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Chapter(15:((Helical,(Bevel,(and(

Worm(Gears:

Chapter(15:((Helical,(Bevel,(and( Worm(Gears: A(combined(helical(and(worm( gearset (speed(

A(combined(helical(and(worm( gearset (speed( reducer.(Source:(Courtesy(of(Boston(Gear.:

gearset (speed( reducer.(Source:(Courtesy(of(Boston(Gear.: Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

Just(stare(at(the(machine.(There(is(

nothing(wrong(with(that.((Just(live(

with(it(for(a(while.(Watch(it(the(way(

you(watch(a(line(when(fishing(and(

before(long,(as(sure(as(you(live,((youEll(

get(a(liFle(nibble,(a(liFle(fact(asking(in(

a(timid,(humble((way(if(youEre(

interested(in(it.(ThatEs(the(way(the(

world((keeps(on(happening.(Be(

interested(in(it.:

:

Robert(Pirsig ,(:

Zen$and$the$Art$of$-

Motorcycle$Maintenance-

© 2014 CRC Press

Helical(Gear:

(a)
(a)
Tangent to helical tooth Pitch cylinder Element of pitch cylinder (or gear's axis) Helix angle,
Tangent to helical tooth
Pitch cylinder
Element of pitch
cylinder (or
gear's axis)
Helix
angle,
(b)
(c)

Figure(15.1:((Helical(gear.((a)(Illustration(of(meshing(helical(gears;((b)(front(view;((c)(side(

view.:

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Gear(Design(Considerations:

G e a r t y p e A d v a n t a g e s

D i s a d v a n t a g e s

Spu r Inexpensive , simpl e t o design , n o th rus t loa d i s de- velope d b y th e gearing , wid e variet y o f manufac- turin g options.

Ca n generat e t noise , especiall y a t high speeds , an d a re usuall y restricte d t o pitch-lin e ve- locitie s belo w 2 0 m/ s (400 0 ft/min).

Helica l Usefu l fo r hig h spee d an d hig h powe r applications, quie t a t hig h speeds . Ofte n use d instea d o f spur gear s fo r hig h spee d applications.

Generat e a th rus t loa d o n a singl e face , mo re expen- siv e tha n spu r gears.

Beve l Hig h e f y (ca n b e 98 % o r higher) , ca n transfer Shaf t alignmen t i s critical , rollin g elemen t bearings

a re the refo re ofte n use d wit h beve l gears . This limit s powe r transfe r fo r hig h spee d a pplications (whe re a journa l bearin g i s p referable) . Ca n b e ex- pensive.

powe r ac ros s nonintersectin g shafts . Spira l bevel gear s transmi t load s evenl y an d a re quiete r than straigh t bevel.

Wor m

Compac t an d cos t e ffectiv e design s fo r la rg e gear

ratios . E f y ca n b e a s hig h a s 90 % o r a s lo w as gea r types , ca n b e expensive . Generat e ver y high

th rus t loads . Wor m canno t b e drive n b y gear ; worm mus t driv e gea r.

50% , an d i s lowe r tha n fo r othe r gea r sets.

Wea r b y abrasio n i s o f highe r concer n tha n other

Table(15.1:((Design(considerations(for(gears.:

n tha n other Table(15.1:((Design(considerations(for(gears.: Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Helical(Gear(Pitches:

p c p cn
p c
p
cn

(a)

p a ( b)
p a
( b)

Figure(15.2:((Pitches(of(helical(gears.((a)(Circular;((b)(axial.:

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

AGMA(Equations(for(Helical(Gears:

σ t = W t p d K o K s K m K v K b b w Y h

σ c = p H (K o K s K m K v )

1

2

Correction(factors(are(determined(as(in(Chapter(14,(except(for(geometry(

factor.(This(can(be(approximated(from:

factor.(This(can(be(approximated(from: Y h = Y a Y m Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3

Y h = Y a Y m

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Helical(Gear(Geometry(Factor:

0.70 0.65 500 150 0.60 60 0.55 30 0.50 20 0.45 Number of teeth in
0.70
0.65
500
150
0.60
60
0.55
30
0.50
20
0.45
Number of teeth
in mating gear
0.40
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Geometry factor, Y a

Helix angle, (°)

Figure(15.3:((Helical(gear(geometry(factor(as(a(function(of(helix(angle(when(mating(with(

a(75Ztooth(gear.(Source:(Courtesy(of(the(American(Gear(Manufacturers(Association.:

(Courtesy(of(the(American(Gear(Manufacturers(Association.: Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Correction(Factor(vs.(Helix(Angle:

1.05 500 150 1.00 75 50 30 0.95 20 Number of teeth in mating gear
1.05
500
150
1.00
75
50
30
0.95
20
Number of teeth in mating gear
0.90
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Geometry factor modifier, Y m

Helix angle, (°)

Figure(15.4:((Helical(gear(geometry(correction(factor(as(a(function(of(helix(angle.( Source:( Courtesy(of(the(American(Gear(Manufacturers(Association.(:

( Courtesy(of(the(American(Gear(Manufacturers(Association.(: Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Types(of(Bevel(Gears:

Types(of(Bevel(Gears: (a) (b) (c) (d)

(a)

Types(of(Bevel(Gears: (a) (b) (c) (d)

(b)

Types(of(Bevel(Gears: (a) (b) (c) (d)

(c)

Types(of(Bevel(Gears: (a) (b) (c) (d)

(d)

Figure(15.5:((Types(of(bevel(gears;((a)(a(straight(bevel(gear(set;((b)(a(Zerol(gear(set;((c)(

spiral(bevel(gear(set;((d)(hypoid(bevel(gear(set.( Source:(Courtesy(of(ATI(Precision( Gearing.:

Source: (Courtesy(of(ATI(Precision( Gearing.: Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Pitch apex to back Crown to back Pitch apex to crown Crown Pitch apex Pinion
Pitch apex to back
Crown to back
Pitch apex
to crown
Crown
Pitch
apex
Pinion
Dedendum
angle
Face
angle
Shaft
angle
Root angle
Pitch
angle
Front
Gear
Back
angle
angle
Outer cone face
distance
(projected
width)
Inner
cone
Face
Pitch diameter
Outside diameter
width
distance
Back
cone
angle
Back cone
distance

Figure(15.6:((Terminology(for(bevel(gears.:

cone distance Figure(15.6:((Terminology(for(bevel(gears.: Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

Bevel(Gear(

Terminology:

© 2014 CRC Press

Gear(Mounting:

Gear(Mounting: (a) (b) Figure(15.7:((Schematic(illustration(of(the(two(basic(forms(of(gear(mounting.((a)(Straddle(

(a)

Gear(Mounting: (a) (b) Figure(15.7:((Schematic(illustration(of(the(two(basic(forms(of(gear(mounting.((a)(Straddle(

(b)

Figure(15.7:((Schematic(illustration(of(the(two(basic(forms(of(gear(mounting.((a)(Straddle(

mounting,(where(the(gear(is(located(between(bearings;((b)(overhang(mounting.(Note(

that(deep(groove(rolling(element(bearings(are(shown,(but(often(a(bearing(beFer(suited(

for(thrust(load(support(is(required(in(at(least(one(location.:

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Bevel(Gear(Forces:

Bevel(Gear(Forces: Figure(15.8:((Forces(acting(on(a(bevel(gear.: Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed.

Figure(15.8:((Forces(acting(on(a(bevel(gear.:

Figure(15.8:((Forces(acting(on(a(bevel(gear.: Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

Straight(bevel(gears::

W =

W t

cos φ =

T

r ave cos φ

W a = W t tan φ sin α

W r = W t tan φ cos α

Spiral(bevel(gears::

W a =

cos W t ψ (tan φ sin α sin ψ cos α )

W r =

cos W t ψ (tan φ cos α + sin ψ sin α )

where(the(±(refers(to(different(rotation(

directions(or(spiral(direction.:

© 2014 CRC Press

AGMA(Equations(for(Bevel(Gears:

σ t = 2T p b w d p

p d K o K v K s K m

K x Y b

σ c =

T

p E

p I b K o K v K m K s K x

2

π b w d

Ko(and( Kv(are(defined(as(for(spur(gears.:

The(load(distribution(factor(is::

K m = K mb + 0 .0036 b w

2

K mb + 5.6 × 10 6 b w

2

for b w in inches

for b w in mm

The(crowning(factor(is,(for(contact(stress::

1.5

2.0

And(for(bending::

for properly crowned teeth

(or larger) for non-crowned teeth

c

m q

A r + 0 .789

K x =

K x = 0.211

teeth c m q A r + 0 . 789 K x = K x =

q =

0.279

log(sin ψ )

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Size(Factor:

Outer transverse module, m et

1.6 5 10 20 30 40 50 1.0 0.9 K s = 0.4867 + 0.2133/p
1.6
5
10
20
30
40
50
1.0
0.9
K s = 0.4867 + 0.2133/p d
= 0.4867 + 0.008399 m et
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
K s = 0.5 for m et < 1.6 (p d < 16 in. -1 )
0.4
16
5
2.5
1.25
0.8
0.6
0.5
Size factor, K s

Outer transverse pitch, p d , in. -1

(a)

Face width, b w , mm

25 50 75 100 125 K s = 1.0 for b w > 114.3 mm
25
50
75
100
125
K s = 1.0 for b w > 114.3 mm (4.5 in.)
1.00
0.75
0.50
K s = 0.00492 b w + 0.4375 (b w in mm)
= 0.125 b w + 0.4375 (b w in in.)
K s = 0.5 for b w < 12.7 mm (0.5 in.)
0.25
0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
Size factor, K s

Face width, b w , in.

(b)

Figure(15.9:((Size(factor(for(bevel(gears.((a)(Size(factor(for(bending(stress;((b)(size(factor(

for(contact(stress(or(piFing(resistance.( Source:(From(AGMA([2010].(:

Source: (From(AGMA([2010].(: Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Geometry(Factor(for(Contact(Stress(

(Straight(Bevel(Gears):

Number of gear teeth

50 60 70 80 90 100 50 45 40 40 35 30 30 25 20
50
60
70
80
90
100
50
45
40
40
35
30
30
25
20
20
15
10
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.11
Number of pinion teeth

Geometry factor, I b

Figure(15.10:((Geometry(factors(for(straight(bevel(gears,(with(pressure(angle( ϕ =20°(and( shaft(angle(=(90°.((a)(Geometry(factor(for(contact(stress( I b .((Source:(From(AGMA([2010].(:

I b .(( Source: (From(AGMA([2010].(: Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Geometry(Factor(for(Bending(

(Straight(Bevel(Gears):

Number of teeth in mate

100 13 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 100 90 90 80 80
100
13 15
20
25
30 35 40
45 50
100
90
90
80
80
70
70
60
60
50
40
30
20
10
0.16
0.20
0.24
0.28
0.32
0.36
0.40
Number of teeth on gear for which geometry factor is desired

Geometry factor, Y b

Figure(15.10:((Geometry(factors(for(straight(bevel(gears,(with(pressure(angle( ϕ =20°(and( shaft(angle(=(90°.((b)(geometry(factor(for(bending( Y b .((Source:(From(AGMA([2010].(:

Y b .(( Source: (From(AGMA([2010].(: Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Geometry(Factor(for(Contact(Stress(

(SpiralBevel(Gears):

Number of teeth in gear

50 60 70 80 90 100 50 45 40 40 35 30 30 25 20
50
60
70
80 90 100
50
45
40
40
35
30
30
25
20
20
15
10
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.16
Number of pinion teeth

Geometry factor, I b

Figure(15.11:((Geometry(factors(for(spiral(bevel(gears,(with(pressure(angle( ϕ =20°,(spiral( angle(ψ=(25°(and(shaft(angle(=(90°.((a)(Geometry(factor(for(contact(stress( I b .(Source:(From(

AGMA([2010].:

I b .( Source: (From( AGMA([2010].: Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Geometry(Factor(for(Bending(Stress(

(Straight(Bevel(Gears):

Number of teeth in mate

100 12 20 30 40 50 90 80 70 60 60 80 50 100 40
100
12
20
30
40
50
90
80
70
60
60
80
50
100
40
30
20
10
0.12
0.16
0.20
0.24
0.28
0.32
0.36
Number of teeth on gear for which
geometry factor is desired

Geometry factor, Y b

Figure(15.11:((Geometry(factors(for(spiral(bevel(gears,(with(pressure(angle( ϕ =20°,(spiral( angle(ψ=(25°(and(shaft(angle(=(90°.((b)(geometry(factor(for(bending( Y b .(Source:(From(

AGMA([2010].:

Y b .( Source: (From( AGMA([2010].: Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Geometry(Factor(for(Contact(Stress(

(Zerol(Bevel(Gears):

Number of gear teeth

50 60 70 80 90 100 50 45 40 40 35 30 30 25 20
50
60
70
80
90
100
50
45
40
40
35
30
30
25
20
20
15
10
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.11
Number of pinion teeth

Geometry factor, I b

Figure(15.12:((Geometry(factors(for(Zerol(bevel(gears,(with(pressure(angle( ϕ =20°,(spiral( angle(ψ$=(25°(and(shaft(angle(=(90°.((a)(Geometry(factor(for(contact(stress( I b .(((Source:(

From(AGMA([2010].:

I b .((( Source: ( From(AGMA([2010].: Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Geometry(Factor(for(Bending(Stress(

(Zerol(Bevel(Gears):

Number of teeth in mate 13 15 20 25 30 40 50 100 90 80
Number of teeth in mate
13 15
20
25
30
40
50
100
90
80
70
60
60
70
80
90
100
50
40
30
20
10
0.16
0.20
0.24
0.28
0.32
0.36
0.40
Number of teeth in gear for which
geometry factor is desired

Geometry factor, Y b

Figure(15.12:((Geometry(factors(for(Zerol(bevel(gears,(with(pressure(angle( ϕ =20°,(spiral( angle(ψ$=(25°(and(shaft(angle(=(90°.((b)(geometry(factor(for(bending( Y b .(((Source:(From(

AGMA([2010].:

Y b .((( Source: (From( AGMA([2010].: Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Design(Procedure(15.1:(Bevel(Gear(

Synthesis:

This(design(procedure(will(assist(in(the(selection(of(preliminary(bevel(gear( geometries(where(the(applicationEs(load,(speed,(and(desired(gear(ratios(are( known.(The(discussion(will(be(limited(to(spiral(bevel(gears.(The(approach(

is(also(restricted(to(90°(shaft(angles.(:

1.An(estimate(for(the(required(pinion(diameter(can(be(obtained(from(the(

pinion(torque(and(gear(ratio(using(Fig.(15.14(for(surface(piFing(and(Fig.(

15.13(for(bending(strength.(For(precision(finished(gears((which(have(a(

cost(penalty),(the(pinion(diameter(from(piFing(resistance(can(be(

multiplied(by(0.80.(From(the(two(pinion(diameter(estimates,(the(larger(

value(should(be(selected(for(further(evaluation.:

2.The(pinion(diameter(selected(in(Step(1(is(based(on(using(case(hardened(

steel(with(a(hardness(of(55(HRC,(and(other(materials(will(require(a(

modification(in(the(pinion(diameter.(Table(15.2(lists(material(

modification(factors(for(selected(materials.(An(updated(pinion(diameter(

can(be(obtained(by(multiplying(the(estimate(obtained(from(Step(1(by(

the(materials(factor(from(Table(15.2.:

the(materials(factor(from(Table(15.2.: Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Design(Procedure(15.1((continued):

3.Figure(15.15(provides(an(estimate(for(the(number(of(teeth(that(should( be(machined(into(the(pinion.(Spiral(bevel(gears(can(maintain(a(higher( contact(ratio(than(straight(or( Zerol(bevel(gears,(so(departure(from(the(

recommendation(in(Fig.(15.15(is(not(uncommon.(Also,(note(that(Fig.(

15.15(is(for(a(35°spiral(angle,(so(that(a(high(contact(ratio(can(be(

preserved(for(fewer(teeth((see(Step(6).:

4.The(outer(transverse( diametral (pitch,( p do ,(can(be(obtained(from(Eq.(

(14.5)(as(the(ratio(of(the(number(of(teeth(in(the(pinion(to(the(pinion(

diameter.:

5.The(face(width(of(the(spiral(bevel(gear(can(be(obtained(from(Fig.(15.16( as(a(function(of(pinion(pitch(diameter(and(gear(ratio.((The(face(width( should(not(exceed(10/ p do ,(however.:

should(not(exceed(10/ p d o ,(however.: Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Design(Procedure(15.1((continued):

6.The(spiral(angle(should(be(selected(based(on(a(face(contact(ratio(of(2.0.(

AGMA([2003](recommends(higher(values(for(smooth(and(quiet(

operation,(or(high(speed(applications.(Face(contact(ratios(below(2.0(can(

be(tolerated(for(some(applications,(but(this(is(a(reasonable(value(for(

preliminary(design(synthesis.(The(face(contact(ratio(is(given(by:

so(that:

where\:

C rf = A o

p do b w tan ψ

tan ψ = π C rf A m

p do b w A o

:A o (=(outer(cone(distance((see(Fig.(15.6).:

:A m (=(mean(cone(distance:

:p do (=(other(transverse( diametral (pitch:

:b w (=(net(face(width:

:ψ(=(mean(spiral(angle(at(the(pitch(surface.:

: ψ (=(mean(spiral(angle(at(the(pitch(surface.: Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

A

m

π

Design(Procedure(15.1((concluded):

7.The(most(common(pressure(angle(for(bevel(gears(is(20°,(and(is( recommended(for(initial(design(synthesis.(However,(higher(or(lower( pressure(angles(can(be(used.(Lower(pressure(angles(increase(the(contact( ratio,(reduce(axial(and(separating(forces,(and(increase(the(tooth(slot( widths.(However,(lower(pressure(angles(increase(the(risk(of(undercut( gear(teeth(and(associated(high(stress(concentrations.(:

:

The(results(from(this(Design(Procedure(generally(are(a(reasonable(starting( point(for(gear(design.(As(is(usually(the(case,(results(from(this(approach( must(be(modified(slightly(to(produce(a(useful(result.(For(example,(if(Fig.(

15.15(suggests(32.2(teeth(should(be(used,(clearly(one(should(specify(32(or(

33(teeth.(Also,(it(is(good(practice(to(use(blanks(that(are(of(standard(size,(etc.(:

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Pinion(Diameter(vs.(Torque:

Pinion torque, Nm

1.13 11.3 113 1130 11,300 113,000 100 2500 N g Gear ratio = N p
1.13
11.3
113
1130
11,300
113,000
100
2500
N
g
Gear ratio =
N
p
1
2
4
10
250
10
1
25
0.1
2.5
10
10 2
10 3
10 4
10 5
10 6
Pinion pitch diameter, in
Pinion pitch diameter, mm

Pinion torque, lb in

Figure(15.17:((Estimated(pinion(pitch(diameter(as(a(function(of(pinion(torque(for(a(

number(of(gear(ratios,(and(based(on(piFing(resistance.(( Source:(From(AGMA([2003].(:

Source: (From(AGMA([2003].(: Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Materials(Factor:

Gear

Pinion

Material

Hardness

Material

Hardness

Material factor

Case hardened steel

58 HRC

Case hardened steel

60 HRC

0.85

Case hardened steel

55 HRC

Case hardened steel

55 HRC

1.00

Flame hardened steel

50 HRC

Case hardened steel

55 HRC

1.05

Flame hardened steel

50 HRC

Flame hardened steel

50 HRC

1.05

Oil hardened steel

375-425 HB Oil hardened steel

375-425 HB

1.20

Heat treated steel

210-300 HB Case hardened steel

55 HRC

1.45

Cast iron

Case hardened steel

55 HRC

1.95

Cast iron

Flame hardened steel

55 HRC

2.00

Cast iron

Annealed steel

160-200 HB

2.10

Cast iron

Cast iron

3.10

Table(15.2:((Material(factor(for(pinion(diameter(estimate(for(selected( gearset (materials.(

Source:(From(AGMA([2003].:

gearset (materials.( Source: (From(AGMA([2003].: Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Pinion(Pitch(Diameter(vs.(Torque:

Pinion torque, Nm

1.13 11.3 113 1130 11,300 113,000 100 2500 N g Gear ratio = N p
1.13
11.3
113
1130
11,300
113,000
100
2500
N
g
Gear ratio =
N
p
1
2
4
10
10
250
1
25
0.1
2.5
10
10 2
10 3
10 4
10 5
10 6
Pinion pitch diameter, in
Pinion pitch diameter, mm

Pinion torque, lb in

Figure(15.18:((Estimated(pinion(pitch(diameter(as(a(function(of(pinion(torque(for(a(

number(of(gear(ratios,(and(based(on(bending(strength.((( Source:(From(AGMA([2003].((:

Source: (From(AGMA([2003].((: Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Number(of(Teeth(vs.(Pinion(Pitch(

Diameter:

Pinion pitch diameter d p , mm

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 40 N N g g = 1 Gear
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
40
N
N
g
g
= 1
Gear ratio =
N
N
p
p
30
2
3
4
6
20
10
10
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Approximate number of pinion teeth, N p

Pinion pitch diameter d p , in.

Figure(15.19:((Approximate(number(of(teeth(for(a(spiral(bevel(gear(as(a(function(of(

pinion(pitch(diameter(for(various(gear(ratios.(( Source:(From(AGMA([2003].(:

Source: (From(AGMA([2003].(: Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Spiral(Bevel(Gear(Face(Width:

Pinion pitch diameter d p , mm

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 9 225 6 5 10 N g 8
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
9
225
6
5
10
N
g
8
Gear ratio =
200
N
p
7
4
175
6
150
3
5
125
4
100
2
3
75
1
2
50
1
25
0
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Face width b w , in
Face width b w , mm

Pinion pitch diameter d p , in.

Figure(15.20:((Face(width(of(spiral(bevel(gears(operating(at(a(90°(shaft(angle.((( Source:(

From(AGMA([2003].((:

Source: ( From(AGMA([2003].((: Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Number(of( Wormgear(Teeth:

Pressur e angl e Minimu m numbe r of

Pressur e angl e Minimu m numbe r of , de g wormgea r teeth

, de g

wormgea r teeth

14. 5

40

17. 5

27

2 0

21

22. 5

17

2 5

14

27. 5

12

3 0

10

Table(15.3:((Suggested(minimum(number(of( wormgear(teeth(for(customary(designs.(

Source:(From(ANSI/AGMA([1993].:

Source: (From(ANSI/AGMA([1993].: Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Worm(Gear(Contact:

Worm(Gear(Contact: Figure(15.21:((Illustration(of(worm(contact(with(a(worm(gear,(showing(multiple(teeth(in( contact.(:

Figure(15.21:((Illustration(of(worm(contact(with(a(worm(gear,(showing(multiple(teeth(in(

contact.(:

contact.(: Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Worm(Forces:

W tw into paper W ag out of paper W sg W aw W tg
W tw into paper
W ag out of paper
W sg
W aw
W tg
W sw
(a)
W sw y W W aw W tw z
W
sw
y
W
W aw
W tw
z

(b)

x

Figure(15.22:((Forces(acting(on(a(worm.((a)(Side(view,(showing(forces(acting(on(worm(

and(worm(gear.((b)(ThreeZdimensional(view(of(worm,(showing(worm(forces.(The(worm(

gear(has(been(removed(for(clarity.:

gear(has(been(removed(for(clarity.: Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

AGMA(Equations(for( Wormgears:

h pi = ω W t d g ω W f d wm Input(power(rating:: +
h pi = ω W t d g
ω W f d wm
Input(power(rating::
+
2Z
2 cos λ
:
where:
0
. 8
C s d gm b w C m C v English units
:
W t =
0
. 8
:
C
s d
gm b w C m C v
SI units
:
75.948
:
See(the(text(for(C m (and( C v .(W f (is(given(by::
:
µW t
W f =
:
cos λ cos φ n
:
and(:
:
0.150
v t = 0 ft/min
:
0
. 645
µ =
0.124
exp −0.074v
0 < v t ≤ 10 ft/min
t
0
. 450
0.103
exp −0 .110v
+ 0 .012 10 ft/min < v t
t
0.103 exp −0 .110v + 0 .012 10 ft/min < v t t Fundamentals of Machine

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Materials(Factor:

Manufacturing

Pitch

Units for pitch diameter

Process

diameter

in.

mm

Sand casting

d 64 mm (2.5 in.) d 64 mm

1000

1000

1190 476 . 5 log d 1859 476 . 5 log d

Static chill cast or forged

d 200 mm (8 in.) d > 200 mm

1000

1000

1412 455 . 8 log d 2052 455 . 8 log d

Centrifugally cast d 625 mm (25 in.) d > 625 mm

1000

1000

1251 179 . 8 log d 1504 179 . 8 log d

Table(15.4:((Materials(factor,( C s ,(for(bronze(worm(gears(with(the(worm(having(surface( hardness(of(58(HRC.( Source:(From(AGMA([2010a]:

hardness(of(58(HRC.( Source: (From(AGMA([2010a]: Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Materials(Parameter:

Mean gear pitch diameter, d (mm)

Centrifugally 63.5 127 254 508 720 1016 1524 2286 1000 Static chill cast or forged
Centrifugally
63.5
127
254
508
720
1016 1524 2286
1000
Static chill cast or forged
900
Sand cast
800
700
600
500
2.5 5
10
20
30
40
60
90
Materials factor, C s
Materials factor, C s

Mean gear pitch diameter, d (in.)

(a)

Center distance, c d (mm)

20 30 40 50 60 70 75 1000 900 800 700 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
20
30
40
50
60
70
75
1000
900
800
700
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0

Center distance, c d (in.)

(b)

Figure(15.23:((Materials(parameter(C s (for(bronze(worm(gears(and(worm(minimum( surface(hardness(of(58(HRC.((a)(Materials(factor(for(center(distances( c d (greater(than(76( mm((3(in.);((b)(Materials(factor(for(center(distances( c d (less(than(76(mm((3(in.).(When( using(part((b),(the(value(from(part((a)(should(be(checked,(and(the(lower(value(used.(See( also(Table(15.4.( Source:(From(AGMA([2010a].(:

also(Table(15.4.( Source: (From(AGMA([2010a].(: Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Design(Procedure(15.2:(Worm(Gear(

Synthesis:

The(approach(is(restricted(to(coarse(pitch(cylindrical(worm(gears(operated(at(

right(angles.(It(is(recognized(that(high(power(transmission(at(high(speeds(

will(require(fineZpitch(teeth.(It(is(assumed(that(the(worm(and(worm(gear(

speeds(are(known,(as(is(the(input(power.:

:

1.A(pressure(angle(needs(to(be(selected(based(on(the(design(application.( Higher(pressure(angles(lead(to(higher(tooth(strength,(but(have(the( drawback(of(higher(bearing(reaction(loads(and(worm(bending(stress,(as( well(as(resulting(in(fewer(teeth(in(contact.(Lower(pressure(angles(are(

beFer(suited(for(high(speed(and(quiet(operation.(Table(15.3(lists(the(

customary(pressure(angles(for(worm(gears.(:

2.The(minimum(number(of(teeth(in(the(worm(gear(is(given(in(Table(15.3.( More(teeth(can(be(selected(if(the(center(distance(is(not(a(design(constraint.(:

3.The(number(of(teeth(in(the(worm(is(then(obtained(from(Eq.((15.36).(:

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Design(Procedure(15.2((continued):

4.The(worm(pitch(diameter(usually(falls(between(the(following(ranges::

c 0 . 875 d w c 0 . 875

d

d 1.6

3

.0

c 0 . 875

d

2 .0

0

. 875

d w c 1.07

d

English units

SI units

Where( c d (is(the(the(center(distance(between(the(axes(of(the(worm(and( worm(gear.(:

5.The(worm(gear(pitch(diameter(is(calculated(as:

d g = 2c d d w

6.The(axial(pitch(of(the(worm(gear(is(:

d − d w 6.   The(axial(pitch(of(the(worm(gear(is(: p x = π d g N g Fundamentals

p x = π d g

N

g

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Design(Procedure(15.2((continued):

7.Fig.(15.20(illustrates(the(required(face(width(of(the(worm,(which(is(given(

as:

b ww = 2 d gt

2

2 d g

2

a 2

A(slightly(larger(face(width(should(be(used(to(allow(for(manufacturing( and(assembly(tolerances.(However,(most(worm(gears(have(between(two( and(three(teeth(in(contact(at(all(times,(so(using( b ww (=(5p x (gives(a( reasonable(face(width,(allowing(an(extra(axial(pitch(before(and(after( contact.:

8.If(p x (≥(0.160(in.(~((4.06(mm),(the(worm(gear(face(width(can(be(determined( from:

b wg =

2

3 d w

9.and(if( p x (<(0.160(in.(~((4.06(mm),(:

w 9.   and(if( p x (<(0.160(in.(~((4.06(mm),(: b w g = 1 . 125 ( d

b wg = 1.125 (d o + 2 c) 2 (d o 4a) 2

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Worm(Face(Width:

d g d gt - a 2 2 b ww
d g
d gt
- a
2
2
b ww

Figure(15.24:((Worm(face(width.:

d g d gt - a 2 2 b ww Figure(15.24:((Worm(face(width.: Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press

Mixer(Gears(:

Mixer(Gears(: Figure(15.25:((The(gears(used(to(transmit( power(from(an(electric(motor(to(the(

Figure(15.25:((The(gears(used(to(transmit(

power(from(an(electric(motor(to(the( agitators(of(a(commercial(mixer.( Source:( Courtesy(of(Hobart,(Inc.(:

Speed Torque T max = 20 ft-lbf Maximum current
Speed
Torque
T max =
20 ft-lbf
Maximum
current

Motor current, A

Figure(15.26:((Torque(and(speed(of(motor(

as(a(function(of(current(for(the(industrial(

mixer(used(in(the(case(study.(:

mixer(used(in(the(case(study.(: Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 r d ed. Schmid,

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3 rd ed. Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

© 2014 CRC Press