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TECHNICAL ELECTIVES

STRUCTURE AND FORM IN ARCHITECTURE

Art Novueau and Antoni Gaud

Submitted by: Sagar Kudtarkar Fourth Yr. B. Arch DYP, Pune


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CONTENTS:
I. ART NOUVEAU
i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. INTRODUCTION TIME & PLACE BIRTH OF ART NOUVEAU MAIN FEATURES CHARACTERISTICS PRINCIPAL USES OF ART NOUVEAU: Graphic Arts: Painting Arts: Architecture: vii. FEATURES Mural And Mosaic Designs Furniture And Glassware

II.
i. ii. iii. iv. v.
vi.

ANTONI GAUDI
INTRODUCTION EARLY YEARS CHILDHOOD UNIVERSITY DEVELOPMENT AS A PROFESSIONAL ARCHITECT THE MATURE ARTIST ASSESSMENT
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vii.

viii. ix. x. xi. xii. xiii. xiv. xv.

AN EXCEPTIONAL MAN FIRST COMMISSIONS MAJOR PROJECTS HERITAGE ARTISTIC STYLE FORMS USED BY GAUDI DEATH QUOTES

III. WORKS OF GAUDI UNDER ART NOUVEAU


LA SAGRADA FAMLIA
i. ARCHITECTURE: o DESCRIPTION OF THE PARTS OF THE CHURCH o GEOMETRY DOUBLE TWISTED COLUMN ELLIPSOID HELICOID AND CONOID HYPERBOLOID PROPORTIONS RULED SURFACES o EXPIATORY CHURCH o BEYOND THE GOTHIC o THE TREE STRUCTURE o THE FOUNDATION

ii.

HISTORY o ORIGINS: 1866-1882 o BEGINNINGS: 1883-1913 o GAUD: 1914-1926 o RESUMPTION: 1939-1985 o PRESENT: 1986-2013

iii.

SYMBIOLOGY AND STRUCTURE o GLORY FAADE o PASSION FAADE o THE NATIVITY FAADE BELL TOWERS THE PORTAL OF HOPE THE PORTAL OF CHARITY o APSE FAADE o CENTRAL NAVE AND SIDE NAVES o CHAPEL AND SACRISTIES o CLOISTER o STAINED GLASS

IV. CONCLUSION V. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Art Noveau

Introduction
(French for 'new art') is an international style of art, architecture and design that peaked in popularity at the beginning of the 20th century (1880-1914) and is characterized by highly-stylized, flowing, curvilinear designs often incorporating floral and other plantinspired motifs.

Time and Place


Art Nouveau art and architecture flourished in major European cities between 1890 and 1914.

It embraced all forms of art and design: Architecture Furniture Glassware Graphic Design Jewelry Painting Pottery Metalwork Textile

This was a sharp contrast to the traditional separation of art intothe distinct categories of fine art (painting and sculpture) andapplied arts (ceramics,furniture, and other practical objects).

Birth of Art Nouveau

The last third of the 19th century saw the development of a fundamentally approach to architecture and interior design. All over Europe there was a need for liberating change of direction, a desire to break away from set formulas based on pastiche of historical styles and a search for original ideas, all of which resulted at the beginning of the 1890s in the birth of Art Nouveau.

The name 'Art Nouveau' derived from the name of a shop in Paris, (Maison de la'Art Nouveau) that showcased objects that followed this approach to design. This Arts & Crafts movement was a British and American style between 1880 and 1910 basically rejected the cold, impersonal aesthetics brought on by the Industrial Revolution. Objects made during the Arts & Crafts movement were smaller, affordable objects such as textiles, pottery, furniture, etc.
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A high point in the evolution of Art Nouveau was the Exposition Universelle of 1900 in Paris, in which the 'modern style' triumphed in every medium. It probably reached its apogee. Art Nouveau made use of many technological innovations of the late 19th century, especially the broad use of exposed iron and large, irregularly shaped pieces of glass in architecture. By the start of the First World War, however, the highly stylized nature of Art Nouveau design which itself was expensive to produce began to be dropped in favor of more streamlined, rectilinear modernism that was cheaper and thought to be more faithful to the rough, plain, industrial aesthetic that became Art Deco

Main features
The general features that can be recognized in Art Noveau are: Flat, decorative patterns; Intertwined organic forms such as stems or flowers; An to manufacturing; The use of new materials; Inspiration nautal organic interwined central motif. Use of the curved line and the asymmetry in both plans and elevations of buildings and decoration. Tendency to stylize for the reasons, with less frequent representation. Strictly realistic. Use of feminine images in attitudes delicate and graceful, with a generous use of waves in the hair and the folds of her clothes. Attitude tending to sensuality and sense of gratification, reaching the eroticism in certain cases.
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emphasis

on machine

handcrafting as opposed

from

nature but

and the abundant use of elements, type preferably in plants and rounded the with

Freedom in the use of exotic type reasons, be tey purely fantasy or inspiration in different cultures, such as the use of Japanese prints. And the rejection of earlier styles

Characteristics:
Works of art in the Art Nouveau feature insects women style objects but of typically nature include fantasy

such as birds, flowers and also and

creatures. Embellishment is introduced in the form of intertwining curvilinear vegetal forms such as leaves, flowers, vines, grasses and even seaweed. Art Nouveau has the appearance which of of is shading; flatness or reduction

accomplished by the absence abstract line work is often used as a filler.

Principal Uses of Art Nouveau: Graphic Arts:


In graphic arts, illustration of books, magazines and in the advertising posters and also all kinds of supports as postcards, etc.

Painting Arts:
Art Nouveau Painting emphasized on erotic representation of women. Technically, painters insisted on the clarity of line, and the expressiveness of the drawing. They also used organic forms with curved lines and spirals.

In Architecture
Art Nouveau is a Bourgeois art, very expensive, which attempts to integrate all the architecture in the arts. It is a stream essentially decorative, but has original architectural solutions. Developed between the 19th and 20th century This movement uses the solutions that are the revolution of iron and glass contribute to the architecture, but uses the industry for interior decoration.

The shapes are soft and rounded, although this is not the only characteristic of modernism, but the profusion of decorative motifs. Dynamic, undulating, and flowing, with curved 'whiplash' lines of syncopated rhythm, characterized much of Art Nouveau. Another feature is the use of hyperbolas and parabolas in windows, arches, and doors. Conventional moldings seem to spring to life and 'grow' into plant-derived forms. Like most design styles, Art Nouveau sought to harmonize its forms. The text above the Paris Metro entrance follows the qualities of the rest of the iron work in the structure. Art Nouveau in architecture and interior design eschewed the eclectic revival styles of the Victorian era. Though Art Nouveau designers selected and 'modernized' some of the more abstract elements of Rococo style, such as flame and shell textures, they also advocated the use of highly stylized organic forms as a source of inspiration, expanding the 'natural' repertoire to embrace seaweed, grasses, and insects.

Features
Art Nouveau buildings have many of these features: Asymmetrical shapes Extensive use of arches and curved forms Curved glass Curving, plant-like embellishments Mosaics Stained glass Japanese motifs

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Hotel Tassel (Victor Horta) 1st Art Nouveau Building in the World

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Clockwise from top: 1 and 2: A glass and metal installation 3: Crystal House 4: Entrance Gate by August Endell
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Mural and Mosaic Designs


The Art Nouveau movement art. Gaudi embraced In Barcelona, mosaic Antoni

worked with Josep Maria Jujol to produce the stunning ceramic mosaics of the Guell Park (below) in the first two decades of the 20th century. These used a technique known as trencadis in which tiles (purpose-made and waste tiles) covered surfaces of buildings. They also incorporated broken crockery and other found objects, a revolutionary idea in formal art and architecture. Art Nouveau was a movement that was broad based enough to encompass a whole lifestyle: it was possible to live in an art nouveau house with art nouveau furniture, silverware, crockery, jewelry, etc The presence of decorative elements such as flooring, stained glass, plasterwork, sculpted stone, wrought ironwork, ceramic inlay and mosaics is a key determinant of Art Nouveau buildings.

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Antoni Gaudi

Introduction
Antoni Gaudi was He a was spanish mainly architect, leader of the Catalan Modernism. Oriental Styles. The son of a coppersmith, Antoni Gaud was born on June 25, 1852, and took to architecture at a young age. He attended school in Barcelona, the city that would become home to most of his great works. Gaud was part of the Catalan Modernista movement, eventually transcending it with his nature-based organic style. Gaud died on June 10, 1926, in Barcelona, Spain. Gaud's works reflect his highly individual and distinctive style and are largely concentrated in Barcelona, notably his magnum opus, the Sagrada Famlia. Gaudi was an architect with an exeptional sense of geometry and volume, as well as great imaginative power that allowed him to mentally project majority of his work before passing them on paper. He preferred to recreate them on three-dimensional models, shaping every detail based on the thoughts upcoming mentally. He studied to the smallest details of his creations, architecture integrating a range of handicrafts which he mastered ti perfection: ceramics, glass, iron forging, carpentry, etc. Much of Gaud's work was marked by his big passions in life: architecture, nature, religion. Gaud studied every detail of his creations, integrating into his architecture a series of crafts in which he was skilled: ceramics, stained glass, wrought ironwork forging and carpentry. He introduced new techniques in the treatment of materials, such as trencads, made of waste ceramic pieces. influenced by the Gothic Art and

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Early Years
Architect Antoni Gaud was born in Catalonia on the Mediterranean coast of Spain on June 25, 1852. He showed an early interest in architecture, and went to study in BarcelonaSpain's most modern city at the timecirca 1870. After his studies were interrupted by military service, Gaud graduated from the Provincial School of Architecture in 1878.

Childhood
Antoni Gaud i Cornet was born on 25 June 1852 and baptised the following day at the church of Sant Pere in Reus, the city where he spent his childhood. He was the son of a coppersmith from Riudoms, from whom he learned the trade, and from 1860 to 1869 he studied at the Escolapian School in Reus, where he distinguished himself in geometry and arithmetic and received a traditional religious and humanistic education. As a boy he suffered from an illness that forced him to spend long periods resting at the family home in Riudoms. He took advantage of the opportunity to observe nature, which was to be a reference point throughout his life. At that time he did a number of drawings to illustrate the manuscript magazine El Arlequn, which published ten issues of twelve copies each.

UNIVERSITY In 1869 Antoni Gaud moved to Barcelona and enrolled as a free student at the Middle School to follow the elements of physics and natural history courses. He went on to the Faculty of Sciences at the University of Barcelona and, from 1873, prepared the entrance exam for the Barcelona Province School of Architecture, at the Llotja in Barcelona, where he obtained the official architect's diploma in 1878. He did a number of jobs for La Obrera Mataronense, , the first workers cooperative company in Spain. At the same time, to pay for his studies he worked as a draughtsman for the master builder Josep Fontser, who was landscaping Ciutadella Park at the time. He also wrote a set of notes known as El manuscrit de Reus. From 1876 Gaud worked as a draughtsman for his teacher Leandre Serrallach and, shortly afterwards, with the architect Francesc de Paula del Villar on sketches for the apse and the altar niche at La Mare de Du de Montserrat, a work which began in 1887.

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Development as a Professional Architect


Upon graduation, Gaud initially worked in the artistic vein of his Victorian predecessors, but he soon developed his own style, composing his works with juxtapositions of geometric masses and animating the surfaces with patterned brick or stone, bright ceramic tiles and floral or reptilian metalwork. The salamander in Park Gell, for instance, is representative of Gaud's work. During his early period, at the Paris World's Fair of 1878, Gaud displayed a showcase he had produced, which impressed one patron enough to lead to Gaud's working on the Gell Estate and Gell Palace, among others. In 1883, Gaud was charged with the construction of a Barcelona cathedral called Basilica i Temple Expiatori de la Sagrada Familia (Basilica and Expiatory Church of the Holy Family). The plans had been drawn up earlier, and construction had already begun, but Gaud completely changed the design, stamping it with his own distinctive style. Gaud also soon experimented with various permutations of historic styles: the Episcopal Palace (1887'93) and the Casa de los Botines (1892'94), both Gothic, and the Casa Calvet (18981904), which was done in the Baroque style. Some of these commissions were the result of the 1888 World's Fair, at which Gaud once again staged an impressive showcase. After a few years, under the influence of neo-Gothic art and Oriental techniques, Gaud became part of the Modernista movement which was reaching its peak in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. His work transcended mainstream Modernisme, culminating in an organic style inspired by nature. Gaud rarely drew detailed plans of his works, instead preferring to create them as three-dimensional scale models and molding the details as he was conceiving them. Gaud's work enjoys widespread international appeal and many studies are devoted to understanding his architecture. Today, his work finds admirers among architects and the general public alike. His masterpiece, the still-uncompleted Sagrada Famlia, is one of
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the most visited monuments in Catalonia. Between 1984 and 2005, seven of his works were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. Gaud's Roman Catholic faith intensified during his life and religious images permeate his work. This earned him the nickname "God's Architect" and led to calls for his beatification.

AN EXCEPTIONAL MAN Antoni Gaud is one of the outstanding figures of Catalan culture and international architecture. He was born in Baix Camp (Reus, Riudoms), but it was in Barcelona that he studied, worked and lived with his family. It is also in the city that we find most of his work. He was first and foremost designed an architect, and but he also and furniture objects

worked in town planning and landscaping, amongst other disciplines. In all those fields he developed a highly expressive language of his own and created a body of work that speaks directly to the senses.

FIRST COMMISSIONS In 1878, with his architect's diploma, Gaud received his first official commission from Barcelona Council, to design street lamps part of the urban equipment of the city. At the same time Eusebi Gell's father in law, Antonio Lpez, Marqus de Comillas, commissioned him with the project for the furnishings for the family chapel and vault, near the Palau de Sobrellano, in Comillas (Cantabria). He had more work as an architect after 1883, the time when he was working as a draughtsman and associate of the architect Joan Martorell. That was when he was commissioned with the construction ofCasa Vicens, Villa El Capricho in Comillas, and the continuation of the work on Expiatory Church of La Sagrada Famlia was entrusted to him. Shortly afterwards he received the first major commission from Eusebi Gell, his future patron and main customer, which gave him the building of thepavilions at the Gell Estate, followed by Palau Gell, in Carrer Nou de la Rambla.
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In 1887 he began to plan the Episcopal Palace in Astorga and the following year the works on the Teresian School in Barcelona. He then built the Casa de los Botines in Len and in 1892 worked on a religious building for the Franciscan friars in Tangier,the Catholic Missions of Africa, which he never completed. MAJOR PROJECTS One of the last works Gaud did for the industrialist Eusebi Gell was the building of the church at Colonia Gell, in Santa Coloma de Cervell, which he began in 1898. In the same year be built Casa Calvet, which won the Barcelona Council annual award, and in 1900 he started the works on Gell Park and the Torre de Bellesguard.At the same time he did a number of religious projects: at Montserrat the First Mystery of Glory of the monumental Rosary, and in Palma the restoration of the cathedral. In 1905 he worked in La Pobla de Lillet on the Artigas Gardens and the Xalet del Catllars. And in 1906, when he finished Casa Batll, he began the building of Casa Mil. He is attributed the preliminary project for a hotel in New York, which was never done.

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HERITAGE On 7 June 1926, at the junction of Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes and Carrer de Bailn, Gaud was knocked down by a number 30 tram. Seriously injured, he was taken to the Hospital de la Santa Creu, where he died three days later. His body was buried on 12 June in the Carmen chapel in the crypt of La Sagrada Famlia. His coffin, which was carried through a large part of the city, was followed by a crowd who wanted to say farewell to the man who was the city's most illustrious architect. The building of La Sagrada Famlia was continued by his associate architects and artists. Over the years, the work has been enriched by the participation of many architects and artists with the aim of following Gaud's original idea. With the years, the figure of Gaud has gained adepts, has become very famous and is highly appreciated today. His work has become one of the main cultural attractions of the city, and is a legacy that has been declared UNESCO World Heritage.

The Mature Artist


After 1902, Antoni Gaud's designs began to defy conventional stylistic classification, and he created a type of structure known as equilibratedthat is, it could stand on its own without internal bracing, external buttressing, etc. The primary functional elements of this system were columns that tilted to employ diagonal thrusts and lightweight tile vaults. Notably, Gaud used his equilibrated system to construct two Barcelona apartment buildings: the Casa Batll (190406) and the Casa Mil (190510), whose floors were structured like clusters of tile lily pads. Both projects are considered to be characteristic of Gaud's style.
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Assessment
The architectural work of Gaud is remarkable for its range of forms, textures, and polychromy and for the free, expressive way in which these elements of his art seem to be composed. The complex geometries of a Gaud building so coincide with its architectural structure that the whole, including its surface, gives the appearance of being a natural object in complete conformity with natures laws. Such a sense of total unity also informed the life of Gaud; his personal and professional lives were one, and his collected comments about the art of building are essentially aphorisms about the art of living. He was totally dedicated to architecture, which for him was a totality of many arts.

Artistic Style:

Gaud's first works were designed in the style of gothic and traditional Catalan architectural modes, but he soon developed his own distinct sculptural style. Eugene Viollet-le-Duc proved a major influence on Gaud. He integrated the parabolic arch, nature's organic shapes, and the fluidity of water into his architecture. He observed the forces of gravity and related catenary principles. Using the Catalan trencadis technique, Gaud often decorated surfaces with broken tiles. Art Nouveau architecture, a precursor to modern architecture.

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LA SAGRADA FAMLIA
Church of the Holy Family Gaud's first works were designed in the style of gothic and traditional Catalan architectural modes, but he soon developed his own distinct sculptural style. Eugene Viollet-le-Duc proved a major influence on Gaud. He integrated the parabolic arch, nature's organic shapes, and the fluidity of water into his architecture. He observed the forces of gravity and related catenary principles. Using the Catalan trencadis technique, Gaud often decorated surfaces with broken tiles.The church is built in Art Nouveau architecture, a precursor to modern architecture.

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Gaud spent most of his professional career building the Expiatory Church of La Sagrada Famlia, He received the commission in late 1883 and it occupied the his whole life. He did other work there, such as the Provisional Schools of La Sagrada Famlia (1909), and the construction of the workshop, where he worked with models and photographs, and where for his final years he went to live to follow the work from closer up. Walter Gropius came to the church in 1907, but did not manage to talk to Gaud, "who was working busily". In 1910 Gell promoted an exhibition of Gaud's work at Le Grand Palais in Paris, It had a certain international echo, which reached as far as the United States and introduced him to the architect Sullivan (Chicago School). A few years later, in 1922, the Congress of Spanish Architects was held in Barcelona and supported his work. The same year he received a commission to do a project for a church for Our Lady of Rancagua, in Chile, for which he proposed to build the chapel of the Assumption in the apse. In 1923-1924 the architects Neufert and Linder, on the advice of Walter Gropius, visited Gaud. They made friends with him and published an important article in the journal Deutsche Bauzeitung.

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PHOTO GALLERY

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DESCRIPTION OF THE PARTS OF THE CHURCH The expiatory church of La Sagrada Famlia is a church with five naves and a crossing with three, forming a Latin cross. The interior measurements are: nave and apse, 90 m; crossing, 60 m; width of the central nave, 15 m; side naves 7.5 m, total main nave, 45 m; width of the crossing, 30m.

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BSIDE CHAPELS CLOISTER CROSSING AND TRANSEPTS CRYPT GLORY FAADE THE NATIVITY FAADE PASSION FAADE MAIN NAVE SACRISTIES

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GEOMETRY During the last fifteen years of his life, Gaud planned many parts of the church so that they could be built in the future. He did so combining geometrical forms, chosen for their formal, structural, luminous, acoustic and constructive qualities: hyperboloids, paraboloids, helicoids, conoids and ellipsoids. Many of these surfaces are ruled, which makes the construction easier. He assigned one of these forms to each type of the elements that make up the naves. With helicoids he invented a new column in the history of architecture: the double twisted column. He used hyperboloids for the openings of the windows and the vaults. With paraboloids he created linking surfaces on the vaults, the roofs and the columns of the Passion faade. He generated the knots or capitals of the main columns with ellipsoids. And earlier he had planned the building of the parish schools with conoids. Moreover, Gaud developed a system of proportions applied to all the dimensions and elements of the church.

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DOUBLE TWISTED COLUMN The double twisted column begins at the base with a regular or starred polygon with straight or parabolic sides or with a combination of polygons which, as the column rises, are transformed into different sections with an increasing number of vertices, until they reach the circle at the top. Geometrically it is the intersection of two helicoidal columns with the same base, but with opposite twists. All the branching columns are double twisted, but with different polygons at the base. With this type of column Gaud achieves the continuity of arrises and surfaces between one column and the ones above or beneath it.
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ELLIPSOID The ellipsoid is a solid in which all the flat sections are ellipses. Because of its elliptical shape it was chosen by Gaud for the knots or capitals that subdivide the lower columns into branches. The different knots are the result of adding and subtracting ellipsoids from one another.

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HELICOID AND CONOID The helicoid is a ruled surface generated by a straight line that revolves according to a spiral around a vertical axis. The conoid is a surface formed by a straight line which is displaced above another straight line and above a curve, for example a sinusoid.

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HYPERBOLOID The hyperboloid is a surface

generated by a hyperbola which revolves around a circle or ellipse. They can be solid or empty, solid to pass from the column to the vaults, empty where the light enters the interior of the church. The hyperboloid contains two sheaves of inclined straight lines tangent to the circle or the ellipse. On the vaults and windows, the hyperboloid is bounded by star shapes created by the straight lines. The vaults and the windows are intersections between hyperboloids, linked with paraboloids thanks to straight lines that are common to two surfaces.
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PROPORTIONS A single system of proportions, based on the twelfth parts of the largest dimension, orders in series the general measurements of the church (width, length and height of each part), the diameters of the columns and the diameters of the openings of windows and vaults.

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RULED SURFACES Ruled double curve surfaces are, as their name suggests, surfaces that contain straight lines because they are generated by the movement of one straight line that follows a particular route. With the use of twisted ruled surfaces (hyperboloids, paraboloids, helicoids and conoids), Gaud planned a naturalistic architecture formed only of geometrical surfaces with hyperbolic and parabolic sections, of fine structural, acoustic and light distribution qualities. The fact of being generated by straight lines makes the construction easier.

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EXPIATORY CHURCH The expiatory church of La Sagrada Famlia is a work on a grand scale which was begun on 19 March 1882 from a project by the diocesan architect Francisco de Paula del Villar (18281901). At the end of 1883 Gaud was commissioned to carry on the works, a task which he did not abandon until his death in 1926. Since then different architects have continued the work after his original idea. The building is in the centre of Barcelona, and over the years it has become one of the most universal signs of identity of the city and the country. It is visited by millions of people every year and many more study its architectural and religious content. It has always been an expiatory church, which means that since the outset, 132 years ago now, it has been built from donations. Gaud himself said: "The expiatory church of La Sagrada Famlia is made by the people and is mirrored in them. It is a work that is in the hands of God and the will of the people." The building is still going on and could be finished some time in the first third of the 21st century.

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BEYOND THE GOTHIC Gaud made a detailed study of the main examples of Gothic cathedrals. The evolution of his project for La Sagrada Famlia cannot be understood with the desire to overcome all the defects he found in the Gothic structural system, mainly the following: a) Shifting of the loads to exterior elements (buttresses and flying buttresses), more exposed and more vulnerable, considered by Gaud the "crutches" of the Gothic building. b) Excessively complex and fragile structural web. The demolition of one part can bring about the ruin of the whole building. c) Light wooden roofs, excessively vulnerable to fire, damp, xylophagous insects... Gaud's contributions to going beyond the Gothic can be summarised as: a) Double roof of stone, to give the building long life. b) Verticalisation of the whole project, verticalisation of the forces and reduction of the horizontal thrusts. He thus achieves the total suppression of the structural elements that were exposed to the exterior. c) Inclined columns branching like trees.

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REINFORCED CONCRETE: The use of reinforced concrete at La Sagrada Famlia should come as no surprise, as Gaud had provided for it. He was one of the first architects to use the material because Eusebi Gell was the owner of the first Portland cement factory in the country, at Castellar de n'Hug. At La Sagrada Famlia we can find reinforced concrete on the terminations of the towers of the Nativity faade, built directly by Gaud, who also proposed to use it on the construction of the naves to concentrate the horizontal forces on the columns and reduce the amount of scaffolding for the construction. Since current regulations have enormously increased the requirements and the impositions now demanded from a structure, at La Sagrada Famlia the number of armatures, the qualities and the bearing capacity of the concrete have had to grow in a similar proportion, while maintaining the sections and the slenderness of Gaud's original design

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THE TREE STRUCTURE Gaud planned inclined branching columns in the shape of a tree for the church. From a long, meticulous empirical study of models of inverted weights with chains or strings and graphic calculations, he managed to determine the inclination of the load-bearing elements (columnstrees) in order to optimise the structural behaviour by transferring the loads to the central nucleus. In that way he makes the compression elements work and reduces the flexed elements to the minimum. He also manages to bring down the main loads along the interior pillars of the nave and not along the perimeter of the floor or the exterior elements.

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STRUCTURE OF THE NAVES Gaud wanted to create a new architecture, with balanced, self-resistant structures. And so in his professional career he constructed parabolic and catenary arches and experimented with a reverse model of strings and bags for the church at Colonia Gell to calculate and construct inclined columns. For the expiatory church of La Sagrada Famlia, he proposed to improve the Gothic structure of the main European cathedrals and the project of the first architect of the church, and planned a balanced structure of columns that branch out like trees, as the culmination of the structural studies of his other buildings.

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THE FOUNDATION Since it was built as an expiatory church, the financing of La Sagrada Famlia is totally private. The disinterested donations and the revenue from the donative admission charge paid by two and a half million visitors every year are what make the building possible. The expiatory church of La Sagrada Famlia is managed by an ecclesiastical foundation, whose purpose is to administer the budgets and carry out the building project for a church dedicated to the Holy Family, faithfully following the initial guidelines of Antoni Gaud. The Construction Board of La Sagrada Famlia Foundation was created as an independent private canonical foundation on 20 July 1895 by the bishop of Barcelona at the time, Jaume Catal. From its beginnings as a foundation, and in accordance with the wishes of the descendants of the founder Josep M. Bocabella, the ex officio chairman is the archbishop of Barcelona. The direction and coordination of the church building plan, the management of the funds and the actions of the Foundation are delegated to a person from outside the ecclesiastical sphere who works with the members of the Construction Board. The delegate chairman and the members of the board all work disinterestedly.

ORIGINS: 1866-1882 The origins of the Expiatory Church of La Sagrada Famlia go back to 1866, the year when Josep Maria Bocabella i Verdaguer founded the Spiritual Association of the Devotees of St Joseph, which from 1874 promoted the construction of an expiatory church dedicated to the Holy
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Family. In 1881, thanks to generous donations, the Association bought a plot of land with a surface area of 12,800m between Carrer de Marina, Carrer de Provena, Carrer de Sardenya and Carrer de Mallorca for the site of the church. The foundation stone was laid on 19 March 1882, the feast of St Joseph, at a solemn event presided by the bishop of Barcelona, Josep Urquinaona. Building then began with the crypt beneath the apse after a neo-Gothic design by the architect Francisco de Paula del Villar y Lozano. A short time later, owing to disagreements with the promoters, he resigned and the commission was handed over to Antoni Gaud.

BEGINNINGS: 1883-1913 After undertaking the project in 1883, Gaud built the crypt, which was finished in 1889. As he started work on the apse (and the cloister), everything went at a good pace thanks to the donations. When he received a large anonymous one, he thought of doing a new, bigger work: he discarded the old neo-Gothic project and proposed a more monumental and innovatory one in terms of both forms and structures and the construction. Gaud's project consisted of a large church with a Latin cross ground plan and high towers; it carried a major symbolic load, in both architectural and sculptural form, with the ultimate aim of being a catechistic explanation of the teachings of the Gospels and the Church. In 1892 he began work on the foundations of the Nativity faade because, as he said himself, "If, instead of making this decorated, ornamented and swollen faade I had begun with the Passion, hard, bare and as if made of bone, people would have stepped back." In 1894 the apse faade was finished and in 1899 the Roser door, one of the entrances to the Nativity cloister. Alongside these works, at the south-west corner of the church, in 1909 Gaud built the Temporary Schools, designed
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for the children of the workers on La Sagrada Famlia and the local children who were members of its parish. The following year, in 1910, a model of the Nativity faade was exhibited at the Grand Palais in Paris on the occasion of an exhibition of Gaud's work, promoted by his friend and patron Eusebi Gell.

GAUD: 1914-1926 After 1914, Gaud devoted himself exclusively to building La Sagrada Famlia, which is why there are no other major works from the last years of his life. He became so involved that he lived his last few months right next to his workshop, a room beside the apse used for making scale models, doing sketches and drawings, as a sculpture studio and a space for photographic work, amongst others. In 1911 he planned the Passion faade and in 1923 the definitive solution to the naves and roofs. The works advanced slowly, though, and Gaud said: "There is no reason to regret that I cannot finish the church. I will grow old but others will come after me. What must always be conserved is the spirit of the work, but its life has to depend on the generations it is handed down to and with whom it lives and is incarnated". On 30 November 1925 the construction of the first bell tower of the Nativity faade, dedicated to St Barnaby and 100 m high, was finished. This is the only one that Gaud lived to see built, since on 10 June 1926 he died as a result of a tragic accident three days earlier, when he was run over by a tram. On 12 June he was buried in the Carmen Chapel in the crypt of La Sagrada Famlia, where his remains still lie today. All those years, a large number of architects, draughtsmen, sculptors and model makers had worked on the project with Gaud. Among the architects were Francesc Berenguer, Joan Rubi, Domnec Sugraes, Josep Maria Jujol, Josep Canaleta, Francesc de Paula Quintana i Vidal, Josep Francesc Rfols, Csar Martinell, Isidre Puig i Boada, Llus Bonet i
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Gar, Francesc Folguera and Joan Bergs. Among the draughtsmen was Ricard Opisso, and among the sculptors Lloren Matamala, Joan Flotats, Joan Matamala, Carles Mani and Pau Badia. The most notable constructor was Agust Massip i Brass; the locksmith was Joan Os; the ceramic elements were made by the Pujol i Bausis company in Esplugues de Llobregat; the woodwork by Jaume Munn; and the ironwork by the Badia brothers.

RESUMPTION: 1939-1985 After the Spanish Civil War the construction of La Sagrada Famlia began again and the church continued to rise slowly. From 1939 to 1940, the architect Francesc de Paula Quintana i Vidal, an associate of Gaud since 1919, restored the burnt crypt and reconstructed many of the damaged models, which were used to continue the construction according to Gaud's original idea. In 1952 the XXXV International Eucharistic Congress was held in Barcelona, and a number of events were organised in the church on that occasion. The same year the Nativity staircase was built and the faade illuminated for the first time; from 1964 it became permanent at the decision of Barcelona Council. The works continued strongly in 1954, when the foundations of the Passion faade were begun, based on the many studies done by Gaud between 1892 and 1917. After the foundations came the crypt, where in 1961 a museum was opened to explain to visitors the historical, technical, artistic and symbolic aspects of the church. On that faade the four terminations of the bell towers were erected in 1976; they were finished the following year.
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One important date is 1955, when the first "collection" was made, a whole day devoted to collecting funds to pay for the works, an initiative that was maintained in the following years as a way for society to take part in the construction of the church. On 19 March 1958, the feast of St Joseph, the sculptural group representing the Holy Family, done by Jaume Busquets, was placed on the Nativity faade. From 1978 the foundations of the nave and the crossing were done and the columns, vaults and faades of the main nave and the transepts were erected.

PRESENT: 1986-2013 Since 1986 the sculptor Josep Maria Subirachs has been in charge of producing the statues and sculpture for the Passion faade, which have been executed in accordance with his very personal style over the last 25 years. In 2000 the vaults of the central nave and the transept were built and work began on the foundations of the Glory faade. That year, on the occasion of the new millennium, a mass was held inside the church which provided an opportunity to grasp the grandiosity of the work. In 2001 the central window of the Passion faade was completed with the installation of a stained glass window dedicated to the resurrection, the work of Joan Vila-Grau. The four columns of the centre of the crossing were also finished. The figure and work of Gaud were especially remembered in 2002, when Barcelona Council
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promoted International Gaud Year on the occasion of the 150th anniversary of his birth. La Sagrada Famlia took part with different events, such as the restoration, removal and opening of the Sagrada Famlia Temporary Schools as a new exhibition space, or the "Night of Light and Fire", a show held on 1 June which, with its special illumination and a spectacular castle of fireworks, was the highlight of the commemoration. In 2002, the sculptor Josep Maria Subirachs did the project for the wall of the prophets and patriarchs which Gaud located in the porch of the Passion faade, and in 2005 the sculpture of the Ascension was placed between the towers of the faade. At the same time, the eucharistic symbols of bread and wine were placed on the windows of the central nave, the work of the Japanese sculptor Etsuro Sotoo. In 2006 the Glory faade choir was built according to Gaud's models. The vaults of the ambulatory of the apse were finished in 2008. Between 2008 and 2010 the vaults of the crossing and the apse has been completed; on them the tower of the central lantern crowned by a cross 170 m high will be erected, and the apse tower, dedicated to the Virgin Mary. The central tower will be surrounded by four others, dedicated to the evangelists. The principle on-going tasks and those of the coming years are the construction of the first sacristy (on the western side), and the central towers (those of Jesus Christ, the four Evangelists, the Virgin Mary, and the five already started). The church will be complemented with the construction of the main faade, the Glory faade.
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GLORY FAADE This is the main faade which will be the entrance to the church when it is finished. As it is so important, Gaud included in the project the construction of a great exterior flight of steps that provided access to the church with a solemnity befitting the place. The Glory faade was given that name because it represents the situation of man within the general order of creation: his origins, his problems, the roads he must take and his

The columns of the Cathedral reflect the stalactites and stalagmites found in the caves of Nerja

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purpose. Like the other faades, it will have three entrances (a main door dedicated to charity and two side doors dedicated to hope and faith), and a porch with seven columns that will symbolise the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit and present the virtues opposed to the sins. The faade will have various sculpted elements and on the upper part, above the roof of the narthex, stretching along the four bell towers there will be stone clouds bearing the Credo written in large letters. The bell towers will be consecrated to the apostles St Andrew, St Peter, St Paul and St James the Great, ordered from left to right. The Glory faade faces south so that the sun beats down on it for most of the day, in harmony with its significance: the exaltation of its strong life and joyous spirit. Gaud himself said: "Glory is light, light gives joy and joy is the happiness of the spirit". For technical reasons it is the last of the three faades to be built and its architectural and decorative design follow Gaud's original idea. SCULPTURES ON THE GLORY FAADE The sculptures on the Glory faade, which is still under construction, will present man in the general order of creation, showing his origin, his purpose and the roads he must take to accomplish it. In this space Gaud brings out the eternal dilemma: the final place of sin, hell, and the final place of virtue, heaven. Generally speaking this faade will show how, through the practice of virtue, man can reach glory through the fruit of redemption and with the constant assistance of the grace given by the Holy Spirit.
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In the frontmost zone of the faade there is a porch supported by seven columns: on the lower part there will be symbolisations of the world of sin, as opposed to the upper part, which will be dedicated to the virtues. On the upper part there will be three elements representing the Holy Trinity: Father, Son and Holy Ghost. This will be in the exact centre of a structure of conoidal forms and will be represented by a white dove with its wings unfolded, on the Latin inscription "Spiritum Sanctum". On the upper part there will be the figure of the Son and, above and presiding the faade, the Father on the inscription "Deum" and, above that, "Credo". The letters of that word will be luminous so that they can be seen in the daytime and at night. The structure will be wrapped in a stone cloud with inscriptions telling the story of the creation of the world according to Genesis.

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PASSION FAADE This was the second faade to be built following Gaud's original project. The architect, who only left the decorative part annotated, foresaw that future generations would make interventions on it according to the aesthetic tastes of the moment. Such is the case of the sculptural decoration by Josep Maria Subirachs and the stained glass by Joan Vila-Grau. The Passion faade is so called because it represents the Passion of Jesus, in other words, the pain, the sacrifice and the death, as staged along the twelve stations of the cross, expressed in highly dramatic and emotionally intense sculpture groups. The faade faces west and therefore receives the last rays of the sun before night falls. That arrangement heightens the symbolic effect of darkness and shadows that haunted the architect. Like the other faades, it has three entrances, also dedicated to charity, hope and faith, and four bell towers, dedicated to the apostles St James the Less, St Bartholomew, St Thomas and St Philip, ordered from left to right.

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SCULPTURES ON THE PASSION FAADE The sculptures on the Passion faade stand out for their contrast with the background, free of ornaments and apparently composed of simple forms. In this way Gaud wanted to symbolise the desolation, the pain and the death of Jesus Christ. From that idea, between 1986 and 2005 the sculptor Josep Maria Subirachs did the twelve stages of the Via Crucis. As is befitting, unlike the Nativity faade there are no references to the joy of life, such as the ornamentation of flowers and animals, and the representation of the feeling of the irreversible loss of death is heightened. This dramatic doorway shows the sacrifice made by Jesus for human beings. All the groups, laden with a strong symbology, are accompanied by different materials and designs that give a better understanding of the themes presented. Above this door rise the bell towers, where we can see the fruits of winter and autumn (the seasons of greatest darkness and cold in Catalonia), such as chestnuts, pomegranates or oranges, which complete the Mediterranean symbology in this part of the church.

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THE NATIVITY FAADE The Nativity faade celebrates the birth of Jesus the Messiah, the Son of God made man. It is also referred to as the faade of Life, of Joy, or of Christmas. It is inspired by the gospels about the childhood of Jesus: Lk 1:5-2:51; Mt 1-2.

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BELL TOWERS The bell towers are dedicated to the twelve apostles.

Tall pisky towers of the Cathedral inspired by the Sedum Acre plant

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THE PORTAL OF HOPE This part of the portico is devoted to the theological virtue of hope and to Joseph.

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UPPER SECTION OF THE PORTAL OF CHARITY

APSE FAADE The apse is consecrated to Our Lady, for whom Gaud felt particular devotion. It is built on top of the crypt and follows its half circumference shape. Between the walls are seven apsidal chapels with slender windows and pointed arches that recall the Gothic style which Gaud perfected. A number of sculptures are arranged on the exterior, dedicated to the founders of religious orders, such as St Antony, St Benedict, St Scholastica, St Bruno, St Francis, St Elias and St Clare;
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the last has already been set in place. Above the windows are a number of gargoyles which pour out the surplus rainwater that falls on the chapels. The pediments of the apse, stylised and elongated, end in pinnacles with the initials of Our Lady, St Joseph and Christ, the last accompanied by the alpha and the omega, which recall the beginning and the end of life. On the upper part different natural elements are depicted, such as the palm frond and even ears of wheat or wild grass that recall the ones that grew on the land where the church was built. The towers of the chapels will be pyramidal and topped by a symbolic figuration of the invocations to the Messiah, which are the antiphons of the last week of Advent. On either side of the apse are the side steps, with cores that have an identical structure to the ones in the chapels.

CENTRAL NAVE AND SIDE NAVES The church has a basilical ground plan and five naves, the central one rising to a height of 45 m and the side ones to 29 m. The central nave and side naves are supported by a system of columns which is completely new in the history of architecture. In the eyes of the observer, the interior looks like a forest of trees with beautiful alignments, of which we can see the trunk, the branches and a cluster of leaves. In this forest of columns, the light filtered through the windows will give a bucolic appearance and give a feeling of undergrowth.

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The ceilings of the central nave, seen from the interior, will be crowned by aedicules that will provide support for lights with the initials of the Holy Family. Five thick parabolic shields, placed on either side, will have "Amen" and the words of praise "Al", "le", "lu", "ia", broken up into syllables, written on them. The large columns that support the vaults and the roofs also represent the apostles and the churches of the whole world. The columns dedicated to the apostles St Peter and St Paul are outstanding; they are situated between the crossing and the apse, joining the triumphal arch with the Calvary. On the exterior, the water from the roofs runs down drainpipes which at half height are fixed to the walls at half height with the following allegories and captions: a flask with the inscription "myrra (myrrh)- sacrifice", an incense burner with the inscription "thur (incense) prayer" and a box with the inscription "aurum (gold)- alms. Beside and on the windows are images of the saints who founded religious orders, such as St John Bosco, St Joachim Vedruna or St Joseph Oriol.

CHAPEL AND SACRISTIES On the Apse faade, the chapel of the Assumption will be built, dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin, popularly known as Our Lady of August, especially venerated in Catalonia. Gaud's project, inspired by an existing one in Girona cathedral, includes the
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crown dedicated to the Virgin, the pillars that form the structure and the curtains hanging from it, as well as the angels that are represented on the Girona model. Gaud's proposal will present these elements in stone and according to their personal language, in other words, with parabolic geometrical forms and decidedly modern figurations. On either side of the chapel of the Assumption is the cloister which, when it reaches the chamfered corner, will join the sacristies. There will be two and they will have quite original shapes according to ruled geometry, with the roofs embellished with coloured mosaic and the interior structured on six levels, all perfectly lit by the numerous openings to the outside.

CLOISTER The layout of the cloister of the church is completely original in the history of Christian architecture, since it does not form the atrium as in Latin basilicas, nor is it attached to one side of the church as in Benedictine monasteries and Mediaeval cathedrals. The cloister runs all around the church and is only interrupted by the doors and the apse, so that it acts as a protective wall that guards the interior of the church and separates it from the outside noise. And so we can say that Gaud uses the exact meaning of the word 'cloister', which means 'close'. The cloister is also an element that connects the different parts and allows processions to pass through in certain religious solemnities. For that reason Gaud said: "The cloister will be made for praying the rosary in procession." Each intersection of the cloister with a faade leads to a ornamented door, dedicated to a different aspect of Our Lady. At each point where the cloister reaches a corner there are three obelisks, the central one larger and the other two smaller. Each group symbolises a
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cardinal point, a virtue and a tempora (the fasts observed by Christians at each season) in gratitude for the fruits of the earth.

STAINED GLASS The church has stained glass on various windows and openings. The ones done by the stained glass maker Joan Vila-Grau since 1999 are outstanding; they are made of panes of different colours fixed with lead and concrete. In these pieces of stained glass, Vila-Grau symbolises specific themes through the masses of colour. The first stained glass windows to be placed were in the transepts, and they express the symbology conceived by Gaud. The main window of the transept of the Passion faade represents the resurrection, the stained glass of the sides and the main nave will symbolise the saints and shrines linked to the local church represented on each column. The upper stained glass windows of the side naves will illustrate Jesus" words "I am the way, the truth and the life", "The resurrection", etc. The stained glass
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windows in the central nave will have no colour and will be made with plain, translucent or opaque glass to symbolise purity, and to allow the maximum amount of light to enter the interior. Vila-Grau"s designs have been made by Josep Maria Bonet"s artistic stained glass company, which had already produced other stained glass windows for the church, such as the ones in the crypt.

CONCLUSION
Basically we can identify three lines of analysis of Gauds work: the first and the most common is that which places him in the arena of fable, as an artist who arbitrarily and subjectively created new forms and applied
materials and colours that allowed him to enrich the appearance of his buildings. Following on from this, being much more interesting while also misleading, is the approach that places him in the magical, esoteric realm, relating his bulbous forms to hallucinogenic plants and visions, the product of surreal or supernatural states which under no circumstances should be confused with Gauds equine religiosity, which lay between traditional spirituality and social renewal. Finally, the third way to interpret Gauds work is to highlight its scientific and technical aspects, which led him to create what Joan Rubi called a new geometry. Presently, thanks to new technology, this view is arousing more interest among experts, especially now that the central nave of the Sagrada Familia has been covered, in ccordance with his plans. This has helped people, especially the non-believers, to further appreciate the magnificence of Gauds architecture, an architecture that today is appreciated and cherished around the world, as shown by the success enjoyed by the exhibition devoted to him which ended on the 15th January 2012 at the Braccio di Carlo Magno, Vatican City, an exhibition ocusing on Gaud and his crowning achievement, the Sagrada Familia, highlighting the three pillars of his life: art, science and spirituality.

The most valuable aspect of Gaudis language is revealed when we delve into his work, and indeed only then can we appreciate its ultimate meaning and discover the intelligence with which the architect handled the concepts of space and form

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Tauri Manfredo. History of Architecture- Modern Architecture Mckay David. Modern Architecture in Barcelona 1854-1939 Antonio Gaudi. An Enigma. 2006 Daniel Giralt-Miracle The Universality of Antoni Gaudi. http://www.sagradafamilia.cat/sf-eng/index.php www.architecturalview.com www.nationalgeographic.net www.flickr.com

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