In this assignment we obtained the relation required for evaluation of the fluid pressure in a
stationary or a static fluid. These same relations are also valid if the fluid is moving at
uniform and constant velocity. But these are not valid if the fluid is undergoing any
acceleration because in these cases the fluid particles experience acceleration and hence the
relation for pressure variable is not applicable. And also learn about flow of rates of fluid in
ideal condition not a real condition because the motion of real fluid is very complicated and
not yet fully understood. Instead, we shall discuss the motion of an ideal condition, which is
simpler to handle mathematically and yet provide useful results. There are many assumption
are taken for ideal fluids as likes steady flow, incompressible flow, nonviscous flow,
irrigational flow.
CENTRE OF PRESSURE:
The Centre of Pressure is the average location of all of the pressure acting upon a body
moving through a fluid in other word we says that if centre of pressure is the point where the
total sum of a pressure field acts on a body, causing a force to act through that point. Centre
of pressure is calculated by using the principle of moments, which state that the moment of
the resultant force about an axis is equal to the sum of moments of the components about the
same axis. The resultant force and centre of pressure location produce equivalent force and
moment on the body as the original pressure field. Pressure fields occur in both static and
dynamic fluid mechanics. Specification of the centre of pressure, the reference point from
which the centre of pressure is referenced, and the associated force vector allows the moment
generated about any point to be computed by a translation from the reference point to the
desired new point. It is common for the centre of pressure to be located on the body, but in
fluid flows it is possible for the pressure field to exert a moment on the body of such
magnitude that the centre of pressure is located outside the body.
FLOW RATE OF FLUID:
The volume of fluid displaced within a given time is called flow rate. The basic definition of
flow rate means that liquid flows at a certain speed within a certain time frame. It depends on
the particular liquid that is being tested for flow rates. Understanding the motion of fluid
particle is very difficult for real fluid because the motion of real fluid is very complicated and
not yet fully understood. Instead, we shall discuss the motion of an ideal condition, which is
simpler to handle mathematically and yet provide useful results. There are many assumption
are taken for ideal fluids as likes steady flow, incompressible flow, nonviscous flow,
irrigational flow
.
EXPERIMENT
CENTRE OF PRESSURE APPARATUS
AIM:
To determine the centre of pressure of a curved surface under partial submege and full
submerge condition.
To determine the hydrostatic force on a curved surface under partial submerge and full
submerge condition.
INRODUCTION:
Centre of pressure is defined as the point of application of the total pressure on the surface.
Centre of pressure is calculated by using the principle of moments, which state that the
moment of the resultant force about an axis is equal to the sum of moments of the
components about the same axis.
APPARATUS:
1. Water
2. Water vessel
3. Weight
4. Hanger
5. Water level scale
6. Water tank
THEORY:
Consider the curved portion BC of the open tank, having a unit length perpendicular to the
plane of the paper, as shown in Figure 1(a). To find the resultant fluid force acting on this
section, we consider entire fluid that is enclosed by the surface BC, the horizontal plane
surface AB, and the vertical plane surface AC as a separate body. Imagine that this body is
separated by the remaining fluid mass by an imaginary surface. The free body diagram for the
body is shown in Figure 1(b). From the discussion of forces on planar surfaces, we know the
magnitude and the effective point of application of forces F
1
and F
2
. The weight, W of the
mass of fluid enclosed by the imaginary surface is product of density of the fluid and
enclosed volume and acts through the centre of gravity (CG) of the mass of fluid contained
within the imaginary surface. The forces F
H
and F
V
represent the components of the force that
the tank exerts on the fluid.
FBD of curved surface (ABC),
A B
C
F
2
F
H
F
V
F
1
W
CG
Figure 1(b).
A
B
C
Figure 1(a).
In order for this force system to be in translational and rotational equilibrium, the horizontal
component F
H
must be equal in magnitude and collinear with F
2
, and the vertical component
F
V
equal in magnitude and collinear with the resultant of the vertical forces F
1
and W. Thus,
F
H
= F
2
F
V
= F
1
= W
And the magnitude of the resultant is obtained from the equation:
2 2
) ( ) (
V H H
F F F + =
The inclination of the resultant force with the horizontal will be given by the equation,
H
V
F
F
= o tan
Where is the angle ,which the resultant pressure makes with the horizontal.
PROCEDURE:
1. Close he valve provided.
2. Balance the quadrant by counter weight provided so that the arm become horizontal.
3. Fill the tank with water up to maximum measured limit.
4. Apply all weights (10 50gm) provided with the set up on the weight hanger.
5. Open the drain valve of the tank and let the water flow out of the tank until the arm
comes back o horizontal position.
6. Close the valve and note the height of the water level in the tank and applied weight.
7. Remove one weight from the weight hanger and repeat step 3 and 4 times.
B
C
Figure 1(c).
OBSERVATION:
Serial. No: Weight (gm) Height ( mm)
1. 500 134
2. 450 125
3. 400 115
4. 250 92
5. 200 81
6. 150 69
CALCULATION:
DATA:
a = 100mm = 0.1m
b = 100mm = 0.1m
L = 273mm = 0.273m
K = 206mm = 0.206m
= 9810N/m
3
When h > b i.e. water level above 100mm.
m
a
CG ,
2
=
2
, m b a A =
4
3
,
12
m
ab
I
G
=
m CG
h
X ,
1000
'
=
Table 1
m X
X A
I
h
G
o
,
'
'
+
=
Nm h
h
K X A T
o t
,
1000
'
(

.

\

= e
N
W
F
a
,
1000
81 . 9
=
N
L
T
F
t
t
, =
% 100
=
t
a t
F
F F
Error
Reading1:
kg gm W , 5 . 0
1000
500
, 500 = = =
m mm h , 134 . 0
1000
134
, 134 = = =
2
, m b a A =
2
, 01 . 0 1 . 0 1 . 0 m A = =
4
3
,
12
m
ab
I
G
=
( )
4 6
3
, 10 33 . 8
12
1 . 0 1 . 0
m I
G
=
=
m CG
h
X ,
1000
'
=
05 . 0 134 . 0
2
1 . 0
1000
134
'
= = X =0.084
m X , 084 . 0
'
=
m X
X A
I
h
G
o
,
'
'
+
=
084 . 0 10 91 . 9 084 . 0
084 . 0 01 . 0
10 33 . 8
3
6
0
+ = +
h
m h , 0939 . 0
0
=
Nm h
h
K X A T
o t
,
1000
'
(

.

\

= e
( )   09391 . 0 134 . 0 206 . 0 084 . 0 01 . 0 9810 =
t
T
  04009 . 0 206 . 0 084 . 0 01 . 0 9810 =
t
T
16591 . 0 084 . 0 01 . 0 9810 =
t
T
Nm T
t
, 3671 . 1 =
N
W
F
a
,
1000
81 . 9
=
N F
a
905 . 4 81 . 9 5 . 0
1000
81 . 9 500
= =
=
N
L
T
F
t
t
, =
N F
t
007 . 5
273 . 0
3671 . 1
= =
% 100
=
t
a t
F
F F
Error
% 03 . 2 100
007 . 5
905 . 4 007 . 5
=
= Error
Reading2:
kg gm W , 450 . 0
1000
450
, 450 = = =
m mm h , 125 . 0
1000
125
, 125 = = =
2
, m b a A =
2
, 01 . 0 1 . 0 1 . 0 m A = =
4
3
,
12
m
ab
I
G
=
( )
4 6
3
, 10 33 . 8
12
1 . 0 1 . 0
m I
G
=
=
m CG
h
X ,
1000
'
=
05 . 0 125 . 0
2
1 . 0
1000
125
'
= = X
m X , 075 . 0
'
=
m X
X A
I
h
G
o
,
'
'
+
=
075 . 0 0111 . 0 075 . 0
075 . 0 01 . 0
10 33 . 8
6
0
+ = +
=
h
m h , 0861 . 0
0
=
Nm h
h
K X A T
o t
,
1000
'
(

.

\

= e
( )   08610 . 0 125 . 0 206 . 0 075 . 0 01 . 0 9810 =
t
T
  08610 . 0 206 . 0 075 . 0 01 . 0 9810 =
t
T
1671 . 0 075 . 0 01 . 0 9810 =
t
T
Nm T
t
, 2294 . 1 =
N
W
F
a
,
1000
81 . 9
=
N F
a
, 4145 . 4 81 . 9 450 . 0
1000
81 . 9 450
= =
=
N
L
T
F
t
t
, =
N F
t
, 5032 . 4
273 . 0
2294 . 1
= =
% 100
=
t
a t
F
F F
Error
% 96 . 1 100
5032 . 4
4145 . 4 5032 . 4
=
= Error
Reading3:
kg gm W , 400 . 0
1000
400
, 400 = = =
m mm h , 115 . 0
1000
115
, 115 = = =
2
, m b a A =
2
, 01 . 0 1 . 0 1 . 0 m A = =
4
3
,
12
m
ab
I
G
=
( )
4 6
3
, 10 33 . 8
12
1 . 0 1 . 0
m I
G
=
=
m CG
h
X ,
1000
'
=
05 . 0 115 . 0
2
1 . 0
1000
115
'
= = X
m X , 065 . 0
'
=
m X
X A
I
h
G
o
,
'
'
+
=
065 . 0 01276 . 0 075 . 0
065 . 0 01 . 0
10 33 . 8
6
0
+ = +
=
h
m h , 0777 . 0
0
=
Nm h
h
K X A T
o t
,
1000
'
(

.

\

= e
( )   07776 . 0 115 . 0 206 . 0 065 . 0 01 . 0 9810 =
t
T
  03724 . 0 206 . 0 065 . 0 01 . 0 9810 =
t
T
16876 . 0 065 . 0 01 . 0 9810 =
t
T
Nm T
t
, 07609 . 1 =
N
W
F
a
,
1000
81 . 9
=
N F
a
, 924 . 3 81 . 9 400 . 0
1000
81 . 9 400
= =
=
N
L
T
F
t
t
, =
N F
t
, 9457 . 3
273 . 0
07609 . 1
= =
% 100
=
t
a t
F
F F
Error
% 53 . 0 100
9457 . 3
924 . 3 9457 . 3
=
= Error
3
3 2 1 reading reading reading
Error
avg
+ +
=
3
% 53 . 0 % 96 . 1 % 03 . 2 + +
=
avg
Error
% 50 . 1 =
avg
Error
When h < b i.e. water level below 100 mm.
2
,
1000
m
h
a A =
4
3
,
1000 12
m
h a
I
G

.

\

=
m
h
X ,
1000 2
'
=
m X
X A
I
h
G
o
,
'
'
+
=
Nm h
h
K X A T
o t
,
1000
'
(

.

\

= e
N
W
F
a
,
1000
81 . 9
=
N
L
T
F
t
t
, =
% 100
=
t
a t
F
F F
Error
Reading4:
kg gm W , 250 . 0
1000
250
, 250 = = =
m mm h , 092 . 0
1000
92
, 92 = = =
2
,
1000
m
h
a A =
2 4
, 10 92
1000
92 1 . 0
m A
=
=
4
3
,
1000 12
m
h a
I
G

.

\

=
4 4 3 4 3
3
, 10 10 86 . 64 10 78688 . 7 10 33 . 8
1000
92
12
1 . 0
m I
G
= =

.

\

=
m
h
X ,
1000 2
'
=
m X , 046 . 0
2 1000
92
'
=
=
m X
X A
I
h
G
o
,
'
'
+
=
046 . 0
10 92
10 10 86 . 64
4
4 3
0
+
=
h
046 . 0 01276 . 0
0
+ = h
m h , 06132 . 0
0
=
Nm h
h
K X A T
o t
,
1000
'
(

.

\

= e
( )   06132 . 0 092 . 0 206 . 0 046 . 0 10 92 9810
4
=
t
T
  03068 . 0 206 . 0 046 . 0 10 92 9810
4
=
t
T
175 . 0 046 . 0 10 92 9810
4
=
t
T
Nm T
t
, 7265256 . 0 =
N
W
F
a
,
1000
81 . 9
=
N F
a
4525 . 2 81 . 9 25 . 0
1000
81 . 9 250
= =
=
N
L
T
F
t
t
, =
N F
t
, 661 . 2
273 . 0
7265256 . 0
= =
% 100
=
t
a t
F
F F
Error
% 89 . 7 100
661 . 2
4525 . 2 661 . 2
=
= Error
Reading5:
kg gm W , 200 . 0
1000
200
, 200 = = =
m mm h , 081 . 0
1000
92
, 81 = = =
2
,
1000
m
h
a A =
2 4
, 10 81
1000
81 1 . 0
m A
=
=
4
3
,
1000 12
m
h a
I
G

.

\

=
4 4 3 4 3
3
, 10 10 26 . 44 10 31441 . 5 10 33 . 8
1000
81
12
1 . 0
m I
G
= =

.

\

=
m
h
X ,
1000 2
'
=
m X , 0405 . 0
2 1000
81
'
=
=
m X
X A
I
h
G
o
,
'
'
+
=
0405 . 0
0405 . 0 10 81
10 10 26 . 44
4
4 3
0
+
=
h
0405 . 0 013491 . 0
0
+ = h
m h , 05399 . 0
0
=
Nm h
h
K X A T
o t
,
1000
'
(

.

\

= e
( )   05399 . 0 081 . 0 206 . 0 0405 . 0 10 81 9810
4
=
t
T
  02701 . 0 206 . 0 046 . 0 10 81 9810
4
=
t
T
17899 . 0 0405 . 0 10 81 9810
4
=
t
T
Nm T
t
, 0576020 . 0 =
N
W
F
a
,
1000
81 . 9
=
N F
a
, 962 . 1 81 . 9 2 . 0
1000
81 . 9 200
= =
=
N
L
T
F
t
t
, =
N F
t
, 109 . 2
273 . 0
576020 . 0
= =
% 100
=
t
a t
F
F F
Error
% 97 . 6 100
109 . 2
962 . 1 109 . 2
=
= Error
Reading6:
kg gm W , 150 . 0
1000
150
, 150 = = =
m mm h , 069 . 0
1000
69
, 69 = = =
2
,
1000
m
h
a A =
2 4
, 10 69
1000
69 1 . 0
m A
=
=
4
3
,
1000 12
m
h a
I
G

.

\

=
4 4 3 4 3
3
, 10 10 36 . 27 10 28509 . 3 10 33 . 8
1000
69
12
1 . 0
m I
G
= =

.

\

=
m
h
X ,
1000 2
'
=
m X , 0345 . 0
2 1000
69
'
=
=
m X
X A
I
h
G
o
,
'
'
+
=
0345 . 0
10 69
10 10 36 . 27
4
4 3
0
+
=
h
0345 . 0 0114 . 0
0
+ = h
m h , 0459 . 0
0
=
Nm h
h
K X A T
o t
,
1000
'
(

.

\

= e
( )   04599 . 0 069 . 0 206 . 0 0345 . 0 10 69 9810
4
=
t
T
  02301 . 0 206 . 0 046 . 0 10 81 9810
4
=
t
T
18299 . 0 0405 . 0 10 81 9810
4
=
t
T
Nm T
t
, 42733 . 0 =
N
W
F
a
,
1000
81 . 9
=
N F
a
, 471 . 1 81 . 9 15 . 0
1000
81 . 9 150
= =
=
N
L
T
F
t
t
, =
N F
t
565 . 1
273 . 0
42733 . 0
= =
% 100
=
t
a t
F
F F
Error
% 006 . 6 100
565 . 1
471 . 1 565 . 1
=
= Error
3
6 5 4 reading reading reading
Error
avg
+ +
=
3
% 006 . 6 % 97 . 6 % 89 . 7 + +
=
avg
Error
% 95 . 6 =
avg
Error
NOMENCLATURE:
A = Area of the vertical surface, m
a = Width of the surface, m
b = Length of the surface, m
CG = Centre of gravity of the vertical plane, m
F
a
= Actual force acting on the vertical plane, N
F
t
= Theoretical force acting on the vertical surface, N
h = Depth of bottom of the quadrant from liquid surface, m
h
o
= Depth of centre of pressure from liquid surface, m
I
G
= Moment of inertia of the surface about horizontal axis through its centre of gravity, m
4
.
K = Vertical distance between balance arm and base of the quadrant, m
L = Horizontal distance between pivot and weight hanger, m
T
t
= Theoretical torque, Nm
= Specific weight of the fluid, N/m
3
W = Weight applied on the weight hanger, kg
X
= Depth of centre of gravity of the immersed surface from the liquid surface, m
RESULT:
When h > b i.e. water level above 100mm.
% 50 . 1 =
avg
Error
When h < b i.e. water level below 100 mm.
% 95 . 6 =
avg
Error
PRECAUTIONS:
1. Always keep apparatus free from dust.
2. Always use clean water.
3. Carefully take the readings.
CONCLUSION:
After the experiment they obtained minor difference between theoretical value and practical
value of centre of pressure. The average valve of error of centre of pressure of curved surface
is grater then 100mm is 1.50% and bellow 100mm average error is 6.95%, which is very less.
The fluid pressure was hydrostatic, when balance arm was horizontal. Even though, the
method of removing weight and adding water to maintain horizontal balance arm. The result
obtained after the experiment was satisfactory. I also noted that with the increasing the depth
of immersion, the centre of pressure should get closer to the centred. The resultant force and
centre of pressure location produce equivalent force and moment on the body as the original
pressure field. Pressure fields occur in both static and dynamic fluid mechanics.