to Increase in Temperature Now, we push the right end of the wire to go back to its original length. This is the force that would have developed in the wire if both ends were restrained when the temperature was raised.

Force in the Wire Due to Change in Temperature As we know, the stress, , in the wire due to the force, (2) , is: the wire.

where is the cross-sectional We also remember that the modulus of elasticity, Where is the strain, defined as: (3)

area of , is defined as:

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Substituting equation (4) into (3):

(4)

Substituting equation (1) into (5): or

(5) (6)

The above equation shows the relationship between the changes in temperature and the stress developed in the restrained structure. For aluminum and steel spatial structures undergoing extremely large temperature variations this may become an important issue to consider. However, in most typical cases of spatial structures the temperature effect may be neglected since the developed stresses are negligible.

(7)

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Menu Commands The CAESAR II piping input processor provides many commands, which can be run From the menu, toolbars or accelerator keys. The menu options are:

Node Number

Each element is identified by its end node number. Since each input screen represents a piping element, the element end points - the From node and To node must be entered. These points are used as locations at which information may be entered or extracted. The From node and To node are both required data fields. CAESAR II can generate both values if the AUTO_NODE_INCREMENT directive is set to other than zero using the Tools-Configure/Setup option of the Main Menu. Node Names Activating this checkbox allows the user to enter text names for the From and/or To nodes (up to ten characters). These names display instead of the node numbers on the graphic plots and in the reports (note some of the names may be truncated when space is not available).

Note CAESAR II can generate both values if the AUTO NODE INCREMENT directive is set to other than zero using the ToolsConfigure/Setup option of the Main Menu.

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Element Lengths Lengths of the elements are entered as delta dimensions according to the X, Y, and Z rectangular coordinate system established for the piping system (note that the Y-axis represents the vertical axis). The delta dimensions DX, DY, and DZ, are the measurements along the X, Y, and Zaxes between the From node and To node. In most cases only one of the three cells will be used as the piping usually runs along the global axes. Where the piping element is skewed two or three entries must be made. One or more entries must be made for all elements except zero length expansion joints. Note When using feet and inches for compound length and length units, valid entries in this (and most other length fields) include formats such as: 3-6, 3 ft. -6 in, and 3-6- 3/16.

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Pipe Section Properties The elements outside diameter, wall thickness, mill tolerance (plus mill tolerance is used for IGE/TD/12 piping code only), and seam weld (IGE/TD/12 piping code only); corrosion allowance, and insulation thickness are entered in this block. These data fields carry forward from one screen to the next during the input session and need only be entered for those elements at which a change occurs. Nominal pipe sizes and schedules may be specified; CAESAR II converts these values to actual outside diameter and wall thickness. Outside diameter and wall thickness are required data inputs. Pipe Section Data Diameter The Diameter field is used to specify the pipe diameter. Normally, the nominal diameter is entered, and CAESAR II converts it to the actual outer diameter necessary for the analysis. There are two ways to prevent this conversion: use a modified UNITS file with the Nominal Pipe Schedules turned off, or enter diameters whose values are off slightly from a nominal size (in English units the tolerance on diameter is 0.063 in.). Use <F1> to obtain additional information and the current units for this input field. Available nominal diameters are determined by the active pipe size specification, set via the configuration program. The following are the available nominal diameters. ANSI Nominal Pipe ODs, in inches (file ap.bin) 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 42 JIS Nominal Pipe ODs, in millimeters (file jp.bin) 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 90 100 125 150 200 250300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650

DIN Nominal Pipe ODs, in millimeters (file dp.bin) 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 100 125 150 200 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200

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Wt/Sch The Wall Thickness/Schedule field is used to specify the thickness of the pipe. Normal input consists of a schedule indicator (such as S, XS, or 40), which will be converted to the proper wall thickness by CAESAR II. If actual thickness is entered, CAESAR II will accept it as entered. Available schedule indicators are determined by the active piping specification, set via the configuration program. The available schedules are listed below. ANSI B36.10 Steel Nominal Wall Thickness Designation S - Standard XS - Extra Strong XXS - Double Extra Strong

ANSI B36.10 Steel Pipe Numbers 10 20 30 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Corrosion

ANSI B36.19 Stainless Steel Schedules 5S 10S 40S 80S Enter the corrosion allowance to be used order to calculate a reduced section modulus. A setup file directive is available to consider all stress cases as corroded.

Insulation Thick

Enter the thickness of the insulation to be applied to the piping. Insulation applied to the outside of the pipe will be included in the dead weight of the system, and in the projected pipe area used for wind load computations. If a negative value is entered for the insulation thickness, the program will model refractory lined pipe. The thickness will be assumed to be the thickness of the refractory, inside the pipe.

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Operating Conditions: Temperatures and Pressures Up to nine temperatures and ten pressures (one extra for the hydrostatic test pressure) can be specified for each piping element. (The button with the ellipses dots is used to activate a window showing extended operating conditions input). The temperatures are actual temperatures (not changes from ambient). CAESAR II uses these temperatures to obtain the thermal strain and allowable stresses for the element from the Material Database. As an alternative, the thermal strains may be specified directly (see the discussion of ALPHA TOLERANCE in the Technical Reference Manual). Thermal strains have absolute values on the order of 0.002, and are unit less. Pressures are entered as gauge values and may not be negative. Each temperature and each pressure entered creates a loading for use when building load cases. Both thermal and pressure data carries forward from one element to the next until changed. Entering a value in the Hydro Pressure field causes CAESAR II to build a Hydro case in the set of recommended load cases.

Note CAESAR II uses an ambient temperature of 70F, unless changed using the Special Execution Parameters Option. T1 Max temp, T2 Min temp, T3 Min summer temp,T4 Max winter temp T5 Max temp (flow induced) (optional), T6 Min temp (flow induced) (optional) P1 MIP, P2 MOP, P3 Compressor operation, P4 Demand pressure HP Hydrotest pressure

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Special Element Information Special components such as bends, rigid elements, expansion joints and tees require additional information, which can be defined by enabling the component and entering data in the auxiliary screen. If the element described by the spreadsheet ends in a bend, elbow or mitered joint, the Bend checkbox should be set by double-clicking. This entry opens up the auxiliary data field on the right hand side of the input screen to accept additional data regarding the bend. CAESAR II usually assigns three nodes to a bend (giving near, mid, and far node on the bend). Double-clicking the Rigid checkbox (indicating an element that is much stiffer than the connecting pipe such as a flange or valve) opens an auxiliary data field to collect the component weight. For rigid elements, CAESAR II follows these rules:

When the rigid element weight is entered, i.e. not zero, CAESAR II computes any extra weight due to insulation and contained fluid, and adds it to the user-entered weight value. The weight of fluid added to a non-zero weight rigid element is equal to the same weight that would be computed for an equivalent straight pipe. The weight of insulation added is equal to the same weight that would be computed for an equivalent straight pipe times 1.75. If the weight of a rigid element is zero or blank, CAESAR II assumes the element is an artificial construction element rather than an actual piping element, so no insulation or fluid weight is computed for that element. The stiffness of the rigid element is relative to the diameter (and wall & thickness) entered. Make sure that the diameter entered on a rigid element spreadsheet is indicative of the rigid stiffness that should be generated.

If an element is an expansion joint, double-clicking that checkbox brings up an auxiliary screen, which prompts for stiffness parameters and effective diameter. Expansion joints may be modeled as zero-length (with all stiffnesses acting at a single point) or as finite CAESAR II - User Guide Data Fields Piping Input 5-7 length (with the stiffnesses acting over a continuous element). In the former case, all stiffnesses must be entered, in the latter; either the lateral or angular stiffness must be omitted. Checking the SIF & Tees checkbox allows the user to specify any component having special stress intensification factors (SIF). CAESAR II automatically calculates these factors for each component.
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Note Bends, rigids, and expansion joints are mutually exclusive. Refer to the valve/ flange and expansion joint database discussions later in this chapter for quick entry of rigid element and expansion joint data. Boundary Conditions The checkboxes in this block open the auxiliary data field to allow the input of items, which restrain (or impose movement on) the pipe restraints, hangers, flexible nozzles or displacements. Though not required, it is recommended that such information be supplied on the input screen which has that point as the From node or To node. (This will be of benefit if the data must be located for modification). The auxiliary data fields allow specification of up to 4 restraints (devices which in some way modify the free motion of the system), one hanger, one nozzle, or two sets of nodal displacements per element. If needed, additional items for any node can be input on other element screens. Loading Conditions The checkboxes in this block allow the user to define loadings acting on the pipe. These loads may be individual forces or moments acting at discrete points, distributed uniform loads (which may be specified on force per unit length, or gravitational body forces), or wind loadings (wind loadings are entered by specifying a wind shape factorthe loads themselves are specified when building the load cases. The uniform load and the wind shape factor check boxes will be unchecked on subsequent input screens. This does not mean that the loads were removed from these elements; instead, this implies that the loads do not change on subsequent screens.

Note Uniform loads may be specified in g-values by setting a parameter in the Special Execution Options.

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Piping Material CAESAR II requires the specification of the pipe materials elastic modulus, Poissons ratio, density, and (in most cases) expansion coefficient. The program provides a database containing the parameters for many common piping materials. This information is retrieved by picking a material from the drop list, by entering the material number, or by typing any the entire material name and then picking it from the match list. (The coefficient of expansion does not appear on the input screen, but it can be reviewed during error checking.) Note that materials 18 and 19 represent cold spring properties, cut short and cut long respectively; material 20 activates CAESAR IIs orthotropic model for use with materials such as fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe. Material 21 permits a totally user defined material. Using a material with a number greater than 100 permits the use of allowable stresses from the database. Material Elastic Properties This block is used to enter or override the elastic modulus and Poissons ratio of the material, if the value in the database is not correct. These values must be entered for Material type 21 (user specified). editor. Densities The densities of the piping material, insulation, and fluid contents are specified in this block. The piping material density is a required entry and is usually extracted from the Material Database. Fluid density can optionally be entered in terms of
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Note Material properties in the database may be changed permanently using the CAESAR II Material Database

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specific gravity, if CAESAR II - User Guide Auxiliary Data Area Piping Input 5-9 convenient, by following the input immediately with the letters: SG, e.g. 0.85SG (there can be no spaces between the number and the SG). Rockwool / Mineral wool Range

Note If an insulation thickness is specified (in the pipe section properties block) but no insulation density is entered, CAESAR II defaults to the density of calcium silicate.

Rock Fibre is an Insulation material that is light in weight, made up of intermingled vitreous fibres composed of complex silicates. It is available in various forms like Loose Wool, Preformed Mattresses, Resin Bonded Slabs and Pipe Sections conforming to IS, ASTM, BS, JIS, DIN standards MINROCK Lightly Resin Bonded Rock wool Mattresses of densities 85, 100, 120, 128 and 150 Kg/M3 and Thicknesses of 25mm, 40mm, 50mm, 65mm, 75mm, & 100mm are duly machine laid and machine stitched with one side/both sides wire netting conforming to IS: 8183/93 and are packed in Poly-Bonded HDPE Woven bags. File Menu The File menu is used to perform actions associated with opening, closing and running the job file.

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File Menu for the Piping Input Screen New Open Save Save As Save As Graphic Image Archive Start Run Batch Run Creates a new CAESAR II job. CAESAR II prompts for the name of the new model. Opens an existing CAESAR II job. CAESAR II prompts for the name Saves the current CAESAR II job under its current name. Saves the current CAESAR II job under a new name. Saves the current CAESAR II job as an HTML page, .TIFF, .BMP, or .JPG file. Allows the user to assign a password to prevent inadvertent alteration of the model or to enter the password to unlock the file. Sends the model through interactive error checking. This is the first step of analysis, followed by the building of the static load cases Error checks the model in a non-interactive way and halts only for fatal errors; uses the existing or default static load cases, and performs the static analysis). The next step is the output processor. Allows the user to print out an input listing. CAESAR II prompts the user for the data items to include. Provides print preview of input listing. Sets up the printer for the input listing. Open a file from the list of most recently used Jobs.

Print Print Preview Print Setup Recent File List

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Edit Menu The Edit menu provides commands for cutting and pasting, navigating through the spreadsheets, and performing a few small utilities. These commands are

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Continue Insert Delete Find

Duplicate Global Close Loop Increment Distance List

Go to First Element, Previous Element, Skip to Next Element, Skip to Last Element Edit Static Load Case Edit Dynamic Load Case View Output Review Current Units Undo/Redo

Moves the spreadsheet to the next element in the model, adding a new element if there is no next element. Inserts an element either before or after the current element Deletes the current element. Allows the user to find an element containing one or more named nodes (if two nodes are entered, the element must contain both nodes). Enabling the Zoom To check box will display the element if found. Copies the selected element either before or after the current element. Prompts the user to enter global (absolute) coordinates for the first node of any disconnected segments Closes a loop by filling in the delta coordinates between two nodes on the spreadsheet. Gives the user the opportunity to change the automatic node increment. Calculates the distance between the origin and a node, or between two nodes. Presents the input data in an alternative, list format that displays a drop down menu where users can select any list. This provides the benefit of showing all of the element data in a context setting. The list format also permits block operations such as Duplicate, Delete, Copy, Renumber on the element data. For more information on the list input format, see the Technical Reference Manual. [Pg Dn], [Pg Up], Ctrl +[Home], Ctrl +[End]Allows users to move throughout the elements of a model. Note [Pg Dn] does not create a new element once the end of the model is reached. Opens the Static Load Case Editor window. This button is enabled when the job is error checked. Opens the Dynamic Load Case Editor window. This button is enabled when the job is error checked. Allows users to review the output report, provided the analysis was successfully completed Located on the Edit Menu it allows users to review units used to create the report file. Changing units in the configuration file will not affect the input. To change Input units from the Main Menu use Tools-Convert Input to New Units. Any modeling steps done in the CAESAR II input module may

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be "undone", one at a time, using the Undo command, activated by clicking the Undo button on the toolbar, the Edit-Undo menu option, or the Ctrl-Z hot key. Likewise, any "undone" steps may be "redone" sequentially, using the Redo command, activated by the Redo button on the toolbar, the Edit-Redo menu option, or the Ctrl-Y hot key. An unlimited number of steps (limited only by amount of available memory) may be undone. Note that making any input change while in the middle of the "undo stack" of course resets the "redo" stack. Model Menu The Model menu contains modeling aids, as well as means for entering associated, system wide information.

Break

Valve

Expansion Joints

Title

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Allows the user to break the element into two unequal length elements or into many equal length elements. A single node may be placed as a break point anywhere along the element, or multiple nodes may be placed at equal intervals (the node step interval between the From and To nodes determines the number of nodes placed). Break Element Allows the user to model a valve or flange from one of the CAESAR II databases. Choosing a combination of Rigid Type, End Type, and Class constructs a rigid element with the length and weight extracted from the database. Activates the Expansion Joint Modeler. The modeler automatically builds a complete assembly of the selected expansion joint style, using the bellows stiffnesses and rigid element weights extracted from one of the vendors expansion joint catalogs. Allows the user to enter a job title up to sixty lines long. By pressing <Ctr l >T at any time during pipe spreadsheet input,

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Hanger Design Control Data Environment Menu

the current job's title page will be displayed (also may access through the M ODEL - TITLE menu item). This is up to 60 lines of text that is stored with the problem, and may be used for detailing run histories, discussing assumptions, etc. These lines may be printed with the output report through the input echo. Prompts the user for system - wide hanger design criteria

The Environment menu provides some miscellaneous items.

Environment Menu Review SIFs at Intersection Nodes Review SIFs at Bend Nodes Special Execution Parameters Allows the user to run what if tests on the Stress Intensification Factors of intersections. Allows the user to run what if tests on the Stress Intensification Factors of selected bends. Allows the user to set options affecting the analysis of the current job. Items covered include ambient temperature, pressure stiffening, displacements due to pressure (Bourdon effect), Z-axis orientation, etc.

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Bend Bend Definition Single and Double Flanged 180 Degree Return Fitting-To-Fitting 90 Degree Bends Mitered Bends Closely Spaced Mitered Bend Widely Spaced Mitered Bend Elbows - Different Wall Thickness Bend Flexibility Factor

Piping Component

Bend Definition

Bends are defined by the element entering the bend and the element leaving the bend. The actual bend curvature is always physically at the TO end of the element entering the bend. The input for the element leaving the bend must follow the element entering the bend. The bend angle is defined by these two elements. Bend radius defaults to 1 1/2 times the pipe nominal diameter (long radius), but may be changed to any other value. Specifying a bend automatically generates two additional intermediate nodes, at the 0-degree location and at the bend midpoint (M). For stress and displacement output them TO node of the element entering the bend is located geometrically at the far-point on the bend. The far-point is at the weldline of the bend, and adjacent to the straight element leaving the bend. The 0-degree point on the bend is at the weldline of the bend, and adjacent to the straight element entering the bend.

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The FROM point on the element is located at the 0-degree point of the bend (and no 0-degree node point will be generated) if the total length of the element as specified in the DX, DY, and DZ fields is equal to: R tan ( / 2) Where is the bend angle, and R is the bend radius of curvature to the bend centerline. Nodes defined in the Angle and Node fields are placed at the given angle on the bend curvature. The angle starts with zero degrees at the near-point on the bend and goes to degrees at the far-point of the bend. Angles are always entered in degrees. Entering the letter M as the angle designates the bend midpoints. Nodes on the bend curvature cannot be placed closer together than specified by the Minimum Angle to Adjacent Bend parameter in the Configure-SetupGeometry section. This includes the spacing between the nodes on the bend curvature and the near and far-points of the bend. The minimum and maximum total bend angle is specified by the Minimum Bend Angle and maximum Bend Angle parameters in the Configure SetupGeometry section. Double-click the Bend checkbox. The Bends tab displays. This adds a long radius bend at the end of the element, and adds intermediate nodes 18 and 19 at the near weld and mid points of the bend respectively (node 20 physically represents the far weld point of the bend).

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Single and Double Flanged Bends or Stiffened Bends Single and double flanged bend specifications only effect the stress intensification and flexibility of the bend. There is no automatic rigid element (or change in weight) generated for the end of the bend.

Single and double-flanged bends are indicated by entering 1 or 2 (respectively) for the Type in the bend auxiliary input. Rigid elements defined before or after the bend will not alter the bend's stiffness or stress intensification factors. When specifying single flanged bends it does not matter which end of the bend the flange is on. If the user wishes to include the weight of the rigid flange(s) at the bend ends, then he/she should put rigid elements (whose total length is the length of a flange pair) at the bend ends where the flange pairs exist. As a guideline, British Standard 806 recommends stiffening the bends whenever a component that significantly stiffens the pipe cross section is found within two diameters of either bend end. The flanges in the figures below are modeled only to the extent that they affect the stiffness and the stress intensification for the bends. Flanged Bends Singl Flange

Double Flange

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180 Degree Return Fitting-To-Fitting 90 Degree Bends Two 90-degree bends should be separated by twice the bend radius. The far-point of the first bend is the same as the near-point of the second (following) the bend. The user is recommended to put nodes at the midpoint of each bend comprising the 180 degree return. (See the example below.) 180 Degree Return Fitting (180 Degree bend)

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Thick Elbow

Bend Flexibility Factor Normally bend flexibility factors are calculated according to code requirements. However, the user may override the code calculation by entering a value in the K-factor field. For example, if the user enters 1.5 in this field, the bend will be 1.5 times as flexible as a straight pipe of the same length.

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Reducers

To model reducers use the procedure listed below Modeling Reducers Using CAESAR

Concentric Reducer

Eccentric reducer

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Define the length of the reducer just like any other pipe element. For eccentric reducers be sure to skew the element such that the TO node matches the position of the centerline of the following pipe elements. Double click the Reducer check box on the input spreadsheet. If the element preceding and following the reducer are already defined (such as inserting this element) then CAESAR will automatically calculate all the reducer input data and the user can leave this field blank. Enter the diameter and wall thickness of the pipe that will follow the reducer. Nominal diameter and wall thickness can be entered here and CAESAR will convert these to actual diameter and wall thickness if this portion is activated in the units file (in the Diameter and Wt/Sch fields on the spreadsheet convert nominal to actual then so will the Reducer dialog). Alpha is the slope of the reducer transition in degrees. If left blank, the value will be set from an estimated slope equal to the arc tangent times 1/2 the change in diameters times sixty percent of the entered reducer length. Tee Pipe Tee is a type of pipe fitting which is T-shaped having two outlets, at 90 to the connection to the main line. It is a short piece of pipe with a lateral outlet. Pipe Tee is used to connect pipelines with a pipe at a right angle with the line. Pipe Tees are widely used as pipe fittings. They are made of various materials and available in various sizes and finishes. Pipe tees are extensively used in pipeline networks to transport two-phase fluid mixtures. There are two types as below Tee Equal Three-port fitting in the shape of a "T". Standard configuration ("Equal") indicates that the straight-through path (typically called the "run") and the perpendicular section ("branch") all have the same size ports. Tee Reducing Typically, this describes a tee fitting in which the branch port is smaller than the ports of the run; it may also include size reduction from one of the run ports to the other. Node no 70 to 200 change the pipe diameter and wall thick.

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Node 70 is the intersection of the 8-in. and 6-in. lines. This intersection is constructed using an 8x6 welding tee. Piping codes recognize the reduced strength of this piping component by increasing the calculated stress at this point in the system. For CAESAR II to include this stress intensification factor in the stress calculation, the node must be identified as a welding tee. First double click the SIFs and Tees check box to activate the SIFs and Tees Auxiliary data area. Specify node 70 as our intersection node and select Welding Tee from the Type drop list. CAESAR II will calculate the SIFs at this intersection according to the piping code selected (B31.3 in this case) so no more input is needed here. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Input Items Optionally Effecting SIF Calculations REINFORCED FABRICATED TEE UNREINFORCED FABRICATED TEE WELDING TEE SWEEPOLET WELDOLET EXTRUDED WELDING TEE GIRTH BUTT WELD SOCKET WELD (NO UNDERCUT) SOCKET WELD (AS WELDED) TAPERED TRANSITION

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11 12 13 14 15 16 17

THREADED JOINT DOUBLE WELDED SLIP-ON LAP JOINT FLANGE (B16.9) BONNEY FORGE SWEEPOLET BONNEY FORGE LATROLET BONNEY FORGE INSERT WELDOLET FULL ENCIRCLEMENT TEE This auxiliary screen is used to enter stress intensification factors, or fitting types for up to two nodes per spreadsheet. If components are selected from the drop list, CAESAR II automatically calculates the SIF values as per the applicable code (unless overridden by the user). Certain fittings and certain codes require additional data as shown. Fields are enabled as appropriate for the selected fitting.

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Rigid (Weight of Rigid elements) Valve & flange The next element (80-90) is the flanged check valve. This CAESAR II element would include the flanged valve and the mating flanges as these piping components are much stiffer than the attached pipe. If the length and weight of this rigid element were known, this data could be entered directly by entering the length in the DY field, enabling the Rigid box and then entering the Rigid Weight in the Auxiliary Data area. Here, for lack of better data and for convenience, the CAESAR II Valve/Flange database will be accessed to generate this input automatically. This data is made available through the Model-Valve menu option or by clicking the Valve/Flange Database button on the toolbar. This command will bring up the window shown below.

Flanged Gate Valve

Butt-weld Gate valve

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Restrains Supports are provided to the piping to resist various loads. The loads can be classified into three categories. They are: primary loads, secondary loads and occasional loads. The response of the piping to various loads is different. The primary load is also known as sustained load. The primary loads are due to the selfweight of the piping, its contents, insulation, refractory, inner casing, outer casing, internal pressure and external pressure. The secondary loads are due to temperature change and relative settlement of foundations. The occasional loads are due to wind, earthquake, water hammer, steam hammer, safety valves blowing jet reactions, surge load, blast load and accidental loads.

If the piping is not provided with adequate supports, it will be over-stressed and excessively deform. Over-stressing will cause premature failure. Excessive deformation will impair the performance of the piping.

Anchor +Y Restrains (shoe Support) o Vertical Pipe Line o Horizontal Pipe Line Guide o Vertical Pipe Line o Horizontal Pipe Line Line Stopper ( Axial Stopper) Line Stopper with +Y Restrain Limit stop Limit Stop With + Y Restrain Rod Hanger Spring hanger o Constant Spring Hanger (CSH) o Variable Spring Hanger (VSH)

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CNode The CNode, or connecting node number, is used only when the other end of the hanger is to be connected to another point in the system, such as another pipe node.

ANCHOR

An anchor is rigid restraints providing full fixation, i.e., permitting neither translator movement (in X-, Y- and Z- direction) not rotation (around X-, Y- and Zaxis). An anchor provides a fixed reference point of constant position and rotation. Through which effects from the pipe on opposite sides cannot be transmitted. This makes the anchor a convenient terminal point for defining stress analysis problem. A pipe anchor is a rigid support that restricts movement in all three orthogonal directions and all three rotational directions. This usually is a welded stanchion that is welded or bolted to steel or concrete

Anchor Support

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+Y Restrain (Shoe Support) Restraints are provided in the piping primarily to transfer the Sustain loads to the supporting structure. Restraints are usually oriented in any one of the coordinate axes of the plant. Inclined restraints are also used. Usually the restraints are double acting. Struts and ties, which are single acting, are also used. A single acting restraint is a device, which carries only tension or compression.

+Y Restrain ( Shoe Support) For Horizontal Pipe Line

+Y Restrain (Shoe Support)For Vertical Pipe Line

Guide Support The following are some important facts pertaining to Guides in CAESAR II.

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Guides are double-acting restraints with or without a specified gap. Guides may be defined using the global system coordinates or with the restraint type GUI. A guided pipe in the horizontal or skewed direction will have a single restraint, acting in the horizontal plane, orthogonal to the axis of the pipe. A guided vertical pipe will have both X and Z direction supports. CAESAR II computes direction cosines for guides. Guide direction cosines entered by the user are ignored.
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Guide Support for Horizontal Pipe Line

Guide with +Y Restrain Support

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Guide Support for Vertical Pipe Line

Axial Stopper (Line Stopper) Translational restraints may be preceded by a (+) or (-). If a sign is entered, it defines the direction of allowed free displacement along the specified degree of freedom. (i.e. a +Y restraint is restraint against movement in the minus Y direction and is free to move in the plus Y direction).

Axial Stopper (Line Stopper) For Horizontal Pipe line

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Axial Stopper (Line Stopper) For Horizontal Pipe line Limit Stops Limit stops are used to limit the stresses in the piping and to reduce the anchor reaction. The behavior of the limit stops is non-linear. The limit stop has zero rigidity up to certain movement. After this predetermined movement, the limit stop comes into action. The active rigidity of the limit stop can be finite or infinite. This depends on the construction of the limit stop.

Limit Stop for Horizontal Pipe Line

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Limit stop for a similar situation in a power plant. There should not be any problem if the pipe stresses are within limits and if the load on the stop is also reasonable. U may be providing this stop to limit the load on some component. The following are important facts pertaining to Limit Stops: Limit stops are single- or double-acting restraint whose line of action is along the axis of the pipe. The sign on the single-directional restraint gives the direction of unlimited free movement. Limit Stops/Single Directional Restraints can have gaps. The gap is the distance of permitted free movement along therestraining line of action. A gap is a length, and is always positive. Orientation of the gap along the line of action of the restraint is accomplished via the sign on the restraint. Connecting Nodes (CNode) may be used with any Limit Stop model. Limit Stops may be defined using the restraint type LIM. Limit Stops provide double or single-acting support parallel to the pipe axis. Limit Stops may have gaps and friction. The positive line of action of the Limit Stop is defined by the FROM and TO node on the element.

Allowable Support Spans The allowable support span is defined as the maximum permitted unsupported span between any two adjacent supports on a horizontal straight piping. The loads on the piping induce direct stress (axial tension or compression), bending stress, torsion-stress, shear stress and linear and angular deformation. The torsion-stress, shear stress and angular deformation are not usually limited. Popular piping codes limit the bending stress of steel pipes to 15,850 KPa (2,300 psi) and the linear deformation to 2.54 mm (0.1 inch). The suggested pipe support span for commonly used steel piping is given in the following Table. NPS inch (DN mm) 1 (25) 2 (50) 3 (75) Water Service m (ft) 2.13 (7) 3.05 (10) 3.66 (12) Steam, gas or air service m (ft) 2.74 (9) 3.96 (13) 4.57 (15)

Table Suggested Pipe Support Span

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Hangers

For the vertical runs of the pipes, a support span of four times that allowed for horizontal runs can be permitted. It is preferable to avoid providing supports on the pipes inclined in the vertical plane. It is preferable to provide a support at each location of direction change of the pipe.

4 (100) 6 (150) 8 (200) 12 (300) 16 (400) 20 (500) 24 (600)

4.27 (14) 5.18 (17) 5.79 (19) 7.01 (23) 8.23 (27) 9.14 (30) 9.75 (32)

5.18 (17) 6.40 (21) 7.32 (24) 9.14 (30) 10.70 (35) 11.90 (39) 12.80 (42)

Hangers are special types of ties. They are always vertical and carry tensile loads. Rigid Support and Flexible Support The supports may be rigid or flexible in construction. Flexible supports are used where loads are to be carried, at the same time, accommodate movement. The movements may be due to the thermal expansion of the piping or connected equipment movements. The load variation in the variable load hanger from cold to hot is usually limited to 25%. Variable Load Hanger (VLH) Variable load hanger is a special type of hanger, which accommodate the vertical thermal movements, while carrying the vertical load. Usually variable load hangers are made of helical springs. The load varies from cold condition to hot condition. Constant Load Hanger (CLH) Constant load hanger is a special type of hanger, similar to the variable load hanger. There are several types of constant load hangers. The load variation in the constant load hanger from cold to hot is usually limited to 0%.

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Ten Dos the following leads to a good engineering practice 1. Use minimum number of supports 2. Limit the use of flexible supports 3. Provide supports near the already provided columns and beams 4. Provide necessary clearance for thermal movement 5. Consider all the primary, secondary and occasional loads in the design 6. Provide access for valves and fittings 7. Provide additional loops to satisfy flexibility requirements 8. Provide guides to resist occasional loads like wind and earthquake 9. Provide an ergonomically acceptable design 10. Provide supports for vents, drains, start-up vents and silencers

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Ten Donts avoid the following in design 1. Avoid too many anchors 2. Avoid too long a span 3. Avoid too thin a pipe 4. Avoid large local stresses 5. Avoid too many fittings 6. Avoid too many flexible supports 7. Avoid supports on horizontal bends 8. Avoid supports on pipes inclined to the vertical 9. Avoid bunching of too many pipes 10. Avoid large vertical or horizontal loops

VARIABLE LOAD HANGERS SELECTION & SETTING PROCEDURE FOR BOILER AND PIPING APPLICATIONS Scope This procedure deals with the selection and setting of the variable load hangers (VLH) for boiler (pressure parts and non-pressure parts) and piping applications from the presently available list of VLH being manufactured his may be used for pressure vessels and heat exchangers also.

General

The description, range and type of VLH are described in the write-up on "VARIABLE SPRING HANGERS". The details like selection procedure, shop and site setting informations are described herein. Selection: Before selecting a particular VLH, the designer is advised to acquaint himself/herself with the various aspects of the VLH by perusing the write-up on "VARIABLE SPRING HANGERS". The terminology used in the selection of VLH is indicated in Figure

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SPRING WITH NO LOAD Figure

SPRING WITH LOAD (Fully Compressed)

LOAD COMPRESSION DIAGARAM F - Total possible compression G - Additional compression in hot condition H - Free height J - Fully compressed height P - Maximum load carrying capacity to a of spring-corresponding compression of 'F'.

A Pre-compression (initial compression) B - Additional compression in cold condition C - Vertical thermal movement of connected equipment (cold to hot either downward or upward) = Y D - Working range of the VLH E - Unused range of compression

Note Figure-1 describes the terminology used in VLH for an application where the vertical thermal movement of the connected equipment is downward (cold to hot). When the vertical movement from COLD to HOT is upwards, the marks 'COLD POSITION' and 'HOT POSITION' indicated in Figure-1 should be mutually interchanged and following changes in terminology should be effected. B Additional compression in hot condition. G Additional compression in cold condition.

Some of the dimensions are constants for all the load groups. They are indicated in Table-1.

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TABLE 1

Sl.No. Dimension 01. 02. 03. 04. A E F

Unit mm mm mm mm

TRAVEL RANGE=80 mm 56 80 160 24

TRAVEL RANGE=160 mm 112 160 320 48

EXAMPLE:

All other dimensions (B, C & G) are application specific and are to be calculated for each VLH. Design load (Hot load) W = 5400 Kg Vertical thermal movement (Cold to Hot) y = 40 mm (downward) (y = c) (When y is less than 1.6 mm, a rigid rod without springs may be used) Try load group '12' and travel range 80 mm. Spring rate (spring stiffness) K = 62.50 Kg/mm Load variation from hot to cold W = K x y = 62.5 x 40 = 2500 Kg

W 2500 % load variation = -------- x 100 = --------- x 100 = 46% W 5400 % allowable load variation is 25%, as the actual load variation (46%) is more than the allowable load variation (25%), this selection is not acceptable. (Please note that the allowable load variation is taken as 25% based on ASME-B 31.1, 1992 recommendations. Some customers / consultants specify a lower value of % W, in which case the latter is governing. The tender specifies an allowable load variation of 6% of the cold load). Try load group '12' and Travel Range '160 mm'. Spring rate K = 31.25 Kg/mm

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Please note that a VLH with a travel range of 160 mm is more expensive than a VLH with a travel range of 80 mm, for the same load group. If the % load variation for a VLH is more than 25%, use VLH with lower spring rate. If such a VLH is not available, use a constant load hanger (CLH) spring loaded or dead weight loaded. SETTING The following informations are required by the shop / site, over and above the size and type of the VLH, for setting and monitoring the VLH during operation.

K y v 31.25 x 40 x 100 % load variation = -------- x 100 = ------------------------ = 23% <25% W 5400 OKAY

1, Vertical thermal movement of the equipment (cold to hot) = y (upward or downward) = c. 2. Additional compression in cold condition (B or G). The setting details for the VLH, selected in the aforesaid example are given below: c = y = 40 mm (downward). Total compression in hot condition 1 2 W 5400 = ----- = ---------K 31.25 = 172.8 mm = 1 - y = 172.8 40 = 132.8 mm

Total compression in cold condition

Additional compression in cold condition Additional compression in hot condition

= 2 A = 132.8 112 = 20.8 mm = B

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=G=B+C = 20.8 + 40 = 60.8 mm

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Please note that the values of B&G should not be outside the range of 0 80 mm and 0 160 mm for VLH with travel ranges: 80 mm and 160 mm respectively. This aspect should be checked for every VLH. When 1 G 2 W 5400 = ----- = -----------K 31.25 y = 40 mm (upward)

= 172.8 mm = 100.8 mm = 60.8 mm = 212.8 mm

Support Thick Calculation

The values of additional compression in cold condition (B or G) and vertical thermal movement from cold to hot (y = c) are to be communicated to shop / site.

= G y = 100.8 40

= 2 A = 212.8 112

= 1 - y = 172.8 + 40

The thickness required to take care of the axial tension due to heavy vertical load is given in Equation-1 Do T = -----2 = = = = = 1 p Do2 + 4 W 1 -------------------- Do2 (p + f)

Where T Do p W f

minimum required thickness, mm outside diameter of the pipe, mm maximum allowable working pressure, MPa(g) axial load, N maximum allowable stress in tension, MPa

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Flexible Nozzles This auxiliary screen is used to describe flexible nozzle connections. When entered in this way, CAESAR II automatically calculates the flexibilities and inserts them at this location. CAESAR II calculates nozzle loads according to WRC 297, API 650 or BS 5500 criteria. When a nozzle node number is input, CAESAR II scans the current input data for the node and loads its diameter and wall thickness and enters it in the Nozzle Auxiliary Data field. Current nozzle flexibility calculations are in accordance with the Welding Research Council Bulletin No. 297, issued August 1984 for cylinder to cylinder intersections. A valid nozzle node has the following properties: Only a single element connects to the nozzle node. The nozzle node is not restrained and does not have displacements specified for any of its degrees of freedom.

Computed nozzle flexibilities are automatically included in the piping system analysis via program generated restraints. This generation is completely transparent to the user. Six restraints are established for each flexible nozzle input. If a vessel node number is defined, then the vessel node acts like a connecting node for each of the six restraints. Vessel nodes are subject to the same restrictions shown above for nozzle nodes. Note: The user should not put a restrainer on an element between the nozzle node and any specified vessel node. CAESAR II creates the required connectivity from the nozzle flexibility data and any user generated stiffnesses between these two points will add erroneously to the nozzle stiffnesses.

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Welding Research Council (WRC-297) WRC-297 can be applied to a larger d/D ratio (up to 0.5) since the analysis is based on a different, thin shell theory (derived and developed by Prof. C. R. Steele). Flexible Nozzle - WRC Bulletin 297 Adhere to these requirements when modeling flexible nozzles Frame only one pipe element into the nozzle node. Do not place restraints at the nozzle node. Do not place anchors at the nozzle node. Do not specify displacements for the nozzle node. (See the following example for displacements at flexible nozzles.)

CAESAR II automatically performs the following functions

CAESAR II uses the following criteria for its calculations

Calculates nozzle flexibilities for the nozzle/vessel data entered by the user Calculates and inserts restraints to simulate nozzle flexibilities Calculates flexibilities for the axial translations, circumferential, and longitudinal bending Users must perform the error check process to view these calculated values. Shear and torsional stiffnesses are assumed rigid. Nozzle configurations outside of the WRC 297 curve limits are considered rigid. It is not unusual for one stiffness value to be rigid because of curve limits, and the others to be suitably flexible. The Vessel Temperature and Material fields on the WRC 297 auxiliary data area may be used to optionally compute a reduced modulus of elasticity for the local stiffness calculations.

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Nozzle Node Number

Node that is located at the nozzle's intersection with the vessel shell. There should only be a single piping element connected to this node, and there should be no restraints acting on the node. The nozzle element should be perpendicular to the vessel shell. Hillside nozzles and latrolets can still be modeled; however, the first (possibly very short) nozzle element that comes from the vessel should be perpendicular to the vessel to keep the local stiffness properly oriented. The second, longer nozzle element can then go off on the true centerline of the nozzle.

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Vessel Node Number (Optional) Node on the vessel/tank surface at the point where the nozzle intersects the vessel shell. The vessel/tank node is optional, and if not given the nozzle node is connected via the stiffnesses to a point fixed rigidly in space. If the vessel node is given, the nozzle node will be connected via the stiffnesses to the vessel node. Vessel nodes are specified when the user wishes to model through the vessel from the nozzle connection to the skirt or foundation. 3-54 Piping Screen Reference Nozzle Diameter Outside diameter of the nozzle. (Does not have to be equal to the diameter of the pipe used to model the nozzle.)

Nozzle Wall Thickness Wall thickness of the nozzle. (Does not have to be equal to the wall thickness of the pipe element used to model the nozzle.) Vessel Diameter Outside diameter of the vessel.

Vessel Wall Thickness Wall thickness of the vessel at the point where the nozzle connects to the vessel. Do not include the thickness of any reinforcing pad.

Vessel Reinforcing Pad Thickness Thickness of any reinforcing pad at the nozzle. This thickness is added to the vessel wall thickness before nozzle stiffness calculations are performed. Distance to Stiffener or Head Distance along the vessel center-line, from the center of the nozzle opening in the vessel shell to the closest stiffener or head in the vessel that significantly stiffens the cross-section of the vessel against local deformation normal to the shell surface.
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Distance to Opposite-Side Stiffener or Head Distance from the center of the nozzle opening in the vessel shell to the closest stiffener or head in the vessel on the other side of the nozzle. This entry is ignored for spherical vessels. Vessel centerline direction vector X, Y, Z Direction vector or direction cosines which define the center-line of the vessel. For a vertical vessel this entry would read: Vessel centerline direction vector X:<blank> Vessel centerline direction vector Y: 1.0 Vessel centerline direction vector Z:<blank>

Note: The centerlines of the nozzle and vessel cannot be collinear or CAESAR II will flag this as an error.

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Horizontal Vessels Horizontal Vessel models are built using combinations of straight pipe and nozzle flexibility simulations (WRC 297). The following figure illustrates the most accurate way to define horizontal vessel flexibility.

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API 650 NOZZLES Activate by double-clicking the Nozzles check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet and selecting the API 650 radio button from the Nozzle Auxiliary Data field. Deactivate by double-clicking

the check box a second time. Nozzle Node Number

CAESAR II can also calculate nozzle flexibilities according to appendix P of API 650, "Design of Carbon Steel Atmospheric Oil Storage Tanks." Node that is located at the nozzle's intersection with the vessel shell. There should only be a single piping element connected to this node, and there should be no restraints acting on the node. The nozzle element should be perpendicular to the vessel shell. Hillside nozzles and latrolets can still be modeled; however, the first (possibly very short) nozzle element that comes from the vessel should be perpendicular to the vessel to keep the local stiffness properly oriented. The second, longer nozzle element can then go off on the true centerline of the nozzle.

Tank Node Number Node on the tank surface at the point where the nozzle intersects the vessel/tank shell. The tank node is optional, and if not given the nozzle node is connected via the API stiffnesses to a point fixed rigidly in space. If the tank node is given, the nozzle node will be connected via the API stiffnesses to the tank node. Tank nodes are specified

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API 650 Reinforcing 1 or 2 For API tanks, if the reinforcing is on the shell, then enter 1. If it is on the nozzle, enter a 2.

API-650 Tank Wall Thickness Wall Thickness of the Vessel at the point where the Nozzle connects to the vessel. DO NOT include the thickness of any reinforcing pad.

API-650 Tank Diameter Outside Diameter of the Vessel or API 650 storage tank. Note that API 650 Addendum 1 does not recommend these computations for diameters less than 120 feet.

Nozzle Wall Thickness Wall Thickness of the nozzle. May be different than the attached pipe wall thickness

when the user wishes to model through the tank from the nozzle connection to the foundation. Nozzle Diameter Outside diameter of the nozzle. (Does not have to be equal to the diameter of the pipe used to model the nozzle.)

API 650 Nozzle Height For API 650 applications, enter the height from the centerline of the nozzle to the base of the tank. API 650 Fluid Height Enter the liquid level of the fluid in the storage tank. This fluid level must be greater than the nozzle height.

API 650 Specific Gravity Enter the specific gravity of the stored liquid. This value is unit less. API-650 Tank Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Enter the coefficient of thermal expansion of the plate material of the tank is constructed. Values are listed in engineering handbooks or the appropriate section of the API 650, App P. If this value is left blank, zero will be assumed. API 650 Delta T

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Enter the change in temperature from ambient to its maximum that the tank normally experiences. For example: If the maximum summertime temperature is 107F. The delta T would be 107 - 70 = 37F. If this value is left blank, zero will be assumed. API-650 Tank Modulus of Elasticity For API 650 nozzles, the hot modulus of elasticity of the tank must be entered directly. If this value is left blank, 29.5E6 will be assumed. PD 5500 Nozzles Activate by double-clicking the Nozzles check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet and selecting the PD 5500 radio button from the Nozzle Auxiliary Data field. Deactivate by doubleclicking the check box a second time. CAESAR II can also calculate nozzle flexibilities according to Appendix G of the PD 5500 Specification for Unfired Fusion Welded Pressure Vessels. The input requirements for these nozzles are:

of the nozzle.

Nozzle Node Number Node that is located at the nozzle's intersection with the vessel shell. There should only be a single piping element connected to this node, and there should be no restraints acting on the node. The nozzle element should be perpendicular to the vessel shell. Hillside nozzles and latrolets can still be modeled; however, the first (possibly very short) nozzle element that comes from the vessel should be perpendicular to the vessel to keep the local stiffness properly oriented. The second, longer nozzle element can then go off on the true centerline

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Nozzle Diameter Outside diameter of the nozzle. (Does not have to be equal to the diameter of the pipe used to model the nozzle.) Vessel Diameter Outside diameter of the vessel.

Vessel Type - Cylinder (0) or Sphere (1) If the vessel is cylindrical, enter a 0. For cylinders, the distances to stiffeners/heads and the vessel direction cosines are required. If the vessel is spherical, enter a 1. For spheres, the fields for the distances to stiffeners/heads and vessel direction cosines are both ignored.

Vessel Node Number (Optional) Node on the vessel/tank surface at the point where the nozzle intersects the vessel shell. The vessel/tank node is optional, and if not given the nozzle node is connected via the stiffnesses to a point fixed rigidly in space. If the vessel node is given, the nozzle node will be connected via the stiffnesses to the vessel node. Vessel nodes are specified when the user wishes to model through the vessel from the nozzle connection to the skirt or foundation.

Vessel Reinforcing Pad Thickness Thickness of any reinforcing pad at the nozzle this thickness is added to the vessel wall thickness before nozzle stiffness calculations are performed. Distance to Stiffener or Head Distance along the vessel center-line, from the center of the nozzle opening in the vessel shell to the closest stiffener or head in the vessel that significantly stiffens the cross-section of the vessel against local deformation normal to the shell surface.

Vessel Wall Thickness Wall thickness of the vessel at the point where the nozzle connects to the vessel. Do not include the thickness of any reinforcing pad.

Distance to Opposite-Side Stiffener or Head Distance from the center of the nozzle opening in the vessel shell to the closest stiffener or head in the vessel on the other side of the nozzle. This entry is ignored for spherical vessels. Vessel Centerline Direction Cosines

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These are direction vectors or direction cosines that define the center-line of the vessel. For a horizontal vessel aligned with the X axis, this entry would read: Vessel centerline direction vector X ..... 1.0 Vessel centerline direction vector Y ..... <Blank> Vessel centerline direction vector Z ..... <Blank>

Note: The centerlines of the nozzle and vessel cannot be co-linear or CAESAR II will flag this as an error. This entry is ignored for spherical vessels. Displacements Activate by double-clicking the Displacements check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet. Deactivate by double clicking the Displacements check box a second time.

This auxiliary screen is used to enter imposed displacements for up to two nodes per spreadsheet. Up to nine displacement vectors may be entered (load components D1 through D9). If a displacement value is entered for any vector, this direction is considered to be fixed for any other non-specified vectors. Note Leaving a direction blank for all nine vectors models the system as being free to move in that direction. Specifying 0.0 implies that the system is fully restrained in that direction.

Enter the node number where the displacement is to be specified. There must not be a restraint at this node. Enter the displacements at the node. Any displacement direction not specified for any displacement vector will be free. To specify an anchor at Node 50 with a displacement of 0.25 in. in the +X , 0.10 in. in the +Y , and 0.08 in. in the Z , for displacement vector #1, enter data as shown in the Figure above. The displacements at a node can be specified for up to 9 different vectors, intended to correspond to the 9 temperature cases.

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Note: If an imposed displacement is specified for a specific degree-of-freedom, that degree-of-freedom will be considered restrained for all load cases whether or not they contain that displacement set.

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Forces & Movements Activate by double-clicking the Forces/Moments check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet. Deactivate by double clicking the check box a second time.

This auxiliary screen is used to enter imposed forces and/or moments for up to two nodes per spreadsheet. Up to nine force vectors may be entered (load components F1 through F9).

Uniform Loads Activate by double-clicking the Unifor m L oads check box on the Pipe Element Spr eadsheet . Deactivate by double clicking the check box a second time.

This auxiliary screen is used to enter up to three uniform load vectors (load components U1, U2 and U3). These uniform loads are applied to the entire current element, as well as all subsequent elements in the model, until explicitly changed or zeroed out with a later entry.

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Wind/Wave This auxiliary screen is used to specify whether this portion of the pipe is exposed to wind or wave loading. (Note that the pipe may not be exposed to both.) Selecting Wind exposes the pipe to wind loading; selecting Wave exposes the pipe to wave, current, and buoyancy loadings; selecting Off turns off both types of loading. This screen is also used to enter the Wind Shape Factor (when Wind is specified) and various wave coefficients (if left blank they will be program-computed) when Wave Loading is specified. Entries on this auxiliary screen apply to all subsequent piping, until changed on a later spreadsheet. Note Specific wind and wave load cases are built using the Static Load Case Editor. There are three different methods that can be used to generate wind loads on piping systems: ASCE #7 Standard Edition, 1995 User entry of a pressure vs. elevation table User entry of a velocity vs. elevation table

The appropriate method is selected by placing a value of 1.0 in one of the first three boxes.When defining a pressure or velocity vs. elevation table the user needs to specify only the method and the wind direction on the preceding screen. Upon pressing the User Wind Profile button, the user is prompted for the corresponding pressure or velocity table. If a uniform pressure or velocity is to act over the entire piping system, then only a single entry needs to be made in the table, otherwise the user should enter the pressure or velocity profile for the applicable wind loading. Note To use the ASCE #7 wind loads, all of the fields should be filled in. For example, as per ASCE #7, the following are typical basic wind-speed values: California and West Coast Areas- 124.6 ft. /sec. ( 85 m.p.h.) Rocky Mountains- 132.0 ft. /sec ( 90 m.p.h.)
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Great Plains- 132.0 ft ./sec ( 90 m.p.h.) Non-Coastal Eastern United States- 132.0 ft./sec ( 90 m.p.h.) Gulf Coast- 190.6 ft. /sec (130 m.p.h.) Florida-Carolinas- 190.6 ft./sec (130 m.p.h.) Miami- 212.6 ft. /sec (145 m.p.h.) New England Coastal Areas- 176.0 ft. /sec (120 m.p.h.) Wave Load Drag Coefficient, Cd Coefficient as recommended by API RP2A. Typical values range from 0.6 to 1.20. Entering a 0.0 instructs CAESAR II to calculate the drag coefficient based on particle velocities.

Lift Coefficient, Cl This coefficient accounts for wave lift, which is the force perpendicular to both the element axis and the particle velocity vector. Entering a 0.0 instructs CAESAR II to calculate the added lift coefficient based on particle velocities. Marine Growth The thickness of any marine growth adhering to the external pipe wall. This will increase the pipe diameter experiencing wave loading by twice this value.

Added Mass Coefficient, Ca This coefficient accounts for the added mass of fluid entrained into the pipe. Typical values range from 0.5 to 1.0. Entering a 0.0 instructs CAESAR II to calculate the added mass coefficient based on particle velocities.

Marine Growth Density An entry in this field designates the density to be used if including the weight of the marine growth in the pipe weight. If left blank, the weight of the marine growth will be ignored.

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Off

Up to four different hydrodynamic load cases may be specified for any one job. Several hydrodynamic coefficients are defined on the element spreadsheet. The inclusion of hydrodynamic coefficients causes the loads WAV1, WAV2, WAV3, and WAV4 to be available in the load case editor.

This selection turns off both wind and / or wave loads from this point forward in the model.

A CAESAR II Hydrodynamic Loading dialog is shown in the following figure. In the load case editor, four different wave load profiles can be specified. Current data and wave data may be specified and included together or either of them may be omitted so as to exclude the data from the analysis. CAESAR II supports three current models and six wave models. See the CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual for a detailed discussion of hydrodynamic analysis.

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STRESS CATEGORIES The major stress categories are Primary Secondary Peak

SECONDARY STRESSES These are developed by the constraint of displacements of a structure. These displacements can be caused either by thermal expansion or by outwardly imposed restraint and anchor point movements. Secondary stresses are self-limiting. PEAK STRESSES Unlike loading condition of secondary stress which causes distortion, peak stresses cause no significant distortion. Peak stresses are the highest stresses in the region under consideration and are responsible for causing fatigue failure. CLASSCIFICATION OF LOADS

PRIMARY STRESSES These are developed by the imposed loading and are necessary to satisfy the equilibrium between external and internal forces and moments of the piping system. Primary stresses are not self-limiting.

Primary loads These can be divided into two categories based on the duration of loading. Sustained loads These loads are expected to be present throughout the plant operation. e,g. pressure and weight. Expansion loads These are loads due to displacements of piping. e,g .thermal expansion, seismic anchor movements, and building settlement. Occasional loads These loads are present at infrequent intervals during plant operation. e,g. earthquake, wind, etc. What is flexibility? Flexibility is also a crucial factor in piping system. Train rails illustrate the principle of piping flexibility. Think that the rail ends are squarely fitting, without any gap. When
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the ambient temperature rises, the rails expand. The expansion creates a high force, which can push the joints out of alignment. That is dangerous for the train. That is why we have a small gap between two rails. The rails expand into the gap. No force, no misalignment and all safe. Similarly, pipes are installed during relatively cooler conditions. When a hot fluid passes in the pipe, or when the ambient temperature rises, the pipe expands. The expansion generates enormous force. If only one end of the pipe were connected, the other, loose, end can expand. But generally, in piping both ends are connected. The expansion force acts on equipment or a structure or whatever the pipe is connected to. If it is flexible, the piping system absorbs the expansion and there is no force on to the connected equipment. How to give flexibility? Flexibility can be provided in many ways. The turns and bends that are required for running a pipe from one point to another, by themselves, provide some flexibility. This automatic flexibility may or may not be sufficient. Expansion loops or flexible joints give additional flexibility. Remember, a short pipe requires less capital cost and reduces operating cost, but a short and direct layout is not flexible and cannot absorb thermal expansion. What is an expansion loop? An expansion loop is when some pipe length is perpendicular to the direction of the main pipe run. That way, when it expands, the pipe pushes the loop leg rather than transmitting force to the equipment or structure. The longer the loop leg, the smaller the force Do not overdo Flexibility also carries a danger. Engineers tend to provide more flexibility than required, thinking that the more the flexibility, the safer the pipes. This is a misconception. Think of the train rails again. If, instead of a small gap, we give a large gap at the joint, the extra flexibility is achieved. The excessive flexibility provides enough room for the rails to expand, but, when a train passes, it jumps and, if severe, derails. Also remember that excessive flexibility adds to the cost due to additional pipes. Pipes take up costly space. Also an over-flexible system is weaker in resisting wind, arthquake and other occasional loads and such a system is prone to vibrations.

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Apply your judgment

Use computer The job of checking the piping flexibility is a specialised job. Software helps the analysis. A simple system can take some days by using hand calculations. The same system can be analysed in a few minutes on computer, using software. Also, software can handle almost any complexity of the system. Formulas are good to help develop an engineer's feelings but hand calculations are behind the time. Most flexibility software packages are capable of doing more than the flexibility analysis. They are 'pipe stress analysis programs'. They can handle thermal, weight, earthquake, wind, pressure and many other loadings. They check not only the piping, but also the connecting equipment viz. pumps, compressors, vessels etc. The programs also select spring hangers, calculate support loads and so forth.

Software helps the analysis, but, at the same time, engineer should apply judgment. For example, American piping codes give a formula to know quickly whether flexibility is adequate. The piping codes also says that analysis need not be performed, if the piping system duplicates a successfully operating installation or can be adjudged adequate by comparison with previously analysed system. Modern engineers should appreciate this foresight. Duplication of a good thing is not a weakness. Loads The piping is subjected to the following loads. Self-weight of piping Weight of contents Weight of insulation Weight of refractory Weight of inner casing Weight of outer casing Weight of fittings Weight of valves Weight of gages Weight of instruments Weight of attachments Weight of equipment Weight of devices Weight of steam tracers Weight of steam traps

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Seismic load (earth-quack load)

Weight of pumps Weight of lugs Weight of humans (during maintenance) Weight of tools (during maintenance) Wind load Loads due to fire Loads due to floods Loads due to rain Loads due to snow Loads due to ice Loads due to waves Loads due to tsunami Loads due to pressure surges Loads due to water hammer Loads due to steam hammer Loads due to opening of valves Loads due to closure of valves Impact loads from near-by machines Vibration loads Shock loads Transient loads Dynamic loads Thermal expansion Thermal contraction loads Loads due to differential settlement of foundations Loads due to equipments displacements Loads on buried piping from soil, river, sea, ponds and sediments Loads on buried piping from vehicles, trains, air-crafts and space-crafts Loads due Bourdons effect Loads due to flow of fluids Internal pressure from fluids External pressure from fluids Loads due to change in fluid flow direction Loads due to manual & artificial manipulation of valves & devices

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Load Combinations Sustained Loads Self-weight of piping, Weight of contents, Weight of insulation, Weight of refractory, Weight of inner casing, Weight of outer casing, Weight of fittings, Weight of valves, Weight of gages, Weight of instruments, Weight of attachments, Weight of equipment, Weight of devices, Weight of steam tracers, Weight of steam traps, Weight of pumps, Weight of lugs, Loads due to soil, river, sea and ponds for buried piping, Loads due to Bourdons effect, Loads due to flow to fluids laminar and turbulent fluid flows, Loads due to change in fluid flow direction, Internal pressure and External pressure. All the loads (sustained loads) plus Thermal expansion loads, Thermal contraction loads, Loads due to differential settlement of foundations and Loads due to equipment movements. Hydraulic Test Loads All the loads under sustained loads plus hydraulic test water weight and Hydraulic test pressure Expansion Loads All the loads under operating loads minus loads under sustained loads

Operating Loads

Occasional Loads

Weight of humans during shut-down, Weight of tools during shut-down, Wind load, Seismic load (Earth- quake load), Loads due to fire, Loads due to flood, Loads due to rain, Loads due to snow, Loads due to ice, Loads due to waves, Loads due to Tsunami, Loads due to pressure surges, Loads due to water hammer, Loads due to steam hammer, Loads due to closure of valves, Impact loads, Vibration loads Shock loads, Transient loads, Dynamic loads, Loads vehicles, trains, air-crafts and spacecrafts for buried piping, Loads due to opening of valves and Loads due to manual & artificial manipulations of valves and devices.

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Allowable Stress The allowable stress for piping at working temperature (As per the Power Piping code ASME B31.1) is given below. For safety, the following shall be satisfied: Induced Stress < Allowable Stress. The following six conditions shall be satisfied for safety of the piping. Ssust Shyro Socct Sexpn Shear stress Bearing stress < Sh < 0.9 x Scy < 1.2 Sh < f (1.25 Sh + 1.25 Sc) < 0.8 x Sh < 1.6 x Sh

Where, Ssust = Induced stress due to sustained loads, MPa Shyro = Induced stress due to hydraulic test at shop or field, MPa Socct = Induced stress due to occasional loads like Wind, Seismic, Wave, etc., MPa Sexpn = Induced stress due to the expansion loads, MPa Sh = Allowable stress at working temperature, MPa Sc = Allowable stress in cold condition (at 21C), MPa Scy = Yield stress for the piping material at ambient temperature (21 C), MPa f = A factor to take care of fatigue load cycles = 1.0 for 7,000 fatigue load cycles (maximum) = 0.9 for 7,000 to 14,000 fatigue load cycles = 0.8 for 14,000 to 22,000 fatigue load cycles = 0.9 for 22,000 to 45,000 fatigue load cycles = 0.9 for 45,000 to 100,000 fatigue load cycles = 0.5 for the number of fatigue load cycles = 100,00 or more Sh is the least of the following: Scy/1.5, (b) Shy/1.5, (c) Scu/3.5, (d) Shu x 1.1/3.5, (e) 0.67 x Sravg, (f) Srmin/1.25 & (g) Scrp Where, Scy = Yield stress for the piping material at ambient temperature (21C), MPa Shy = Yield stress for the piping material at working temperature, MPa Scu = Ultimate tensile stress for the piping material at ambient temperature (21C), MPa Shu = Ultimate tensile stress for the piping material at working temperature, MPa
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Sc is corresponding to Sh, where the working temperature is taken as C. 21 The values of Sh and Sc are tabulated in ASME B 31.1, for various materials and various working temperatures. There are no limits on stresses induced during the normal operation of the piping. There are no explicit limits on the deformation of piping. The induced stress can be computed using any reliable method. The hydraulic test shall be conducted at shop or field, at a temperature not less than 21 C. Piping at cryogenic temperatures is not covered by ASME B31.1. Vibration requirements are non-mandatory. Deformation The piping deforms due to loads. The deformation at any point has two values. One deformation is the linear deformation. The other deformation is the angular deformation. The linear deformation can be resolved into three linear deformations in any three mutually perpendicular directions. Similarly, the angular deformation can be resolved into three angular deformations in any three mutually perpendicular directions. The deformation of the pipe and the piping components can be computed by manual or computer-based methods. The induced deformation is to be limited to the allowable. The allowable deformation as per various codes, standards and regulations are different. The suggested limit on piping deformation, in the vertically downward direction (linear deformation) is 2.54 mm (0.1 inch), as per the Power Piping code ASME: B31.1. The allowable deformation, in the vertically downward direction for tubes, used in some of the boiler industry is not more than 6.35 mm (0.25 inch). The allowable deformation in the vertically downward direction for structures (as per IS: 800) is Span / 325. There are no limits on the angular deformations for pipes. Some of the piping supports makers limit the angular deformation of the piping hanger rods to half a Degree to the vertical direction (half cone angle). The Exercise given below gives the application of these concepts to a commonly used piping.

SRavg = Average stress at working temperature for creep rupture in 100,000 hours, MPa SRmin= Minimum stress at working temperature foe creep rupture in 100,000 hours, MPa Scrp = Stress at working temperature to produce a creep strain of 0.01% in 1,000 hours, MPa

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Linear Deformation of Piping Pipe size Pipe outside diameter Pipe nominal thickness Pipe material Pipe working pressure Pipe working metal temperature Pipe allowable deformation (ASME: B31.1) Pipe allowable deformation (Boiler) Pipe support span Pipe allowable deformation (IS: 800) Conclusion: NPS4 Schedule 80 114.3 mm 12.7 mm ASTM A 106 Grade B 120 kg / sq cm (g) 350 Degree C 2.54 mm (0.1 inch) suggested

6.35 mm (0.25 inch) suggested 3,250 mm (assumed) Span / 325 = 3,250 / 325 = 10.0 mm suggested

Vibration

The allowable deformations as per different codes are different.

Piping is subjected to vibration due to loads varying with time. In the stress analysis of piping the following six assumptions are generally made: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Linear behavior Elastic material Homogeneous solids Isotropic material property Steady state loading Static piping

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Even-though none of the above indicated six assumptions correct, these assumptions lead to simplified design and stress analysis. Out-of the six simplifying assumptions, the assumption that the piping is Static can be improved with Dynamic stress analysis. In the Dynamic stress analysis, the loading varies with time. In comparison to the Dynamic stress analysis, the piping can be analyzed considering Transient behavior. Even-though the words Dynamic and Transient are used interchangeably in the normal usage of the English language, these words are worldsapart, in the Technical terminology. Dynamic behavior indicates the consideration of Mechanical Vibration. The Transient behavior indicates Thermal Transients. The popularly used piping stress analysis computer programs like CAESAR and CAEPIPE

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can perform Dynamic stress analysis. The Transient behavior can be analyzed using computer programs applicable for checking the fluid flow, fluid distribution and pumping power. The following loads are Dynamic in nature: a) b) c) d) e) f) Wind load Seismic load (Earth-quack load) Pressure surge Water hammer Steam hammer Sudden opening and / or closing of valves

The methods used for vibration analysis are numerous. The exact method to be used for a particular application is to be decided by the Stress Analyst. The code on Power Piping - ASME B31.1 doesnt mandate the use of Dynamic stress analysis. RELATIVE DENSITY (SPECIFIC GRAVITY) OF VARIOUS SUBSTANCES Water (fresh) Water (sea average) Aluminum Antimony Bismuth Brass Brick Carbon (diamond) Carbon (graphite) Carbon (charcoal) Chromium Clay Coal Cobalt Copper Cork Glass (crown) Glass (flint) Gold Iron (cast) Iron (wrought) Lead Magnesium Manganese 100 103 256 670 980 840 21 34 23 18 65 19 136-14 86 877 024 25 35 193 721 778 114 174 80 Mica Nickel Oil (linseed) Oil (olive) Oil (petroleum) Oil (turpentine) Paraffin Sand (dry) Silicon Silver Slate Sodium Steel (mild) Sulphur Tin Tungsten Wood (ash) Wood (beech) Wood (ebony) Wood (elm) Wood(lignum-vitae) Wood (oak) Wood (pine) Wood (teak) 29 86 094 092 076-086 087 086 142 26 1057 21-28 097 787 207 73 191 075 07-08 11-12 066 13 07-10 056 08

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Mercury

Notes on CAESAR Load Cases Definition of a Load Case

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Zinc

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In CAESAR terms, a load case is a group of piping system loads that are analyzed together, i.e., that are assumed to be occurring at the same time. An example of a load case is an operating analysis composed of the thermal, deadweight, and pressure loads together. Another is an as-installed analysis of deadweight loads alone. A load case may also be composed of the combinations of the results of other load cases; for example, the difference in displacements between the operating and installed cases. No matter what the contents of the load case, it always produces a set of reports in the output, which list restraint loads, displacements and rotations, internal forces, moments, and stresses. Because of piping code definitions of calculation methods and/or allowable stresses, the load cases are also tagged with a stress category. For example, the combination mentioned above might be tagged as an Expansion stress case.

The piping system loads which compose the basic (non-combination) load sets relate to various input items found on the piping input screen. The table below lists the individual load set designations, their names and the input items, which make them available for analysis. Designation Name Input items which activate this load case Pipe Weight, Insulation Weight, Fluid Weight, Rigid Weight Contents Pipe Weight, Insulation Weight, Rigid Weight Pipe Weight, Insulation Weight, Waterfilled Weight, Rigid Weight (usually used for Hydro Test) Temperature #1 Temperature #2 Temperature #3 Temperature #9 Pressure #1 Pressure #2 Pressure #3

W WNC WW T1 T2 T3 T9 P1 P2 P3

Deadweight

Weight No fluid Water Weight Thermal Set 1 Thermal Set 2 Thermal Set 3 Thermal Set 9 Pressure Set 1 Pressure Set 2 Pressure Set 3

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P9 HP D1 D2 D3 D9 F1 F2 F3 F9 WIN1 WIN2 WIN3 WIN4 WAV1 WAV2 WAV3 WAV4 U1 U2 U3 CS H

Note Available piping system loads display on the left side of the Static Load Case screen. The following family of load cases provides a valid example of algebraic combination Load Case 1 2 3 4 Designation Comments Hot operating; note the 0.67 scale factor W+T1+P1+H+0.67CS which takes credit only for 2/3 of the cold (OPE) spring W1+P1+H+0.67CS(OPE) Cold operating: with cold spring included W1+P1+H(SUS) Traditional sustained case Wind case; note this will be manipulated later to represent average wind (1X), WIN1(OCC) maximum wind (2X), as well as positive and negative directions.

Pressure Set 9 Hydrostatic Test Pressure Displacements Set 1 Displacements Set 2 Displacements Set 3 Displacement Set 9 Force Set 1 Force Set 2 Force Set 3 Force Set 9 Wind Load 1 Wind Load 2 Wind Load 3 Wind Load 4 Wave Load 1 Wave Load 2 Wave Load 3 Wave Load 4 Uniform Loads Uniform Loads Uniform Loads Cold Spring Hanger Initial Loads

Pressure #9 Hydro Pressure Displacements (1st Vector) Displacements (2nd Vector) Displacements (3rd Vector) Displacements (9th Vector) Forces/Moments (1st Vector) Forces/Moments (2nd Vector) Forces/Moments (3rd Vector) Forces/Moments (9th Vector) Wind Shape Factor Wind Shape Factor Wind Shape Factor Wind Shape Factor Wave Load On Wave Load On Wave Load On Wave Load On Uniform Loads (1st Vector) Uniform Loads (2nd Vector) Uniform Loads (3rd Vector) Material # 18 or 19 Hanger Design or Pre-specified Hangers

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5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

L1-L2(EXP)

L1-L2(FAT)

L1+L4(OPE) L1-L4(OPE) L1+2L4(OPE) L1-2L4(OPE) L2+L4(OPE) L2-L4(OPE)

L2+2L4(OPE) L2-2L4(OPE) L3+L4(OCC)

L3+2L4(OCC)

L9+L10+L11+L12(OPE)

Traditional expansion case, cold to hot (note reference to "L" for "Load", rather than "DS". Same case but now evaluated for fatigue at 10,000 cycles. Hot operating with average wind (in positive direction). Hot operating with average wind (in negative direction). Hot operating with maximum wind (in positive direction). Hot operating with maximum wind (in negative direction). Cold operating with average wind (in positive direction). Cold operating with average wind (in negative direction). Cold operating with maximum wind (in positive direction). Cold operating with maximum wind (in negative direction). Occasional stress case, sustained plus average wind. Occasional stress case, sustained plus maximum wind. Maximum restraint load case (the combination option should be MAX).

Recommended Load Cases When the user first enters the static load case editor CAESAR recommends, based on the loads defined in the model, three types of load cases: Operating, Sustained, and Expansion (but not occasional).

Operating load cases represent the loads acting on the pipe during hot operation, including both primary (weight pressure, and force) loadings and secondary (displacement and thermal) loadings. Operating cases are used to find hot displacements for interference checking, and hot restraint and equipment loads. Generally when recommending operating load cases, CAESAR combines weight, pressure case #1, and hanger loads with each of the thermal load cases (displacement
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set #1 with thermal set #1, displacement set #2 with thermal set #2, etc....), and then with any cold spring loads. Sustained load cases represent the primary force-driven loadings acting on the pipe, i.e., weight and pressure alone. This usually coincides with the cold (asinstalled) load case. Sustained load cases are used to satisfy the code sustained stress requirements, as well as to calculate as-installed restraint and equipment loads. Sustained load cases are generally built by combining weight with each of the pressure and force sets, and then with any hanger loads. Expansion load cases represent the range between the displacement extremes (usually between the operating and sustained cases). Expansion load cases are used to meet expansion stress requirements. W+D1+T1+P1+H (OPE) W+P1+H (SUS) L1-L2 (EXP) OPERATING SUSTAINED LOAD CASE EXPANSION LOAD CASE

Most users will specify only one temperature and one pressure. Such input would simplify the recommended cases to something like: Case # 1 Case # 2 Case # 3

The user should review any load recommendations made by CAESAR.

Note CAESAR does not recommend any occasional load cases. Definition of these is the responsibility of the user. If these recommended load cases do not satisfy the analysis requirements, they may always be deleted or modified. Conversely, the load cases may always be reset to the program recommended set at any time.

Case # 1 Case # 2 Case # 3 Case # 4 Case # 5 Case # 6L2-L1 (EXP)

If the user has an operating temperature below ambient in addition to one above ambient the user should add another expansion load case as follows:

W+D1+T1+P1+H (OPE) W+D2+T2 +P1+H (OPE) W+P1+H (SUS) SUSTAINED LOAD CASE L1-L3 (EXP) EXPANSION LOAD CASE L2-L3 (EXP) EXPANSION LOAD CASE the user should add this since it is not recommended by CAESAR

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Recommended Load Cases for Hanger Selection If spring hangers are to be designed by the program, two additional load cases must first be analyzed in order to obtain the data required to select a variable support. The two basic requirements for sizing hangers are the deadweight carried by the hanger (hot load) and the range of vertical travel to be accommodated. The first load case (traditionally called Restrained Weight) consists of only deadweight (W). For this analysis CAESAR includes a rigid restraint in the vertical direction at every location where a hanger is to be sized. The load on the restraint from this analysis is the deadweight that must be carried by the support in the hot condition. For the second load case, the hanger is replaced with an upward force equal to the calculated hot load, and an operating load case is run. This load case (traditionally called Free Thermal) includes the deadweight and thermal effects, the first pressure set (if defined), and any displacements, (W+D1+T1+P1). The vertical displacements of the hanger locations, along with the previously calculated deadweights are then passed on to the hanger selection routine. Once the hangers are sized, the added forces are removed and replaced with the selected supports along with their pre-loads (cold loads), designated by load component H. (Note that load component H may appear in the load cases for hanger design if the user has predefined any springs- in this case it would represent the pre-defined operating loads.) CAESAR then continues with the load case recommendations as defined above. A typical set of recommended load cases for a single operating load case spring hanger design appears as follows: Case # 1W Case # 2 W+D1+T1+P1 Case # 3 W+D1+T1+P1+H (OPE) Case # 4 W+P1+H (SUS) Case # 5 L3-L4 (EXP) WEIGHT FOR HANGER LOADS OPERATING FOR HANGER TRAVEL OPERATING (HGRS. INCLUDED SUSTAINED LOAD CASE EXPANSION LOAD CASE

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These hanger sizing load cases (#1 & #2) generally supply no information to the output reports other than the data found in the hanger tables. Note how cases 3, 4, & 5 match the recommended load cases for a standard analysis with one thermal and one pressure defined. Also notice how the displacement combination numbers in case 5 have changed to reflect the new order. If multiple temperatures and pressures existed in the input, they too would appear in this set after the second spring hanger design load case. Two other hanger design criteria also affect the recommended load cases. If the actual cold loads for selected springs are to be calculated, one additional load case (WNC+H) would appear before case #3 above. If the piping systems hanger design criteria are set so that the proposed springs must accommodate more than one operating condition, other load cases must additionally appear before the case #3 above. An extra hanger design operating load case must be performed for each

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additional operating load case used to design springs. Refer to the discussion of the hanger design algorithm for more information on these options. Load Case SUSTAINED EXPANSION OPERATING OPERATING SUSTAINED Report STRESS STRESS DISPLACEMENTS RESTRAINTS RESTRAINTS Purpose Code compliance Code compliance Interference checks Hot restraint, equipment loads As-installed restraint, equipment loads

Note Load cases used for hanger sizing produce no reports. Also, the hanger table and Hanger table with text reports are printed only once even though more than one active

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SYMBOLS USED IN THE FORMULAE t = minimum required thickness (millimeters, mm). = outside diameter of cylinder (millimeters, mm) = inside radius of cylinder (millimeters, mm)

P = maximum allowable working pressure (megapascals, MPa). (Note - this refers to gauge pressure) D R

S = maximum allowable stress value, at the operating temperature of the metal, as listed in the Section II, Part D, Table 1A, (megapascals, MPa).. The tables are located in an Section II, Part D at the back of the 2004 ASME Academic Code Extract. Each table spans four pages. Reference the line number on the first page to follow along each page until you find the correct temperature value required. C E = minimum allowance for threading and structural stability, (millimeters, mm). = thickness factor for expanded tube ends (millimeters, mm).

E = efficiency of longitudinal welded joints or of ligaments between openings, whichever is lower. The values allowed for E are listed in This is a factor that has no units, (for example, the value of E for seamless cylinders is 1.00)

y = a temperature coefficient: This factor has no units and has a value between 0.4 and 0.7. The values allowed for y are listed in (for example, for ferritic steel at 550C, the value of y is 0.7)

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BOILER TUBE CALCULATIONS To calculate the required minimum wall thickness or the maximum allowable working pressure of ferrous boiler tubing, up to and including 125 mm O.D., the following formulae, as given in are used:

PIPING, DRUM AND HEADER CALCULATIONS (see page 7 of the 2004 ASME Codes Extract) gives the formulae that are used to calculate the required minimum thickness or the maximum allowable wor king pr essur e of ferrous piping, drums, and headers. The size of each component may be stated as the outside diameter or as the inside radius. The formulae that are applied differ in each case, and are as follows:

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Expansion fittings The expansion fitting is one method of accommodating expansion. These fittings are placed within a line, and are designed to accommodate the expansion, without the total length of the line changing. They are commonly called expansion bellows, due to the bellows construction of the expansion sleeve.

Other expansion fittings can be made from the pipe work itself. This can be a cheaper way to solve the problem, but more space is needed to accommodate the pipe. Full loop this is simply one complete turn of the pipe and, on steam pipe work, should preferably be fitted in a horizontal rather than a vertical position to prevent condensate accumulating on the upstream side. The downstream side passes below the upstream side and great care must be taken that it is not fitted the wrong way round, as condensate can accumulate in the bottom. When full loops are to be fitted in a confined space, care must be taken to specify that wrong-handed loops are not supplied.

The full loop does not produce a force in opposition to the expanding pipe work as in some other types, but with steam pressure inside the loop, there is a slight tendency to unwind, which puts an additional stress on the flanges.

Horseshoe or lyre loop When space is available this type is sometimes used. It is best fitted horizontally so that the loop and the main are on the same plane. Pressure does not tend to blow the ends of the loop apart, but there is a very slight straightening out effect. This is due to the design but causes no misalignment of the flanges. If any of these arrangements are fitted with the loop vertically above the pipe then a drain point must be provided on the upstream side as depicted in Fig
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This design is used rarely today due to the space taken up by the pipe work, and proprietary expansion bellows are now more readily available. However large steam users such as power stations or establishments with large outside distribution systems still tend to use full loop type expansion devices, as space is usually available and the cost is relatively low.

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Horseshoe or lyre loop Expansion loops

The expansion loop can be fabricated from lengths of straight pipes and elbows welded at the joints. An indication of the expansion of pipe that can be accommodated by these assemblies is shown in Figure

Expansion loop

It can be seen from Figure that the depth of the loop should be twice the width, and the width is determined from Figure, knowing the total amount of expansion expected from the pipes either side of the loop.

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Expansion Loop calculation

For a Basic Expansion Loop

L W
L W D E

Where

=2xW = 6.225 x D 5

= Length of Expansion Loop = Width of Expansion Loop = Thermal expansion of run = Pipe Outside Diameter = Modulus of Elasticity

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Input echo Miscellaneous Data Load Case Report Operating Sustain Expansion Sustain Expansion

Report Generation

=>code compliance =>code compliance =>Displacement =>Displacement =>Displacement

Operating =>Restrains Sustain =>Restrains Expansion =>Restrains Operating + Sustain + Expansion Operating Sustain Expansion

Operating Sustain Expansion

Operating Sustain Expansion Operating Sustain Expansion

=>Global Element Forces Extended => Global Element Forces Extended => Global Element Forces Extended => Local Element Forces => Local Element Forces => Local Element Forces => Stress => Stress => Stress

=>Global Element Forces => Global Element Forces => Global Element Forces

=>Restraint Summary

Operating => Stress Extended Sustain => Stress Extended Expansion => Stress Extended Operating + Sustain + Expansion Hanger table Warning Report

=>Stress Summary

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Equipment and Component Evaluation

Volume-II

The CAESAR II equipment and component compliance analytical modules are executed from the CAESAR II Main Menu using the Analysis Menu. Vessels, flanges, turbines, compressors, pumps and heat exchangers can be checked for excessive piping loads in accordance with appropriate standards. Input is via tabbed spreadsheets, and help screens are available for each data cell (launched with [F1] or the? key). Output reports can be sent to the printer, terminal or files. Often suction (inlet), discharge (exhaust), and extraction lines are analyzed for forces and moments in separate runs of a pipe stress program. Once all of the loadings for a particular piece of equipment are computed, the equipment program is executed to determine if these loads are acceptable in accordance with the governing code. The user enters the equipments basic geometry and the loads on its nozzles computed from the piping program. The equipment analysis determines if these loads are excessive.

One convenient feature of the CAESAR II equipment programs is that nozzles on equipment can be analyzed separately. Often times a user will only have suction side loads, and often the particular dimensions of the pump are unknown, or are difficult to obtain. In these cases, CAESAR II accepts zeros or no-entries for the unknown data and will still generate a single-nozzle equipment check report. Therefore, while overall compliance may not be evaluated, the user can still check the individual nozzle limits. This is a valuable tool to have, as in this case the user is looking more for load guidance, rather than for some fixed or precise limit on allowable.

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Intersection Stress Intensification Factors

All of these program modules share the same interface for easy transition. The individual modules are described following section.

With this module, intersection stress intensification factors (SIFs) can be computed for any of the three-pipe type intersections available in CAESAR II

Intersection Types

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A sample input spr eadsheet is shown below

Intersection Stress Intensification Factors

Stress intensification factors are reported for a range of different configuration values.

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Bend Stress Intensification Factors This module provides a scratch pad for determining stress intensification factors (SIFs) for various bend configurations under different codes. Bend stress intensification factors can be computed for Pipe bends without any additional attachments. These calculations are done exactly according to the piping code being used. Mitered pipe bends. These calculations are done exactly according to the piping code being used. Pipe bends with a trunnion attachment. These calculations are taken from the paper Stress Indices for Piping Elbows with Trunnion Attachments for Moment and Axial Loads, by Hankinson, Budlong and Albano, in the PVP Vol. 129, 1987. The bend stress intensification factor input spreadsheet is shown below:

Bend Stress Intensification Spreadsheet

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Input here is fairly straight forward; if there is a question about a particular data entry, the help screens should be queried. In most cases data that does not apply is left blank. For example, to review the SIFs for a bend that does not have a trunnion, the three trunnion related input fields should be left blank.

Bend Stress Intensification Factors Trunnion

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WRC 107 (Vessel Stresses) The Welding Research Council Bulletin 107 (WRC 107) has been used extensively since 1965 by design engineers to estimate local stresses in vessel/attachment junctions.

Note There are three editions of WRC 107 available from the program; the default is set by the user in the Configure-Setup option. WRC 107 Bulletin provides an analytical tool to evaluate the vessel stresses in the immediate vicinity of a nozzle. This method can be used to compute the stresses at both the inner and outer surfaces of the vessel wall, and report the stresses in the longitudinal and circumferential axes of the vessel/nozzle intersection. The convention adopted by WRC 107 to define the applicable orientations of the applied loads and stresses for both spherical and cylindrical vessels are shown in the figure below.

SPHERICAL SHELLS To Define WRC Axes:

CYLINDRICAL SHELLS To Define WRC Axes:

2) M1-axis: Perpendicular to the nozzle 2) MC-axis: Along the vessel centerline and positive to correspond with any center line along convenient global axis. parallel global axis.
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1) P-axis: Along the Nozzle centerline and 1) P-axis: Along the Nozzle centerline and positive entering the vessel. positive entering the vessel.

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3) M2-axis: Cross the P-axis into the M1 3) ML-axis: Cross the P-axis with the MC axis and the result is the M2-axis. axis and the result is the ML-axis. To Define WRC Stress Points: To Define WRC Stress Points: u-upper, means stress vessel wall at junction. l-lower, means stress on at junction. A-Position on vessel at negative M1 axis. B-Position on vessel at positive M1 axis. C-Position on vessel at positive M2 axis. D-Position on vessel at negative M2 axis. on outside of u-upper, means stress on outside of vessel wall at junction. inside of vessel l-lower, means stress on inside of vessel at junction. junction, along A-Position on vessel at junction, along negative MC axis. junction, along B-Position on vessel at junction, along positive MC axis. junction, along C-Position on vessel at junction, along positive ML axis. junction, along D-Position on vessel at junction, along negative ML axis. Note: Shear axis VC is parallel, and in the same direction as the bending axis ML. Shear axis VL is parallel, and in the Opposite direction as the bending axis MC.

Note Before attempting to use WRC 107 to evaluate the stress state of any nozzle/vessel junction, the user should always make sure that the geometric restrictions limiting the application of WRC 107 are not exceeded. These vary according to the attachment and vessel types. The user is referred to the WRC 107 bulletin directory for this information. The WRC 107 method should probably not be used when the nozzle is very light or when the parameters in the WRC 107 data curves are unreasonably exceeded. Output from the WRC 107 program includes the figure numbers for the curves accessed, the curve abscissa, and the values retrieved. The user is urged to check these outputs against the actual curve in WRC 107 to get a feel for the accuracy of the stresses
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It has also been a common practice to use WRC 107 to conservatively estimate vessel shell stress state at the edge of a reinforcing pad, if any. The stress state in the vessel wall when the nozzle has a reinforcing pad can be estimated by considering a solid plug, with an outside diameter equal to the O.D. of the reinforcing pad, subjected to the same nozzle loading.

WRC Axes Orientation

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calculated. For example, if parameters for a particular problem are always near or past the end of the figures curve data, then the calculated stresses may not be reliable.

The WRC 107 program can be activated by selecting Analysis - WRC 107/297 from the Main Menu. The user may be prompted to enter a job name, and then the following data entry screen appears:

The input data is accumulated by the processor in four spreadsheets. The first sheet displays the title block, the second and third sheets collect the vessel and the nozzle (attachment) geometry data, respectively. From the Vessel Data spreadsheet click the WRC 107 radio button. The WRC 107 Version Year and Use Interactive Control checkboxes can also be enabled from this spreadsheet. The Hot and Cold Allowable Stress Intensities of the vessel as defined per ASME VII, Division 2 can be entered manually or updated from the Material Database by providing the Material Name and Operating Temperature in the corresponding fields. Any allowable values entered manually or modified by the user, display in red.

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No: 21A, First Floor, Ramalinga Nagar, OMR, Kottivakkam, Chennai-41 Ph: 044 2454 2454, 9500 100900, 9940582828, E-Mail: training@kagira.com,ww.kagira.com

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The nozzle loading is specified on the last spreadsheet, according to specific load cases, which include sustained, expansion and occasional cases. These loads are found in the CAESAR I I output restraint load summary under the corresponding load cases or may be extracted from the static output files automatically by clicking the Get fr om Output... button. The WRC 107 specific local input coordinate system has been incorporated into the program; so the loads may be input in either the Global CAESAR I I convention, or in the Local WRC 107 coordinate system. To enter loads in WRC 107 convention, click the WRC 107 radio button. If the Global CAESAR I I convention is used, the vessel and nozzle centerline direction cosines must be present. Note, the positive direction is the Nozzle centerline vector pointing from the nozzle connection towards the vessel centerline. The loads convention may be freely converted from global to local and back provided the direction cosines are present.

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Nozzle curves in WRC Bulletin 107 cover essentially all applications of nozzles in vessels or piping; however, should any of the interpolation parameters, i.e. Beta, etc. fall outside the limits of the available curves, some extrapolation of the WRC method must be used. The current default is to use the last value in the particular WRC table. If one wishes to control the extrapolation methodology interactively, you may do so by changing the WRC 107 default from USE LAST CURVE VALUE to INTERACTIVE CONTROL on the Computation Control tab located inside the Configure-Setup module of the Main Menu or directly in the WRC 107 input file, on the Vessel Data tab. After entering all data, the WRC 107 analysis may be initiated through the Analyze-WRC 107/297 menu option or by clicking the Local Stress Analysis button on the toolbar. CAESAR II will automatically perform the ASME Section VIII, Div. 2 summation. Output reports may be viewed at the terminal or printed. Clicking the button, performs the initial WRC 107 calculation and summation and sends the result to Microsoft_ Word. WRC 107 Stress Summations Because the stresses computed by WRC 107 are highly localized, they do not fall immediately under the B31 code rules as defined by B31.1 or B31.3. The Appendix 4No: 21A, First Floor, Ramalinga Nagar, OMR, Kottivakkam, Chennai-41 Ph: 044 2454 2454, 9500 100900, 9940582828, E-Mail: training@kagira.com,ww.kagira.com

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WRC Bulletin 297

1 of ASME Section VIII, Division 2 (Mandatory Design Based on Stress Analysis) does however provide a detailed approach for dealing with these local stresses. The analysis procedure outlined in the aforementioned code is used in CAESAR II to perform the stress evaluation. In order to evaluate the stresses through an elastic analysis, three stress combinations (summations) must be made:

Published in August of 1984, Welding Research Council (WRC) 297 attempts to extend the existing analysis tools for the evaluation of stresses in cylinder-to-cylinder intersections. WRC 297 differs from the widely used WRC 107 primarily in that WRC 297 is designed for larger d/D ratios (up to 0.5), and that WRC 297 also computes stresses in the nozzle and the vessel. (WRC 107 only computes stresses in the vessel.)

The CAESAR II WRC 297 module shares the same interface with WRC 107. To enable the WRC 297 analysis, from the Vessel tab, click the WRC 297 radio button. The module provides spreadsheets for vessel data, nozzle data, and imposed loads. Vessel and Nozzle data fields function the same way as those in WRC 107. Currently WRC 297 supports one set of loads. The loads may be entered in either Global CAESAR II convention, or in the Local WRC 107 coordinate system. If Global CAESAR II convention is selected vessel and nozzle direction cosines must be present in order to convert the loads into the Local WRC 297 convention as discussed in the WRC 297 bulletin.

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Analysis - WRC 297

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Nozzle Screen

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WRC 297 Loads

The CAESAR II version of WRC 297 also adds the pressure component of the stress using Lames equations, multiplied by the stress intensification factors found in ASME Section VIII, Div. 2, Table AD-560.7. The pressure stress calculation is not a part of the WRC 297 bulletin, but is added here as a convenience for the user. Note CAESAR II also utilizes, through the piping input processor, the nozzle flexibility calculations described in WRC 297 refer to Chapter 3 of the Technical Reference manual.

When provided with the necessary input, CAESAR II calculates the stress components at the four locations on the vessel around the nozzle and also the corresponding locations on the nozzle. Stresses are calculated on both the outer and inner surfaces (upper and lower). These stress components are resolved into stress intensities at these 16 points around the connection. Refer to the WRC 107 discussion for more information on the allowable limits for these stresses and output processing.

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Flange Leakage/Stress Calculations The Flange Leakage/Stress Calculations are started by selecting Main Menu option Analysis Flanges.

There have been primarily two different ways to calculate stress and one way to estimate leakage for flanges that have received general application over the past 20 years. The stress calculation methods are from the following sources: The leakage calculations were also based on the B16.5 rating table approach. Leakage is a function of the relative stiffnesses of the flange, gasket and bolting. Using the B16.5 estimated stress calculations to predict leakage does not consider the gasket type, stiffness of the flange, or the stiffness of the bolting. Using B16.5 to estimate leakage makes the tendency to leak proportional to the allowable stress in the flange, i.e. a flange with a higher allowable will be able to resist higher moments without leakage. Leakage is very weakly tied to allowable stress, if at all. ASME Section VIII ANSI B16.5 Rating Tables

The CAESAR II flange leakage calculation is COADEs first attempt to improve upon the solution of this difficult analysis problem. Equations were written to model the flexibility of the annular plate that is the flange, and its ability to rotate under moment, axial force, and pressure. The results compare favorably with three dimensional finite element analysis of the flange junction. These correlations assume that the distance between the inside diameter of the flange and the center of the effective gasket loading diameter is smaller than the distance between the effective gasket loading diameter and the bolt circle diameter, i.e. that (G-ID) < (BC-G), where, G is the effective gasket loading diameter, ID is the inside diameter of the flange, and BC is the diameter of the bolt circle. The thinner the flange, the greater the tendency to leak. Larger diameter flanges have a greater tendency to leak. Stiffer gaskets have a greater tendency to leak. Leakage is a function of bolt tightening stress. Input for the Flange Module is broken into four sections. The first section describes flange geometry. Several trends have been noticed as flange calculations have been made:

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Flange Analysis

The second section contains data on the bolts and gasket.

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Bolts and Gasket

The third section is used to enter material and stress-related data.

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Material and Stress Data

The fourth section contains the imposed loads.

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Imposed Loads

Note on bolt tightening stress This is a critical item for leakage determination and for computing stresses in the flange. The ASME code bases its stress calculations on a pre-specified, fixed equation for the bolt stress. The resulting value is however often not related to the actual tightening stress that appears in the flange when the bolts are tightened. For this reason, the initial bolt stress input field that appears in the first section of data input, Bolt Initial Tightening Stress, is used only for the flexibility/leakage determination. The value for the bolt tightening stress used in the ASME flange stress calculations is as defined by the ASME code: Bolt Load = Hydrostatic End Force + Force for Leak tight Joint If the Bolt Initial Tightening Stress field is left blank, CAESAR II uses the value 45000 / d Where 45,000 psi is a constant and d is the nominal diameter of the bolt (correction is made for metric units).

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This is a rule of thumb tightening stress, that will typically be applied by field personnel tightening the bolts. This computed value is printed in the output from the flange program. It is interesting to compare this value to the bolt stress printed in the ASME stress report (also in the output). It is not unusual for the rule-of-thumb tightening stress to be larger than the ASME required stress. When the ASME required stress is entered into the Bolt Initial Tightening Stress data field, a comparison of the leakage safety factors can be made and the sensitivity of the joint to the tightening torque can be ascertained. Users are strongly encouraged to play with these numbers to get a feel for the relationship between all of the factors involved. Using the CAESAR II Flange Modeler Only the following input parameters are required to get a leakage report. These parameters Include Flange Inside Diameter Flange Thickness Bolt Circle Diameter Number Of Bolts Bolt Diameter Effective Gasket Diameter Uncompressed Gasket Thickness Effective Gasket Width Leak Pressure Ratio Effective Gasket Modulus Externally Applied Moment Externally Applied Force Pressure

The help screens (press [F1] or ? at the data cell) are very useful for all of the input items and should be used liberally here when there are questions. Unique input cells are discussed as follows: Leak Pressure Ratio This value is taken directly from Table 2-5.1 in the ASME Section VIII code. This table is reproduced in the help screens. This value is more commonly recognized as m, and is termed the Gasket Factor in the ASME code. This is a very important number for leakage determination, as it represents the ratio of the pressure required to prevent leakage over the line pressure.
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Effective Gasket Modulus Typical values are between 300,000 and 400,000 psi for spiral wound gaskets. The higher the modulus the greater the tendency for the program to predict leakage. Errors on the high side when estimating this value will lead to a more conservative design. Flange Rating This is an optional input, but results in some very interesting output. As mentioned above, it has been a widely used practice in the industry to use the ANSI B16.5 and API 605 temperature/ pressure rating tables as a gauge for leakage. Because these rating tables are based on allowable stresses, and were not intended for leakage prediction, the leakage predictions that resulted were a function of the allowable stress for the flange material, and not the flexibility, i.e. modulus of elasticity of the flange. To give the user a feel for this old practice, the minimum and maximum rating table values from ANSI and API were stored and are used to print minimum and maximum leakage safety factors that would be predicted from this method. Example output that the user will get upon entering the flange rating is shown as follows:

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Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines, B31G The B31G criteria provide a methodology whereby corroded pipelines can be evaluated to determine when specific pipe segments must be replaced. The original B31G document incorporates a healthy dose of conservatism and as a result, additional work has been performed to modify the original criteria. This additional work can be found in project report PR-3805, by Battelle, Inc. The details of the original B31G criteria as well as the modified methods are discussed in detail in this report.

CAESAR II implements these B31G computations from the Main Menu select AnalysisB31G. The user is then presented with two spreadsheets on which the problem specific data can be entered. CAESAR II determines the following values according to the original B31G criteria and four modified methods. These values are The hoop stress to cause failure The maximum allowed operating pressure The maximum allowed flaw length

The four modified methods vary in the manner in which the corroded area is estimated. These methods are .85dL The corroded area is approximated as 0.85 times the maximum pit depth times the flaw length. Exact The corroded area is determined numerically using the trapezoid method. Equivalent The corroded area is determined by multiplying the average pit depth by the flaw length. Additionally, an equivalent flaw length (flaw length * average pit depth / maximum pit depth) is used in the computation of the Folias factor. Effective This method also uses a numerical trapezoid summation, however, various sub lengths of the total flaw length are used to arrive at a worst case condition. Note that if the sub length which produces the worst case coincides with the total length, the Exact and Effective methods yield the same result.

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The input screens from the B31G processor are shown below. All input cells have associated help text for user convenience. Note that most of the data required by this processor is acquired through actual field measurements.

Data Spreadsheet

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A maximum of twenty pit measurements may be entered on the Measurements spreadsheet.

Measurements Spreadsheet

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Once the data has been entered, the Analyze menu option initiates the computations. A typical output report is shown as follows.

The data in the input and the resulting output are consistent with the example from the PR-3-805 report on page B-19. For additional information or backup on these computations, an intermediate computation file is generated. For additional information on this processor, please refer to either the B31G document or the Battelle project report PR-3-805.

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Expansion Joint Rating CAESAR II provides a computation module which computes a limit for the total displacement per corrugation of an expansion joint. According to EJMA (Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association), the maximum permitted amount of axial movement per corrugation is defined as erated where ex + ey + eq < erated The terms in the above equation are defined as:

ex = The axial displacement per corrugation resulting from imposed axial movements. ey = The axial displacement per corrugation resulting from imposed lateral deflections. eq = The axial displacement per corrugation resulting from imposed angular rotation, i.e. bending. erated = The maximum permitted amount of axial movement per corrugation. This value should be obtained from the Expansion Joint Manufacturers catalog. In addition, EJMA states, Also, [as an expansion joint is rotated or deflected laterally] it should be noted that one side of the bellows attains a larger projected area than the opposite side. Under the action of the applied pressure, unbalanced forces are set up which tend to distort the expansion joint further. In order to control the effects of these two factors a second limit is established by the manufacturer upon the amount of angular rotation and/or lateral deflection which may be imposed upon the expansion joint. This limit may be less than the rated movement. Therefore, in the selection of an expansion joint, care must be exercised to avoid exceeding either of these manufacturers limits. This CAESAR II computation module is provided to assist the expansion joint user in satisfying these limitations. This module computes the terms defined in the above equation and the movement of the joint ends relative to each other. These relative movements are reported in both the local joint coordinate system and the global coordinate system. The expansion joint rating module can be entered by selecting Main Menu Analysis Expansion Joint Rating option. The user is then presented with two input spreadsheets on which the joint geometry and end displacements are specified.

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Geometry Spreadsheet

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Displacements and Rotation

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A report displaying both the input echo and the output a calculation is shown as follows. The units used for the coordinate and displacement values are the length units defined in the active units file. Rotations are in units of degrees.

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In the previous output, the axial displacement total in the report is the total axial displacement per corrugation due to axial, lateral, and rotational displacement of the expansion joint ends. This is the value that would be compared to the rated axial displacement per corrugation. If e(total) is greater than the rated axial displacement per corrugation, then there is the possibility of premature bellows failure. Be sure that the displacement rating from the manufacturer is on a per corrugation basis. If not then multiply the axial displacement total by the number of corrugations and compare this value to the manufacturers allowable axial displacement. Note that most manufacturers allowed rating is for some set number of cycles (often 10,000). If

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the actual number of cycles is less, then the allowed movement can often be greater. Similarly, if the actual number of cycles is greater than 10,000, then the allowed movement can be smaller. In special situations manufacturers should almost always be consulted because many factors can affect allowed bellows movement.

The y in the report is the total relative lateral displacement of one end of the bellows with respect to the other, and theta is the total relative angular rotation of one end of the bellows with respect to the other. Note that CAESAR II does not include x into the denominator for the lateral displacement calculations as outlined in EJMA.

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NEMA SM23 (Steam Turbines) There are two types of force/moment allowable computed during a NEMA run: Each individual suction, discharge, and extraction nozzle must satisfy the equation: 3F + M < 500De Where: F = resultant force on the particular nozzle. M = resultant moment on the particular nozzle. De = effective nominal pipe size of the connection. A typical discharge nozzle calculation is shown as follows: Individual nozzle allowable. Cumulative equipment allowable.

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For cumulative equipment allowables NEMA SM23 states "the combined resultants of the forces and moments of the inlet, extraction, and exhaust connections resolved at the centerline of the exhaust connection", be within a certain multiple of Dc; where Dc is the diameter of an opening whose area is equal to the sum of the areas of all of the individual equipment connections.

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NEMA Turbine Example Consider a turbine where node 35 represents the inlet nozzle and node 50 represents the outlet nozzle.

The output from a CAESAR II analysis of this piping system includes the forces and moments acting on the pipe elements that attach to the turbine:
NODE FX FY FZ MX MY
188

MZ
603

30 35 50
55

-108 108 -192


192

-49 67
7 -63

-93 93
-11 11

73 162
369 78

-47
-522 117

-481
39 -56

To find the forces acting on the turbine at points 35 and 50 simply reverse the sign of the forces that act on the piping: LOADS ON TURBINE @ 35 -108 -67 -93 -162 47 481 LOADS ON TURBINE @ 50 192 -7 11 -369 522 -39 Aside from the description, there is only one input spreadsheet for the NEMA turbine. Applied loads should be entered in global coordinates or extracted directly from the CAESAR II output file (using the on-screen button). This interface enables iterative addition of arbitrary number nozzles to the model. To add a nozzle, click the Add Nozzle button.

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NEMA Input Inlet

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NEMA Input Exhaust

The first page of the output is the input echo, the second and some of the remaining pages display the individual nozzle calculations while, the last page displays the summation calculations.

Note The actual number of output pages will vary and depends on the number of nozzles defined in the input.

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NEMA Input Echo Report

The NEMA output report for the above turbine example shows that the turbine passed. The highest summation load is only 56% of the allowable. If the turbine had failed, the symbol **FAILED** would have displayed, in red, under the STATUS column opposite to the load combination that was excessive.

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API 610 (Centrifugal Pumps) In August of 1995, API released the 8th edition of API 610 for centrifugal pumps for general refinery service. The API 610 load satisfaction criteria are outlined below: If clause F.1.1 is satisfied, then the pump is O.K. Clause F.1.1 states that the individual component nozzle loads must fall below the allowable listed in the Nozzle Loadings table (Table 2) shown below

Clause F.1.2.1 states that the individual component forces and moments acting on each pump nozzle flange shall not exceed the range specified in Table 2 by a factor of more than 2. Referring to the API 610 report, the user can see if F.1.2.1 is satisfied by comparing the Force/Moment Ratio to 2. If the ratio exceeds 2, the nozzle status is reported as FAILING. The F.1.2.2 and the F.1.2.3 requirements give equations relating the resultant forces and moments on each nozzle, as well as on the pump base point respectively. The requirements of these equations, and whether or not they have satisfied API 610, are shown on the bottom of the report.

If clause F.1.1 is NOT satisfied, but clauses ARE satisfied then the pump is still O.K.

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The following example is taken from the API 610 code and shows the review of an overhung end-suction process pump in English units. The three CAESAR I I input screens are shown, followed by the program output.
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API 610 Input Data

No: 21A, First Floor, Ramalinga Nagar, OMR, Kottivakkam, Chennai-41 Ph: 044 2454 2454, 9500 100900, 9940582828, E-Mail: training@kagira.com,ww.kagira.com

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API 610 Suction Nozzle

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No: 21A, First Floor, Ramalinga Nagar, OMR, Kottivakkam, Chennai-41 Ph: 044 2454 2454, 9500 100900, 9940582828, E-Mail: training@kagira.com,ww.kagira.com

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API 610 Discharge Nozzle

No: 21A, First Floor, Ramalinga Nagar, OMR, Kottivakkam, Chennai-41 Ph: 044 2454 2454, 9500 100900, 9940582828, E-Mail: training@kagira.com,ww.kagira.com

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API 617 (Centrifugal Compressors) The requirements of this standard are identical to those of NEMA SM-23 (1991), except that all of the NEMA allowables are increased by 85%. API 617 Allowables = 1.85 * NEMA SM-23 Allowables The input screens for this evaluation are shown below:

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API 617 Input

No: 21A, First Floor, Ramalinga Nagar, OMR, Kottivakkam, Chennai-41 Ph: 044 2454 2454, 9500 100900, 9940582828, E-Mail: training@kagira.com,ww.kagira.com

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API 617 Suction/Discharge Input

No: 21A, First Floor, Ramalinga Nagar, OMR, Kottivakkam, Chennai-41 Ph: 044 2454 2454, 9500 100900, 9940582828, E-Mail: training@kagira.com,ww.kagira.com

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API 661 (Air Cooled Heat Exchangers) This calculation covers the allowed loads on the vertical, co-linear nozzles (item 9 in the figure) found on most single, or multi-bundled air cooled heat exchangers. The several figures from API 661 illustrate the type of open exchanger body analyzed by this standard

API 661 Input Data

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No: 21A, First Floor, Ramalinga Nagar, OMR, Kottivakkam, Chennai-41 Ph: 044 2454 2454, 9500 100900, 9940582828, E-Mail: training@kagira.com,ww.kagira.com

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API 661 Inlet Nozzle Data

No: 21A, First Floor, Ramalinga Nagar, OMR, Kottivakkam, Chennai-41 Ph: 044 2454 2454, 9500 100900, 9940582828, E-Mail: training@kagira.com,ww.kagira.com

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API 661 Outlet Nozzle Data

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No: 21A, First Floor, Ramalinga Nagar, OMR, Kottivakkam, Chennai-41 Ph: 044 2454 2454, 9500 100900, 9940582828, E-Mail: training@kagira.com,ww.kagira.com

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Heat Exchange Institute Standard For Closed Feed water Heaters This module of the CAESAR II Rotating Equipment program provides a method for evaluating the allowable loads on shell type heat exchanger nozzles. Section 3.14 of the HEI bulletin discusses the computational methods utilized to compute these allowable loads. The method employed by HEI is a simplification of the WRC 107 method, in which the allowable loads have been linear zed to show the relationship between the maximum permitted radial force and the maximum permitted moment vector. If this relationship is plotted (using the moments as the abscissa and the forces as the ordinate), a straight line can be drawn between the maximum permitted force and the maximum permitted moment vector, forming a triangle with the axes. Then for any set of applied forces and moments, the nozzle passes if the location of these loads falls inside the triangle. Conversely, the nozzle fails if the location of the loads falls outside the triangle.

The HEI bulletin states that the effect of internal pressure has been included in the combined stresses; however, the effect of the pressure on the nozzle thrust has not. This requires combination with the other radial loads. CAESAR II automatically computes the pressure thrust and adds it to the radial force if the Add Pressure Thrust checkbox is checked.

The CAESAR II HEI output has been modified to include both the plot of the allowable and the location of the current load set on this plot.

A sample input for the HEI module is shown below. Note that since the pressure is greater than zero, a pressure thrust force will be computed and combined with the radial force.

No: 21A, First Floor, Ramalinga Nagar, OMR, Kottivakkam, Chennai-41 Ph: 044 2454 2454, 9500 100900, 9940582828, E-Mail: training@kagira.com,ww.kagira.com

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HEI Nozzle/Vessel Input

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No: 21A, First Floor, Ramalinga Nagar, OMR, Kottivakkam, Chennai-41 Ph: 044 2454 2454, 9500 100900, 9940582828, E-Mail: training@kagira.com,ww.kagira.com

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API 560 (Fired Heaters for General Refinery Services) This module of the CAESAR II Rotating Equipment program provides a method for evaluating the allowable loads on Fired Heaters. Input consists of the tube nominal diameter and the forces and moments acting on the tube, as shown in the figure below:

API 560 Input Data

No: 21A, First Floor, Ramalinga Nagar, OMR, Kottivakkam, Chennai-41 Ph: 044 2454 2454, 9500 100900, 9940582828, E-Mail: training@kagira.com,ww.kagira.com

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No: 21A, First Floor, Ramalinga Nagar, OMR, Kottivakkam, Chennai-41 Ph: 044 2454 2454, 9500 100900, 9940582828, E-Mail: training@kagira.com,ww.kagira.com

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Ex: 01

No: 21A, First Floor, Ramalinga Nagar, OMR, Kottivakkam, Chennai-41 Ph: 044 2454 2454, 9500 100900, 9940582828, E-Mail: training@kagira.com,ww.kagira.com

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Ex: 02 Data Pipe Size 4 Sch 40 Insulation Thick 100 mm Temp 250 Pressure 10 bar Material SA 106 GrB Fluid Density 1 sg Insulation Density 100 kg/m3

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No: 21A, First Floor, Ramalinga Nagar, OMR, Kottivakkam, Chennai-41 Ph: 044 2454 2454, 9500 100900, 9940582828, E-Mail: training@kagira.com,ww.kagira.com

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Ex: 03

No: 21A, First Floor, Ramalinga Nagar, OMR, Kottivakkam, Chennai-41 Ph: 044 2454 2454, 9500 100900, 9940582828, E-Mail: training@kagira.com,ww.kagira.com

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Data Pipe Size 4 Sch 40 Insulation Thick 100 mm Temp 300 Pressure 25 bar Material SA 106 GrB Fluid Density 1 sg Insulation Density 100 kg/m3

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Ex: 04 Data Pipe Size 6 Sch 40 Insulation Thick 100 mm Temp 350 Pressure 40 bar Material SA 106 GrB Fluid Density 1 sg Insulation Density 100 kg/m3

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No: 21A, First Floor, Ramalinga Nagar, OMR, Kottivakkam, Chennai-41 Ph: 044 2454 2454, 9500 100900, 9940582828, E-Mail: training@kagira.com,ww.kagira.com

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Ex: 05

Data Pipe Size 6& 4 Sch 40 Insulation Thick 100 mm Temp 375 Pressure 60 bar Material SA 106 GrB Fluid Density 1 sg Insulation Density 100 kg/m3 7 to 15 =6 17 to 22 = 4

No: 21A, First Floor, Ramalinga Nagar, OMR, Kottivakkam, Chennai-41 Ph: 044 2454 2454, 9500 100900, 9940582828, E-Mail: training@kagira.com,ww.kagira.com

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Ex: 06

Data Pipe Size 4 Sch 80 Insulation Thick 100 mm Temp 425 Pressure 90 bar Material SA 335 P11 Fluid Density 1 sg Insulation Density 100 kg/m3 Turbine Fx 5KN Fy 2KN Fz 3KN DX DY DZ

Header OD 9 Sch 80 Pad Thick 15 mm Distance to head 2.5 m Distance to Stiffener 4.5 m Fx 2KN Fy 3KN Fz 2KN

+10 mm +5 mm -6mm

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No: 21A, First Floor, Ramalinga Nagar, OMR, Kottivakkam, Chennai-41 Ph: 044 2454 2454, 9500 100900, 9940582828, E-Mail: training@kagira.com,ww.kagira.com

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Ex: 07

No: 21A, First Floor, Ramalinga Nagar, OMR, Kottivakkam, Chennai-41 Ph: 044 2454 2454, 9500 100900, 9940582828, E-Mail: training@kagira.com,ww.kagira.com

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Data Pipe Size 5 Sch 80 Insulation Thick 100 mm Temp 425 Pressure 90 bar Material SA 335 P11 Fluid Density 1 sg Insulation Density 100 kg/m3 Tank Dia 5 m Thick 15 mm Nozzle height 4m Fluid height 7m Fx 5KN Fy 2KN Fz 3KN

Vessel Dia 3m Thick 9mm Pad thick 9mm Distance to head 2.5 m Distance to Stiffener 4.5 Fx 2KN Fy 3KN Fz 2KN

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No: 21A, First Floor, Ramalinga Nagar, OMR, Kottivakkam, Chennai-41 Ph: 044 2454 2454, 9500 100900, 9940582828, E-Mail: training@kagira.com,ww.kagira.com

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Ex: 08

No: 21A, First Floor, Ramalinga Nagar, OMR, Kottivakkam, Chennai-41 Ph: 044 2454 2454, 9500 100900, 9940582828, E-Mail: training@kagira.com,ww.kagira.com

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Data Pipe Size 6 Sch 120 Insulation Thick 150 mm Temp 510 Pressure 120 bar Material SA 335 P12 Fluid Density .5 sg Insulation Density 100 kg/m3 Turbine Fx 5KN Fy 2KN Fz 3KN DX DY DZ

Header OD 12 Sch 120 Pad Thick 22 mm Distance to head 2.5 m Distance to Stiffener 4.5 m Fx 2KN Fy 3KN Fz 2KN

+10 mm +5 mm -6mm

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No: 21A, First Floor, Ramalinga Nagar, OMR, Kottivakkam, Chennai-41 Ph: 044 2454 2454, 9500 100900, 9940582828, E-Mail: training@kagira.com,ww.kagira.com

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Ex: 09

No: 21A, First Floor, Ramalinga Nagar, OMR, Kottivakkam, Chennai-41 Ph: 044 2454 2454, 9500 100900, 9940582828, E-Mail: training@kagira.com,ww.kagira.com

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Data Pipe Size 4 Sch 120 Insulation Thick 150 mm Temp 510 Pressure 120 bar Material SA 335 P12 Fluid Density .5 sg Insulation Density 100 kg/m3 Turbine Fx 5KN Fy 3KN Fz 3KN DX DY DZ

Pump Fx 3KN Fy 3KN Fz 3KN DX DY DZ

+10 mm -15 mm -6mm

+10 mm -15 mm +15mm

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No: 21A, First Floor, Ramalinga Nagar, OMR, Kottivakkam, Chennai-41 Ph: 044 2454 2454, 9500 100900, 9940582828, E-Mail: training@kagira.com,ww.kagira.com

Kagira Drawing Solution