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EFFECTIVITY OF CLOVE (Syzygium aromatium) AS ANTIBIOTICS ON Pseudomonas aeruginosa SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

Annisa Fatmawati, 2Dr. dr. Akrom, M.Kes

Pharmacists Profession Program, Faculty Of Pharmacy, Ahmad Dahlan ni!ersity, "ogyakarta 2 Faculty Of Pharmacy, Ahmad Dahlan ni!ersity, "ogyakarta, #ndonesia $mail% annisafatma2&'gmail.com ABSTRACT

Introduction% (acterial infections in humans are found in !arious countries. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ) P.aeruginosa * is a gram+negati!e ,acterium that can cause infections in humans. -he study , re.orted that the highest .re!alence of infection was found in the age grou. /0+0& years old man. Pre!alence rates ranged from 1&.0 to /&1 P.aeruginosa and one study from #ndia re.orted a .re!alence rate of 2&./1. 2lo!e ) Syzygium aromaticum* has anti,acterial acti!ity with acti!e su,stances eugenol. Objective% -his article aims to re!iew the scientific research on the effecti!eness of clo!e ) Syzigium aromaticum* as antimicro,ial on P.aeruginosa. Met od!% 3istematic re!iew of the methodology de!elo.ed ,y the 2ochrane 2olla,oration. 3ource of data deri!ed from Pu,med and 4oogle 3cholar. P#2O search method% antimicro,a, Syzygium aromaticum, P.aeruginosa, effecti!ity. 5ournals .u,lished from the years 2&&&+2&1/ are used, with the restriction $nglish language. Re!u"t!% -his re!iew is an article which first collect and discuss information a,out the clo!e as antimicro,ials in ,acteria P.aeruginosa. 3e!eral studies ha!e ,een conducted, showing that Syzygium aromaticum in the form of infusion, decocta, essential oils, e6tracts of ethanol , and methanol e6tracts can inhi,it the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conc"u!ion% 2lo!e )Syzygium aromaticum* has efficacy as an antimicro,ial7 anti,iotic that can inhi,it the growth of gram+negati!e ,acteria P.aeurginosa. #e$ %ord% Syzygium aromatium, eugenol, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, antimicro,a

Introduction
(acterial infections in humans are found in !arious countries. Distri,ution of these infections cause a decrease in human .roducti!ity, decreased 8uality of life, and e!en death. P.aeruginosa ,acteria is one of the gram+negati!e ,acterium that can cause infections in humans. -he highest .re!alence was found P.aeruginosa infection in humans in the age grou. /0+0& years. Pre!alence rates ranged from 1&.0 to /&1 P.aeruginosa and one study from #ndia re.orted a .re!alence rate of 2&./1 )Mohanasoundaram, 2&11*. 2lo!e )Syzygium aromaticum* has traditionally ,een used as a s.ice in cooking and fragrances on drinks. 2lo!es ha!e antimicro,ial acti!ity )9ascimento et al., 2&&&: (ergk!ist et al., 2&&;: 3aeed and -ari8, 2&&<*, antio6idants, antinocice.tion, anti!iral, and anticancer )=o>as et al., 2&1/*. -he content of acti!e ingredient in clo!e which are com.ounds ha!ing antimicro,ial acti!ity is eugenol )Kamatou, 2&12: =o>as et al., 2&1/*.

Aith Metal #on $ffect Against Food (orne Pathogens #n Bitro Anti,acterial Acti!ity of 2lo!e Against 4ram 9egati!e (acteria Anti,acterial Acti!ity of Plant $6tracts and Phytochemicals on Anti,iotic =esistant (acteria

3a,ahat 3aeed @ Perween -ari8 )2&&<*

$6.erimental in vitro

and the addition of metal ions does not increase the inhi,itory effect #nfuse, decocta, and Syzygium aromaticum oil showed ma6imum inhi,itory acti!ity against P. aeruginosa 4rowth of P. aeruginosa can ,e inhi,ited ma6imally ,y the e6tract of clo!e )Syzygium aromaticum*

4islene 4. F. 9ascimento: 5uliana Docatelli: Paulo 2. )2&&&*

$6.erimental in vitro

&i!cu!!ion
-he =esearch of Krishnan et al., )2&12* re.orted that natural com.ounds clo!es, showed acti!ity as an anti+8uorom sensing in ,acteria P. aeruginosa. Euorum sensing is a .rocess of communication ,etween ,acterial cells in which the ,acteria use the .roduction and detection of e6tracellular chemicals called autoinducers to monitor cell .o.ulation density. Euorum sensing allows ,acteria to synchroni?e gene e6.ression grou.s, thus acting simultaneously to effect infection )Deung @ (lasser, 2&&F*. #nhi,ition of intercellular cel communication )anti+8uorom sensing* ,y Syzygium aromaticum on ,acteria P. aeruginosa may ,e the ,asis for the de!elo.ment of alternati!e anti,iotics latest .roducts to treat ,acterial infections that arise, without causing anti,iotic resistance )Krishnan et al., 2&12*.

Met od!
-he .re.aration of re!iew >ournals conducted ,y re!iewing >ournals from the internet relating to the effecti!eness of clo!e )Syzygium aromaticum* as an antimicro,ial. -he method used in the study re.ort is analy?e and re.ort ,ack the results of the study.Design research in >ournals that ser!e as source of >ournal with a re!iew of e6.erimental studies in !itro methods. #nclusion criteria in the re!iew >ournal on e6tract and oil from Syzygium aromaticum as antimicro,ial against P.aeruginosa inhi,ition results in the form of inhi,ition ?one data. $6clusion criteria in the re!iew on >ournal is e6tract of Syzygium aromaticum for other effects )antifungal, antio6idant, antinocice.ti!e and anti!irals*.

Conc"u!ion
2lo!e )Syzygium aromaticum* has efficacy as an antimicro,ial inhi,its the growth and as an anti+8uorom sensing in gram+negati!e ,acteria P.aeurginosa. -he antimicro,ial acti!ity of clo!e as that can ,e an alternati!e treatment to reduce the occurrence of anti,iotic resistance.

Re!u"t!
3earched scientific research >ournals of clo!e ) Syzygium aromaticum* as antimicro,ial on the we,site 4ooglescholar and Pu,Med, o,tained total of 22; >ournals. -he results of the literature selection on the antimicro,ial acti!ity of clo!e contained on -a,le #.

Re'erence

(ergk!ist, -ony P., Geather 2a!anagh, 5enny Ailkinson, @ Michael Andersson, 2&&;. Antimicro,ial acti!ity of four !olatile essential oils. Master thesis in Pharmacy, 4Hte,org, 3weden. Kamatou, 4uy P., #l?e Bermaak @ Al!aro M. B., 2&12. $ugenolIFrom -a,le #. =esult of the literature selection S. aromaticum as antimicro,ial the =emote Maluku #slands to the #nternational Market Place% A P.aeruginosa =e!iew of a =emarka,le and Bersatile Molecule. Molecules 9o 5ournal -itle Author Method =esult 2&12, 17, JF0/+JF<1: doi%1&.//F&7molecules1;&JJF0/. 1 3usce.ti,ility 4ehan M., $6.erimental -he ethanolic e6tract Krishnan, -hi,a., Aai+Fong "in @ Kok+4an 2., 2&12. #nhi,ition of Pattern of Kamel, 9.A., in vitro clo!e Euorum 3ensing+2ontrolled Birulence Factor Production in Pseudomonas $?? eldeen, aromaticum* Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 ,y Ayur!eda 3.ice 2lo!e aeruginosa Against Mostafa concentration of )Syzygium Aromaticum* (ud $6tract. Sensors 2&12, 12, C&1J+ Antimicro,ial "ousef $l+ ml can inhi,it C&/&: doi%1&.//F&7s12&C&C&1J. Agents Mishad @ growth acti!ity Deung 9g, Aai @ (onnie D. (assler. 2&&F. (acterial Euorum+3ensing and 3ome Plant =eham P.aeruginosa 9etwork Architectures. Annual Review of enetics Bol. C/% 1F;+ $6tracts with Focus Farouk $??at 222+2&&F. on its Pre!alence in )2&11* Mohanasoundaram, K.M., 2&11. -he Antimicro,ial =esistance Pattern in Different 3ources the 2linical #solates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a -ertiary 2 Anti,acterial Amit Pandey $6.erimental $6tract ethanol and 2are Gos.ital: 2&&<K2&1& )A / "ear 3tudy*. !ournal of "linical Acti!ity of @ Parul in vitro methanol e6tracts of clo!e and #iagnostic Research. 2&11 5une, Bol+0)/*% CF1+CFC Syzygium 3ingh )2&11* )Syzygium aromaticum 9ascimento, 4islene 4. F.: 5uliana Docatelli: Paulo 2. Freitas: @ aromaticum )clo!e* may inhi,it P. aeruginosa 4iuliana D.3., 2&&&. Anti,acterial Acti!ity of Plant $6tracts and

Phytochemicals on Anti,iotic =esistant (acteria. $razilian !ournal of Micro%iology )2&&&* &1'2(7)2*+. Pandey, Amit @ Parul 3ingh., 2&11. Anti,acterial Acti!ity of Syzygium aromaticum )clo!e* Aith Metal #on $ffect Against Food (orne Pathogens. Asian !ournal of Plant Science and Research, 2&11, 1 ,2-'+.)/0. =o>as , Diego F.2., 2laudia =egina Fernandes de 3ou?a @ Aanderley P.O., 2&1/. 2lo!e )Syzygium aromaticum*% a .recious s.ice. Asian Paific !ournal of 1ro2ical $iomed 2&1/: C)2*% F&+FJ. 3aeed, 3a,ahat @ Perween -ari8. 2&&<. #n Bitro Anti,acterial Acti!ity of 2lo!e Against 4ram 9egati!e (acteria. Pa3. !. $ot., (0,*-' 21*7)21+0, 2&&<.