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Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3

rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Chaler 15: HeIicaI, eveI, and
Worm Gears
}usl slare al lhe machine. There is
nolhing vrong vilh lhal. }usl Iive
vilh il for a vhiIe. Walch il lhe vay
you valch a Iine vhen hshing and
before Iong, as sure as you Iive, you'II
gel a IiuIe nibbIe, a IiuIe facl asking in
a limid, humbIe vay if you're
inleresled in il. Thal's lhe vay lhe
vorId kees on haening. e
inleresled in il.

Roberl Iirsig,
!"# %#& '(" )*' +,
.+'+*/0/1" .%2#'"#%#/"
A combined heIicaI and vorm gearsel seed
reducer. Source: Courlesy of oslon Gear.
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
HeIicaI Gear
Iigure 15.1: HeIicaI gear. (a) IIIuslralion of meshing heIicaI gears, (b) fronl viev, (c) side
viev.
Tangent to helical tooth
(a) (b)
Helix
angle,
Element of pitch
cylinder (or
gear's axis)
Pitch cylinder
(c)
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Gear Design Consideralions
TabIe 15.1: Design consideralions for gears.
s e g a t n a v d a s i D s e g a t n a v d A e p y t r a e G
Spur Inexpensive, simple to design, no thrust load is de-
veloped by the gearing, wide variety of manufac-
turing options.
Can generate t noise, especially at high
speeds, and are usually restricted to pitch-line ve-
locities below 20 m/s (4000 ft/min).
Helical Useful for high speed and high power applications,
quiet at high speeds. Often used instead of spur
gears for high speed applications.
Generate a thrust load on a single face, more expen-
sive than spur gears.
Bevel High efy (can be 98% or higher), can transfer
power across nonintersecting shafts. Spiral bevel
gears transmit loads evenly and are quieter than
straight bevel.
Shaft alignment is critical, rolling element bearings
are therefore often used with bevel gears. This
limits power transfer for high speed applications
(where a journal bearing is preferable). Can be ex-
pensive.
Worm Compact and cost effective designs for large gear
ratios. Efy can be as high as 90% or as low as
50%, and is lower than for other gear sets.
Wear by abrasion is of higher concern than other
gear types, can be expensive. Generate very high
thrust loads. Wormcannot be driven by gear; worm
must drive gear.
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
HeIicaI Gear Iilches
Iigure 15.2: Iilches of heIicaI gears. (a) CircuIar, (b) axiaI.
p
c
p
a
(a)
p c
n

(b)

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3


rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
AGMA Iqualions for HeIicaI Gears

t
=
W
t
p
d
K
o
K
s
K
m
K
v
K
b
b
w
Y
h
Correclion faclors are delermined as in Chaler 14, excel for geomelry
faclor. This can be aroximaled from

c
= p
H
(K
o
K
s
K
m
K
v
)
1
2
Y
h
= Y
a
Y
m
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
HeIicaI Gear Geomelry Iaclor
Iigure 15.3: HeIicaI gear geomelry faclor as a funclion of heIix angIe vhen maling vilh
a 75-loolh gear. 3+4*/"5 Courlesy of lhe American Gear Manufaclurers Associalion.
G
e
o
m
e
t
r
y

f
a
c
t
o
r
,

Y
a
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.65
0.55
0.45
Helix angle, ()
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
20
500
150
60
30
Number of teeth
in mating gear
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Correclion Iaclor vs. HeIix AngIe
Iigure 15.4: HeIicaI gear geomelry correclion faclor as a funclion of heIix angIe. 3+4*/"5
Courlesy of lhe American Gear Manufaclurers Associalion.
G
e
o
m
e
t
r
y

f
a
c
t
o
r

m
o
d
i
f
i
e
r
,

Y
m
1.05
1.00
0.95
0.90
Helix angle, ()
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
500
150
75
50
30
20
Number of teeth in mating gear
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Tyes of eveI Gears
Iigure 15.5: Tyes of beveI gears, (a) a slraighl beveI gear sel, (b) a ZeroI gear sel, (c)
siraI beveI gear sel, (d) hyoid beveI gear sel. 3+4*/"5 Courlesy of ATI Irecision
Gearing.
(a) (b) (c) (d)
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
eveI Gear
TerminoIogy
Iigure 15.6: TerminoIogy for beveI gears.
Gear
Pinion
Pitch apex to back
Crown to back
Pitch apex
to crown
Crown
Pitch
apex
Shaft
angle
Root angle
Pitch
angle
Front
angle
Dedendum
angle
F
a
c
e
w
i
d
t
h
Face
angle
Back
angle
Pitch diameter
Outside diameter
Back
cone
angle
O
u
t
e
r

c
o
n
e

d
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
(
p
r
o
j
e
c
t
e
d

f
a
c
e

w
i
d
t
h
)
Back cone
distance
I
n
n
e
r

c
o
n
e
d
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Gear Mounling
Iigure 15.7: Schemalic iIIuslralion of lhe lvo basic forms of gear mounling. (a) SlraddIe
mounling, vhere lhe gear is Iocaled belveen bearings, (b) overhang mounling. Nole
lhal dee groove roIIing eIemenl bearings are shovn, bul oflen a bearing beuer suiled
for lhrusl Ioad suorl is required in al Ieasl one Iocalion.
(a)
(b)
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
eveI Gear Iorces
Iigure 15.8: Iorces acling on a beveI gear.
Slraighl beveI gears:

SiraI beveI gears:

vhere lhe refers lo dierenl rolalion


direclions or siraI direclion.
W =
W
t
cos
=
T
r
ave
cos
W
a
= W
t
tansin
W
r
= W
t
tancos
W
a
=
W
t
cos
(tansin sin cos )
W
r
=
W
t
cos
(tancos + sin sin)
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
AGMA Iqualions for eveI Gears

t
=
2T
p
b
w
d
p
p
d
K
o
K
v
K
s
K
m
K
x
Y
b

c
=

T
p
E

b
w
d
2
p
I
b
K
o
K
v
K
m
K
s
K
x
Ko and Kv are dehned as for sur gears.
The Ioad dislribulion faclor is:

The crovning faclor is, for conlacl slress:

And for bending:

K
m
=

K
mb
+ 0.0036b
2
w
for b
w
in inches
K
mb
+

5.6 10
6

b
2
w
for b
w
in mm
K
x
=

1.5 for properly crowned teeth


2.0 (or larger) for non-crowned teeth
K
x
= 0.211

r
c
A
m

q
+ 0.789
q =
0.279
log(sin)
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Size Iaclor
Iigure 15.9: Size faclor for beveI gears. (a) Size faclor for bending slress, (b) size faclor
for conlacl slress or iuing resislance. 3+4*/"5 Irom AGMA |2010j.
(b) (a)
Outer transverse module, m
et
1.6 5 10 20 30 40 50
16 5 2.5 1.25 0.8 0.6 0.5
Outer transverse pitch, p
d
, in.
-1
S
i
z
e

f
a
c
t
o
r
,

K
s
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
K
s
= 0.4867 + 0.2133/p
d

= 0.4867 + 0.008399 m
et
K
s
= 0.5 for m
et
< 1.6 (p
d
< 16 in.
-1
)
Face width, b
w
, mm
25 50 75 100 125
0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
Face width, b
w
, in.
S
i
z
e

f
a
c
t
o
r
,

K
s
1.00
0.75
0.50
0.25
K
s
= 0.5 for b
w
< 12.7 mm (0.5 in.)
K
s
= 1.0 for b
w
> 114.3 mm (4.5 in.)
K
s
= 0.00492 b
w
+ 0.4375 (b
w
in mm)
= 0.125 b
w
+ 0.4375 (b
w
in in.)
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Geomelry Iaclor for Conlacl Slress
(Slraighl eveI Gears)
Iigure 15.10: Geomelry faclors for slraighl beveI gears, vilh ressure angIe 620 and
shafl angIe 90. (a) Geomelry faclor for conlacl slress 7
8
. 3+4*/"5 Irom AGMA |2010j.
Geometry factor, I
b
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

p
i
n
i
o
n

t
e
e
t
h
50
40
30
20
10
0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.11
Number of gear teeth
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50 60 70 80 90 100
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Geomelry Iaclor for ending
(Slraighl eveI Gears)
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

t
e
e
t
h

o
n

g
e
a
r

f
o
r

w
h
i
c
h

g
e
o
m
e
t
r
y

f
a
c
t
o
r

i
s

d
e
s
i
r
e
d
0.16 0.20 0.24 0.28 0.32 0.36 0.40
Geometry factor, Y
b
Number of teeth in mate
13 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
60
70
80
90
100
Iigure 15.10: Geomelry faclors for slraighl beveI gears, vilh ressure angIe 620 and
shafl angIe 90. (b) geomelry faclor for bending 9
8
. 3+4*/"5 Irom AGMA |2010j.
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Iigure 15.11: Geomelry faclors for siraI beveI gears, vilh ressure angIe 620, siraI
angIe : 25 and shafl angIe 90. (a) Geomelry faclor for conlacl slress 7
8
. 3+4*/"5 Irom
AGMA |2010j.
Geometry factor, I
b
0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16
50
40
30
20
10
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

p
i
n
i
o
n

t
e
e
t
h
Number of teeth in gear
50 60 70 80 90 100
15
25
30
35
40
45
20
Geomelry Iaclor for Conlacl Slress
(SiraIeveI Gears)
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Geometry factor, Y
b
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

t
e
e
t
h

o
n

g
e
a
r

f
o
r

w
h
i
c
h
g
e
o
m
e
t
r
y

f
a
c
t
o
r

i
s

d
e
s
i
r
e
d
0.16 0.20 0.24 0.28 0.32 0.36 0.12
Number of teeth in mate
60 80
100
50 12 20 30 40
Geomelry Iaclor for ending Slress
(Slraighl eveI Gears)
Iigure 15.11: Geomelry faclors for siraI beveI gears, vilh ressure angIe 620, siraI
angIe : 25 and shafl angIe 90. (b) geomelry faclor for bending 9
8
. 3+4*/"5 Irom
AGMA |2010j.
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Iigure 15.12: Geomelry faclors for ZeroI beveI gears, vilh ressure angIe 620, siraI
angIe : 25 and shafl angIe 90. (a) Geomelry faclor for conlacl slress 7
8
. 3+4*/"5
Irom AGMA |2010j.
Geometry factor, I
b
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

p
i
n
i
o
n

t
e
e
t
h
10
20
30
40
50
0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.11
Number of gear teeth
15
20
45
25
40
50 60 80 90 100
35
30
70
Geomelry Iaclor for Conlacl Slress
(ZeroI eveI Gears)
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Geometry factor, Y
b
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

t
e
e
t
h

i
n

g
e
a
r

f
o
r

w
h
i
c
h
g
e
o
m
e
t
r
y

f
a
c
t
o
r

i
s

d
e
s
i
r
e
d
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0.16 0.20 0.24 0.28 0.32 0.36 0.40
Number of teeth in mate
13 15 20 25 30 40 50
60 70 80 90 100
Iigure 15.12: Geomelry faclors for ZeroI beveI gears, vilh ressure angIe 620, siraI
angIe : 25 and shafl angIe 90. (b) geomelry faclor for bending 9
8
. 3+4*/"5 Irom
AGMA |2010j.
Geomelry Iaclor for ending Slress
(ZeroI eveI Gears)
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Design Irocedure 15.1: eveI Gear
Synlhesis
This design rocedure viII assisl in lhe seIeclion of reIiminary beveI gear
geomelries vhere lhe aIicalion's Ioad, seed, and desired gear ralios are
knovn. The discussion viII be Iimiled lo siraI beveI gears. The aroach
is aIso reslricled lo 90 shafl angIes.
1. An eslimale for lhe required inion diameler can be oblained from lhe
inion lorque and gear ralio using Iig. 15.14 for surface iuing and Iig.
15.13 for bending slrenglh. Ior recision hnished gears (vhich have a
cosl enaIly), lhe inion diameler from iuing resislance can be
muIliIied by 0.80. Irom lhe lvo inion diameler eslimales, lhe Iarger
vaIue shouId be seIecled for furlher evaIualion.
2. The inion diameler seIecled in Sle 1 is based on using case hardened
sleeI vilh a hardness of 55 HRC, and olher maleriaIs viII require a
modihcalion in lhe inion diameler. TabIe 15.2 Iisls maleriaI
modihcalion faclors for seIecled maleriaIs. An udaled inion diameler
can be oblained by muIliIying lhe eslimale oblained from Sle 1 by
lhe maleriaIs faclor from TabIe 15.2.
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Design Irocedure 15.1 (conlinued)
3. Iigure 15.15 rovides an eslimale for lhe number of leelh lhal shouId
be machined inlo lhe inion. SiraI beveI gears can mainlain a higher
conlacl ralio lhan slraighl or ZeroI beveI gears, so dearlure from lhe
recommendalion in Iig. 15.15 is nol uncommon. AIso, nole lhal Iig.
15.15 is for a 35siraI angIe, so lhal a high conlacl ralio can be
reserved for fever leelh (see Sle 6).
4. The ouler lransverse diamelraI ilch, ;
&+
, can be oblained from Iq.
(14.5) as lhe ralio of lhe number of leelh in lhe inion lo lhe inion
diameler.
5. The face vidlh of lhe siraI beveI gear can be oblained from Iig. 15.16
as a funclion of inion ilch diameler and gear ralio. The face vidlh
shouId nol exceed 10/;
&+
, hovever.
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Design Irocedure 15.1 (conlinued)
6. The siraI angIe shouId be seIecled based on a face conlacl ralio of 2.0.
AGMA |2003j recommends higher vaIues for smoolh and quiel
oeralion, or high seed aIicalions. Iace conlacl ralios beIov 2.0 can
be loIeraled for some aIicalions, bul lhis is a reasonabIe vaIue for
reIiminary design synlhesis. The face conlacl ralio is given by
so lhal
vhere(
)
o
ouler cone dislance (see Iig. 15.6).
)
<
mean cone dislance
;
&+
olher lransverse diamelraI ilch
8
=
nel face vidlh
: mean siraI angIe al lhe ilch surface.
C
rf
=
A
o
A
m
p
do
b
w
tan

tan =
C
rf
A
m
p
do
b
w
A
o
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Design Irocedure 15.1 (concIuded)
7. The mosl common ressure angIe for beveI gears is 20, and is
recommended for iniliaI design synlhesis. Hovever, higher or Iover
ressure angIes can be used. Lover ressure angIes increase lhe conlacl
ralio, reduce axiaI and searaling forces, and increase lhe loolh sIol
vidlhs. Hovever, Iover ressure angIes increase lhe risk of undercul
gear leelh and associaled high slress concenlralions.

The resuIls from lhis Design Irocedure generaIIy are a reasonabIe slarling
oinl for gear design. As is usuaIIy lhe case, resuIls from lhis aroach
musl be modihed sIighlIy lo roduce a usefuI resuIl. Ior examIe, if Iig.
15.15 suggesls 32.2 leelh shouId be used, cIearIy one shouId secify 32 or
33 leelh. AIso, il is good raclice lo use bIanks lhal are of slandard size, elc.
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Iinion Diameler vs. Torque
Iigure 15.17: Islimaled inion ilch diameler as a funclion of inion lorque for a
number of gear ralios, and based on iuing resislance. 3+4*/"5 Irom AGMA |2003j.
Pinion torque, lb in
2500
250
25
2.5
P
i
n
i
o
n
p
i
t
c
h
d
i
a
m
e
t
e
r
,
m
m
Pinion torque, Nm
100
10
1
0.1
P
i
n
i
o
n
p
i
t
c
h
d
i
a
m
e
t
e
r
,
i
n
10 10
4
10
2
10
3
10
5
10
6
1.13 11.3 113 1130 11,300 113,000
1
2
4
10
N
g
N
p
Gear ratio =
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
MaleriaIs Iaclor
TabIe 15.2: MaleriaI faclor for inion diameler eslimale for seIecled gearsel maleriaIs.
3+4*/"5 Irom AGMA |2003j.
n o i n i P r a e G
Material Hardness Material Hardness Material factor
Case hardened steel 58 HRC Case hardened steel 60 HRC 0.85
Case hardened steel 55 HRC Case hardened steel 55 HRC 1.00
Flame hardened steel 50 HRC Case hardened steel 55 HRC 1.05
Flame hardened steel 50 HRC Flame hardened steel 50 HRC 1.05
Oil hardened steel 375-425 HB Oil hardened steel 375-425 HB 1.20
Heat treated steel 210-300 HB Case hardened steel 55 HRC 1.45
Cast iron Case hardened steel 55 HRC 1.95
Cast iron Flame hardened steel 55 HRC 2.00
Cast iron Annealed steel 160-200 HB 2.10
Cast iron Cast iron 3.10
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Iinion Iilch Diameler vs. Torque
Iigure 15.18: Islimaled inion ilch diameler as a funclion of inion lorque for a
number of gear ralios, and based on bending slrenglh. 3+4*/"5 Irom AGMA |2003j.
Pinion torque, lb in
2500
250
25
2.5
P
i
n
i
o
n
p
i
t
c
h
d
i
a
m
e
t
e
r
,
m
m
Pinion torque, Nm
100
10
1
0.1
P
i
n
i
o
n
p
i
t
c
h
d
i
a
m
e
t
e
r
,
i
n
10 10
4
10
2
10
3
10
5
10
6
1.13 11.3 113 1130 11,300 113,000
1
2
4
10
N
g
N
p
Gear ratio =
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Number of Teelh vs. Iinion Iilch
Diameler
Iigure 15.19: Aroximale number of leelh for a siraI beveI gear as a funclion of
inion ilch diameler for various gear ralios. 3+4*/"5 Irom AGMA |2003j.
0
10
20
30
40
Pinion pitch diameter d
p
, mm
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Pinion pitch diameter d
p
, in.
A
p
p
r
o
x
i
m
a
t
e

n
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

p
i
n
i
o
n

t
e
e
t
h
,

N
p
N
g
N
p
= 1
2
3
4
6
10
N
g
N
p
Gear ratio =
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
SiraI eveI Gear Iace Widlh
Iigure 15.20: Iace vidlh of siraI beveI gears oeraling al a 90 shafl angIe. 3+4*/"5
Irom AGMA |2003j.
Pinion pitch diameter d
p
, in.
1
3
2
4
5
6
7
8
9
225
200
175
150
125
100
75
50
25
0
F
a
c
e
w
i
d
t
h

b
w
,
i
n
F
a
c
e
w
i
d
t
h

b
w
,
m
m
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Pinion pitch diameter d
p
, mm
50 100 150 200 250 300
6 5
4
3
2
1
N
g
N
p
Gear ratio =
0
10
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Number of Wormgear Teelh
TabIe 15.3: Suggesled minimum number of vormgear leelh for cuslomary designs.
3+4*/"5 Irom ANSI/AGMA |1993j.
!"#$$%"# &'()# *+'+,%, '%,-#" ./
0 1#( 2.",(#&" 3##34
!"#$ "%
!&#$ '&
'% '!
''#$ !&
'$ !"
'&#$ !'
(% !%
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Worm Gear Conlacl
Iigure 15.21: IIIuslralion of vorm conlacl vilh a vorm gear, shoving muIliIe leelh in
conlacl.
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Worm Iorces
Iigure 15.22: Iorces acling on a vorm. (a) Side viev, shoving forces acling on vorm
and vorm gear. (b) Three-dimensionaI viev of vorm, shoving vorm forces. The vorm
gear has been removed for cIarily.
W
sw
W
sg
W
tg
W
aw
W
tw
into paper
W
ag
out of paper
W
aw
W
sw
W
x
y
z
W
tw
(a) (b)
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
AGMA Iqualions for Wormgears
Inul over raling:

vhere

See lhe lexl for >


<
and >
?
. @
,
is given by:

and

h
pi
=
W
t
d
g
2Z
+
W
f
d
wm
2 cos
W
t
=

C
s
d
0.8
gm
b
w
C
m
C
v
English units
C
s
d
0.8
gm
b
w
C
m
C
v
75.948
SI units
W
f
=
W
t
cos cos
n
=

0.150 v
t
= 0 ft/min
0.124 exp

0.074v
0.645
t

0 < v
t
10 ft/min
0.103 exp

0.110v
0.450
t

+ 0.012 10 ft/min < v


t
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
MaleriaIs Iaclor
TabIe 15.4: MaleriaIs faclor, >
A
, for bronze vorm gears vilh lhe vorm having surface
hardness of 58 HRC. 3+4*/"5 Irom AGMA |2010aj
Manufacturing Pitch Units for pitch diameter
Process diameter in. mm
Sand casting d 64 mm (2.5 in.) 1000 1000
d 64 mm 1190 476.5 log d 1859 476.5 log d
Static chill cast d 200 mm (8 in.) 1000 1000
or forged d > 200 mm 1412 455.8 log d 2052 455.8 log d
Centrifugally cast d 625 mm (25 in.) 1000 1000
d > 625 mm 1251 179.8 log d 1504 179.8 log d
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
MaleriaIs Iarameler
Iigure 15.23: MaleriaIs arameler >
A
for bronze vorm gears and vorm minimum
surface hardness of 58 HRC. (a) MaleriaIs faclor for cenler dislances /
&
grealer lhan 76
mm (3 in.), (b) MaleriaIs faclor for cenler dislances /
&
Iess lhan 76 mm (3 in.). When
using arl (b), lhe vaIue from arl (a) shouId be checked, and lhe Iover vaIue used. See
aIso TabIe 15.4. 3+4*/"5 Irom AGMA |2010aj.
(b)
Center distance, c
d
(in.)
0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
20 30 40 50 60 70 75
Center distance, c
d
(mm)
1000
900
800
700
M
a
t
e
r
i
a
l
s

f
a
c
t
o
r
,

C
s
(a)
2.5 5 10 20 30 40 60 90
Mean gear pitch diameter, d (in.)
500
600
700
800
900
1000
M
a
t
e
r
i
a
l
s

f
a
c
t
o
r
,

C
s
Mean gear pitch diameter, d (mm)
S
a
n
d

c
a
s
t
S
t
a
t
i
c

c
h
i
l
l

c
a
s
t

o
r

f
o
r
g
e
d
C
e
n
trifu
g
a
lly

2286 1524 1016 720 508 254 127 63.5
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Design Irocedure 15.2: Worm Gear
Synlhesis
The aroach is reslricled lo coarse ilch cyIindricaI vorm gears oeraled al
righl angIes. Il is recognized lhal high over lransmission al high seeds
viII require hne-ilch leelh. Il is assumed lhal lhe vorm and vorm gear
seeds are knovn, as is lhe inul over.

1. A ressure angIe needs lo be seIecled based on lhe design aIicalion.


Higher ressure angIes Iead lo higher loolh slrenglh, bul have lhe
dravback of higher bearing reaclion Ioads and vorm bending slress, as
veII as resuIling in fever leelh in conlacl. Lover ressure angIes are
beuer suiled for high seed and quiel oeralion. TabIe 15.3 Iisls lhe
cuslomary ressure angIes for vorm gears.
2. The minimum number of leelh in lhe vorm gear is given in TabIe 15.3.
More leelh can be seIecled if lhe cenler dislance is nol a design conslrainl.
3. The number of leelh in lhe vorm is lhen oblained from Iq. (15.36).
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Design Irocedure 15.2 (conlinued)
4. The vorm ilch diameler usuaIIy faIIs belveen lhe foIIoving ranges:
Where /
&
is lhe lhe cenler dislance belveen lhe axes of lhe vorm and
vorm gear.
5. The vorm gear ilch diameler is caIcuIaled as
6. The axiaI ilch of lhe vorm gear is
c
0.875
d
3.0
d
w

c
0.875
d
1.6
English units
c
0.875
d
2.0
d
w

c
0.875
d
1.07
SI units
d
g
= 2c
d
d
w
p
x
=
d
g
N
g
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Design Irocedure 15.2 (conlinued)
7. Iig. 15.20 iIIuslrales lhe required face vidlh of lhe vorm, vhich is given
as
A sIighlIy Iarger face vidlh shouId be used lo aIIov for manufacluring
and assembIy loIerances. Hovever, mosl vorm gears have belveen lvo
and lhree leelh in conlacl al aII limes, so using 8
==
5;
B
gives a
reasonabIe face vidlh, aIIoving an exlra axiaI ilch before and afler
conlacl.
8. If ;
B
> 0.160 in. - (4.06 mm), lhe vorm gear face vidlh can be delermined
from
9. and if ;
B
< 0.160 in. - (4.06 mm),
b
ww
= 2

d
gt
2

d
g
2
a

2
b
wg
=
2
3
d
w
b
wg
= 1.125

(d
o
+ 2c)
2
(d
o
4a)
2
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Worm Iace Widlh
Iigure 15.24: Worm face vidlh.
b
ww
d
gt
2
d
g
2
- a
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Mixer Gears
Iigure 15.25: The gears used lo lransmil
over from an eIeclric molor lo lhe
agilalors of a commerciaI mixer. 3+4*/"5
Courlesy of Hobarl, Inc.
T
max
=
20 ft-lbf
Maximum
current
Motor current, A
Speed Torque
Iigure 15.26: Torque and seed of molor
as a funclion of currenl for lhe induslriaI
mixer used in lhe case sludy.