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# Module 4

Infinite Series

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Learning Objectives
At the end of the module, students able to
determine whether a series converges or diverges using suitable technique for test of convergence.

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## Techniques to determine whether series

an converge or diverge.

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Theorem
If the series
n 1

an

0.

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If the series
n 1

an

n

0.

Always true
Example:
n

3 2 n 1
3 then lim n n2
5

3 2 n 1

converges,

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If the series
n 1

an

n

0.

## Not always true

Example: The Harmonic Series
n

3 1 n
3 lim n n 0

however,
n

3 diverges. 1 n

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## The Test for Divergence

an does not exist or if lim an If lim n
n

0, then the

series
n 1

an

is divergent.

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Example 1
Show that the series
n

n2 2 5 n 4 1

diverges.

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Example 1 - solution
n2 lim 2 n 5n 4 lim
n

1 5
4 n2

1 5

## By the Test for Divergence, the series diverges.

Reminder: What is the difference between sequence and series?
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Theorem
If
an

and

bn can ,

## are convergent series, then so are

(an bn ), and (an bn ), and

the series
(i)
n 1

can

c
n 1

an an
n 1 n 1

(ii )
n 1

(an bn ) (an bn )
n 1

bn bn
n 1
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(iii )
5. Series I

an
n 1

10

lim an
n

## 0 the series may converge or diverge. 0 the series must diverge.

If lim an
n

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Example 2
Determine whether the following series converge or diverge? (i)
n 1 n

(ii)
n

n2 n 3 2 2 n 1 1
n2 2 5 n 4 1
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(iii)
n
5. Series I

Example 2 - solution
(i)
n 1 n

2
n 1

( 2)

1 n

lim (2)
n

1 n

## 20 1 0, the series diverges

(ii)
n

n2 n 3 2 2 n 1 1
n2 lim 2 n 2n
13

n2 n 3 lim n 2n 2 1
5. Series I

1 2

0 , the series

diverges.
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Example 2 - solution
(iii)
n

n2 2 5 n 4 1

n2 lim 2 n 5n 4

n lim 2 n 5n

1 lim n 5

1 5

## Therefore, the series

n
5. Series I

n2 2 5 n 4 1

diverges.
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Practice
By using the divergence test, show that the series diverges.
(i)
k 1

k k 3
1 n ) n

(ii)
n 1

(1

(iii)
k

k k 1 e

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Remark
If
lim an
n

or diverges.

## Therefore, need to use other test techniques

to confirm.
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Exercise
Exercise 12.2, Page 756 No. 21, 25, 29, 32

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## The Comparison Test

A series of positive terms is convergent if its terms are less than the corresponding terms of a positive series which is known to be convergent.
The SMALL subset MUST converge
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## The Comparison Test

Similarly, the series is divergent if its terms are greater than the corresponding terms of a series which is known to be divergent. The SMALL diverge. The BIG ???

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Example 4
Determine whether the series
2n
2

n 1

5 4n 3

converges or diverges.

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Example 4 - solution
2n
2

5 4n 3

5 2n 2
5 2 2 n 1 5 2

## (based on the denominator)

1 is convergent. 2 1 n

## Since the series

n

By Comparison Test
2 2 n 1

WHY?

n
5. Series I

5 4n 3
21

convergent.
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Example 5
ln n 1 n

Determine whether
n

converges

or diverges.

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Example 5 - solution
ln n 1, n 3

ln n n
The series
n

1 n
is divergent. (Harmonic series)

1 1 n

By Comparison Test
n

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ln n 1 n

diverges.
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Practice
By the Comparison Test, determine whether the series converges or diverges.
(i )
n 1

2 n
4

4 4 k

(ii )
n 1
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1 2
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Remark 1
There are two steps required for the comparison test to determine whether a series a with positive term converges or diverges:
k

5. Series I

ak

converges or

uk

## that proves the guess is

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Remark 1 - continue
Find a series correct.
uk

ak

## 2. If the guess that a is convergence,must find a convergent series uk whose terms uk ak .

k

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Remark 2
The Comparison Test only applies to series with nonnegative terms. Try this test as last resort; other tests are often easier to apply.

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## The Limit Comparison Test

Given the positive terms series
an
n 1

and

bn .
n 1

If

an lim n bn

where c is a finite number and c > 0, then either both series converge or both diverge.

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Example 6
By the Limit Comparison Test, determine whether the series, converges or diverges.
1
n n 2 1 1

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Example 6 - solution
1
n 1

an
1

## Step 1: Find a new series with from the given series.

1 n 1 2

bn

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Example 6 - solution
1
n 1

an
1
n

1 n 2 1

bn

## an Step 2: Compute lim n bn

1 an lim n bn lim 2
n n

1 2n
31

lim
n

2n 2
n

1 0

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Example 6 - solution
1
n n 2 1 1 n

1 n 2 1

## Since the series

n

1 n 2 1

is a convergent geometric

## series, by the Limit Comparison Test, the series

1
n 1

converges.

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Example 7
By the Limit Comparison Test, determine whether the series
k 1

2k

3k
5

5 k

converges or diverges.

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Example 7- solution
2k 2 3k
k 1

5 k5

The highest power of the numerator is 2k2 and the highest power of the denominator is k5/2 . Thus, 2k 2 3k 2k 2 2 ak and bk 1 5 5 k2 5 k k
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Example 7- solution
ak 2k 2 3k 5 k
2k 2 lim
k

and bk

2k 2 k
5

2 k
1 2

Then

3k
5

5 k 2 k
1 2

lim
k

2k

3k k .( ) 2 5 k5
5 2

1 2

lim
k

2k

3k

3 2

2 lim
k

3 k 1

2 5 k
35

5 2 5 k

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Example 7- solution
ak 2k 2 3k 5 k
5

and bk

2k 2 k
5

2 k
1 2

## Since it is divergent p-series, therefore by the Limit Comparison Test,

k 1

2k 2 3k 5 k5

diverges.
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Practice
By the Limit Comparison Test, determine whether the following series converges or diverges.
4k 2 2k 6 8k 7 k 8 5
k k 3 1

(i)
k 1

(ii)

1
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5. Series I

Remark
The Limit Comparison Test is easier to apply than the Comparison Test, however it requires skill in

## choosing the series

n 1

bn for comparison.

## We must know whether this series converges or diverges.

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Exercise
Exercise 12.4, Page 770 771 No. 1, 3-32 (odd numbers only)

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## The Integral Test

Suppose f (x) is a continuous, positive, decreasing function on [1, ) and let an f (n). Then the series
n 1

## the improper integral

1

f ( x)dx is convergent.

That is

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## The Integral Test

(i) If
1

f ( x)dx

is convergent, then
n 1

an

is

convergent. (ii) If
1

f ( x)dx

is divergent, then
n 1

an

is

divergent.
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Example
Test the series
1
n 2 n 1 1

## for convergence or divergence.

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Example - solution
Let
f ( x) 1 x
2

## We know that this function is continuous, positive, and decreasing on [1, ).

So, can use the Integral Test.
1
n
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2 n 1 1
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Example - solution
1
1 t

dx lim
t 1

1 x
2
1

1
t 1

dx

lim tan x
t

## lim tan t tan 1

t

4
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Example - solution
Thus,
1

1 x
2

dx

is convergent integral,
1
n 2 n 1 1

## so by the Integral Test, the series is convergent.

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Exercises
Exercise 12.3, Page 765 No. 1-24 (odd only)

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An Alternating Series
An alternating series is a series whose terms are alternately positive and negative.
( 1) n n 1
1

1 1 2

1 3

1 4

1 5

1 ... 6

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## The Alternating Series Test (AST)

If the alternating series
( 1) n 1 bn
n 1

b1

b2

b3

b4

...

(bn

0)

(ii) lim bn
n

## then the series is convergent .

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Example 1
Determine whether the series converge or diverge by AST.
( 1) n 1
n 1

1 1 2

1 3

1 4

1 5

1 ... 6

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Example 1 - solution
n

( 1) n n 1

1 1 2
1

1 3

1 4

1 5
1

1 ... 6
1 n

(i) bn

bn

because 1 lim n n 0

n 1

(ii) lim bn
n

## Therefore, by the Alternating Series Test (AST) the series is convergent.

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Example 2
Determine whether the series converges or diverges.
( 1)
k 1 k 1

k 3 k (k 1)

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Example 2 - solution
( 1)
k 1 k 1

k 3 k (k 1)

## (i) To show bk+1< bk

k 4 (k 1)( k 2)
52

k 3 k (k 1)

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Example 2 - solution
(i) To show bk+1< bk
k 4 (k 1)( k 2) k ( k 4) k (k 1)( k 2) k 3 k (k 1) (k 2)( k 3) k (k 1)( k 2)

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Example 2 - solution
(i) To show bk+1< bk
k2 4 k ( k 2 5k 6) k ( k 1)( k 2)

k 6 k (k 1)( k 2)

(k 6) k (k 1)( k 2)

therefore, bk+1< bk
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Example 2 - solution
(ii) To show
k 3 lim k k ( k 1) 0

k 3 lim k k (k 1)

k 3 lim 2 k k k

lim
k

1 k

3 k2 1 k

since condition (i) and (ii) are satisfied, by AST the series converges.
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Practice
By the Alternating Series Test, determine whether the following series converges or diverges.
(i)
n

( 1) n 2 n 1

(ii)
k 1
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( 1) k 1 e
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Remark
The Alternating Series Test only applies to the alternating series.

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Exercises
Exercise 12.5, Page 775 776 No. 1, 2-20 (odd numbers only), 33

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Type of Convergence
For an alternating series, there are two types of convergence: (i) Absolutely Convergence; (ii) Conditionally Convergence.

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Absolutely Convergence
A series ( 1) convergent
n 1 n

an

is called absolutely

( 1) n an
n 1

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Example 1
The series
n

( 1) n 2 n 1

1 1 2 2

1 32

1 42

...

## is absolutely convergent because

( 1) n n2
1

n 1

1 2 n 1

1 1 2 2

1 32

1 42

...

is convergent.

Why?

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Conditionally Convergence
A series
( 1) n an

is called conditionally

n 1

( 1) n an

diverges

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Example 2
The series
n

( 1) n n 1

1 1 2

1 3

1 ... 4

## is convergent , however the series

( 1) n n
1

n 1

1 1 1 1 1 ... 2 3 4 1 n
1

is divergent.

( 1) n n 1

1 1 2

1 3
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5. Series I

Theorem
If a series
n 1

If
n 1

n 1

( 1) n an

is convergent.
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## The Ratio Test

Given an alternating series
n 1

( 1) n an

(i) If

an 1 lim n an

L 1,

n 1

( 1) n an

converges).
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5. Series I

## The Ratio Test

Given an alternating series
n 1

( 1) n an

(ii) If

an 1 lim n an

L 1,

n 1

( 1) n an

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( 1) n an

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## The Ratio Test

Given an alternating series
n 1

( 1) n an

(iii) If

an 1 lim n an

1,

## then the Ratio Test

is inconclusive.

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Example 1
Using the ratio test, determine whether the given series converge or diverge.
(i)
n 1

1 n! ( 2 k )! k 4 1

(ii)
k

(iii)
k 1
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1 2k 1
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Example 1- solution
(i)
n 1

1 n! lim
n 1 ( n 1)! 1 n!

an 1 lim n an lim
n

n! lim n ( n 1)!

1 n 1

## By the Ratio Test, the series converges.

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Example 1- solution
(ii)
k

(2k )! k 4 1

[2(k 1)]! k 1 ak 1 4 lim lim k k [2k ]! ak 4k (2k 2)! 1 1 lim . lim (2k k (2k )! 4 4 k

2)(2k 1)

## By the Ratio Test, the series diverges.

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Example 1- solution
(iii)
k

ak 1 lim k ak

## By the Ratio Test, the series may be converge or diverges.

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Example 2
Determine whether the series below, is absolutely convergent, conditionally convergent or divergent.

n ( 1) n 3 1
n
72

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Example 2 - solution
n 3 n ( 1) n n 3 1

an

3 n ( 1) n n 3

a lim n 1 n an

( n 1) 3 ( 1) n 1 3 lim 3 n n ( 1) n n 3
n 1

(n 1) 3 3n lim . 3 n 1 n 3 n

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Example 2 - solution
( n 1) 3 lim . 3 n 1 n 3 n
3 n

1 ( n 1) lim 3 n 3 n
3

1 n lim 3 n 3 n

1 3

By the Ratio Test, the series converge absolutely ( the series is also convergent).
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Remark
May like to use the Ratio Test,when an
involves factorials or nth power.

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Exercises
Exercise 12.6, Page 781-782 No. 1, 3,7,9

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Exercises
Use the Ratio Test to determine whether the series converges. If the test is inconclusive, then say so.
1.
k 1

4k k!

2.
n 1

n! n3 n

3.
k
5. Series I

1 k k( ) 2 1
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4.
n 1

5n 2

1
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(i) If lim
n n

an

L 1,

then theseries
n 1

an

is convergent .
(ii) If lim
n n

an

L 1, or lim n an
n

## , then the series

n 1

an

is divergent.

(iii) If lim n an
n
5. Series I

1, inconclusive.
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Power Series
It is a series of the form
(i)
n 1

an x n ( 1) n an x n
n 1

(ii)
(iii)
n 1
5. Series I

( 1) n an (bx c) n
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Power Series
You need to know how to find

## radius of convergence and interval of convergence.

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Example 1
Use the Root Test to determine whether the following series converge or diverge.
(i)
k 2

4k 2k

5 1

(ii)
n 1

1 (ln(n 1))n
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5. Series I

Example 1 - solution
(i)
k 2

4k 2k

5 1

lim
k

4k 2k

5 1

4k lim k 2k

5 1

## By the Root Test the series diverges.

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Example 1 - solution
(ii)
n 1

lim
n

## By the Root Test the series converges (Absolutely convergence).

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Example 2
Test the convergence of the series
k

( 1)
k 1

k 1

2k 3 . 3k 2

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Example 2 - solution
( 1)
k 1 k 1

2k 3 . 3k 2
k

lim
k

2k 3 3k 2

2k 3 lim k 3k 2

2 3

By the Root Test, the series absolutely converges (and therefore converges).
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Remark
May like to use the Root Test, when an , involves nth powers.

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Exercises
Exercise 12.6, Page 781 782 No. 1, 2 28 ( odd numbers only), 29,31.

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Exercises
Use the Root Test to determine whether the series converges. If the test is inconclusive, then say so.
1.
k 1

3k 2 2k 1

2.
n 1

n 200

3.
k
5. Series I

k k 6 1
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4.
n 1

(1 e k ) k
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Practice
Using the Ratio Test, determine whether the given series converge or diverge.
(i)
k

3k 1 k! k k!
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(ii)
k 1
5. Series I

Practice
Use the Root Test to determine whether the series converges or diverges.
(i)
n 1

3n 1 2n-1

(ii)
k 1
5. Series I

( 1-e-k )k
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Practice
Classify whether each series is conditionally convergent, absolutely convergent or divergent.
(i)
n

3n 1 ( 1) 9n 15 1
n k 1 4

(ii)
k 1

( 1)

1 k3
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END of MODULE

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