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This journey began with simple calling that “Watson Come

Here” called by inventor of telephone Graham bell. To bridge the gap
between the supply and demand, govt. has decided to revise and
moderate the telecom policy. Govt. opened the sector for foreign
investor. This foreign suppliers set up exchange, of more capacity


 5ESS of AT&T (USA)

We have done our training with 5-ESS digital switching system, with
a capacity of 15k,it can be further extended .it has given configuration
in our training site
 5k at Benajhaber
 RSU of 6k at Kakadev
 RSU of 4k at Avas-vikas

The 5ESS-2000 switch is a digital exchange that can serve
as a local (lines), toll (trunks), tandem (lines and trunks), OSPS
(operator service position system) or international gateway exchange
depending on the switch. It can serve a small community with fewer
than 100 subscribers or a large metropolitan area serving more than
100,000 subscribers.

The quality of service rendered by a telephone exchange is

traditionally measured by availability criterion. In the modern digital
exchanges with extremely reliable hardware and software, exchange
availability is ensured to a good extent. As a result the focus of
provision of service has shifted from mere availability of service to the
enriched features and facilities to suit the needs of both the needs of
individual subscribers and business establishment.
With the coming of ISDN, the network boundaries are
disappearing. The methods for activation, deactivation, utilization and
charging of the subscriber services need to be standardized across
the networks in order to take full advantage of the more intelligent
switches and user network interfaces.
In the Indian networks, the services offered to subscribers
are categorized as follows—

1. Basic services
2. Supplementary services
3. Non- Supplementary services
4. Miscellaneous services
5. Switching Facilities

Basic services are composed of telephone lines provided singly
or in groups
Any other service that is provided specific to subscribers
directory no and controlled by administration and/or the
subscriber himself is termed as supplementary service.

A non- Supplementary services is also provided to a
subscribers directory no but is more general in nature.

Miscellaneous services are also value based services but they
have different method of provisioning than the supplementary
or non- supplementary services.

Switching facilities concern only the use exchange switching
facilitie2s. These are independent of individual subscribers and
are controlled solely by administration. Normally these facilities
are not charged.

Next Gateway

IG- International Gateway

TE-Toll Exchange
IN-SCP LE-Local Exchange IG






Local Subscribers Local Subscribers Local Subscribers


Electronic Switching System:-



AM-Administration module
SM-Switching module
CM-Communication module SM


Fig-Modular Distributed Design

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The AM is Switch equipment module which has the overall the
control of the entire 5ESS – 2000 Switch. The AM controls the CM
and communicate with all the SMs (through CM). If there are any
problems they are reported to maintenance personnel.

AM Functions-
The AM has a minimum of one cabinet and maximum of 3
cabinets. The AM functions are –
*Administrative data processing
*Traffic Measurement – System performance report
*Memory Management
*System Maintenance
*Allocating trunks for call processing.

AM Components-




CU-Control Unit DFC-Disk File Controller

DD- Disk Drive ROP-Receive only printer
TD-Type device OP-Input/output processor

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There are three main units within the AM

*CU (Control Unit)

*IOP (I/P O/P Processor)
*DFC (Disk File Controller)

The CU monitor over all system operation.

CU consists of [CC (central control) &MM (Main Memory)] as
CC has six major functions

*Execute program –CC contains logics circuits that execute

step by step instruction to control the operation of AM
Execute program request –it response to request from SM
and from maintenance personnel
*Processes administrative data – It compiles report ,
information and prints reports periodically
*Monitors system operation- it maintains a log of equipment
status and a list of OOS
(Out of service) equipment.
*Update duplicate CU- It communicate with duplicate stand by
CU to keep its memory up to date.
*Manages data transfer –It control memory transfer between
its own memory, its hard disk and the microprocessors that
serve the peripheral units in the IOP.

DISK FILE CONTROLLER (DFC) ---The DFC is responsible for

interfacing with SCSI (small computer system interface) peripheral
devices, such as the tape and disk drive.
TAPE DRIVE (TD)—The TD is back up for information store on
disk .Data can be transferred from tape to disk or from disk to
IOP------It is the interface for the other peripheral devices used by
the switch such as (MCC & ROP) data links and alarms signaling.
MCC (Master central control) ---MCC is the main local
workstation of maintenance personnel.

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Switching Module:-

The primary job of the switching module is to connect subscriber lines

and inter-office trunks to the 5ESS switch. A switching module is a
multi-unit component. A switching module is located in a variable
number of cabinets.
The switching modules are available in two models, the SM or SM-
2000. In addition, there are 5 applications of switching modules: the
LSM, HSM, RSM, and ORM. One 5ESS-2000 Switch can support as
many as 192 SMs. Each SM can handle as many as 5120 lines or
500 trunks or a combination of two. The SM-2000 can handle more
than 65,000 lines and about 18,000 trunks.

Switching Module Functions:-

All external lines, trunks, and special services circuits are

terminated at the switching module. The analog and digital signals
are converted4 to the digital format used inside the 5ESS-2000
switch. The SM performs almost 95% of the call processing and
maintenance functions including—
1. Line and trunk scanning
2. Tone and cadence generation
3. Digit analysis
4. Call routing
5. Circuit switching
6. Packet switching
7. Announcements
8. Call process supervision
9. Routine maintenance and self-maintenance
The SM provides many subscriber calling features including—
i. Call waiting
ii. Abbreviated dialing
iii. Call diversion
iv. Conference calls

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SM Control Units: -

 MP- Microprocessor
 SMP-switching module processor
 TSI- Time Slot interchange
 MCTU/MCTSI-Module controller and TSI unit/
 Module controller and time slot interchange

Located in the SMC (switching module control) cabinets are the two
SM control units, the SMP and the TSI. These two units are
combined into the MCTSI which is also referred as MCTU.

SMP: -

Switching module processor contains the microprocessor and

memory used to perform the call processing and maintenance
functions within the SM. The SMP provides five major functions:-
Controls peripheral units
 Performs call processing
 Performs SM maintenance
 Initializes SM memory
 Communicates with the AM and other SMs


The second control unit in the SM is the time slot

interchanger. The TSI performs the time portion of the time-space-
time division switching. This type of switching allows multiple
inputs access to a set no of outputs when processing phone calls.

The TSI also switches data from the network side to the
CM where it is routed to other SMs. The TSI receives and transmits
peripheral time slots to and from peripheral units.

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Types Of Switching Module: -

A 5ESS-2000 switch can be equipped with the following types of

 LSM (Local Switching module):-
This type of SM serves local lines, trunks, and ISDN.

 HSM (Host Switching Module):-

This type of SM provides the normal LSM subscriber interfaces
and also interfaces one or more RSMs
 RSM (Remote Switching Module ):- This type of SM is
designed to meet the needs of those communities that are too
small to be served by their own 5ESS switch in the remote

 PSM (Position Switching module):- This type of SM supports

operator switching position system features.

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Communication Module

Hardware that provides the interface between the AM and the

SM(s). In a multi-module office, the CM consists of the message
switch and the TMS. Communications module 2(CM2) is an updated
version of the CM that is physically smaller but has an increased call
handling capacity. This has been accomplished by use of the new
operationally larger TMS2 and MSG2, now housed in the CM2
cabinet instead of separate TMS and MSGS cabinets.
CMCU (communications module control unit)
The CMCU, a part of CM2, provides message interface and timing
facilities used to synchronize the time division network in the TMS via
the TMSU. The CMCU consists of a DMI, NCLK2, TMS controller and
metallic interface.

CNI (Common Network Interface)

The CNI functions as a packet switching system in the

signaling network. The CNI is not a stand-alone switching system but
requires configuration to an application such as the 5ESS® switch
and 5ESS®-2000 switch. The CNI consists of several peripheral
processors (RPCs and LNs) serially interconnected and a central
processor that performs the basic operating system duties in a
distributed I/O processing architecture.

Communication Module Functions: -

All versions of CM are divided into two functional units:

I) MSGS (message switch control unit)

II) ONTC (office network and timing complex)

The following description is based on the most common type of

communication type of CM currently in the field, the CM2. The
MSGS and ONTC are each made of subunits. The four major
functions are of the CM are performed by these hardware
subunits: -

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 MSCU (message switch control unit)-provides control
over the MSPU.
 MSPU (message switch peripheral unit)- Processes
control time slot.
 CMCU (communications module control unit)-
Provides timing and control.
 TMSU (time multiplexed switch unit)- terminates NCT
links and switches data and control time slots
between them.

The major functions of the CM are call switching, message switching,

network timing, and normal bump. The CM is linked to the AM with a
DSCH bus (metallic), to the SM with NCT links(fiber optic cables).

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Switch Application:-

The 5ESS-2000 Switch was designed with a flexible

modular approach with regard to both software and hardware,
allowing for digital services, and capabilities that support many
applications. Current applications supported by system are as
follows: -

 Local Exchange
 Toll Exchange
 Gateway Exchange
 SSP (services switching point)
 MSC (Mobile Switching Center or Wireless)

Local Exchange: -

A local exchange is located at the bottom of the network

hierarchy and has a high percentage of subscribers connected to it
and a low percentage of trunks. The local exchange switches a call
from an internal subscriber to another directly or through a trunk
circuit to another exchange. The local exchange performs the
metering and charging for multi-metering. For AMA (Automatic
Message Accounting) the call information records are send to a billing

Toll Exchange: -

To connect different geographical areas within a country, a toll

exchange is used. Trunk circuit connects the local exchange to a toll
exchange. The toll exchange switches calls to other toll exchanges to
continue the call or to a local exchange to terminate the call.
Sometimes the toll exchange performs metering and charging. The
metering information is then send to local exchange to update the
subscriber charging registers.

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Gateway Exchange: -

All calls in the network bound for an international destination is

send to an international gateway exchange and are then routed to the
proper country. All calls entering the network from another country
are received by the international gateway first, and then routed to the
proper local/toll exchange.

Local Toll Local





Services Switching Point: -

A call is routed to an SSP, based on the dialed number. The

SSP then uses the received number to locate the appropriate
translation. The number is translated into a destination number, using
the translation tables available in the exchange. The treatment of the
call depends on the service features the called party has subscribed

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Tandem Exchange: -

A tandem exchange is located between local exchange

and/or local and tandem exchange. The tandem exchange is used to
consolidate the use of trunks between exchanges. Instead of
installing trunks between each exchange in a local area each
exchange can have trunks routed to tandem exchange. All call are
then routed to the tandem and on the another exchange.

OSPS (Operator Service position System) >

The 5-ESS -2000 switch offers automatic operator services via the
OSPS. OSPS applications are directory inquiry to supply directory
numbers to calling subscribers .




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ISDN> ISDN offers a new voice data services and allow features
such as OSPS. Two people with ISDN can make phone calls
and use there computer




STP (Signaling Transfer point)>

It sends signaling messages on there way to proper destination over
a different path then the associated voice circuit.

Point Signal

Local/Toll Gateway

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Call Processing

The purpose of the 5ESS switch is to switch calls from

originating equipment to terminating equipment and to provide the
proper charging information to correctly bill the customer. This
function is referred to as call processing.








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Call Processing Stages:

There are five fundamental steps of call processing, including

the location of the originating and terminating equipment. These
steps are as follows:
 Origination
 Digit analysis
 Routing/Screening
 Charging
 Termination
There are five functional steps for call processing

It begins when the subscriber line goes of –hook or when an
incoming trunk is seized.

It interprets the digit that it receive from origination,selects a
destinations for each call , and passes the dialed digits to
routing .

Routing uses the destination information from digit analysis and
screening information form origination to select the termination
trunk lines or groups.

It uses the charging information from routing to expand the
charging data into a format useable by the call accounting

It is the last step in the call processing .Termination process are
different for call destined for lines and call destined for
trunks.There are of two type
Trunk and Line termination.

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Charging is the function that accesses the costs of the usage of

switching capacity and that passes these costs on to the users.
These users can be

 subscribers ( to national traffic/originating international

 other administrations( to share revenues when they
share national capacity)
Of time interval

Two methods can be used to determine the actual usage
of system capacity

1. Multimetering
2. Detailed billing

These methods can be used independently or in combination. The

data provided by both charging methods allows for billing that is
variable and dependent on
 information that is fixed for each call
 The type of originating subscriber.
 The destination of the call.

 information that is related to time

 The duration of the call.
 the date and time when the call was place

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Charges imposed by multimetering are expressed in charging

units. For each subscriber the charging units are collected in a
software counter- the subscriber register or software charging
register. The number of charging units is in direct relation with
the billed costs that are passed on to the subscriber.
The system is capable of imposing charging units on
Answer of a call
- lapse of a time interval since the answer of
the call
- Subscriber action to control a
supplementary subscriber service.

Multimetering is capable of performing both the fixed and time

dependent parts of charging.


The charging method is determined on imformation on

origination and destination of the call.The fixed part of charge
results in the applicable charging methods and the tariff identity.

Advantage of this method:

1. charging units can be used to generate charging pulses

2. simple charging methods requires only the number of
imposed charging units.

Disadvantage of Multimetering:

Only the charging units are accumulated to the subscriber

register.The events that caused the production of the charging
units are lost forever.So detailed bill cannot be generated.

For ISDN ( Integrated Services Digital Network ) subscribers

no home meters are used.An equivalent of the home meter
service is the ISDN AOC (Advice of Charge) service.

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This charging method is based upon recording of all information

relevant to billing for each call. In addition to other call data, the
following billing information is usually recorded.
 Information concerning origin and destruction of call
 iThe date and time that the call was answered
 The date and time that the call was disconnected


 call events are recorded per call

 This is applied further to different charging

 National billing
 International Revenue Sharing
 Monitoring the handling of a call by tracking events


A. Determination of the charging methods and the

fixed charging information
B. Determination of the time dependent charging
C. Transport of the charging data to the AM (
Administrative Module)
D. Temporary storage of the charging data in the
E. Transport of the charging data from the exchange
to the external billing center.
F. Billing.

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Normally the charged a call depends on the conversation time.

The conversation time for a successful call is the difference
between the time of call commencement and the re-answer
timeout or clear forward signal.
The start time and end time of the conversation time are included
in the detailed billing record.


It is started as soon as enough digits have been received to

connect a call to a certain destination.
In a PSTN (Public Switch Telephone Network) call, the charge
index is determine by

1. The origin of call, indicated by screening index

2. The destination of the call, indicated by destination index


The charging information is registered in the basic call record in

the SM. Registration of the charges is done by
MM(Multimetering ) method, AMA method or a combination of
both methods . Charging of basic ISDN calls can also be done
via multimetering, AMA or a combination of both methods.
Charging of non – ISDN supplementary services can be done
via MM, AMA or both methods. Charging of ISDN
supplementary services is done via AMA only.


AMA(Automatic Message Accounting) records or generated for

billable, calls that have reached the conversation phase. For
calls which can not reach the build – up complete phase or do
not reach the conversation phase, no AMA records are
generated . AMA records are generated for execution of some
these supplementary services, irrespective of whether the calls
using the supplementary services are answered or not.
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Fig: Determination of charge rate

Tariff identity date Time of


Exception day definition

Day No.

Dayb program selection

program identity

Day program selection

Rate selection
Rate name

Charge rate definition

Charge rate

no. of units in answer

 5No. of units per interval
 Length of time interval

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Digit Analysis is the function that collects and analyzes subscriber
dialed or trunk originated digits in order to determine the requested
call destination or special dialed services. Digit analysis can be
split up into two functional entities.

 Digit Collection>
responsible for collecting dialed digits from incoming
trunks or lines.
1. - supporting the signaling protocol of the origination line
2. -performing dial timing requirements.
there are of two type collection;

1. PSTN Collection
2. ISDN Collection

 Digit Analysis>
Responsible for:

- Identification of call type (normal call, dialed service,

emergency number).
- Inter digit timing requirements i.e. digit analysis determines the
minimum no. of digits required to route the call.
- Generation of routing request data.
- The following different dialing plans exist in an exchange
depending on the position of the exchange in the network.
- *Originating
- *Terminating
- Regional
- *National
- *International
- the data for each dialing plan is divided over two main tables
- *preliminary table containing DAPRI and DAPRO data.
- *Primary table containing DANAL data.

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This form is used to define a set of digit analysis tables for a digit
analysis selector.
 A preliminary table for line originated calls
 A preliminary table for trunk originated calls.
 Main analysis tables which are used after the preliminary
analysis for line/ trunk originated calls.
 If there is only one DASEL form defined with pointer to the
DAPRI,DAPRO,DANAL form, then these forms have to be
deleted first before this DASEL form can be deleted. If there are
several DASEL forms, then these DASEL form s can be deleted
, until only one DASEL form remains with those pointers.
 DAPRO_(Originating Preliminary Analysis)
 This form is to analyze the subscriber programming digits that
control services and to specify the type of main analysis table
to use for all other calls.

DAPRI____ (incoming Preliminary Analysis)

This form is used for preliminary analysis of incoming trunk calls.

DANAL_ _(Main Digit Analysis)

This form is used to define the main analysis table for both line and
trunk originated calls.

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Routing is the exchange service which translates the destination data
receives from digit analysis into the physical port which leads to the
dialed destination (outgoing trunk or line).

Line Digit
Or Analysis

Routing Or

In most cases routing starts after the collection and analysis of the
minimum number of digits required to determine the destination of the


Terms used are

 Screening Index-
It is an arbitrary number assigned by the telephone
administration to uniquely identify the source of originating line
for routing and charging purposes.

 Destination Index-
It is also assigned by telephone administration to uniquely
identify each destination reachable from the exchange for
routing and charging purposes.

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 Route—
-It is defined as one possible group leaving the exchange and
leading to the specified destination.

 Route Chain—
It is defined as an ordered set of routes used to reach a given
destination It contains a primary roots and one or more
alternate routes.

 Route Index—
It is an arbitrary number assigned by the telephone
administration to uniquely identify one route out of the exchang.

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CCS No.7 is a CCS system which may be used in an associated

and non associated mode of operation.

It has following features-

1. Based on separation of speech circuit from signaling link

2. Speech circuit has no signaling function except when a
continuity check is done
3. Result in faster call set up
4. Efficient utilization of speech circuits.

This system is to provide an internationally standardized general

purpose CCS system.

1. It provides a reliable means of transfer of information in correct

sequence and without loss or duplication.
2 It is optimized for operation in digital telecommunication network
in conjunction with stored program controlled exchange.

The signaling system is optimized for operation over 64-Kbits/s

digital channels. It is also suitable for operation over analog
channels and at lower speeds. The system is suitable for use on
point to point terrestrial and satellite links.

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