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TASK 2 THESIS STATEMENT: DEFORESTATION BY: NAGAMMA A/P SINNATHAMBY

What is deforestation? Deforestation is when humans remove or clear large areas of forest lands and related ecosystems for non-forest use. These include clearing for farming purposes, ranching and urban use. In these cases, trees are never re-planted. Since the industrial age, about half of world's original forests have been destroyed and millions of animals and living things have been endangered. Despite the improvements in education, information and general awareness of the importance of forests, deforestation has not reduced much, and there are still many more communities and individuals who still destroy forest lands for personal gains. Trees are one of the most important aspects of the planet we live in. Trees are vitally important to the environment, animals, and of course for us humans. They are important for the climate of the earth, they act as filters of carbon dioxide, they are habitats and shelters to millions of species, and they are also important for their aesthetic appeal. However, the trees on our planet are being depleted at a very fast rate. According to some estimates, more than 50 percent of the tree cover has disappeared due to human activity. Although humans have been practicing deforestation since ages, it was in the mid-1800s that forests began to be destroyed at an unprecedented rate. As a matter of fact, throughout the earlier part of the medieval age, Europeans used to live amongst vast areas of forested land. But later, they began deforestation at such a high rate that they started to run out of wood for cooking and heating. Also, due to the depletion of their natural habitat, wild game too began disappearing, which the Europeans largely depended upon for their nutritional requirements. Today, parallels can clearly be observed in the deforestation that is occurring in most developing countries. From temperate forests to tropical rainforests, deforestation continues to be an urgent environmental issue that jeopardizes peoples livelihoods, threatens species, and intensifies global warming. Deforestation has always been a practice, which is dangerous for lives. Unfortunately all of the negative effects of deforestation are caused by bad agricultural practices, and negligence on the part of government. One of the causes is illegal logging. Some of these industries thrive on illegal wood cutting and felling of trees. Illegal logging occurs in all

types of forests, across all continents, from Brazil to Canada, Cameroon to Kenya and from Indonesia to Russia, destroying nature and wildlife, damaging communities and distorting trade. Illegal logging is the harvesting, transporting, processing, buying or selling of timber in violation of national laws. This definition also applies to harvesting wood from protected areas, exporting threatened plant or tree species, and falsifying official documents. It also includes breaking license agreements, tax evasion, corrupting government officials and interfering with access and rights to forest areas. On the other hand, mining is also a threat for forest as well as in protected and high conservation value areas. This is not only because of direct impact for deforestation but also the result of indirect impacts linked to infrastructure development. Mining-related infrastructure include road (and railway) building to access mine sites and transport minerals and waste materials from the sites. Roads open access to intact and remote areas, which can result in increased poaching and hunting for bush meat. They also often cut into and fragment natural habitat, constraining wildlife movement and reducing gene flows. In addition to mining activities, camps set up by miners also produce waste and pollution that can reach and affect the surrounding habitats and/or flow in the waterways and impact areas far beyond the mine sites. Does u know what are the effects caused by deforestation? There are various impacts due to this issue. One of the detrimental effects that can be indentified is soil erosion. Deforestation contributes to erosion by exposing soils to wind and rain. When the ground surface is stripped of vegetation, the upper soils are vulnerable to both wind and water erosion. Soil is washed into rivers when it rains, and then out to sea. This destroys the ability for the land to regenerate because it has lost its topsoil. It also destroys marine environments. In several parts of the world, entire sections of countries have been rendered unproductive because of soil loss. Forests have a natural ability to absorb water when it rains, and to release that water slowly into rivers. Following deforestation in a rainfall catchment area, the water moves more quickly from the land to the rivers, causing erosion and stripping the topsoil. Because the rivers fill more quickly they are much more prone to flashfloods. Floods that break the banks of the rivers then exacerbate the problem by changing the path of the river and causing additional severe erosion where the water now flows.

Forests play a critical role in mitigating climate change because they act as a carbon sink-soaking up carbon dioxide that would otherwise be free in the atmosphere and contribute to ongoing changes in climate patterns. Deforestation undermines this important carbon sink function. It is estimated that 15% of all greenhouse gas emissions are the result of deforestation. It is well-known that global warming is being caused largely due to emissions of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. However, what is not known quite as well is that deforestation has a direction association with carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. Trees act as a major storage depot for carbon, since they absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, which is then used to produce carbohydrates, fats, and proteins that make up trees. When deforestation occurs, many of the trees are burnt or they are allowed to rot, which results in releasing the carbon that is stored in them as carbon dioxide. This, in turn, leads to greater concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Deforestation not only hurts different climates around the world, it also poses a big threat to the plants and animals that live within the forest which results in loss of biodiversity. When deforestation occur it causes animals to lose their habitats which means they have to adapt to a new environment and if not they become extinct. Thus, if trees are removed or destroyed, the species living in that forest lose their natural habitats, and some are not able to survive the change. When animals or plants die as a result of deforestation, the biodiversity of that area decreases. Fewer species in an area means a less biologically diverse environment. Biodiversity is something that should be preserved and cherished rather than destroyed and built over. But who cares? Does biodiversity really matter? The trees in our planet's forests, for example, convert carbon dioxide into oxygen, helping to keep us breathing and regulating our climate by turning a greenhouse gas like carbon dioxide into oxygen. Because of deforestation's adverse effects on biodiversity, it's important that people all around the world work together to protect the forests that keep us healthy and that are home to countless species. Furthermore, disruption of the water cycle also one of the effects due to deforestation. Trees contribute in a large way in maintaining the water cycle. They draw up water via their roots, which are then released into the atmosphere. A large part of the water that circulates in the ecosystem of rainforests, for instance, remains inside the plants. When these trees are cut down it results in the climate getting drier in that area. The groundwater tables are affected and soon get depleted. The trees help in prevention of running off of water and help the soil absorb the flowing water. When there are no trees, water just runs off, leaving no chance for the

groundwater tables to absorb more water. Thus, ultimately leading to reduction in water resources. As a matter of fact, deforestation has been a problem for many years but it is soon to be a serious problem. So by stopping deforestation, we are not only protecting the Earth, we are protecting ourselves. "Humanity, if it truly desires peace, must be increasingly conscious of the links between natural ecology, or respect for nature, and human ecology," wrote Pope Benedict the 16th on one of his newsletters in the Vatican. This is true, for we never will be at peace with ourselves seeing as the number of environmental problems in the world are growing. Despite this it should be near the top of the world's priority list of things to fix. We should put in place harsher restrictions on the amount of deforestation that goes on. Governments should not be aloud to cut down trees at the rate which they do because of the effect which it has on the environment. Laws should be put in place which give harsher punishments to logging companies to cut down trees illegally. This is a great step in the direction of solving the problem of deforestation. In conclusion, everyone should play a vital role to save our Mother Nature especially environmental issue on deforestation. Trees are cut down in order to manufacture paper products as well as for livestock farming and so on. If major steps towards deforestation are not taken, then even the great adaptability of human beings may not be enough to cope up with the harsh climate of the future. Deforestation does have solutions. It's just that the people must step forward. The safe keeping of our precious planet lies with each and every member of its human population. We are the ones accountable for our actions even though it is ourselves we are accountable too. Deforestation can be solved only if every one cooperate with each other and stop people from vandalizing animals homes. Remember you can make a change and influence the people around you to save our beautiful planet.

EVERY ACTION IS A REACTIONWEVE GOT ONE PLANET AND ONE CHANCE -TIM MCLLRATH OF RISE AGAINST DEFORESTATION(1600 words)