Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 242
GAS DYNAMICS “Ta ABs 1999, ‘GAS DYNAMICS M.HALUK AKSEL sivatt GAS DYNAMICS (M, HalOk Akset ond ©. Cahit Eralp . t Mile East Technol Unversity ° } ‘Ankara, Turkey \ i \ a Gore NT PRENTICE HALL aaa 4 | er Ya Lanin Toon Sb Teo Sisto i 2 (arses amnranmmanemaaomunensttsis nears ang greater senenaananeeneeinte inane . Ft putes ity Prensa ras (8 ‘pes #0, iyance Anan onal tongs gist sesetmrneninr mane Sino Seater non rxaeesene HEL (Prec al tana! (U 186 st rene Noa con oy aj maur, secon ‘ava ojo ae ‘roc Bact nn ona ‘isha is dled Emin nd Sct A witht whe mes Pete oa eet Ppl wane eet IP nage on pee Re Spore ence cap aN Oe bot PEI conn satan. we “CSS TE . ast in an onsn rt cad a ae Ne Try of Congas Gag eon Ba “orcs Hak Ae! an Osman Cab Ea. noe aap leone an ins (Sawovowtaso mae) ‘Pe once 2s Smaniee-Autnanaen. 9. Eagierg : sn ep Seen Cat Te aia 274574 ee ‘Bran Urary Cataloguing 9 Poblestan Data slg erin oe wise ows BSH US j ser aro.0r7000 Hh) Contents Pete sf Noweseltce a 1 een ae 1 1 Modacion : 12 Sole is 7 13 The coup of ania, 2 14 Popes continu 1S Toe dpe f conti 17 1's Neto ote here Geman of ld fw 13 15 Rlstons vc th teal athe pal pions 16 1 Cheon of i ow 2 Fundementn of hemodynaie 33 Soar ae 2 Tn 39 11 Foon and of sence 33 23 fread ae 9 14 Egy epee 3¢ 23 Fitna hermes 3 26 Wa 38 2 ha # 5 Compton fet et wok, #0 9 heat ay of emotes i 21g Tesco notes 17 | | penn eonnenmrsrens mss erate 221 Byun ofamse 58 Rares ding Prblens 8 4 tntoduston to compressibie ow 6 21 awosieion 66 532 Wve promotion in compres mee 6 22 Spe ofa 5 2B Mk uber 3:5 eure deuce fn epee fal 7 he eting Probl 7S 4 taontople tow 79 441 gion 79 43 Gorerl euaions 79 46 Seton cantons 0 1h Ghee pete of es dommes 86 EY SRO ton edo oper In toi ow 90 116 Rants for he ueneie foo pec 36 45 Werk chats wosang able erro fow 102 Aa Tents operon onze 107 © ‘03 Bedeoce of ce aces 20 aha Ther af ate engine 26 i ‘Ranh vetieg 12 Pete 152 5 Norma shock waves 140 [51 Ivodction 0 15) Pyne deerptne of wae dercorsent 1 FF eee cin oes hw ms oral dick wine 15 EE RSet tw pet ps aces wool se wave ST 5 Arking crt ad worn ble fr fw eo «tors hock i woe 6 ovig nol sock woes 162 5 Rete somal ck woes 167 4 Nowizenopl fw repime in coctersing-esng nonce 171 + 45 Nomlenwep epeaton ef spenone dirs 178 5.10 Paonmans fel ditrs 9S 5.11 Superson ear be 197 512 Omer wasn tweak be 99 Burien rating 210 Problems 211 Fietlona tow in onstantaree ducts 225 64 fetoton 225 (62 Goering xan fr ssh ne diel! Sow of et ‘ih tn bcotaneares due 225 463 The Pans e229 £4 tet of rato on flow propre leg the Pan oe 23) 63 Rela foe fw of pce pt on the Fao Iie, 236 5 Waking che td ooking le fr he wo pet 08 he anne ine 29 67 Coming de 0 cton 248 (G4 Petar of anti dee ot aos pesere es 246 15 Gren ssn bol onsen ow it in Ceononare duc 208 40 fro on on dow properties non hci nt 272 ‘S17 Ree fr tetra ow of pvc uf cosaten feet 277 (612 Werking chor and working be he hen nw «pre es 20 13 Boni eect term ow 285 Rumer eidag 285 Problems 285 Flow in constantares duce wh nex anster 22 2. Uroucion 292 1 Gorrie eqns Gr otis flowin sata aes ct wih eigen 2 13 Toe Raph ie 296 54 ene thes ro dow properties of tones oe in constant wet 28 15 Helen forthe fw of «prec oath Ray ne 305. 7 storking chats wos be oe he ow af pss so he ih tine 205 177 Ching est ae 309 | a pongugng minnie enna Ast 1.8 Conbuaon waver detonation and deageion 312 oe ring 39 rb 320 1 sStendy end wocenstonol supersonic Nowe, 322 i Iavoducton 322 152 Gta sek wives 323 22 Rant-Neyer tow 3 {El Borepantn ed wedeepuaoa Sow regimes in cnvergngecae ‘wt 367 > 5 Siero ive sock tee 356 6, Sepeonescta 36 Borer 309 Pens 370 Amend A Pepe of he sandardsmosphere 380 ‘Abpena Bhenpae proper fermen pve ose Tecpetve tad pose QC, 1OL3E8 HP) 382 Appenta © fergie ow af pit pe =A) 3 ‘Appenta B Flow pert gs scrs eel sock ‘Append Bh pret an the Foo Hn ‘Ropnds asta Bow fe pret Gh) 419 [Apenda © How ofa peut gto he Ralph ie =. ‘Append Pra Mayer fw spc ges = 1) 445 ‘Answers poems 90 fal 8 Preface “Tie xt is develpe for sade sn nosy couse tae dyn. 1 {ate om te nie tes pepe the tr rer ot cleats {Se we tg comes Pl esas "Gus Dynami’ ne Meshal ‘Eninerng eparie ofhe Mite Eat Teche Unies. “Simpres hd fon or ou more cress, gs duis, Sade ‘sen opts nse tabomshiery, ube even he ‘st cman caging eins. Altbough in myo hs cvs Be “ncn fw use) nd owe micheal reso ae eeostered, pease can es ce by dying the imped ce of 62 {Tenn dy Bow “Tire shoud oe wiuble fe werd stats of mechani nd seus cagneesing a sores an porn pie o he compresbie Sow Slum "Fann of het to provide ste wth od understanding of he ysl bbanous of empress fd ow, and 2 rod eporeston of he ples behind moter eplzaons. ‘Toe aus a wae 0 the fit Cat 8 det ny nyt text sang om yeh. Fare ean he 2 ‘Seine sch ht ech str tr om he ery spices. Tt, eve ‘psn anes ofthe coure arena epee eu ett. Bret hone te by cham to comple ory nie ext eve ht se aera echt us rns anew, Tye eel ey ested st (per belotine ee Ibe rele proved the ent fx per ae ected ‘fom the ogi proleme wich were moaly peed foe cameos ad ‘Sten Se sel pols, Wish my be ovnd in evel ether books ot yea, cel gvens Aner ol the probes ae nla, in rer ‘Sale eetchece to chesk thems, tsasumed tm he ees raise {elvis of terseyanan and fis rcunes, Refcenres © oe sk re Fined atthe ond felch cuter a exten of each bjt, The ae ce soe anchors and seyret fw econ, Tas aes {Eneiy beat ean. Te Cope sth dns pace Suid meen ae ited ani euros evening mc a dt vee. In Chapter he nine ples terme eat wi Compe ew and The penameaon ot eae propuion av cone in Chute 3. Chap 4 devote w oo ioemien sey sd, ionogle ow sod the ecole opto of ‘veri verging snes. In Cape 5 satnry, vg wd cer nora ‘fockrnes a dacaor ih empl on the apizon ls supetnls id ely upeonie cai ile, eupenricPet tube sock whe. Oe ‘Ebenlonl micas od thea fo vith feo fe ensantarn da ‘duced ia Chper Caper ceved neds fow i coestntares ‘Sow mea unner To Chpur 4 obigoe shock ate. sd Prantl Meyerexpanion wae re dca, and hr aplenty at ives in "Ta mts wi to thnk cobenues Pateno D Abet 8. Ozer, efeoe [Dr Non Surya, Acne Peter Earanan Abarat oat Pelee DEN lems run ep duro Ging he aching of nase one to i ee. "Fhe aunt woo ke oak Mee eine As Abe who supper hem ty pitedg the en, ing Go he tet plo OV ond rein, the ps ond noe aly the suthrscnowidge Mi Sok Tomar fr hs nda hegre eats pple the cone fer 7 thea 9 at ‘Strength moi De M, Hl At ‘br 0. Ca tp fe & be a ems" gs, Nomenclature cro setirl 0| Seana Speed of sound fap coetcent oti destrge cotlne Ii eset nse ths covSemt ae vl oleae Chord eth ‘posi et conan pesre ‘ese ent sntntvlome cae ames dey fice tol ena elegy pe an os free ‘sie fe restr force Shr fo conic of ttn ergo fata ‘Ds mod fey oon! aceon fev fly per wit se ‘les eon si ingle {Soe seat 5 ceton Moe ey Keon sumboe Bee REEEDC > ttt mgmt mo Be spel beat, ul et Piven fen it ce ‘Sears dct net iat oun ‘cua mt foe ek mame ‘Mic number eee ec fae ow st fy een pepery, uber ‘trecuer Sena eee soem “ic pest oes Fest aer fen ease peo mss Kant ihe fim, tne decton, ei ‘a ee ner eeay pe nts ¥ veo Ye Yea ox icen ¥ eoeky i decom Yi ety i desta Srtane pr ut mk ft of york ame) Whe te of ow werk 2 ook pe ks Tab eiplcanee ‘Barr wal ante, angle of Sak Roma varie, Spe fyi Ene 2 Remna cable 8 ncn ace Sy tee pooper, eclniy i Raper 5 Ra Meer ge sei 5 thes hear es, seen of4 ck wave Bt Sey of eben susscripts 4 aber orig ck wae, ‘eine si Shea aiden moving sock ae Mera rete moving shook sum epee 5” Rec ace main hack ‘re burned proc i Ro a nea moving bck cog nok cppreé anteteee © w fine ese ving sok ve soe Sates oe mt es wenger, deren ang Hager care eeeble ower, temper imam Inte eal decton, hae conie presse ‘latesuon ang» Kale even : neni bck Ince shee move feleaed feck wove Throw, sero, he tangential ereedos le» sainary sock ane, Inthe xen ‘woes nen sana hock ume iets eed saooy shock we ere tionny eos we tte diet eam alent tony Sock ate fen sfeted ata sek a ™ No Inte zdiecion + 5 Some suse 4 fe fre nea abt * shar supenscnieTs: : Se Sea te or thera ow OPERATORS eet erent nies tol derive dei faosig Bad ocr ered dees ae Seepace tl derive esate ne ouencXATIE |e resem ance Fundamentals of fluid dynamics 14. InTRopucTION ' (us dy she wlence wih fveigne the man of compel is, pcs sist ned ranch fo moe pene scien of fle ie. Te Ek tence yee a dyeing jac at theater des th fu in sh the changin Sens tat te bong aot y te moon ‘vec nbn compel win he Jno at ee Cae dane bigs ager 5 eects te tance fsece sch ech, ‘Germosprai, sey ed cher Hae ‘ur bn ley bend oy te oe of compel His, Those wes fs f 1 Do ry of caves f a othe contin gation. 1 The lnw ofc of mens Newtons end lw of ent, : 3 The fs i teensy or eoeey ean 4 The zd awa hero “Tes ns von dependent on he oper of paar ti Thee i rae ore tent pra esa oe abs ‘nce damp, oi eon ate fr pe “Fhe Lacs capers ae deve okie he onde cence of ad " juts ond heencnmic In Cape 2b ei fh easton of ‘etch conn cnep, propre sf be eo, 9 csspon of he ‘Shndam, the eaten ld fw andthe apeson of comeratin ors {nd momeatn ox sae er coca vlane ae preset, 1.2 slips AND FLUIDS oe ay ely be granpe i tno oe sola Bus Tis cannon jen cee ac oh wh hey may be Seemed doe othe fret aie ofthe nemnlcte fees ecto ating ot the "ys i te ef mer in which he este postions of recast ed nie iy soon neler ose tenon, Fer hr seso, Ss ave dnt tapes an define vues The shape and volume of «sd whee Fond Ft he ol ete omponents his fee sn) Me Ee er recor tena sod magenta Scions, esis 1a4 stess aP~atya nafs he roots he tra forces ating om #silten Ae bl ah theme rma sues, Ie bee SIH 0 ‘dete e fi oA es 1 iy AAU i) erect In Bains (6 (18, A epee se inimam ae or ‘lente onan got gure 1.6 rls tl esting on Dot Lacspaneumgee ce un oens, 2b inert em nity oe ha fy meme weFJA a on eer am espinal, tes ut of soon pr wae mete Me nthe Tye 145 vieoaty Constr the Deine ofa ad as Hid unde he lon ose Fe ‘Son in Fee Io Fis 160, ok Done beeen to pail hee. When he bn vs, Fi appl hough the per pat side AB of he ‘Sd ng acorn, ean bythe ned ie AB The aes beeen the ns AB and kar nh ea sl Erma cha 18 ‘atthe shear an dey prepatnal the apd hee Ay 6, whe oi Avand A's the seof onic tewper pe wih he ob Weck, pode {har dt int oh os moter nected. Then, by Hoake's w r= on whee i he mar fey in shee "The seme examen ay now peated yang ul beeen te pale phe. The ye Bd een sw gre 1.) canbe ae isle Mth of Geeta The sete, apd sch that the per Dine moves at scot yl of Vo Ure tone hs ae the i {oem nd se defo aang she oe api. The tape of ie {hd seta, cae neta fe Sow bythe sed ed in Fire 160). A eter ein or Bud may bow be re han pure 1.8. Seavio oma and al ute ation inst sear ‘ee ceenes OF CONTRA 7 ‘id es nbtace tat non stain hee ses when i at eta 1c Rae Simousty unr the seen a shear sc, 0 mater Bow colt GREER document! eat thet pais hich ain ese dae ee tun hn th sly ay the bday ell, Inbar em Peer ie oa Donde, Tas Hone wi ett fe with ahs ae ety of Vo ate pp boudan> Herne Tee be lms xan Th, he els the = etn, Vn eee Raed fey dost, and ints ih eign fss {hc towee tranny, be ston i Fgre 1.60) ei ve intr ay whe the Wid eer ABCD is cea ete postion ATEFD' ea Stet tthe spe ASOD! 5 cere ce Te Testy ofthe fd ements) cam om Be ca ob th wey spe 9 +) Var HC ‘Fhe, acy erate 0 ae by wig te Tso cs expen: vied Yeap Phe yy gM ayy aceon SM of Oo oS In this eqaton, the secon and igor rms ase nets ace dy it Stn al Te Varn veo ty Hees the dec KA ad HP ey now be exes a BBTV dt Ve wt Bw Va cr=(Voo fea) oe ‘gue 17 A id lent once stn ofa onsen asoasentas oF LD omuses sepia hae sidan be extend ot onde E, BBW oo fr al mg, der, ee he ao gs se sa ate ae eral hi Newton he sere on in woah Sie eta pops th eof hangs oe tai or bi eof ange fey here te somal ina TPRTLEGES Th elon Eton sens fy. Hee iwintiesdeson rote ov ce he cet tropa ao he abe vce. The Wether of Sco beware Nato nein sand persue mee oor pe woe ts, which poses tia own elo cous fe wl serine ened snore deh cece ‘Bia ufny ss wed net ent Bi ow sen, ae rt mais f+ ow poi cr be coool et Oy ‘ener ei ohare a Ti wt ny ty ig ow lin wo encom eet ea ete eo covting ere ow fs ay re iegnmct ren, teboudy fee ee he ipa he vcs fs ch a ‘tn te ce leny othe a te wal ie et et eee he an eam, Sec sn REENG at cning he ses eee igh ety gl on ins sodas To tbs epon oti nny er he eae o aoe ein nel mie te ocr ones The {Boon segan ma be coed Ev 148 Prose Pest deel 8 the normal cages fh fac tng on an ra ved bps Teron se rapide os he si sen. The te wo pets perpen wo ths see so eed toad “To pov wheter sat te pie depends co he etn cans sell oy TNA hale fo psa own iw 18. The pi is Sesh Satya tht the eae oer eae ce ny be sted costa, As oa SEQ lr ese no ee faces Hecate presse Fees eae ye te cles Therefor the uniatn of ae ee eee the fle cet mite gual 0 the pod of i ms ad ‘eatin, Them for hey dvetan te poste wet iepdi-nhsn do ¥o(5) snhre DY nh extern ne y nn, A ete me of the i inthe Sine frit vemge prez on he ae fy Au he te ofthe inne Fihee jb tncovcage reece on ese A 9 he al Beer he eal, SIE Et ant compas te boy fre ia he dtc, at eee cape rim cern eyo In Bion 1th Ap3 Zee te tle te py whe term pA) he corpse Pinoy eine osnn. Ako fom teem of he pees Ayshiomt oan os on 0. min 9 ng a a) neopet (Fo- PE Boo aa int cng veya yh hi lt EQUUS ere bebe ase awe Pretaetes on po vic s tie eae rpm ep fr he xa x eons the res bm sb » pom ae cin be stlae. Ae 4 nl, fra vi ul be esi ened in all ‘Breen ta i hopetine oso eee he lf cron yer suze mee (a8 inte ST sem wih ae Solel pes 1.5 THE DESCRIPTION OF conTiNUUME For exch pale of « fld in comin, the properits cn be. defn stays the dl pe er aaa ee flow el ks popes ‘ge om pt fo pot sam ne one Te fd Bow cm Be deb 4.64 Mtn! (agrenglan) desertion {he deen is dee oom ened i poten the cour of ‘tad wo dei te arom of ops of ts fd pate. Tis pyonch commonly wad dona. ice poet ae ered by lating tem se tenet of: Now, eomsee the fap, Phe snl a pat Ao ‘he tld in iar aime =O Tote oe on he ud pe wt note ie fo esd il Delocued at po Battie Th, te pa lle ‘Bieta pray bed by expen poutine eo ncn eit wipe he Casein Soran sem, 3, of Fe 12 rKd=nsnke toe ws where ss 9) ad ae cone of the fl parce, a ne The MRSS RE EF Mpa my tht obune y ate positon ‘strap to ine, tha p= Vet Vn + Voda Sit 4 S259 Be 036) aan age rere Vn Vp ad Ve te he vley component inthe sy ax rns, Figute 1.9 Path of «tid pare sheds, the wlan he pret ed th deny of he i pice conte netied Years ses a) ate pr potety Pedy ee ite) pr epeteehy JeOy e083 ae athe abe eqotn tite on Seren val, nt yy ane he “yenden les wtf oto he fpr, he 1 kon "Gren te moon of ne fas parce sae o eerie ni ow sca, Se poate fd pele Beceem. Pere, eeepc ery emesedproves a evr tube when ont Erno hve tbe fund. ARtaus very power, cael Be ‘Sales cer ort ey sue an get mae fran theo nee 0K. "Pe ctl feted Si pres ew tte mate veo he clon ote A oe pte ty change she ot aston, WH ys cerned parce Tne bongs speting coved te Ea ‘SStunung se Lm a yn ound, an a pares ent a hee Sounds 452 Spatat (Eran) desertion 1 hs depo, tein sed a aed pi in pc, ed te variaon 1 openness through th pie "Rede moves inte Sl, he prope chang: on oe pei atthe st fr ew ne Tht, he vey he presente ey ofthe Bow 2 py ge aso apes ones ma ine, he Ca evened ae pepsi cae) pros cute ‘ace te pesre andthe deity are sale guts, Bums (18) ant {1185 epee cae elds: However, easy = ecru and tere: ‘Exanian 1.18) repecsn the gates wells deo fh ely a Intefeed teva vse ll Inthe bore qanons»9)2 808 ae independent "Tees cern eto een he Lagi an he arian esgtios fering o Fue 19, ine 1=0, he fal aril Patel a pu Ao the fw fle feet he proper n pst Ao te Bow Bd ce eur 9 "Re poperi he Bl prs Py VexwsnstntaOaVelant=OyyntestytoG=Oyt0) L180 Hon rntat=O Poteet O) sete ze034=0) (19) aban rntitaOlprlittaOhyHt=OyteF=O=0) 180) ‘uta nen, he rei at pnt canbe epee by ee prone af tect fd pric sing hoe hs pois. The volume wach tan pte lie oh ord ye, sew | he conl chine o in open stem The aman ete ena fhe mae Inte cote volue oy cange wi ne, bt he shea the corte Yleme css Se soon le eat e cone vlune fom ts ureogs sea mt cono sace Than qos ep ck ofthe psn fl he id pres in 2 tow il, ene, le the "svete of nad bos the eave potions ‘ange cin wih ine, ore ena, te EMH prom eral Board rete apoio 1.8 METHODS FOR THE MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION OF Lute FLow “Whete the again othe Balen apa i ed fo dering the it fowls nye cer oe eer he dere fesmaatin he eat {Gamat pian th bs tol he id motion, erH008 PonTHEsATHEMAHCA,FORAULATIN OF LUO RLOW 18 Dien! formulation ta the dierent appended format of he oe ls eles he are est ten Informacion abo he cut of al lt ae eee tld acre eof te Balan deci, Fre Sut ae tad sagt eee pat me fo ei. The a eer pied to each Ai pre te Lgrngan dip of a in ah de the cave of th rn dsripian © rere talng earns geen eqtons. 1s pn w rte dere Sree hen seid inrmaion Le. poet pain sbot the {han fe How Get baled 1.62, Intra! frmuttion Hover, fr ms umn td fw problem, the ifonntion sob dot 0 ve ttle ofthe ow hl Ta he ingle, te bs vt eases cel yt nthe cel be Lagrangian decipon or toxconat age th ceo he Bac ein. They ae fm in wen of $i en, yh inf st gros eb he ow ioe way ee so et oa. 47 RELATIONS BETWEEN THE MATERIAL ANO THE SPATIAL DESCRIPTIONS winter eof them fii aed acs bay cation Bowe ‘heer al te pata een fhe Sow. 424. etatons the teen formulation “The te of cane af ny property a fu pate may be rete 0 tate of Tee gener te ow Bld 2 tht pe To Sod thi stations SRE tno ey property, Ny sy Be sed, ia aon 1.17), 27 ‘muy beep a) Nemeo.0,4008 “Then th wo fren the proper, oy fin Ban (16), Vee, Vf ad Vedat 60 ut Ws Publ bn BNO y ayy My y DMN, y, Moy, Mev aay oc avs orm bw aw BEAM yo aay “tn diferent oper, Df tn fered wo ttl dive he sub derive, eel rates he erative following the ul epreete sh me of ange f'n proper Inthe Lagann dept, Feel operon loa tf toss the pat dati ‘nea erative th sa erative. dese th ef che of Teepe a crap te Bow Bond erin reed ote er Seep. FP yin Bquin (21 con ate conecive dst of wept Nr and repent he henge nis propery fem oe pik eanhet oPe doe. Tove eres unertaeg of eae, we hat be My Nec nx cash ine ba Changs rm owe oi tater be TPG A oup of eave of Neon snowy in Pew 11 aed ld rece rot hoes poi 8 rag ine ier, the ot Ve fl prc mp eV, ten ts spcenent tom A 0 Bs V dl The Gackt at popery Ne that WN, perpen wo te connate pain ‘Bruen pl The change in pope te Bi pte moves om pest RioBinequltwthe seaport of rend YN. Tel econo shag ‘epopery per os sine V" WN 472 Relatons nthe Integra formuton(Reynolis ranapor theorem) “Th prope ft evident to geal cases, anette entenive DsRTEamte popes Anse pope ae ety ih he a, Fgura 1.10 Conecta hing oy a ud parce os ef eens papi oe wet, volume ad near moment, Cat ‘gig she mma of mute deny changer the measure of tine gant ‘lpeset istenine propey best ep hs, Somecxanpies cienive enc ane psa, mn pr tt in nd Keene er ak ‘hn ehcp atherare, pope sch temperature ind pest, by the ‘undpendo ne, ent fnheategay of ntesve propeti Now, [Eivdeignser any ar ness propety, te ccesring ite o= (Geman pen pe an ew devine By. Ta, Naf nan on eh yt edn he i Ba dnp en : rele aan vith bg the desi anv the volume of he se (Conia an shar Aw Be (Jn 3 en om 3 abitay lee ‘eane ape, Te bane spl ha pare ine eh reson [i Bac pt, coc the ofa te orl ame sete by the de hn’ Ate te tral ho tne the Psa of {he petal thecal aan ve shonin Pig 110 Now the se ‘apes repne and Gate ote le ron eats ino eco ‘Su temas wn eon Clever the cnt ome. The main bene Siitiamsyrintseae here enero exenie propery Nef eae {Gress fh property arsed ih the con ome Fem he enon tree, emis of uae ofan eel pooper in nyt maybe Sy een cS. YE Sp I ota gue 1.11 Se ond conte va conouan cat ‘sme ti toa : BEAR {eve E (jo ‘song these ol te coil vlune cia in ten [iso 020 [crave | nae az er ¥en a oe coe one, Ait Jy torarnnne [ condernn tf orenonn[, Condens (20 wh v4 tad rte te alan sons 4 mG, recy. Siri ety ick Ts tn 2 te et ‘fates esqed we no bein, pne me ree, ([ cord [cre) Db ( {ors} ga ([,ordrea) a2 ‘he enn ind se i (27 ot aig ia tee re a rk EL marae, ([,andvone= [ene 020 105s pone ween th cond tot Bb (ore fo, L00u0 &) \ Sie gu 4.12 Enaged ow ofa issn satay frelon Col Fase 1.1 “toro Nee uy easier eee view ofthe ines saben of ogo fsFge die repress he ine wen of fe cml ace se hee ofthe cstv so elon sth it orm vce f he SESEINESRT cise tee the unt mrmal eter an the vl veo te aE 2s he nce epee ty he Hd pres na ne eral af ZSESHAG he ef sei Hl cant p AT Aco 8 0 tha he ‘Sa fh esters papery ies 0 4eNnarnon Aes Ae Tosearting ovr the ete yes (enue fone de 2 he ct nt be “onus i, [mete paVou 84Ae sagt mating of en ne Ba as un SOREUNNS Ian RUST Pas et discs ([jordvne) =| mernide an -rocvalut the hd non teh ad ite of Haut (27), eng ‘ia oe lites mien of ep Jo Figure 1.19 my be wed de inet renee gue 1.13 Ege vn of nisin eux cl xen A of Fue 1.1 1 ronpaea.s oF Lu omnes ee epee he inl wef te cool one the etc she cael ‘Sled egion AThe some tae ot edi the evan of te econ ‘tc ho bee fr the hid Et with nae lifer In sty se ‘Bers elon ot Some corel one, the ani, salva ene ht SP ance fn then steep Ter the ain nay bv eared ot Tei ([jimee)=-|, ncrnaas 030 Subsatig Eaton (128, (1.29) and (1.20) to Bato 1.27 eb By maved [over f, cvbadce [neha a ‘i cea re A, Fg 1. eam of ne et i ee Anduvderde ert cont sie A cancer ty te 90° or V0 0h here Fo fw tagh th sure, There, the vo fer 0 Bsn (131) fy be eco by sgl tel ee he ool aie 8 [nave [,oevonea a9 putin. sk Ro tap et, Teen ed SECUPRISuasecn eal af tan ay nese peo Srojuem tenet ef neo ey 2icEetpey ole cne vc heed i SEOUSE SC Weert eee ney he tel te 48 CLASSIFICATION OF FLUID FLOW 1s poe woes she lv it ever dfleret pes by wing ist vena. 1 tesdy and unsteady ows dhe popes of fw Geld dot chang wih neta te fl i id be eng: Mothenately, te detain of» se) dow in be satel a tao as) ve repens ay Auld propery. Tew aa ny Ho, the popes Tiny rt fm pe poi he Aw Bly Dt te ena ea nit Ci {inp pln, Tam ney fw, on ef es a poi do chang tine shuld tested tha, song na seady tow, ee pail dco ith, reap inset yt te Oyen theo ders mah eet oe, ‘wc a nce the cone eevee nae hat Dar # "To andeond he pol alerece teen» sey al am une Ho, case to mono he dyn Fue 114 wth repeat eserves che {rend Tae boty moving cesta pV to ul Whi a AL tet di aretha tee hen fhe ody a owa Sn Be 114) In Fque L400, ce tld parce Iv weleed ye ‘pohingYoy at ine va Ti then deserted neg 2 the ay Perched pre, edie Page Le. eee no ESM parc nd the ny el re pede one With rope on seer the round ‘Nowe ame mos investiga by an cere mong wth te Body, he sa bsomes seni, a sow in Pir 15, lath cyte ui veg sere he ary ety th eye an pens ha the a Fi pres A, Band Cpe aught concede, Wc ed le ‘we oberer mvp ebay shorn a Fg 180), 1150) a 150) ‘ne tad 2 ay especie. Abo th positon of pare A he {GaSe andthe puts of pale A and Bt Sine 2a need Uyrognes in Figures 1156) and 1.1), respect. Teeth cy dd The aber proper of id pores thr pat Toph pce ee file \a=— tenet slimmer i eS tebezat Promvnonmmmmiann « ‘gue 114 Unt fw abou a bay sean bya see ano ound gure 1.15 Stay iow shout aoty ar eanty an beanermorng th boy nda a nd eo ny ne csc ik ached the bay. Howe, whet be ow hy pend cn kt ste contin pie a 1.8.2 Oneinensiona ow In gener compres oi ements at he popes sca th restr, he dei the he component he ely ny ay inal uty presale deta. Bs tang steno gen sok Ser» rth sy theme adaned wp of tw te dna onmpecale i ovate dcusan ed onecesaltl -=- ‘igen tom, [Ne aprcxmaion saved inthe ene of «setae The Rw sous a Innis! seen i abil one dino "To wrod te neti thao ine apron cose the sendy ow of compete von fd tween wo fre pte Shows 5a Figs 16. The pes ave inate length oe» econ, As lng 8 eo Ahi site nay condton at the so toda, he vey ae La gue 1.16 Stat ton la compresBie and vicous td bstsen wo pares few dion eon my be expend function of «any. Aout he re pec o rodlren ese ind exh hi rnin ay ‘Sedge ce sch icon or et se, “Aig ste se everaersescbn nay sly be ued onc, ‘nei at wf oot be cmp one dele ce te vel #6 rage acy mate aco pect to he ad tury. n many ie, UE STePSay the prpeion seorese seston cn be approximated Get (Re hae tn alt worm over tt rosso. hs ten fis {ppmntan, the twotinesinaseny How Sl of Figure 1.16 Benes coe ‘EES lotion in Fp LT serge opts wy ely fm coe SSEUEE tones soa the voy ne oe eto o oy tbe ested Seperate fone ace wal, at Sper Skat apps pve goed rots whenee he flowne 1 The ate of change oft cossctonal ae ang he dt iis sal 2 Ter tae eden yi oe ie Seer be dies 2 Shetland he epee proeremseapeoxintely wchaged fo ‘im coton tothe oer song he ‘Onesie on whic the change ex ee fee 08 Lo ‘gue 117 Onedmesos std ow of comes an zon fi ween {e0 pose es 2 rimowieen.sor rue DIMES gue 1.18 Cessbonednania ted ow of compas td sos fd pestonetineonl fo. An ene fh id of ae the ely ono Seipenie enn! Gwen me pele pies shown in Five 118 ‘tires api changin he osetia oe he dst te oe neal appointing valine lye is change far, Howeves, ne er snc ve tow oun + stienewmgenen or ent, my ey be {res nth th ned apps yang he oer equa {ert do soca ay bth pseu and dome the oti. 42 CONSERVATION OF MASS. “Tae apteton ft pri of comsraon ef mas 0 4 ld ion ‘Sh ic rots tote eotily equation Trang» compo of he sae ety of water a al on he cote fms nly se tthe aw fase consent. Tees, Semen seen ef Dae 36 wee a» a dnt maf oor 36 ‘ow if uo (8 compat wh tan (1.32) the ti pose td Eee ep a Re me den Hin 8 aan Be (paved [oars | avndano In Bouton (1.37, heist cm on he gan ees he ef change thems wh cote wel, he secd er eptesent te ete ‘inns oc hah he oe ae enh wl to seer hs pent that gig, hesared raver the otal fice Aln he ed ers [spostiveyen murs nig oa cus he ctl suc an etie hee the mor Sowing nope cond nce "pra aay By the pial drt wah rape 0 Ue oe 20th firsts gna (37 res wo fecrmaneo Now, comider nediemsond wendy dw tag a steanee, The coin onal vue caliente pono the eae town Fg 19. ‘The a Sows nthoagh men oe cone fe ads ough ace Avo the conga ufc. No Now an take pe through wer rafes othe cnt ‘elu see ty ae ferme by stamina Vok=O on ove ses ‘Thetefr,Egpnon (13 reee o f,ndeardas [, nevoaaano ey espe 10. veer Vand Vay rexpoctivy. Thee Vichs=— Vy and Moria V. Hose 0 ‘No, noting Kevin's finn of tee temperate 2 OO Teh td sting tt Th aT re conta, the Cs ngutybeaes §19-28-Bevo Now, if ec negra of 5 e male apreach 2 by sake Tu proach 2 ete sere seers, then the ele ef 007 2, ‘Thetfr fr al revenine eg ees, fva20 mi $070 ‘ext, comider an iyeverslp eye rat engine opening betneen the see enperues Ty nT she eer hea ene of ge 2.1 nd ecg as a2 | | | awe 219 Aono yee ‘he same quan oft, Qe. Cry, the work done bythe ieee engine co han he wrk doo By he ever ee, tm Wes (dir Mer Or = (QD (Qou> Odx ‘Asa eet for he reverie ke engine 10-04-1020 ee ‘Now, apps tthe eat enpnebconse mere a aoe eerie le Quy Tienda, Ten, tee metal of soponche st, whle he integral of 0/7 ataie& ogreively rps nape ve Three, fa Ieee ene ees, $ra>0 mt $1areo “Tae densa of he Cass ieguy ca ao be peed by cxyg ou 4 sme analy feb vere tnd an eevee rita see, Ae Sanna, the equally sf jou (228) ide for reese yl and te Ingalls fr eevee ee, 2108 Enrepy ‘Consider se wich wdeges a eves poee from ste tt 2 ne [th Thc then cote by anuhereveble procs rom ste ae ty gat 8. Hee SR ‘Now, coe terre cite ne i pret with le Sort ep € ew ese SBS Pe [epee Sebmeing he eed pon he ig ah? hd iy ot my cone ha 207 he ane al eel Scores Sand The gente ot pata ays {trend st Heyes prey, Ta oe mre ey Sider die ' DS.= C0) Te as ‘one system tats uneping nee wh formed by ace proce ‘nav 8 Ther ye SRB (Poo axa te mtr ede wih ely ie pr A do Brew pce $8. figs ie Reo (29> (8 Aste he pes lng pa B eee SPP ff as [2 fies foe ee, fr an reverie poss Se> Ga) 20 ly, fre very gen cae pa si0rr an 2240.7 The second aw of thermedyramioe fora system Non, he eo hag of entzopy far yen maybe ot fom Equation ans Ds 8 PSs can) ‘wbx he wep, Sy ofthe sytem sven by oo a a2) hs ne the eps pe at The ingly ia Egon (2.28 os or [eerie pros with equally bo far enable pees | 2408 ‘The second iw of hamoayamis fora conta volume: “By wing Repl” tpt eee, pone t wte te second bw of ‘een fort ema oe 9B, Pree gh plated: Aan yore ted Bont 230 rte 9 Bef, acvea aan Blended (orev mcvwaa aa Now, comideronedinessina sedy ow rough 2 suesmube, The nee cont vlune cine mth fe porion a the streamtbe sown in le 18 ‘Tre fl donsin ous we Ay ofthe ote sare hd sot tou aek ‘ofthe contre sare, Nod ct ake hough ie sree ofthe eo ‘nine, ae they te fred by stein! ad V"a=0 on those see “There, Bauton G1) redo 0 EP De T suntvirmn de) mncvarty dat ‘perpendiuir to. yeocises Ve and Voy Toeatney. Then VieBie —V and 6 aa~ Vida Be fomvida- mn er onus Bont proper we lle oh os eon, Then Qeomntozs-onYiss ring te eosinyepon 3) 4 : Geena ax ‘Wen hepeslhts, ee a ase oBg 25 re 0 an» ‘When the'teonadyonni ree i reese sd sabi, ch sao os an entree proces, quo @.3) Spies apn a3» 231 EQUATION OF STATE Apes uualy coetn of ess venng woe tam ay te teen or mtn. ‘The «fe Fela sto thse parle due ot leone moe. Ln evel te fre Bel fen pre alte Uy Ue force {ets niptouring pres. Ports eon hese fre Sele re fen eed teat memolcar fre fla. The iene face yes with te nance emo the pre Inger, thence a weakest ‘whe the prs tear ay om each er, butt bcos sg rc of Tepluon ey cane coset. Tomer, thse termaeer fees et te Ion of the prices merit nemo proper of po Homer, fr nt conpesie ow pletion a prices eon wee ir vay Hon exh oe. Whes the aerage dite boven the neue reat thn eel dm te mec et very weak ate ceo ch ‘hey. Tel, ome engneig appt, the ef fh inert fees on th properties my be mpc. A pect gh ce now be dled ase ges veh te temolecua lores ar hg ae te ae cst ii hon fe fr re ee rr esa omni koe aa pvemRT 3) ir Rte gn const of + ptr gu and rete othe uve as oso ty RR A814 Teg a" 236) ih bing the oleae mas "ow peor ee ha TDK no igh engages than 273K ‘ase ofthe lo of oR?) fom uy sth I pe et, However, ‘So tempers ao hh pers he scl seperate lly so the rao oer te aent, This ne as 2 fe "rena cegy ond te etapy ca be led othe vemperstice by wig {be ftoving eon ae sehr andy a he epi Ms contant voles conta pres, eerie Tens he leh a,b an be teed at Aeoile, ox) Fora pcet steps ext consti Yun cute reste an telaied enna tea pb eats Batons 2.37) and 2.38 a aan as») ean ae tnentimaemeenctreeneanseeneiomceanesrtnmeronimmtinininntacranmvetsirnsl Substation of Egon 38), (240) 29.41) 15) yee thio oo 252.4 a Bere 2.19) Rene an ring Equation 29), it posible bain ont aay att as Tesean—er 246) sig Baines (235,24 and 2.4, es pose expres Hasson eg ge auaions (245) seni Foe an dren tnt om on 247 a2. ee a-neen(@)-ai(?) on nent -nu(t) aso or an eoleprstsy the ep is contact andi pone 0 exes ‘Bguons (0) and 2.3) wih dead a Bgatone 2.) al 8) 3 pi cont asp TF sn 0 10% ae Cpt Http ese bt a eee eee ee th es Tee ag m8 Pf Ca Sen ce ear ae A NS na Yr New sar £24 nye cotos in aston aargeren. Tar are 8 rebar of tal weight on tpn. Te eal pen ad ie velo Be gt fe eb Pn ane 0 croc. Fra al vue 8 Bee ‘rk cone by th yom ie ge ised by «Bano bres land urd hae, ite ge ato bo Bunaen bar spat ne soe Uno wal re en tates tp = cna, on «lit wags wo reoved alo tat pv” = constant | na Again contin alr apo shown He Shane 20 ‘do then hated nt he vlae dou Te ral paseura he gos : a ae le 3004. Tho ping fee propertons tothe pleat om gel pation ang ho proces. Show ne procs 098 pv dara. Datars te work coe bya ean, ina pono her ens aga th ei? 2.3 Nog i centaned in ener Ms i apt. Ther te ere ‘oat o he plo. Te nit reo trogon &O w ea [esste and tanpertte we 4201Pa an 5G one Tho eget {thon hana eat tna volume 20 alate he work one ‘htm han wrt cringe pecan Assume conse spec ha 24 Stamens tine wih an ent or ut res of 200 ane ‘lay of Omar" A he ean per elma ho vty 1 estan se 270041 "an Oma apace. For ames Sm 7g he poe ouput etn 00K are he 25 Atlan ia ess of 1004Pa and nil eer of 17°C Ie ‘onpssed i prssue ana trmperctre a 6008 snd 117°C teeny. Une sea eons, th over reqites ee ‘Spresion procaine ht o's S000" ng ie ‘ooets, Nagtng te changes In tho knee adh oles ares, ‘etre the mane fon rate. Ase cont spect hs 2. Anil ewacststane ln aha 9G me Soma 08 po By ‘tea fae as shown nse See Sl. A owing ough ‘po at prasoute of 600 Pa ad tomoerae of 0 Te va I th pane soning a oer he ak ol tal peso» 00 Pa Fd {he mass and he operate! th atin th ak or he vate ‘Sad Asuna hal he posse stash en! spac ee yo Gis Prot a6 2,7 Ato vith a volume 0:1 cans eben doi a a rsere and 1 ruvomeia.s oF mescomnes ampere of 80 Pa and 40K respec vv which samme {otetant isthe ane un ts preaive nh nk ep fo 0K Banna re rors fa an cron xe win he tro Ko Racoon epstye.Oeemine ne anc of heat vn ding te ease consent serio hee, ‘Reaio-opiner ange nacho ugha oho a ip io ‘hehe ovate Shwe ne ge blow, ly. be Value cf sro oon e031? ane th semper ad Deen of 10% ana 100k respec. rn he av opened te {Stare ofa tence cesta Goer, Te tomer te Presi he spp thew 100°C and Goo Pa, respect, he atari of tor andthe mes ot es lotro wee. ‘es tio roses eb snd ate oon boten ‘nr and te son respec ota mey be aan co oj ote a De rere aT Prosi 2.8 Tw aioe anor coencts bya va. Tan cones 0.25 of ‘ata prono of SMP anda tempera ol 127°C, Tan 8 cola Bit oar at a rear of TO0KDe ad 9 eporteg of 27°C. Th vale isthe opnad ane posure tan keto 28 MPs suing atin pete Ret tnt tran 2 tetanus tak A B theme hla © the anpertte ano orosue otk nt 6 hoot chagearepy the pores. ernment enn mtr erent remnant Introduction to compressible flow 24 INTRODUCTION ‘Whe stl ie moving a ow vel te vars a the pres ae wy il tbe fo cn be catered cmp. Ase he desea [eased oe comet. In sea thee eqoion is eeoupel oh he minty ede momenta eating canbe led independ fa te Yebsy ath chpter compere Gow asic ips pps wrinons inched hough ow bet. Greeti bcos ites impart fete spay Te highspeed dows Large chug inte Wey Feu in ‘eb changs inthe pest forcible owt. Ths rears ‘be hen acon y lala taans in oth th temperate a he ‘Ey Thee, ve ada yrs ae ehoaneed In empress os Ss ee mare retin or the comple stn of he ow Sl Thee 22 WAVE PROPAGATION IN COMPRESSIBLE MEDIA 1 Fgre 3. conned in alan ie with pio tthe ean de, THe piso thc given sien push oe ight Att er of ules up net {>the piston no ie compre tte reride fhe pew Then {he compreion wave ceed bythe pn tones hth a, an rently ft pr ale oe the movement pzon. Ihe pest ule ee ‘Re pars innesimally sy then hee cals eoundone, the enat "en he media nicer, no cant ie he deny can be allowed. I te pst bored as the tea tee wl eo pgp fe Bi Dv denay changes my po nth ud Ty al te ld ous ve to wore [Rennes wh the ptr. Teri She Seed wave popeon in ak ‘Beomprene fa rindi, and carbnce cated tay pt eed Insanely ata ther points ite fl However no media ply Ineomprosite, The more mgr te stnce thugs hich the wane serene + oY on gee 3.1 Pon moing no x atlnary gas proms th se il ete see of sound in hat marr, For expe, Bogert t onan yer erste thn the end sand Init 33 SPEED OF SOUND ania ues cree indies! sccleraton ofthe psa in Faye 3.6 thenacompeeson wav pps wih epee ut 0 the teary gar, Ovi to then ccc, te en aces ‘esd els oct sighted tegen Be pon oes we Ire! mie pn ins Adare ofthe cece, the ee atthe ‘Enuy nent whe ton ential ees one presate sn the ehty ‘ie ein to of the ees hc ee. natn, Bo af Figure 3.2) opene sendy ox soy chs, fut th rn fh ound wae fed pao the pea. To ay ‘heap het ea be ede oe of Seng motion Smaging that ht ‘Secret dy ope fh ave Swen Pere 20). is ‘yt ad Se sen ong ola a panes hea he onary Sve ec ede fam oo 6" Veto inet pss get {Ea po 9+ py whe ie ety changes fom p 9 =the arto {typo cnsiormatin bees st the ym proper te a eh oe ‘ed ely are ales, The nt prope thas the eats tepeaiea {te pena ued bythe enero, "Te eqn ay now Se spied the cesta coal Ylune sown sn ewe 320), ant eavoion eer St he ol me mn fw eso Ao, the cor smd bv oe deal tn cna eget (39) ‘comes dinpehn(oada-aPna ean, — pasfr-ebarechio-agfav @ ” ue 32 topuotin ef an Hise pasion dato: bee ase PA, I tars “The pnd fhe drei 4, may eel when compare with he Innes! Siren oe AY. Heer Wel dy on (0) Momentum equton [Rong eh oneeston wave verti the serfs onthe cota lo fens ol cone i he presrefoes. In hse, he plein ft ec eatin (LAB th conte vale ale (89814 ~pA tate aV) ‘Dg the cocinty equation 1) A Spotl Vou a att 3 {o) Energy equation (ions ound wave ey had he in ery ply the et ter ‘oven he cont vole ad he suoundig on De let ad the proses hs becomidee taba, Ava ea he a of rman 2.28) ‘Si be spilt than vlune to yl fosefir fof Gh v oo (e) The second iw of themodmanies {Fu non sth the hn tnt and te tal ees hve ben net what the fo tigh coma volume asa and everett esp ‘Tis abo be pod wih te termodpnis ron, Tar™ah—épfp. When ‘Egos 2) 908.3) ae bth ato Os ean spol bt area oa Sggy,grmtoen anne mc i “Terr, sere inne pestre ne, he rp coset 0 eo ‘coe To btn he. eunton forthe sped ofthe sou wane, eat my combi Syuuione@.1) and. yl adele Br, eee decree prop th pope be hee entan diving the ditetiion mate pee For the peso fe the ‘stropy cot, Ta O90) os Foran tee procs the ress and dea ae rtd by Hot constant shop prevoly. Tkig te lpi of th es pb in patos) so ce Mb Mac + eee es, (2) 2 Gt oo (ete of ate {Rte es pete 25 Btn 0.) estan 079 gin 039 in ft = {0 om gs pte ea epee a he — Clin the specs of xu in 3 25°C Tho goat andthe opi eta ora se 207.1039" Kn repo ottion ‘ape of urd ean ba obiahad tam Equation (78) a5 = 4A I-97 J a8 KI = 98. 34 MACH NUMBER ‘en hit Inge eve see terug body and the cup Si ‘sung he van Seay ms tse ies the pep of ‘Beto tle the densi steno he fv pam elle te Mach Seb and defo aera a te alate Voto sped sod «3 weMe oo “he plese of he Mah sera cy nerd by aig ‘again. and nndg Baton) a the Sp oo a ee ae seeing nosis oa |) The vei, ea mmo ne eed maton of eps, wile VIZ Imesh ct ey pr se fhe ied Te peed of ond [Eh go propa the sate roo hr ener hich ae ‘orn ohne weet ep pris Tie, eae ae [iticeney ron rn ced ih he mon oto ust ‘Te sch sesh en be ep sh oh ne neo ‘ited fl whee nye nom mec an. “Fae on genes in tow pteor frcomgee ow, Gre ‘havin ft Bw des on whe ely gr ori tn ped ‘Fiout When be ich new has ey, foie abo Howe, the ows tows specie when he Mach mmr peter th Uy. alm each same eis i he ow ete as one, “en eed tenement peed al conpard ste sd and, tn wen M0. "Anne fo in! Bo tig ves wich he ow wacky copes bel penetra aCe A hye tpt tech see nly tarda a es ch sen rer tun, Toe tems peo an newb rest ‘om th owed spews ashe repr lees bone lngore. ampies2 ‘An ar is rvelig a elo 007m at an ate ware se od +, espoxivy aan. 28 och 38 m8" Fd pase anne deny ae 705 04 900407 arcs tn opost Seso «the Mech er he wind Be tach reer te ser 3 fe ch aero he art Malas one nove 9 ‘a pea of i cers Treen SI ees on sonnnnee ete 1 rm po ation ate 2.59) ney be eat rao0nn:* on S88 4086 Ma OS aa _ cain in Equi (2910 dtr De Mach UM om cn eosin xn sito wna 0 ne bowing wind 00 vl tert reap ea Ves Voom asia" + SD ma" 695 ach iors o _ pnessio.e FLUID sg pREscUnE DISTURBANCES IN A COMPRESS ts the neighbouring gas out of the wat Stepan in Sahay ma rn ee Sv nh Sone : SORE alae omer Mc ee i a mp a sO SN ye ton of we yen Yo cowrresan ROW tine ty wil be seer by a aphre wih «raion a6), whose cee ig ‘Sonat nih he esto a he dousance aie 6:1. Stationary poln sures ‘A sand pate opens wniformly inal cin. At the neon er alm ny gen ened pl ced a ae othe sore. the Eun of cote tees a2). Any he wes te per in tape {Sal he waves we concn phew ato in ge 3 1162 Subsone point source Now, comer he ae whee saint ote mows at fr abn sen, ‘n'a steal baogeneos Bd Wann sn Fue 3.5. Ihe presare ron en ben {i We at tat PET ET 1 Aelia bean ao ca eo by sbsaing Baoan (4.17) and ‘QD itt inv caren ae i aaa 1 Tn on be she eM" ad el f 1, feninae a iE Be De 80 eA aa 2g Dh a ae : a ; eerie Fr Bann (4.190 it pil to bse ta, 5M nde nay AC approaches» contut ve of (+ )0h—]. Pigs 47st the eve ‘Eipidee of M aad in aban od pena fw Example 4.2 ‘Apt ns ow passage, we vs and vmpratu fhe eae 802 =" tha 400K respctve. 4 Sot stag aed ot sain 1 Calo teach nomber a he Mach runt alared ees eons the gon vas «Its ce cette insta fw ptsng, td he madmum pose ‘lacy tebe stage Benin ao nb nh iach rate {stowed ofa condhorscorerponr ete sae mex Westy. «Guan tho nore orm th ase ang uso aa etn re say Mew abate ote Sotaion {@) To ttn onporae of av may b erate by ing Eaton Gate “wth gn spose oie on Euan 6.98 25 = eT). 92075 Sa) 70.11) = 88 gure 4.7 Raia mages a Mr = 14) Ins se, 10 and =o, sce te td aga wi ¥ we 'p) Toca peed f sone tam Equnon a) ar ee een) 7 pene cites tate = $ an M1, snow | eles tein te aon sae A 87.939} 4001 401 ne “ran ac endo i 5 (temas wcy hal an ane by |) ent 0) a "" nee G25 72) = (2 ers sta¥-y020416) «zor me Aan vty ote approaches ems ve, te fener and he {gon ol round sopvat te, Herc, ha Wach pot goes ly rom y The ach numer ovo o eta cans tom Equation 6.17) “Figure 48 Sento aabate a Exams 42 eee ad seg {e) Tetra lomo aah nogyaquatn feiss vo ceqon (460) 28 Wy Moy tet Vint a Gar “Tis stenyatte ada opel noun in gue 48 45 EFFECTS OF AREA VARIATION OW FLOW PROPERTIES IN ISENTROPIC FLOW Comite ne innson compe Swi nines st wh aale totam own lo Fig 49: Te nines asion of the cvecctona ek 1 duet couse ioral hmgerin he ow reperies. Tee canes ay be ‘ed by og the te eqn {2 Coninuty aqui, Seats ry ich ein, em ow ae cot Teo sie pAVe(gvantaraanersa) pooprrovassvinsifaaomaringfare age yams po fie ‘da Figure 9 Comat ona nits ut wih an ae change 71 seein ie ric of ie nd ig 7 AV, pone an 2 AY do 44, Yi. g a0) ‘Bunton 4.20 xn ao be eine by aking the logit f= AVand hen vy dentin Diba deen. 10) Momontum equation ei teeny doe the pee fre sing on te conta vole mv be ‘ioc bythe te of cane of momentum sos th etl Ylne, PAPUA HAA) APY HAV) = nhc the neni pence fre cng inthe «eon on the ide we (be snl une. Oa thee side aly te serge presare ip an the «Cresta ren ofthe ie sl perpen he fo econ 4 30 Greets ae rms ent rn © [nay cation se abe pA, te moneatun eqaca become M(pedPMXA o4A)a (pel dp) ddmpAMCV AV) —pAE pophoas soscuptarssheripianghoavav-gbe "Gaceling and plesing the Nghe eens 4 dpa evav | (2) 20 7 sins ome, atid pa ne + ema dco obey sinning AV wh he so Barton (29 28 anoe Be aA _ dp f, & a at ( apa) Bot recalling Equation (3.5), «2 =dp/ de =(@./4p)y for an isent ss and natin. eee 4. aw aio a am A reaionbexyen he infin are cane 8 ph infin ey 6. Then he Mock mmber deny tha Pee Mi is bok, bat ices th > Ay My sagen 11 Sowers ins aoering pss sto gute 41) the totes en p 45.2. pitusers Dilasrs ce dss of vale ot ena aren ecleng he Bw so hat 270 Then, gunn (42) nee at hep eens in he rection ‘tow, br > 0 Fe eas» xttomfen Byun). hah’ fees ie ey dem at ho <0, en nh eer te, cen a emt | tic drs hy tr voy a Sse ht hy yb «eon. 1 hee i= pect of gina (623) shows dt AAV =0, ohh eae ‘tat he tow cosrscoml re nt pats hg 2 msn eminent ‘ts To de iy open tt the Mach re aches nity be ing | the widen of abate fw a dara te eceeron of spo ft Sonia posts Aer th pth os toa see ee decent ike et et, | Sth eae comeoding 0 dectening Ew a, alles Mt ven in Ps | 130) If af ctomen hen yl be fe than 1.0 and i th ey | jaa (4.2) inden ha A 0, wc cava te ini apie ‘Tht frie dein of enn Cot egg difve eaied, 2 ‘how in Fre 6110. Gomer ne ow sspenoee(M > 1) tot dio the coco sect mute inte don don Hence, converging dose eqe the deteraton of mpm fom mse i Fg 4.10 4 a ica >t © fo te desrening the flow Senn. On the ce aed 1A cee aD coor amet «erly sen yb per han 1 204V> 0. Tae opi cones the ie © Sl esp, see Buen (29) opin ines ht GA > 0. Theor,» : «cera oer pr awa he gover ete : , | Bees, snl epi oyThs condone an 10 * « o | lesa hnow ashing "Talc, he Mach namber ays chee [wae sey in covering fstape wheter the fw is tly leon mpc, When th Mosher ny, the en canpologe Sewn Faure 410 Eft of sen stan on sent, nedinensena sale foun : ‘ile a eo) sopon ow 1 2 emtnone now [FPR OF AREA VATION Oh ROW PRORERTES WENTRCPE FLOW #8 ig ete thet te te = SS Figure 42. tt of an cng ane Mach rnb a dhaging aan: ) Samah eae Laughed @ Fou 419 inte onary, on arin enone compose ‘fe Sone tn sig cewetig ase, sone fw ening» aang ps lag th poveing eunios fr sent, ceo! stop ow a be ‘aie gen m2 choked Bow "The ote pbb ernie ese in Flute 4. 150) 1M ect ‘ten iy wile ethan Land dP fe cas uno 23) eter at {AA> 0, which tn agement with te shone M dete, ome ith ions, hen Becomes greater 1.0 at gV> 0. Ti ay 3 ‘eremen mith te aspion, nce Bquen (423) ideas that A> 0. "The Hack aber Easton, Phe, he pcromsson cating con bei by wing he dct ih sshobe wl wna Bre 414. Nor tpt thao beni As, Py ‘Rant seo th int eng he mass ow tn ad ye 1) nmin Se he mvt ac we ae pene ono he tt be 1) Reni ot fo stn Areal the ae fw ae, Aen he | 2 olan ae et to wl esta fo theo he i cd. Ase 1) tit Src ach, wi een 1) frente an te cmpense, 7 ae ducts we pie wo | EtNc romper yesh ty Tere, fon ened, Ae he oi | SASSI often the ey Ay fer iow ge | staat condo tv ni fs eal tej te hinge 0 REM ommtes ly wl roe snc ante enya i er |) lemakon pt! one Popein Toth c,h me ow tah Be 1 rele There, ben M=1, te fow coset wea mot pt though & “mt nbs abo ona oly a omen stn neces howe i Few 415. However, speone ede ich conus |) Rms nly ors fw ta pero ce thdotmast cox of 1) Scan cen bowed by aepng che ara sige 150). Tt (eg fw “ea ui al ™% a at awe 4.146 Coie o own a et theta wo Tye |e Stagnation temperature reo Son (2 an aera mf he nae ney ean an an fearanged by hg te dlations oth ped af rand and the Mach neo we Mei wet we -Bquatioas (3.70) and (3.8), respectively. Then, the foliowing equation may be we on, Shomel fr the ato ofthe sageaton temperate to the ee temperate 8 « « aaa eset tert te trate nt wont vente yen, a (20 te Seite ~ ea ay i . a Jt taraton prea fern pn! ein, Then a, oe aso gl a er pet ee) =n) eo ° “ Seas we an oe ta pnb be nt peo te eG) supersonic ‘The ratlo of the stagnation preswure o the stale pressure can now be obied by combing Eats (4.29) a (627) to apt eu Tip ohn ened B-( Pe Se as Se Aen hme, WM a said a eet es me eg Aes et Rerrecrmeereemnanenee | G2) SS Fe ig Hower penne tor, ickcoetmonty deere | ‘Segag en, show in igre #180). 44833 Stagnation density rato The st ofthe etgrtion dest to the ae desty can be ote by wing Ag RELATIONS FOR THE ISENTAOPIC FLOW OF A PERFECT aad eas c a(t “Theequins overnight nds ito ow of pe se gen ‘n'Seon 42 Alhenph sy feopie Bow prblers can be tae wing these pene tony he ssn cn Bevin ysxrangng hem name suetoom, | ' Engh oo ‘These elon ar erie in aon 4 rl a) eth ota st, hate when M1, gain (30 Yeon 4464 tase Wow rate per unit 68 orn pes i, p= RT and the only eg Bo yafh ake Now ebtttng = JRT) and Mu fe ks Sirhan GO) ong Hooton (628) allege erie) an re ee reese hese peur, p, may be ined by wig the eee a :teon HERE gyu(iet eae)" aw In Buon (30, the Mich mbes, 1, can elie by ula Eaton (4s fre entope sagen reste i elo GEIG AP" * wo ‘Mh tf np ein Pe wate oe NS pe tac able exten See whine as detve- Sreeyiecos “Then he ima ne ow te erat es etn fo he a ‘sre rato thu when Ml. The sume rst can ao be obtaaed by “teentning paon 0.39 wh ees the Mah uber, Mao eng ls a“ ans sas i 4.65 The sea etl (4.39) oy Bon (380- 4.68 impute uncon Fim we que 67 Vaan che mes How par ett wth i erento ow = amit ary mich ys M1, An eqn fo th avn ns Bow ae Seat wos aye one Oy setig te Mach mamber eo ity fa Eauson “nerf fr avn, temas msde pec uni aen depends che fhinyery coment inedice wens ax by ving Eaton Tes wemetnes coment to dene quantity cle the Impulse fanetion for | woes ving proason, wick may Be eh a Tap sp am "ote pty AIA” ad pup” yb ey ing Bastion (6.2, 158 and 29) ropectney. Heme 1 seus an TORT TIT ad Feld dhs ft nde aie ens mame aetna thei ‘nutans sen nvolveu slander paca The unered excuse ah © fan by imiodacig > sotig hat sad 4 weve Te flows “ut he property he ey, Beate oe dimesbal am fap gs ube ere aie te pevon ns eh lena 80 igi 4.48 en too con te Mach rnber “The mare equtinn (2 may nw be eased by ong Equation (437 at eh fea (Pde + oALVE) Corda aA) 638) ead hee et tn en a en a0 eee te fecha pee at aca ot memes es See alt ntl Wo aa oa ap SS ie etapa i ec cin sre nt ae am Toph avt pai +82) veo te tea HEED. aoa! ca ‘Aether wa of fomlog the dimension ipl encton by eating Bain 0) at He aay 474 Working ser for ntopi ow nas "The right tad sides fe sore euans ate al futon of te Mach umes, ‘en he pce bat Te denne anon he etch ae a ‘hase egaion cm th be eptseed i grape fom withthe Mah ub = © helndpenine le ore ed a of Sock worn cat fe sa ‘inesien! kent ow oa yet as sie in Figure 419 fr Bm au vting Eaton (40) by T° Ke). Then is Lb A gy Lena : Pome poe eee ue os gue 418 Woting hat orn ow B= 4) 1.2 Worn el reno or Hp denne rer on te penn i x ihe Mi 1 Bs Stent ele rks berate mine | teil enenie pre Cars con oe ha abr Force, ASTULATSh ofc taeda then hse ame 9 ow nator foe ns conver duo town in Figs 42) fom crt ‘oto re of .001 Tonto ttecesecton! eee ef 00 057m where | apreanra, temperature en vty eve 1804, 126°C and 20¢m8 eos “sete th romain ul proper etn 2 Bete ne hls properties teeter I ssn sony, oe nena! wanton. Seton ene apes of ound satin 26 ay T= J 9267.4 861 = 00-8 ‘ables The tong vas of Senvele tatoo t= ato Wao Mol Woe we ‘0000 1000 2480 Tm 1.800 0.109 oac0 le ‘1900 92209 oo io ‘1900 96309 0000 at = tan = ” = uot 428 ‘r§aaytae) 0.000 2887 0000 | Figore 4.20. Sketch and Fs saga for Exarpie 43 ‘As, hedony may ba eran om Reagan oe fr @ pe FR Seg NOH “The sagan proporie, tom wich be ison a acento oe enon i selon 2, may bo svlstes by ug the een lable ADEN a Monaro ‘lou 06501 oF p= 1S0KPW/O.8821 «210.01 Tif 08064 or Tue KOC = 840K om =07809 o¢ p= 1S13AgI- NOTE» 1728 kg (0) eno omnes comaig ait waeto be mined hh dk ‘efoncad inary, a8 shom in Fig 420, te fam would bo czas fe Traian en ot np Bang eau toe ete wen, A Then te76 om append AIA" =4.287 of A° 20.005 057 i.007 0.001 -satokom Ala" 0001 370109018 4476 ‘covespondig to an a1 roof 1.170, toe ext to sluts fe he Mach uber one rsa tow wt Af 0% ana th tn fe ups Wi Tres Bun converging cnysbsais pends re possble, 3 M01 i eto om he ani cron do mt car am ate it poe pen2t09i08 pve 726 Kam? From Appena wih Ms = 8%, low =O778 oF pr=(O778}Q409¥0)~ 171.04 Tytun 09907 or Tn fossm7yeeha¥g 6122 lon =0857 op (08857\(.7261g0r) = LAke Kg © ow ond tou sec tay be rat & RT) J 875 hg". AOE nae voy as Within = (081)4078 me") 2240.60" (Temper entcny agri for he acsoaen cess shawn io ng 4290) {0 ems Sw cle ray bo caepated fs he cnt aqatn st | teon ert soc 2. Fo exam a atten 1 tom mA=(A42 710001 TEP \24NE me") 04216 ge "Faraone rn er ree any cindy Soca wigeet aes RR o4r9 oc. au 28ST 87 m9 000 Wo) ‘Abe ear Seg") sot ge" ramp 4 | Ramp roa has wot and nt peo soso 009. ant | s8e,rapoahy, a toon m Fos 420 Tears a Oh | Magn he mn pero oa tmp st a ee he "lye neal, oe Solem an 8°, ep. Nau | Nenataeda stp tow <4 Gio at propre atte a ol be t,o 2 Son We one snes dagen. WOMeNG CHART MO OREN TMLEFORIERTRCRE FLOW 108 nf —9e* 1-9 taien nasaont Acise? Riaiae ® ” Fgwe 421 Shieh a Teagan or Beane 4 A ‘Sotaion Supers and i empath noel et hor the eloy elu, event th gration pesmare ar tanta, hl ad ee stok Then ho elagnaon dent a geo nn-*) is” BRI sR TOTTI (7h arse con ene a ae Ntsc tor 391 atnge Hoon ste ote Teh, fo oven p'pr=o.iRs or p= (0sena\enkrs) 96.246 Tineseaa of 7 =(9e13h)=2008% lev= 05009 9° (985)0.7887 a) =0.4TI7 Kg? ‘spon sun ats 2 (8 0.97508} = 3238 Me and th velo te ow, tae Mi sna ms {9 werden mas fom rt a wal oth nace can be vomnind 3 (27319909) 945, 078671910" i ‘aka 40 : a SS teeye6 OHM) ne lah rarer lof nce coresasing os nnn His fo sob chara tor pass a a Men 90 hve pope to cess sectorl ta wher y= 1.98 can bv etnies va ppnaieC dios 0508 Pu (0.1910)60 Wh) = 8.9624 Feo 0.505 Toa 005)19}9 784K nd O2062 pes (0.2952)07587 ign} = 0.478 gm? Moa Via" 1824 er Yon (t29 92001 | (tne T= carn fo ecderaon proces oh namo shown a rome zt0) | Ga IeenTROPIC OPERATION OF NozzLES “te ths son, api frases of nrg and eamerga—Sveraag | over under apie retusa ee ‘Aa converging ozs 11 Grosser sconegig ate he ome wee canons 1 sgt tut beso fo voy wn ee 4230 Ts "| Gvpog sas dng ino et reo are he ck ee SEL Meo ne Te ee ea peo _ Shon ty x The pom henepc Sow peers eh be lveripned by i Th eas ofp ah ko he | geo Seana pan, piacere ae ome we even Figures 4230), 226) ead 4.240) Fopectiey. {9 Nostow sont pn 23) ‘Po bern wis opp at se vale esate e hows by ow pater a igre 0, cn prec a eek fhe prepeniv aed ice Now ae ‘Suberitie! low regime (p< py < Po) || hematite ent sweetly bn dc abate er ih ee rm eg ise nce yw ten, || Hefei Sh on nborettex lo et pep | foe it poy Tope ea, ae | Diino tla bese scan wk anton ne ose Hewes tei to ee ene or ne Bie « gure 4.22. Open comezgeg neal al vas ack ress sucha ince ine tence the seam rue Thisconeds he [Btu sine hn pcre bere by the steam, neste eam ee ‘Etre thon paren. Coe, jl than py thes he seas ‘ul eta wien esther, Sch conerron a her dace he ‘eu presses nin connate fc tay he apes fhe ‘et ing the mz sul cee pes, fhe estes a shes ots es then gral edd by the {2 es contain nme hk, Te Mich supe he ee hn ui ih peal he Cl pee tat oe erate od es alg eprocfer eas ern cenn sot sma rere areas ee LOE Une ence set 1) giled pressure ratio po, unless there is throat upscresm of the exit section. "Geman oe ee diehner nt aves or Eateharen pares ee ha ie ah en chars “ue cri ewe ps We Sta rene ae a nt ete Sn pe ee ie hs eps the prt fe ern ne ose ib epee 9", | nse thn eas pence. These onthe pce eset || Ge gotoe et ern in epi non, The ps pre aecterealy, Teens per tation nthe caf thee the how revere, Ts |) enomenon peso an he et eomaes rns etn nd ke «Boro sboon i Pee 420), ade ue 429. cia rst co peri os oe nf Noe tapes oe cad Example 45 ‘Ronny rome wh ane eos eetarl ae o 00 is oper win to shown nigra 42). The rz I fo. fra ace posure o 683 from alarge rng ore to sagan poe en emperie fo ‘Gone the 69°, renpotvl, Drains te Much ber ac the amerstre ate neath, the mat Hw rae igh ho nee ‘sume one-man! tna ete So Sotuton “Te rt tp 6 check tha converging nef ain, Then nipoe 825450010 = 05060> pu 08288 “hare te fou ina ehoes nen ho eubote! Horexin, Tus 5 r= pye00s0%o Fram Aopen ©, crespoing © = 0.85, TUTe= 00019 oF Ten (090190981) 900: K RAM gentoo ana BO4iY@.0t n?110 200 Na") te era RTS 02073 hae" ‘Thm exponsan pects a sho in Figo 424) on T>8 aren. (otra te type 92 “tein th rem, te longest end tho con pee nck abe oath aa hth anton ops Sn Sn es ond Ss i 87 JHE 6 mE enim rage cnt nye rtd by A ripy=0.9100 or py=1794Pa/oBKsnw21z91Pa TWfe=09624 or Tex HeWnoHEH«92r6K lpy= 40 keap2 KPa 0.1884 < poy 08203 {ane ow a ook, Fer the 20d tow Mota eo * eee ee 7 @ gue 24 Shae ant Ts ga r Exagl 45 mermenrecreranmncneecremnemmensiel Huson Tee oni nore eel choke, sce pes 10 KPa00 KPa = 0.128 < pun 8289 ri i each ut Pes plOS208 = 100;e0.509 = 6051) ‘olen sess eon to only must bt be eval a8 wp 472000) soa kgm? ig” art deg ara” om to can eauton Ani eae tne owt mt an aaa TFA” “he nore lt rn thon eat by using th ee a for = 080 om dopant ih =Ajhy = 1340 of Ay=0011 31] 80~0.008 40 at > p> 180.19) Wn Howe eh Sy he esse and ampere tte noes rs fe p= 05285 or, py = Os269)2129K0a)= 112.26 + Tafo=08099 of Te (OemsNE270%9 «273.0 | For tons andor, tom Apert C P'lv=05203, T']eD0093 ond pI 08550 ue vty tne te Var") = J 2671 Sa "KV0.8899)20019] 3K Me ot he egeton fate es are et 9 =A, ampear X [Nr alae nm anf 2? vane a a prose of 20 ¥Pa ane a Ttrpermoreo 2001 oe soon Fete 420. Rr charges aogh ‘Sveriges ha en a fem? ara ck presses! T00¥Pa, nah tir segues orto fark pose To topo 125 a. Asune ‘Sono ussite tow tough the nono, ree aa fo xaos {ie appa a each tn ote Abo, tote enough hat vane he {Enc ota etme of th lnk cnet = 0620%r=0.690 2 7280104 |f2- Tae tm mass tow ats becomes 0.800% 10° py 310° nA IF OMe) =28% 10° py ‘ayn nas wc caper ha tank qu the rooe teen tea ae fin th ek a pact oso a wine tate even nom fn, do, Baan ot HE igi 426 Sten er Exale47 ORG a BATT TOO & a ard lining nat a, 008687 a7 he sar tow te conn za arson no 8 ete Yen ta 06. A entre i8.3KPe 2pio- pee Pann tot ao “The shove et quan an be seved by soaring the vais fas ot 7 Mocs woo tte Peer 058 ren eon eat tye ose (" es 2.280 n( 8210) a 1.066 om or (se) Si prsomorae (O 5ag 2 to ant apa wn! ame, (ab mayb rearanges = see OEP" om Inegraton tee Carica nd Sih 862) raat imeem es eee alee" d eee eine $2 Convorging- Rear oe HST 6 Goto ote pasar, vty, mou, lah conker (rd mas ara el a nar “Te speed fed te yr boar 5 i) = {A897 Seg XNEE A = 838.60" se tte ot ay ane eanieiesms" (0) As ong a he ete sate processes expr othe so oa emu, ber v= B= 858 Pa ont etl t vloty may be veh by ing Euan 4) ue in) 4020517081 ms? = 68:9 ‘Aa te sagan tener rae tw same dng an abate pores "LOK now,apeing teary egitim fh nagey Sean te sctialetata, #6 Stagnation, 0, VE cap = 28M Eaen4 ens Jia) ‘Ais po eps to tune the au! aes the et Mach tube anh et naee bom Appar © Dy ena Tia aba sco Ke 0882088 t=2.00 ipa =OS1H1 oF pen 6549;93/0.1111 = 88928Pa ‘ANAT gare Hx jOsTeee won oe A Tear sig VHT = 504719 (oT charge coticnt ote nee may row be eane em Exuatlon sess ibe. $84 78009" 5268 Con gis BGA Ly ee er yon rt ye tn Ora en Pab-0747 440 THRUST OF A ROCKET ENGINE ‘Arie ene whic gett pes aly ta agin pres ean 8 ‘Spm emperure of 8 the sald propel ues, shown in Fg 4.33 aveing-tvesng nol 8 oe atc of Aad mei a of A The avd es core to he nara ot pre of ia cet apes tte peso sot 300 LP ae opitinatopes “hse of 11,385}. Thtlre, ch a efucon nese ony pac by = eer “sie || pene! d wes tht the bel Sow oqunns pdt she det ratory sich okt engine inert a fe pet cat. «(he nn, a songs the contol vone of Fee 438 ny te Coon by ping nomena eae Fuser ti oe that, Fy sting on the ect engine ay now be obi by considering ‘Bi tely agate ne soclvoune mateo cgi whith sreshors pines (3X) and 3) rope ese | FooPe=pade=tiet AP) ash “TE, tu above equton maybe owieninlized by diving by fas : i Aa( Be) i mica al §) om Bethe eso peti he ze mite esi codon, th a i ck {fb oa ota aus on tren my eee ro Baton (4.35) a8 : allay as fora pre gi hegP BRT} D9 tat melt (2) o igwr4.a4 Reobedy sna lt contol sane an) eee ‘Alo, fr a engi prose, ini 09 my en tn re 3 Beales ats side (eB om hen Howoe, hi el may eal ae esl by piel esi. The ge cna i aoe oe “eer | ay eee") ows by tog unin (3) by Ben 1 nye bin he ie 439) Pras fone caso | agiiegas mr cttzon ont arn ond el a ote eo en ha ea, 3 eco vernal wl pr pie shat, ic he tra pee ‘hissed ica ethan the exe ese By siren om tha, fede ve rat mh ley he tel ese ete ta ch ‘inl rose Hosein ponies consade the rset wh ahs cn, th equine na rst ay ba fom Bgetn ee ce ee “te puree cies coon employed compar the peices of Jessa snl copies, Tere spec lmpe, Za he rst ‘eet, Gy mh ae ends LaF a0 sd F. an expec Example 418 ‘Recnteepeant rk enine gneisses a stagatn lenpaaue ot S000 ant» sagan pees 700 KPa, be shown Figure 4. The eit not eens tern wo 24 apd 008, apace. Me tufted gowe mayb amuene ob pret a eco bat alo 1.4 pda gon conan a 20 Jug" Aan at of 90000%, dering 1 th rt evel 1 the space oto, a 2 the ust coset Figure 38 Sehr Example 4.1 ‘nyo pe ofthe neue upeem ah pe whese Puy wo tw ea 1 ents po, sas dovtoed ty he oka anne may be eva om Serre ooo opstain of me converging tote ats dein eee ina fon on my bedomanes fom pean by oa Lponniraincnin Seen SMa pibe=0029 09 o pre(00z0eajreooKPa) = s088Ks few 02068 & Tye(0sbsg00019= 00% ‘nMD) iy on avn 271240024 2010 He) oo faa ec 2028108" npn an a nt ny eae se JOT) = 96820 dg N1001) © 7820 Yer dane= 90,7020 9-2 2098 m=" peetto7 Pa “Teaaion atbos 2) aes Adm p)=(20.0ka 9088 m=") im "ede 06 603? 1867 Ni) 65, (0) speak lapse a 0 vce ong may now be eta rm Enon 8 afin geese Fi SEOON nse at e500" agey On kM HOR” FURTHER READING Cun RD. an Seth EX. (952) Moths! Zl ant For, ‘Borer New Yo ‘oot, A Bad Jenn, BH. 195 Ger yma, Dover New York ‘Sten iy Roper, PC. ad Sarammatin, HLH. (0972) es Tarbine “Tey ot en, Loe Hsia, ony BW a bundy ATS) Fadi Fai Mace, ed in, Wey New York. Jo JE A. (90) Gat Doni, on, Al Bo: Boo, MA, ‘apnan HW a Rs, 8 0987) Els of Go Dynami Wey. Now Once, J. A (968) Funda of Ga Da, Ineo Teo Senta PA Shy A He 25D he Dyno and Tewadaicof Phd Feo, Voy Romi re New Yer ‘aaron A an tian J.D. (978) Or Dyan, VL, Wey: New {Tali rsa ts gn on ay icon be "se (votstus)* Bo (ots) Ths ee an on errno be he Wo pepolett 4 Stories ttt ome oun pe be Siren a rar penis «Fn gona peony ore compos eaten aT Bentler hor i gh by (eaper ems MED ey N12 conan tf mah meat ‘fttosnseaion ars fOr Me iat econ th kw freseure f2004Pa aida pra of 83°C asa wey et Same" ath ant oto, to a asa tarps o 20 folate Sesion ond saw th esas on 8-2 dara ‘ne per th nov fo ren hg wn 1 be 20a {ho wien of be or lat tw arava a oe, Ein tt Mach rar an he velonty of he eae ssa {nd ompeae fh deus Sr wor 2D en 25% ‘icy none anne a | Caltte ho tgnaon spss of sun 1 Galt he ei! sped of oun. 1 Galata ths tne somber tb Wen over rte ea! «Ime ao accoaratoa sul pxssgo, tn te matin posable ‘rosiy tet son ba stne, Calon th oh nanba anh ch ‘rink sc! cn Sosa sa 1 bait fom tt eatery quan, and eth tt ead Tow adabte oes. ‘Aconisng ds If wth a om rg esas hare he ‘arpraten a pres ar 4K ene 204Ps, ape. Th Mach ‘hora pat slang the dct here te wes seater! wee ‘atm sO Osim tre epee, restr, vl ed dena Sh isa oe eleva a mass fo rat, oop ow ecu o oza ‘ir tone nopeay tough a conargig duct wich is a an a 7 i oxy tenon ugha canering et ich fd tom ings can eere fe tagerbre an pressure sa 300 and 00, ‘eapetety. The mas ow ato to.gh te ots 4 ge". Demi ns [Re towing entropy gh somerang ae woh oar 1 fig teat har ho tongue and posure ar 380K an 208, ‘esbectney, Ala estan pm ona duct whare Ieee renin 0905 me very 200 mae Dsicerne tetra, Mash ‘over ard pase tba a redo sete te abs ow ale 1 as lle pte acon ntl om alg ear ere ‘toptece soc peas ar 00 Kana 190K especie. AU cain | crane vn i 0 tne voy i ‘onoe aa tape" eapestny.Atuming aeons he tia nanbet cararcon ot ere Me mes bieru oe" (iim daw edety doug eA sow ssn, here he ae reine vanly S00 ms an he psn 100 ea he tiacn sera he gen sec, aa doominete mts fw ale he ‘fagatlon ong 00 (ETD 1080) Ar eto sa an ca epee, ae canna he ong ané rene ae owes tte O88 ses coure opctay. Asemg sate fob he Mech muna ne aces ono and mar fom to or it en. QHETU 108) Seton ra conver Gs rm coo soa on of 20018 tar presage and vay we 20012, 0 Kan ‘Goin sapedivy wn cnanclanl west O01 Ctr ne Meee tance’ tere ind peste she ear cosesecton oe ‘itn ns fon na. enti ogo he ne ‘41a spore sr Senso eof ach amr ot Eis noes sto sa nore ad truer oe i Sire tet wo aera and 290 rerpcivy, ele state frecuentes nto a fl ro ot ct ‘erp wre a he oar Asa amare ofp We 8 ati Se cor su th proce ona T= apron trl acy as lonreaty sa aera st ms ‘al iootpe Al scm seesoelon! von #08, tapers en pont fe 0K ard 201? ape. ermine retcecty, posure and crac! we «sms con ‘tora 329% hac eo esse ad son ho HS ats i'towe tom geo tate he res an ampere se : hoirc en con sagt, towpre conta eta wih ok toe of 0100 ad crags to atone nha eae {Gre the tow uenron rough errs, Octerne Wech ‘ber umpera, peor ra vey te ot en nd oo ‘Stoner nase fed th on sarge reser wh he ‘Someta nd prem Km TYotPe epee, The aie haber wns reese 100KPs na to shee eon | ence, tn ta pesare eh rumba pea nd s ‘lo ete eat panned as ne man ew ‘417 hue upon pesue oF 050470 end etapa torte of ‘Soto sony frou s eamorgra raze, Aa econ ~ 410 ae an Nase Vas vate ea i th nom, are the ros sectorl e626 10° he Mach ‘new. Th poral clcharges We back peswue of 270 ‘aswmine the Hach nonber, peu onpaate apa ex-con teat th et ane Aso he mss ow al {iih season arperature a #00 Ka sagan prose ok {s0sPale toning ental teen comvecging nes Ae econ ‘inte noel were theses sete eon 0.008 tha paso Iasi the vam decargnto a bese peso of "00a, re, ach sur tometetue ences secon Tino avlate ta rar ow ao [Rchoering nso om see soo whe te tuner tnd peseire we DK ne 204m rerpacteny A aecton Wainer wbare he coe stonl wee 0005 th acy norms Th nose charges os strana tho poss {00uPs Osa fhe Mach member, jess targa ad rotons sesh plana Aso th he asso la Th fo © isenope tought the rea Ieomerong nots fo ih a om a age eeewo whee tne Tunperate ond posuere 990K an 1304Pm respecte. Te Nowe Its eee erro ouput en he nao dachrge be [Srompure nina pesure !1008Ps A scion wit ne toto, ‘three oaesottonl wo 3.089%, te velo 10 Dotan he posure, Mash runber,tompertre ahd ees ccten ‘Seat ta et lnm io ems ale ‘eamaring orale dacharing a #57. 8hg6" hae on entero: ‘ctanl wren oO The sagatch press and ie apson Tapert the sare 240 and 29°C, rexpchy Caleta 0 bok eters na wich the one a esnergg. The Now een Trout. (UETU 188) [comrgng orale fo 9 gps having a apc Nat ao 1.38 fea ge cova of 460" tom eres whor tho ‘Sroeste and tempore are 250KPa and 10K. oop ‘nan dcr ao wer ha ase ot rie Flore slut and evra wit a ass Noa ol #bge"” EU or) Cond he How of an 8 hi I abown nme ture bow. The ow tsbat tate sectors nd 2, an eos tatoen sane 2 ane 2 Tho penn, ampere sd wey a soton | are 200178, “abv and Gore taspoohesy. Th op he sagan pre etecr secon 1 ade sos. The nv Secherge oe reg tre he roca 150 a, thst one acta a of ct ‘00! dlormin th mass ow ead te crosszectnnl aes a ‘ton 1, TU 887) Prov Ni 428 atin duce of en condoning du i destabnt ree he ‘Conrsectnl een of he usar sow phe tute blow. The ese 4 ‘Scho tea of esr data 002 A option # of he ee ‘a, pees, agra operate ad vty ae 15 KPe 227 Sra‘! me rmpectiey te ow Heongoat Be Guts ero ond iT dacargs tan ron posse! 104P, ete ha asso ‘at TU 1086 robin ane 14.25 fio spo conerging note ror ago rsa, where te peso en tanger fr ap ont tS Pa an 0K Ferpostnay ib nae doonage tho unoaphare wih arose of {dua ato tna reat char 24g a a. To ot arene! sorta Oem: ane enon fr Tn) {Seperate a 300K Tho gas a chp woop a cowering nace ea ut cvoason wo of 00 Fors eax es + anne gasses ow tough ha naz wha tho iad fe ‘Sus tarp techies often. Alo ase at ne {Spm th sno tan consent {te oe of G08 Deter th in ogres forthe tank press {cep 125 40a ho pcs charges te moar wi freee of 20K, Resume hans van stay as, ware the sony fw equator fe aptean (a8 hn benopes converting verging rare operat a clan {coat acaves a om sage racevor were he presi and temperate sv 2094Pa ane 300 espace ho ale ee os eton’ areas pas ate 32 mand 8.0% rsp. Detrich ab, rperaue an presi ee ne Ft nh bck paver a mass ho aa | Gan hee pa pao of to vost na comarng dogg noe, the [Pesaro mettre and vole ol i fo 200 Pa, 40K a rome epostay, Theo ra rot Coes sucton areas th area ne 08m an 0.001 reap. Demin te Nach moe enpaatu ar preset he ot tne. A th he back [roca san tow ee The noe oering at te eel 20 Ree coming nos en ng peclialy, The xl and host cas aactional eeu of te nozzle ae 0S and SO mt aserey, Thana ssa ote Stneeve win prstreo 001s. Bx prota th Mach rsa opal a he x lane, ad oe he mas ow I pm apse of tost fa entopccomersng- regia atin te ecu lompmars se vey fe are 706K, 40 na Yom repay Tew ost ond rut coseecoal woos of 0 ‘orto 1 aa 0.00" tape. To nocd chore ‘team wih res of 00 KPa Onin th osu, Mach mono th mp sf hw lam, ane sto ene Ne ‘intel omarion wit eo we ‘eons Theo th atte eesti! sen 1.25 The ont ecg obo amon ih ee of NP tone. 7 | 0 ia paeam fn opto comrade roa, ba pecs temperate a vy oh a 3 0004Pa 00K ‘Frome rms nu rato ete onto te eo coset stots 3 ee can tm sree «pot \ ‘ilar ort os rar ems omar ce ose j testi pre 24 Nite ep ain eam neni "Sok eect ano ose sense The tena dogo tes wh pesare ot os oo Via ema town rg norte : Wi hong’ erga mt wih haa ene San net et sae, spin omer ma oe Seu ua wo 0 dP pac Toe te E7Uuces acess hoes unraecera eet | etch nba renner ne ny | mine mn lero » borers as tte sy psu, scion, May SaSmcnd nly coo’ of {3 Dac Ba dcr ono! cle ‘conan droing roi wi ato core teaot Sg Seager ten scent see {Seems Miebmcr te mise ston rete won Pe Sd, pcr are Seager 8. 1 Determine ho Mach mr, rss, tpt, as How a and ‘loyal of he sate aren pean, «Determine ho tno che naz, 4 Bote the vl covtiont of the nox ‘pate 9 splnd to xovering-Sverging za om age Teter wrath temeerlre en rosea Te ad respucvay. ‘encase a efocyoy Donan hal secon an 8 ‘Dore an exosion fr pp nts of te nae ones, the peice to km teach ber, fo desta St, Dero an expresso fo (A) tes of tron, the spcte hon ls ach pamoar, 4 ot be dosraveen | ‘A coitroptan roc! ene gerarsos ges a sagton ‘mpm of 2:00 td sagan poser ef 001s. Te ex and oat oes aetna atu fhe rash a 0420 a 905, {ospocneyTe gnaad gate we pect win «epee Pe rato of {a ue carta ahg" The fon wet Fora, 1 te tus cevopes, to apts pen ond 1 te tus soto a0 Apt ctl om ean gt enon {parse 2000 ae lanalon pce of 7000EPa, Te et nd {ton or ancora save! ha rosie 405 ad 002 ‘oipecioy The gnaad goto We pret wh «apt Not rao ot 1 and a as cont of 820.8g""K" Tet ene Ft 28 sited 1 30 00m, deemine 2 tho thant dovtpes, 3 ie peat on ‘gs tine eng ross 8 tuto 16001 wh 8 Saag ha cage a valet o 10075", es snow nhs Rare below “ne mas om ao Uwough te enghe a kgs Tho mezzo ones e et The nonresonant oe at led hus gos, respect. é dete! Normal shock API cre scion, Serengeti er eer waves cuted. These wats sy inivecmpreioa ted capenion wees. 54 INTRODUCTION mage ” b-. 5 2 shock wave seresnts a abrapt change in Hid proper, in with ie Ate." tre tempers abd dem ect ver shsk tos eet the neo ee pth of the gw mls ave. Ani we | REC Stack nae cen abe of ticompeson Nps and asaciciba hack ‘RSIE uke creme leap in an edna posse aot pb, Tis wt supe ow sf th peered by suf be sh sn ee narnts fw an av by arf) changet In Bo Pope Fe Ase ar tbe shewse senate. vith aronsion wes ad Panos sete aves very ep wah appre ie a8 pei, Beene fhe ge prea aie eon the dak ove th (Re Mec enone nt day ih acoespndan case a eave Sota ine shck wave my be vied by wing «sine apt, how se shleren sytem "Te compresn fhe os cot ch ol siete enn Seuretre proce, eee inc eee ft pt esting the hock wave napa hn at of Boi compresinsvresn hese pressures," ecto nine ae hk wee oppo etn ofthe gst «sat epee SES ur comepaning othe entopecompeson ve, Cnseqned he TROT cage ck wae eperenens decent "Sicncts ie tacts zones ace ofenohgue £0 the Bow cantons and thy ae eset abique shock waves, Howene, wih oe Fee Fauci ony pone teat esl ce f= heck, ‘Stren changes now pegs ony nthe eon fh Such ek ‘Me arc oval shockwaves. dca af can shack wane cering theater Ths, jotta ef aonny hak aes ed marin ses vate, se soo ‘Beta be ene ney by malig he a, tog which i ores To Sat tint of Sok se bt epost nd. Tb art abc orl wave wish wae ede saan ge 32, a 5.2: Developmen ot compression waves | {ee shown in Sein 3. hat, hes In be en ey way ! Hw Avro aV Bgwe 3.) ound we coves a of he pon Ft abe Ts anion nested io Figure 3.1 | ‘Rca ee pton inn give con neat of ec a On Sarr seve oe compre us ann he St wave, The eat ‘geo ms 1 ane sana ine = re a in Pig 510, thee rv a eaves iewed by the eeralon of he ten, td he Ee re fn sae, thse othe into wh hye reopen wei aoring ith compreed i with 8 shy rman Ste ears gone 2y‘The ew wee wong ce eee eee ely a us mae Herr, the son wre a Scny morng to testo eely A, et ced wav +a. Hence he ccd ve ec he Eto adr clo, sbowsn Pie.) eine a ‘ a i “ow, suppne cat the piss sete fom the ett x ft way = j 1 ee Ths ke vows cement an be ove : yew tocemeat ogsi sa gene inital cement cha mode dV. Fie | {eect afte pen rao tne we ere wo) 33 Ba Fe cencponing atin of th ways nthe preset Sei tn im Pg 3.3, The wea he ee of woes In eno cal he, wth Enon he a Seiler gue 5, te wes nest he pon tere the ee, sbown Figures 930) mn S60 a 2h a fay | rae erg ine cps he spoon ave oun becae iniy Hep eer Aceh a rue eps ete cue Wily Some FP tad bet wend efits eto vgs neigh with sch @ invitee Fe bento sii ere coated up fat te wave would tape oer he form shows bythe edie gute 3.39. Tie py abr, omar it tos tte tin ab the sae lee he ld as tani is difen aes of ess, cenaty a vlc. There, and bat contigs erene son afer = sad pode» ra Figure 62 Vly of pen vrs ie pony. Attn ly whe he i itn eo nines els vio the il sed egaon wae moves te eed gu end he Gwaun in Figure 5A). Th second wave ves the ped fod, HE invest he una wch tr nn. ese he con ware Ei st toving in oppose reco and tee the ve Bs a ate Flwty oor" to he rg Purenor, he second We eave ote hy br sen bom eno wd ole, oy tht omar a et sco weil thr and are bbe thee one, a ow ie sn th manner, expansion Wes srend ou a at ot sie 0 2.5.10"? 40 the pee ond empress la AE me 2S ac wy late Honey ack se canbe mpd by 1 ony. q 4522 Development of expancion (arta) waves ee psn fn Figue5. A ie a nena whi of Ve ey a SEN ronnie the iht athe spect of oun elie he vio i coh her. Therese sea a's fate epson shock wae v 4 3 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR THE FLOW ACROSS A : Sonwat shock WAVE al set he overing guts forthe fw arts sma shack wee veh uh Staton otc mara sec wee 8 eon 5 w be Bop ** g-dimeesna! lw. In hs al, he ling apo 51 om nmol hock wae i perpen tthe esi. a 25, The ma sock es las sa mau concteal te, nce the eo, ‘Reo ccd wh he cnn es. ‘Aon th shear nt rset in he ound per eo 8 ey 110) Shuts ce te sock wave very. Fo hn eon oa eects a Pie etic (1 4 Th fw proc, nctting te Sack wine cn be su to beac wth |] 7 posse wks nde sete th ba ear ose since the sock ‘Signe tht he condos the wien and down ses of te mom "ome which shown it ig 3, ate deed by op ¥ and 1 ese te pcay ps he oy a k on ed a Fa [Povey ae re fo the ma forse |( pee tock woe conan Ten = ine niape= mol, . @ gue 5.4 Oeropnont of egason was ae eases F ter Ahsh tent me proton sctenetcvena'y BI 8) Momentum squation | pet fasts ie onl sock wives ated be onl the prema fers ac on he one eof igure 3.5 ot be tale by este ‘Sas moments von Se col vlc. enc, ‘i Be pby Aetna ‘Ar nga the crssetinlaes di he mst Hr te ee constant au te Sac ook wen pepe G-¥ 6a {9 Enegyoauaton 4 Scan tie oct soe anol back wae Wh no extean wo, he In of hemody besos %. look oa Data esomaat (0 7he second i of ormodmamiee ‘Stow taeagh 2 soem sock mare i eevee, besnst of the amo dvauanon rope changes aces he shock wae, Th aoe so | {o) Equation of sine SEefny Bd he gun fst ay be gen a bode) 59 od Te ses) ow | yume hat the cdo upset f the soem shock mae (ate 2) se an hse domsea ate) ob Io. Then he eatin een ES) Seems eqninn 9) andthe eat ate) Sa oer one slo though ste This lcs led the Fao line on the hes ne, | Sa Figure For xpi ste xcopy se the FM ay ay be ele fom te conto eqn (1) [Sy eerie from be omy eon 3) 11 iy be fan on he eqn of te 5. epsets tests ih sae ma xan he ae spain nly, Fret ovceserly te mane value fe Ingae futon Perfor, 20 he i in fc pee Deron te ee exaton es et cont nth ds aye adhe endo, yah tt fs ne (2), Aen = dhevaveo 69 fi th con eu 1), Gp stontn sr the orm soc "Then dierent Fe paveverno 6n pues Fon ‘enn EATENS FR THE PLOW AGNONE A NOFUAL HOCK WAVE HP oo Pinay, fom he demedyoanie eon Teendh—dele ac te pin of ut ety, lin oes 1 dhndtle Non Byaton 5, may De lined by ng Bqunon C0, ad 9 ay rhe Uy wing Sqn 5:7). Thx ante But he pit of mimi enopy =O, pe, Bain 3) v w-- eee eee = Ere 56 aes Aa ate hn sch hat hy onthe wpe ome enh eae nn in, apie and ate te sme coe, Ths bok aaa ei ame sagtnon sty td the wee dtncs bate he eit wma se repent nec energy wnt a of 8 see eter be cbred om gre 36th Oe net coy ofa Pe eice nn of ge Ac Toe te eer branch of he Pr ne ie So nico wie th omer bach reeset peso ow Fora cone: 53. The Raye too s,s bt the cons open of the arma sock wave Gate 2 6 Desi dmean t 9) et be foul Ten te contin ego 5,8 momen equtin 2) ad he eantion of wot 0) dene ne Coe ag cul sates Te za ee he ayich eo the ot ‘daa eed Place 57 spl tute x eopl Sac, the odowng maybe deter fr parila we of 2 maybe ceed fom be cnt eqn 0) 4B maybe erate rom he momar ewan 2 5 Bana be oon rm be gut wate 6.5. Fgao 8.7 Th Ra to Se vn) tn ie Rh Eircom he me ane anton ety ete» pov cornea, tod dienting : apsouv. ae 1 tn we conten DCm VP oe “ut atthe point of maximam entropy ds=0, that is the entropy is constant. Thee, 08, —_—— : (8, {Pia Peee se and Bae cht dh ity eon he pes er hts i ne Rah es tasely, td ve se apy, Ten "Toc pts wi he th te stp soe athe vr Sune been [64 RELATIONS FOR THE FLOW OF A PERFECT GAS | den sl he agin seen nse i pe mano EE Lf Reeba8'S Nonunt soe wave \ ca kt. Heyer my eshered an Tags 57 tat te Kt ey Py ‘floes pene tna ht of te A Teer, te upper rach of he Rah Here Eston fw, ws over ban repens pene ov. Fe) 11 ye eqion prrsing ne cient ow ss anormal sock wave wees tr ploy pose Sw the entropy ms nent nthe ein of ow, Fo He sie $3. Alto ay problem elted othe Sow ero a noc sock ware ty scaly pte ov a ch ate appr and Toes EAL gy be handed by tng tow eaten the salon can be ed by ‘ Se HEU Saran th egos ine ore se om, I the eto, se eto Wl Se Fortean, rapes, ek @ soni voy athe pint of matin, el ee "441 sun ofthe Fann tne 153.4 Mathomstlel desertion ofthe normal shock wave For pct gu hes; ten Bquton (3) maybe aramped eve “The nora heck wove mast ene he oti equatn 1) te anata Day be aan os {pun 2) he nergy etn (5, the etn of n(n te sod i SEPA aedgamin (bs he Hoo line ses Baas 610, ant (Scottie tne Ry Ene anes Eguatns 1), 2) and 6.) There {E22 Joes sme se ede, mas hen He cn both the Fano ie 2d (G5 lin ne ping through sate eee the neon of he 0 it tte Rai tr ie conlcon a¢ the dowettam se of the” rma Met ktapontng cote pterbd colons at eae 3 whoa i | Pur St ae Daano ld Be 14ie-oag ow = Dat ain he equa of ste fr x perc 2s,» =p (RT), i he coxtnty "FE Situ a ene sein on he etn of he proces at i non uD Hes nt tne stone yom state 9 sate Fork i at reset arene Eure So), Ths fr, tesco iw of eons Beh och ae D enopy amt dere a ‘dd matte proces Teo, 88 sce ‘omen He a pose on No, comlaag Hours 10s.) yd eqn fr the Fan ae: 2S geeR) on aE Lage gp eer fie Meee othe Vint Le Parr z [RELATIONS FOR THE FLOW OF A PEAFEGT GAS ACROSS A NOMWAL SHOCK WAVE. 181 ow oe EG seen eas EEN 154.3. Relaion between the upeteam and the downatreum Mae umber, ‘Acton bese the Mach abrupt ad downto coxa da ant eave by eambaing een o th aan ie (12) and eh room athe Reig bine G.13 ‘Malt 24@= 40) Mel 40-80 ee Tena Tene “This euion maybe sarang 9 [AN —je= Bg4— dna Ke DAH eich a na: equation for Mf. The eos of hi gun Maa, uso 19 F.L7 bony ca serosa poms! sec wave Hedy acc nx showy een wing saan Men ors pt peal Nyetan tec a as Jesgie2 sn (aE feo. ei ein eee tri at ha Bate end ee se Si en a Gi nine ot ed Pe iS hen Ba cern ene a ‘sree se mm tre 619) 3 Ying anion (5.17) a 18) yds ae he aE a9 oied Dal 44 lan betecen Mand an’ eqn) 4 erga arma (aie URES Wee aret nom eek ve a ool cna sels tween Mr na | toe contain oh cota eqn 6.1) ante deity i 2) ys aged out aoa “his reo i kgowg a rand eqn. Fom Baton 4.1 itis osteo Gena ay Te ta UE cet nang ferperte oc bg: Ws 2 2a a oe Ban sng = Ve" epee Huan 16) Vatpea"® 18 Pom Baton 5.16), bv tai he Boa tae pen en he path | ee Pn ecco een nee (nomenon ew Beye: vid Dae [55 Prasure rato aoross&nonnalshock wave ‘hn eqioa or he esr so wet antl hock mae a be ned bY aa mma ack utr Hy th head Egon G13) (54.10. cien aren eto ores a normal shock wave Forget ow th ne wish he Mich ater eqa tun wo eta id wh thes eing ed 8 eftenc, Hee espe pos Tere, fool cbc oes in ch fcr dowmsram of the Pra! sock pot be ee ap ‘rear nv socs hte A Pred Ho srr sara hs : | yr hat TT Chl )° 9 od ToC pad, heave an os somal shck wave the Hagin epee scons, hat Ty Al fr pert ga ARI 1). Tha sate-mle) ily, subaiting fort fom Boon (3.22) ys eon constant “Then ith the a of Equation (4.35 pl to wate iT aly Put Pods om sat nrns aaa aock wv, htt Ta Ti hen peAlatwAt sat) 1 20 ‘At ety fn 59 ates tt ep 1A 10, _ioy change ay ive when sree an iy, aay nee ‘hese nay. The gone ef Bouton 20 nm ep Siete ce wth he i of Exton 6.22 Beate (demas en, sist (ie |54.41-Eneopy ebango sorass a normal shockwave “The emcopy cane fra yeni sy bee neon (8) Ria i 5 ps Res Te ooo (Gap) suctin (gi BiB Ql) om (ofp 5 Pawe.10 Enoyycang aces «ree shockwave awe 8.2 ite ess upau nd eouaan oa nm shoek woe : sling ies Pe iO 11 Mad = Boe ODI Co) sf 6.4.12, Strength ofa normal shock wave Ise the nal preset os que 5.1. Rorne- Hart ene oa parc gn lh = 4 ower he inp eion beeen he pees td des aor ype ig ‘ re annette, ong sans 17 aa 20, on af “The eons een he pest nd ety eos aos a mr sock ae sta neue fae than ge S31, Aco wea shook, he pre Fees ee dente ce ince at weak oho re mace | “rye atength ofa meal sock ve, Py may be ened athe i of the pes ite presse enn in Eguin (626) sy be eikased by wing te fe Hoge wlan (3.23). Tea pa ttle Die Te) ~Colae= cr) mien (8) Ala, tom Batnon (32, Me Ssncshevoity Prdcrnte,fon Eqns 15 at 20, yard HUE a peony pec ive ty rsh a oe wae, ack wore insight he perdu rep 0 sinc i popenng. Far taro, shook fas sea lee oa ound we, od he ning ce fol hk. Th a Rvon tensed in Caper WORKING CHART AND WORKING TABLE FOR FLOW AOROSS A NORMAL SHOCK WAVE. exes ied hu fr ode gus exes armel leu and ‘clon fen inves anger pect The runstal computes fice by isoecng dng chart ns Wahg bl Tae ling tthe propery rie ow es snot hk wae: = J(aeu2) oie) (tata) eae) ow Sortie i ane oa seo Hae (Ch om agian (siete) 20 | ‘subnet the shemale A shana ck paces equations TAME jshe abl fw vy. These, state popetin ae independent of the ' fat plane poser. There ener nbc, Hess pan eaaena in 4 bom 6200 pen a9) 56 MOVING NORMAL SHOCK WAVES Tn the prev sects, nary nama shock woes weeds, Hwee, 7 ‘nny py tao aa in we tama sok ve vig When at ts 00 ‘olan nen ve props thous he toupee ob pot ok . 205 {Ge epun, When save int pres tenly hse the shock wave ‘onus back tagh the em Te wet the wey eee wen Fezelu tnt hve ny bce Seoed forthe ory seal Weck 4 “Conder cma beck nave moving in ctonary gata conan by, Va | sth pectin fact eben Toe enn fre na fer theming nem . The wee te deed by bcs ad spectively. as Ve repret the ‘ele pss Whind he sl wave ih eapest on bed cbt shown Fara 8:80. ‘es sonal hese py sition wih vps tan cee mbvig a tte anes woe vei fhe en, the sos aoa ihre tthe Ue esos in Fgh 8.15), ted ti xl to re oe a wa ‘Gets inte previo secon, To apy tes el to 2 moring cost, ‘Src mont be pea tote cle haber lyon he ea nd "Sate popes we ened hse ened with ap iste hich sing he ey nth Mah oer ed ae ee rm ke Yew 61 weme% os) ww RTS FARTS ony a Mae on RT)” JORTS) om eee by iging he Bo et treet the bere, snd therfore they av dependent om ike observe vlc 1 Rots ean he sagan proper i nh lence are mat be ie ‘1 Gyo te topes, Ate pti oe ote hat re ‘is cane in tbe soaaton pert os 4 toning soc we, 2d hs clange ay be egesed y sing he defo ef the sgnstion temperate w he vera Stn Ci Cad ins Baton (5.90) a omiasing tat Vs, the above eaten bean a et ’ vig tat Va, 0 a Tuan Tet 1518 Teoma of # mann mel Sack wave no a tay rena Baio peroneceretinmsmnnermemniereth anline-Hegoviotseton, Combining Reus (17) and 5.20, snd a emai Sette cab, gan (S25) my be clined by wing the listing My is 2e sO) s 20) Pe =D ood oni "Terre eng lhe saa sock wae npscer sem tes . rei. en ats 28) a9, iad 4-3) shy'Elo mm snopes He wy or hose, ‘ron een th pr deny in mo rl stack we Ee ht eine Pronk ie eh atc iner fo oon epee S10 Aenrs wrk tce epe Te Poms nie nse tr tock we ey bom 6.4.9. Stength of «normal chook wave “Te iength fc sock moe, Py be dened a ie rao he ee 5 ‘Beet the pres, b : ors deine hf ited ge exe mei so, logs fen ites tance ae. The util comput fe states by mending wetng cur ands wen abe. The lone nate prpey mie rb rn 2 aol Sack ae |) sm Esme) ow abet Pet : mb one ‘No lining ie pee at ying Bastion 5.17) ls rasan oa | Beat bt mn 2a ei 20) ean ed (fahia) "egy" oan : Staton (ech tai) 74 Fee ow “Te sighsn sds fs sone ego eal funn ofthe west Mac | ates ant ines heat eB The nese rano e hind ‘tnerte’ eqn cnt erected ie egal fu wit be ven Na Were lelepnten vs ara re ase ofthe peste best. Sey i ‘ ” he Mach mur and he vols tr hana shook we, he ae coneton per the nama hac wae, + 7 Te ee igure 6.12 Wotin tat rhe ow eos ema hock wave th k= 14 me 6.19 Sach or Bang t ut acorta anny aor ck wee he gna pert eon a | ‘rit of Beatin C480) pablo wie Fest cae, not sn om el jh stony noma harenave quae, he shut wer to tat {1 Neon Flutes 18} for a caer mong with he naa shock Wave Tn aa veavaso0me" oss “Te fllonng esr procedure maybe apo ding teas of ovine _sechowneprotens | enfin the kaon sn fai ropes wa elec lat a fee fae {ec ee ony shsk neve a 1 Shvethe unos us ropes vl arth stosey heck weve MRSS te eau se dad propose and velses back into the ‘see fn fr the moving sack * | Mem ars Tae ea ORT “Th dawnaoam atne may rob avlas by uh Aap Own Tn the flowing name, ts ee dling wih ving shock wave me colo. tthe i ne be shakey i kan, 8 te eq ad Sieur lay ari opti bend the ng wae In ese one ie (peel tell ve wove hows and seid Yo determine he hk ys 0.r98 em 2259 oF ym 28510050 ame. ‘Rai shockwave move a constant cy of 0:8" la th ‘Norte end rae of 909 ana 100 Ke, rerpctvty (owe 10, DL en30 es Yer ttoms" (0720.87 Sho H'98042 4) ©2187 m8 esmme* —f (Cine sae consis baie ne mavog sock vate eo Katia those tbe | domes othe sion shock we, Thole ; ‘ Pemba ta8 Pa First x xg («aos anime (ies oman, stock aves ova sce waves es ‘stm san ong in “pies nena ome iia aa TG rete om Mimcnon o mrcessuyesvesme7iee Micaae o teowuaneoaeren ve Conc bo ren mprane tn po a inaeae ee See rs tocar ea ee So Se sb ane Sry ieciwentemaes ‘oon conod bef sudo aed a why 0°=" ‘ches orn sk vet mov it he a ret . ‘Coes vlc ne norma shack wae lth enous the Sanya 27°C. ‘Parnes the pslon must move a te sama vet a5 to son. a8 ‘oma Fre #7). Fort dber moving wi th arma shah we, ‘ater a shown in Pg 57) ioe We ene properties ae Incoponn ts boomers ely, en “Te epee of sun pan ft staonary shock ef an JN) = J. Sha KOO = 973m unt Sauan nto we | ween loehea0K ; ® » ‘agi, Sh xo aati) en cog ‘aroma stock wo a TS me en Ewaton 6.2, i Meet, Mos, toa vi Seen - aay avis tton- nator eo ctu 9 ngs equnion ges wo sles fer Ye 37388" end eieme The rogale vo oho 9 pyle main ane rb, Weare6me" join ed be i oes the ght avy of When te shack ware pings the ‘Tied eco eb sel be efi ick ne the psa Yl) Van ho a Figure 3M) The gt Seid the tected ve ube satoDn, Pom aaa Para Fert aner emg wie eek ns pox a one Zw mca ba ® ® rersores wont swoon maves a), else wae he ylation sow a ye 519, whl an | erene Ivey tes the teeta wre Theor, 2 shok van ‘el och em he coed end oft tbe a sama wock wave Taig 210) won sack wee mong aA0Oy oo, Teak velco ain tbe hich pend oe borer The rest ote pt LE ea car Theat kc cde sek wave st rupee prose whle the ree coor ‘a ‘hindus mee eater tan sop pes, A sock wore oie pe wei apn soda eben wil eee bask ht tee ety y titre ef theo toe he ese mae lo tumor sae Mh a [signed oe nee condi, a sw in Ege 5.200, HOWE, the ‘rons tke rc snd selects ave rer has nope pei, Ther, * 8 aa a cas ask tom te open ent of abe se semee ot HAE gre 21. Sisch tv Exame 55 a He mres2s ne nampa 28 ‘noma eck wae with a postr lof 45 Impngs on 8 lane wal 5 ‘how nFgoe 2, Ostrmne thei presse a aoe et he oy w Tan Ten 200K AITO TTT ‘ae rec =45 oF pe=t4.9(1008F0)= 450 8P a gw 5.19 Phys sun fr anes monn wi orld seek wae dt tre Fala nae 7 Ml ; * o Face 5.20 A rams stock wave ecg Han he open ed of 20 wo Is “Tanlamslon niet ane ec shock we in sina Bed inci ane $e noua sor wuts serum none mec From AnptnisD catapaning 6 plpe= 48, Mes Yoleun2.00_ oF Vax (200)84321m0~)~ 8084 mE" TylTa= 1.687 oF Ty (897/900) 4063 K Wis 2067 oF Vpn G86 me“2.657 257420" “Te voy ote ln heck ave “Ton the wy of ne 8 Bain he dont Sook aves WeWenY) & Vox taedme't—257dme" edema As long 0 te ao proper ae ao tlt by th bear she bate propares tore te et ocr wave se Tea Ten Tye t0hak pea pen pun sore From Foie 62) he vols bales ar ater te sana rete seek Vee Yor Mee es ome" oe espectly. The sed of sound vse of he saloon veleced wav it = ART) ACTA) = MT MS de Mach mba eee ort wave Is Now rm Equation 29), 22 = Mh 26 G64 0+ coor. torre St aan 2 onde 47005 120 lon ot i uaa austin gh to shins fo 98.1 me and samo" The negative vl of hes Po ys mating ins pb 5 ar Aan 0 Ma 18, Pll 3228 or y= (2228) Pa) 486402 Taam 14B0 or Ty (H4OOiAet19 701.6% 5 the sae proper te depen! cf te cheers way, an Pe bya 1406 KPa Tun Tye ON | ea non-isentnoic rLow azame 1 He CONVERGING-DIVERGING NOZZLES tut ual sock woes, psi compe he dcsin of ow cing diverting noe opcg weer varying tsk pres, ch wre -docaed in Secon 92 soning nto apres top he dieing potion nee, ahs ine, Bow sche the ton were he Mak amber ny nde its see fo the engin the tek pee, As ong me tow bon athe et pln, te ext pes etl ote bck presi and Te aves te cee a end pareleam. At the bck ees it re the hc moves dows the nn tapes tthe et lane a the [ec hs ston known th nt ple ck coon noted om [puten Sof Fe 4270) ample 6 pn ipsam of he cals @ comergng-dvegng nee, he vl, feet ond onpualre teak we 172 m0" 200K snd 28°C, : covered respect. ie ost and i cone setnal ae of he rosa m8 0.0 mg ‘ha 02037 respecte. cteine th iva back rss 0 choke nor, 4 1 te tuo prosse te nz te pe expanded tothe dln Mn «bt peesue sehr neal deck nove a heat pan, Pipe 850 or p=200KPW BAe 29730 |) Te maxim bck poset ek ihe rare soe wharf Joh ey ate ea a hs area atone nthe sig set nts sn. AA = Ady 060087 001 r= 2097 «ine ang of bak posse fr subsoil, no isenvep, eeerpnsen ane ‘crear ropes Fete tonrcng-dveng raze, wich sho nie 2%) pd Sac et ne en pont 1 ae ART =e. yet6 6) «9448.8 the az to ch moa mote sion Tree, apenieG earsponing M030, alpe=0.9905 oF pm 08005057: 4P0) 2229 1 i te ousone lowe tho eat ea, hw Ba esse ust bo eto esi ato an ne, at Vertims —ket0eoar : ea copeeaa pogo " ow paten 1, which corresponds tothe choking condor, is ehown in Fue 5 1) soon coon. tah mbar en ty he on "pon ctay spar nen oon ot hi Thon ek | Moctroncr eet hom ho sors eam dbv=005004 oF pon 00%0 27508) - 2151 Pa fete eto ents corm io he wt per, bs ck on ay Pa pon 2.51 kPa +P 8230) dso nen net opts 3. | Se ihe mt, te : | mnnan | RES ee io [ese eens ae ere ‘sin, fo in usr a to ont pane. Terre Pa hay 201 HP Few ptr 2, wih aragonite he at sock cnn, Is scr Pe back ese sn the nenisnope fw regis arose 8 thon wae wh ed th nape oS es scund by a hve proves. or ht ie nesoatary fo este & vas fh croserestonel tes a wh ‘Shwe oted Aen al al ess Ae he0ontoe? i. Then 5250) {ed Ranges of back pees fe rps er 8 lo 1 suconle om oie: 4 ne mop oF 20794Pa pps BBOKMS H 2 Nonitonropl ow ope: 4 De® Ppa 8 222.0KPa p> 10. Ka 2 overnspnson ow rep: 7 ped Pm oF 1204 KPa > 261K | ncrerpaion Retain: ‘bo > 20, of 2LS1KDa 2 p> NPE lp =02088 or pra(02005(207. 2a) = e84eea 2 om AnD fr Ma 48, ame 57 Myeoris7 {Vis ck posal he contgng-deging maze rangle 8 ie [YoxPe,duwrine see sell aoe ote egg pion of Ow wonto ‘wre he normal heck wa ses p= 2820 er pyatesanye4e Pa) s8.oKPa al arn and the sagatin gras er te chock may be ova |ssg hopna 0, wh My 072 AUK 3001 or i001 4.081 000 64 © me 07080 a y= oe nraaroN0 22644 Hb cease ao a te et plane of ho orale ‘AdA; =0.000 87 mioai0 64 nt 1914 “rom Aone frst oe dps 08018 or pr m(0astnyeednra)= 20.0% oe plane rss s rater an he bak ress ho rrnal ne moat larber downto, Te ot a ert 0 In Tein 5.1. Ar conagune, De se lhe nla, hae ie mal wee od ‘otston Het and rate fr Expt 7 wo shown Foe 6248, The Maat ot fon Ayn 0.040? {fp ste Fg Pg 8.2403, A ER Te NaS ee Soy a owe .24 Sian nd To dg x Exar 5:7 aan lr Beagle 87 Done cows 9018 vawo Dal 1 188g tas atest ames * oxorr ayelz 1880 0.87 rier osses —0n0s7 0.257 0808 psc sar 3008 as? 789 peer) 1409S MATL ‘Na hoot tama tarts 77 Ato) omic oowe2 acre ove osxesr lew rode, ogee 07778 ote 07778 peers) = ake 18D HAR TOT TODD a tows 1986 48a tb 18 Pl ossts otee 080s sore 09004 poy anges Sreckmovenent += ok sonia, Then te acslarae oa supersonic ach abe of 84 the se grt Thar, oeeverse rl sock ware Soi SEaRE ne et fe vorgng parton oo oz sls os et ‘ect he ou 59 NON-ISENTROPIC OPERATION OF SUPERSONIC DIFFUSERS, “eo te Sowat he entice a canes srrgng uti spr, the id Neeser and compacts Mosh sumer of wt abe het, ACC Mach noe the beste ny eer expan si 0 open pede eee aecaed Syue oe tet atone pede Jb he Ite ey he te rdeging duis cen feel ota sen ws ed in ‘SEITE wihesmproic er sien and in ene kes. The fw he “SEEA'WaTS canteed png al loves excep hoe a oneal sock "go. Supersonteaticrs tm win tanele vey eid mec ye sn Fig: Ag ee te se moa as Le pen ee a it eee ee Dest nt hr ws cen brs teal | alee tresrentie eee ete coat pa aS et | Sia es ae ea et, reine te enpetr ilrtv eds scale o Supersonio daar In fxad-poonetry wind tanto (Rind une hasan ies bona Fyre 296), Tesi awe “fom Inge seers where he spoon tengettry ay ad te station 1 tty fe ne The wn ochre in tee neve Whee he “Reh yey py itll y ont fn The pub lw tes om (hear fe wind uel up ote operating contin are ta a ie «Sheen be feo of aria nthe buck pene othe ebay ee 9 Nosow conan (ps = 0), Ty hein wy poss ht th fi operating ot shown by Sow pace of "4 Tare 260) nec the pane hrught be Win el 52 J Spade FG Sutionc dw regime (ra > p> 2, | When tein spente lw sede, he Bow wil enn reughout te wink unc sine by fo porn igure 5.20). Tea tet UGE comin snd th deste ith comprion inthe Soong end ine arto both ale sre dacs, epee awe 6.25 Avery sl uprsone wid te ow errno OPEN OF UFERSOUE BFFUEERS 7 ies tph meant ofecexpesan sn undetepusion fw reps W Ginter recuse nth ek reste Hene the Ib il ean be bone “Nove sock Dow resin (n> 92> 98) fer sedate back preset poral nek wave gpne fn the ee eee ee ' : TNF | ste 3) cae exin 11 ome veo te sen nemo, a Flaine tthe ot ple of he persone zl osm ihe 1 ver ote eet ofthe econ conergig-egcg dc ie [fate of Fg 5.260. 1 Ore has ie hte greet peo pee a “hrc wave nds inte sen shown Fg 8.2, ness thee seta she DM iy is e eipecietene sep tome tie a rt kg coon sem eeatis eee ‘Sig the teeutno he back press, he ow wl ist Be choked none of ‘ett ing the sale esse “he rover ee te ced thos rar ae fake ethene f tie How wil arany be cokes the sod the fo i ast, e sco f) here -verpig for et = genes an pe hgh he no ‘Sinope wren sed undrexpenson fw rp whey debs pease umber caved: However, the Sow upstea f the scond tot ay ‘rtm nd sip ow cnat be oad in the es sc, “When fe siesta te wo tt ae he eon mgt i ‘sno wile sbold wt tn ine, However, th st tec A it ‘ek rete lceerd, duran ced sade eco tat. Teie, {he soons to coe in nd te ssond comepingering ph gre 527, weet caring conn ot ved ie wih Essreonk ater 4 Genoa ssoce aves ‘rnestmone OPERA F SuFERSONE ‘ney Ap consi 0 Ha Aisnas=Actoe 8" poaconnat Hence the mis coset me fhe fe at It dan hae) 30 ere Ay and A oie he cocci net f te ame toe al te “ine toa, sep 4 (90 Die sock flow repie ts < As p= Pd Shon the nck pee pay rece te wal snc wae posed oh ‘Sovering pu af tesco oeveog veri ac whieh isnew tne Speen fife However te somal sce ave cot sid i ef ern pat of hia Oe may roves y codeine Ap Sonat ing fhe ied tunoel At lng 9 the fw deleted 4 vet ‘Shui hun he fer, then snderoesth onl shock wane ‘eo ach ur wih ele than ete seton Mach er Ine eye ‘ine nbn ar py or ng ps se Alsgan= Biss Mista Aide Here, Ay < Ayan wich py pose, Thine the oem Sons aves tose tks ta ett re oc the erg pat of he Seri dige The former cae wih» see Shock wae ine et ection ‘em age i ‘etn alec bo sng the nd unl ghee pes than the ak ry ‘resus psely imps Testor, he mel sock wave ultly | tc thowgh be emerging prof he pone de a sbiae Ine ‘Svein ut tinge msn ae shy gern ot een ‘Thi ce oan ralaed to the rellowing of 2 shock wave, How pera of Fre 3260) i piel epeemtsn fs tw vein y983h ne anna tnonney spr te pee osetia il Sanam : ie it ‘8 finac.geometry win tunnel, alt Is erawn in by means of & fan, as shown in ee rane peeeepenieent ar | lstond st ang sero sern wi conan os Tetra so | oe en ut cermin ss se | GEETUITUN SG Semone bows [Run otic ett oe tn, [8 Semi ous men sono ea (0 Ret open condition (pe) ‘The ck pres fy now Bo ina 0 hat the cra shock wav i ced © ‘Bove pcos te its tn where eae a he shck ‘Riou, one creping paca pear newbs 4 man Fortin 1 of gun 2980) ides he be oprsing ono ede ‘Romy speed ann Hwee, ec he hua hc wae toned sgh ows af be ee ot te worm sock wave pote ah ter ee then sy el stance be ow ay oe ‘he mv otk wae fone up othe fue ton here ne Ths coe, te pcm sck nave il onde fa ovement tech he te (fc al ese teece apn he sete et ple THs so he AIA" = Aika 1080 wt = 087 othe aren at af A/A™= 1.87, eel no elas oe (ara i eAs og es te gen at cross-section! aa of be due ger tan anu ston ne hat ‘Aue 18> ala L387 sbi oct supers fow nth let cote ogealn greater tho sel shack wae In be wo oparaing Dba a 20 PP 0.7208 cr pay =(0.7209)104 a) «72.0043 the somal sock wae the fw I ntay subse he ser. Than {Uo Kepodh o camssng ewan So ot Ae ionoermaae aed Fewe.29 Sach or Example 58 «ie rn aupersonle ow ea be aio to Ws ston, 4 fener wo op en 4 hector of ne noma eek wave when he Bek rss fe the wos Sarton cnn eon yg Ie renges of back peru th stsrons, ods shock and ser shck Mow regsnes Manos riders 08709 oF pou 87091720914) = 6272KF— ‘ataion (a) Te max pont Mach number te et ecto baa an te {af ches ate nose rst ani ney space ae cen ps pew panearekes Fpwe £290), te wort eperaing cotinine by pate 2. {o ¥en to fo usted zl toa tan he ow antl ufone inte wat tel Hanes A= srl y= os, Fa ‘ope ©, seapcnding Yo a re a ot Aa 22 w=, Mast pelpn 08555. or pu =(0SS8HK100 KP) = 98.518 ‘sn fom i bene a eet lane. Terre pe p= 98.55402 ow ptr nich earesende a he choking contin, shown a Fete S230) ‘ne aon of he nel shook wave wen p= 2.9 = 62.11 Pa tbe ya orve procs, Per rss iti acess fora-aecioa ra a wh th sock wae eee ‘an ala sane Aine Aaya 188 ‘slong ge te rare cota, Ar= A thn crespoging 1th at ato of halties 4m 8, to siprcone Mach nome Fm ApEn Ce Mor 198 “The Mach aunbes,he cs ara and te sagan ‘he nav ay be seated by wang AEpANOK wth AdRipn 0.7608 0 Aye t0.748~ 1.398 8 fon =0.7486. of pay = (0.7489{%00802) 748810 Now, exeponng oe arena at Ay = 2.38 = 1457, osone Mao marae ante ent pesur Yom Aopen ae My oas o aloo 08807 or po~(0.607) 74.8 4F3) = 65.05 Pa ‘ioe ho ot line prose alr hn he back passione Shock vave mes oe oat tat donnaos. Th et lh cles ‘ov Tesla convergence, me srw of he tsa were normal | ‘eck wove sia la en Aaya tt mt “The condone dss by pate i lwo 5250, 184 oma BOOK VES ‘able 2 ern or Example 8 Aaa we aad 8 alti ore aeas At) 1398 as iP oniwe — aeas By 5) 7400038 Mai 1407307 Me owe Palo axcor odes Poo) 595 s800 Dang tho beet opeaing enn, he fa is coke the noe eo mal Soa wave aan te icra Mraoea, Ars het r= Than In aupraie Mach nana ee te ama shock ‘Seconda oan ara tbo A= ae 8 aye sea om Apponan C a | [Bete pe oct an a etn ge tat od "eave may row b strmined Aopen Owl = 85 May 06067 AlRiy= 0.70 oF Ai ff 7O02 = 1206 jpn 0.7802 pry =(07802K1001Pa) = 70.08 KPa ny, tho eubaone Mach ube no poss to ot pene may ste tom Append bung Ihe men eo AA wiivaeane = sae Mg 040 * pen) =0088 oF pu O8058)7052 HP) «70.77 HP -s ng 86 fom lave he ed we a subsoil peed, hon (anges of ck rosie fre ening ries 2 olin 1 subeoro fw rine: rs Po Pe MOOPA > p> 03.55 KPa 2 Note shook fw regime: pu ® > i OF 985K > po > 62.78 KPa 2 ha snek ow one: pu>o.20 0627442 2p. 90KPe 18) supersonic dtuser in varible-gaomety wied tunnels | ‘Se of the mor poems ne geome prec wind tone ih ge | notion rest op sited ih he ara sock are nthe Ti | ple ony be sacred plo vale ome wd ana, | npr, ie the ove Sante ore izes hate oy ma be ‘mae able Inthe long Gconsen, msmed it he hale geomet ned, butte die tren. The reuse opps ee ‘Met he oad peomey hy tease he pity he a0 rine der th reste nore a ts A "During spy the hoe of thecal georasy cess pent abate Ingest hat ped by Egutn (5.34. the ork per deed he cee feet etal etm hed in Pre 28 fer ae geo, ‘idtser Gosh oral sac wae fs anowed ata by ow pater at igo 20Q) te twa thon ae deen we the ble es fiultcony ered ota e sheck wave eed move ote ee ‘Ovo The decree er owt se Aa ree the oe ai ffs ‘Sng he ach mb Inthe fresher odes wo appach yt Se npn Af he an, the Mach number he er thon eet / | | ‘yt ns Sec ye ste Gifwer ie hr vaitig tee sd P| the cite Now felt becomes eal Th sguens of evn ston Pe SS. tn fw pen ions nt esp Bo 2. Supersonic itusers in jot engno ite i 5.9.2 Sup et eng le ‘nhs sect, et engine nt tee when they ze pein ot operele ‘peels Aslongr hese capes th hr epemtig seedy Cegeclete o | ‘er peste scary vee te pean a pent ines | {tag nin ote owogcson al less exept ora nck ‘sel bere “Ej eu to es thn the lt an A dpetig om te ratte avis trio acer ra, |EE'SSr En lem te een oe ck ESAS G sda tented es desea te dee en ECETURSE STR news 5310) eeamn pre pea Se ‘Uiteomene ited sates dos oe er oe ae |b Go os une hay A Whe se || Be ME cee nl he cia A ces an bce el @ Be | a cusiRORE OPEN OF SUNG OTUEERE 1” j NEGU srept une. As se she ncn ace pote ‘Sei th tucson sd pion lf the veg pe of Ue ie, "Rr pi he ema shock ate alowed ” {ir Mach unseated ermal shox wee wil oe et sly ‘Bose fete lier ta shown ts gure 51, The meu putin pete rsvery oe when the seal dhsk wave tee (pach ie sr oboe Fate 5310, Hover he acl sock "ota nhs pny adil be orgs rm he ise Wh» deo ite ight ack nomber. osc ie tet aso De sallow Torr nan the desig oi chve sh Ot th nota ck wave [ict te sky dowanceam of he dierent, Swe in ite 530. F 2) at he numa ck wane I oh nec of te rw swe Fe ewe Sait te avn no AA te ifwercersponing 9 ge alae Jj dr gn ck amber Maes ien a Fre 5 32. Ths cre my be obsied wor mes a 7 ators eo] a oo = ote ac 5 o — ao a ates ' a8 — eo ESi[] wer mer wes wor] wor mer mer | | a “ @ » o ot ‘teem gn aon odes com Sni ir wt e u acs it aa A a, be the he of ee ae rr a a ar) In gue 51 Pur incense nthe Akt Mach eter spent be ‘Suis soe ack wae 10 frm upstate es shown in Figce ces 53310) eae ew hn ht wit eo leone (Bg $2 aa yt on pm se vin ara stck were ‘Sel of he et. When height Mach number recessed high ale, che ae eras othe nr = Freier apa lw eche Mach abe of ny ch ii soon cones uly heres, Sonn Fags 5.310) hes the IeeOLTA fh ler oregon en ofthe gh Mach uy, Be ae elae tm Figure 33 the cue yb obey deta : AC Sthvo wen nin segue for dclatisg the Hv orn the aN Mac heros ae amber uy yung pent Cork. Aoi te | ERetegion te he cuveoeipnde ts se hat cw oso ‘puso recused Sowa hae pare ach mbes. Tey, Zeal ahck woe propete spree tough the elitr hot snd onverie part tte fer, an poston te upseam of he eece BETGRDS "ey opening pt ore he care of gate 5.3 the ow te sprig pe ete dao he ise oa supe, Ano os wa os aif 4 | a as fhe nia AA mt nos ‘Stone Mach nana ie oat = 14). ee re He weve woud he potion vl newer ath ies a of ee tse cancun on the tak pee eed the esinge othe eve preted in Figs 5.33 api only her she superone i Cones, opeing aa ae hoe te sure Pu 5.32 mt FS coed bebe Fee 338 become appa, Te two curves of Figure JESS SEdS.38 we peed opt in gee i ne oat ener ang eral coveging-ivsiag apace, Ay operating pi 1 exe aoe the oo curve that three oo sos 1S n ihe dvering tf te spent, Hover, any oper ot F[ lesen rw te roca nones ht ie eed oral eck [Fi ovens hemes ofthe eon ts Ry ny opting pat a 08 os Pps ante ay AYA of supra tue cach, aaa ond rt rec ves ann te igh Mech nana Hebe Nach number, Mey ins At poi bythe sara sk vn AERA rine the Mach suber whch ha let i aos faloed anh loser cave Secor pyealy ga fhe ah ry ao eee, he opr pat ove om pa ones ‘Ninth elon tcvecn ps ba th taal sock wat elle sot FMA Goument on whet nok one Yo xa Nt ‘eet athe oat of edit hte he Mah mnbe sty Sd he i Strength anise, This pernting pout erespnds wo Fgee 3100 ‘he he Mach mer ere fre, he hemo! shotk ste oil te [Ear Talore, thre shyt ct in tha te total sc Ye Salone a ih Mics nner eoespnding to pat bt the noe oak ‘trent gre fg Mach ber erates tos lo cresponde, {otter Inearng the fg seed bore te design rae rer ao ie hoe wine kona a verpedig ‘Grespectng or sting he spent grey Ine oly pre ver apertone deg Mack abs, Howe, fr Hgber pecan en, ‘sta number senpeding iter reais enponstie Ashe he ach ‘mtr in Figure 831) apps innit the Mach umber or he or {hack nave anmply arenes «Mich numberof 62780, ladda ‘pene, fa ths neon nay deere tm Appeals Gt he pet cere iu 334nyposces an spe le of A= 8028, Coney A Y cece "posi shown hte 5353. Thn, ho cen shes rmeseheraeeicaem ceatmures: id ute nace rene oie Mey Rentrncaenwrnccsmmeriicance (plgmemte meres Sihsteemarenentmar se ane supersonic txet-geomneey inlet is mapossble for design fight Mach aumberssbove BE) | ete Sereecieravnteetetaeietanermn ta EA xs samme mores ror emp {Ci gee Set ee nee SS een | Sac Example 6. 4 48. SEES agement atom enien [nisi wpe soi rou cosronsion! wns we a's? an O07 me teediey. ql TifTun 03160 of Toe=S00K)0.8100= 040.4 “hemmteinanmrevmeinenenentcencttvenne. || Et mee re ee soe ones ta me ice ara dentist —— fy Tn= 904 | er ay oe my 60 ype Ch lye rine ta mas 6 5 5 os BSR oaaco or 24200 mf 00 : @ EES oo 0 Fe gear Figwes.a5 Sheen Empl $9 wrote (oo mass ow aoa he don it Mach rune my be aid olin igre $a Inthe coe, th agro roe es ae he mass Farge esnang ts M170 ma be eauned by weg Aopen Coe plpe=OA707 ot Bex S00KPaj01767 = 560.98 TTo-0.60N6 ot Ton 90K/a5005 802K NBT eros i= S2S7ONI08 aE8SO0N 7 ea akg) e0e AT erties (o in exert stat up sparon foster nest 12 cone at Mach nanan of 38. For nena, an exe Pass mn nesoneny, ough he eel cn peas design Mach bere 178 Thre, ot en owe nt, % fo ulucors in vrisiegoomety Jt ongine inte Pheer often Se on kt my be elite ying ‘sl peontg, The agdeero eperang cons a ve gear int Uithgsaceap lett tame sora te geomecy ul he nox ick a enh cens fel etd igre! 5.160) 05310. sing ths tact fae fhe spc vrs gory it sit cesar py mesg, Te hoon ie a ares ie SEPEthe o thelig Mach ne tne 0 desi eo Fea val nc weve eval, 2 the ower curve of Pise 5.34 Leese eannfl Ith aren oo Ao ene sow ere, ‘Sen ragnton prs los eur asthe peting poi ove om pak Bee plc a To te elon beeen ptt # ob. he nas shock wae 22 Sa energy iter. Ati the noma SEUPTES ied tte tat the dle where he Math mer ety MePAEoa anne vagy som restos estes fate he {Benoa shook wave wl be ssguged,Therfr thei ayes et nat ETS Rock we swale tan ae seo, (Ay, cespodig teat Letom uve ipo daguged nt tears at, AYA, Seven ae ‘ereponding tae ‘ural ab-gomaty inet eg fr 2 ech mba of 20, The Aeeeacena nae aranon oot 1 Deter tte ost re hon thermal sack wave 5 atone, td {Ine toa! res ate spn ta mate Feeney ne warp of aspera vtable-gomaty nt, he norma shook ye suse st ar 1 ached Heenan oh et, a con Inoue 20, Th etn son bore the nel shoe evn eoespons "a mach ror oe 2.0 ay bs eins Hom Aepadn Cae AiAi=1980 01 A= 0:1 08/1887 = 0080288 | mong at A= A one may saa hoe te eaeapenig a Ma fiom Appendix © as menne AYA 07000 ce fn A}=0.059 280.7200 0.08220 __py meets dso he ete ene fh tam "11 epaaoi to abso fam, o son Pe 8. Noting tat A= A" the fot sea cotespandngw son name! o y= 20 ay be eur om ‘oven Cas NAT =A6G7 of =A" =05 mi. 097 0.056200 | 540 PERFORMANCE OF REAL DIFFUSERS i amides ier which sp wit pss aig engere fF 1G Ana pres o at» vlcy shown lgte 3.319). The gr ecieetes Jf CSAS bm i cent ear ene Te ty eet © ne patty nei geld repel ote oe al Stes fen att woe Sern hema Pe $370) Te 25) weer 67eo n | es) ay \ oO ® o ‘gure 8.37 Pasemane ore see ono fe 0s oe nin is fin Bf =0 We it te wi in Sis ay“ osm toh Hah ro = YOR tr Sona ada ney a el a 630) Av hpi ne ld tea Pe Pea Ba Be Bs Now, cupleing the enzoplewetnn (4.2) foe pal and sutting ito auton oi ep cha Ist Dept won “Thee te dfs eficiensy iol a faneion ofthe inet Mach aber and tbe ‘inion peste nnn the se Otro i ni a ely be epee in ws of My Wy wag Bone (4.2 and oe aoa i. Howe, when 8 Pt tbe ned eng Ep penis ndeatons i te defor tepesing te mee aperinesreve tat when Pio tbe spaced In oper ete Sree sande an af te Pee heya sown ‘The cared shock nave noma the sagan sues the pit where the saponin svesmiae rowe te sok we This conden ny ee Wes Be Pee pied pe oxic So. ‘The tld pai re trngh oe earn in he chen Bow afer te took we Considering thes usecase pce on te daar erste he bot he Pot ibe as shown Page 3.380, Te, pase epee ie be rar 80) my ie Inter a By wg Bqation (13) tpl Figure 5.3 (2) suprise aga f0\Ps/20k2a~0.7 maybe ens tom Pape © a M078 Now. the iach mone etre shack waaay arn te SgpardixD by Ti pss te eve a tic nora hk we peed y ep Giedipngs sce wie geting gegen fon meet tl oo ae “ owe 6.99 The pt of te Rah Pol te ego r= 14 “this etn is Rgoe a the Raid Phat tbe eqn, and ic is moi tein fr Ha Thee oP peste a Pe 839 fc Ke examples. [come Pt ie ed or tering he veloeyo spas ‘roveom, es shown gre The sal reste ad te saeatn ‘tore menue a 1401 eo 00, opty. ih ergrohee Ele sopoacing a 350%, caine th nly oo apponcing serine loving mt only sk pesamens bat athe Gbuiour f mater ana iis when they te josed the exeme condom of esr and ‘rare whe eo low Me eal ook wre ‘Art peo the png nthe sh abe sow in gue 5A, syne cru prance armed elie wh te fst ‘he ced bec edad fo he Se ia of thers. When he wis attend hf neste ot, eal era ee oe ae pig asi es om bck we ite Lt « , ° fn Ls os @ Yee vert wo : w Fase 5.42 Tho veiston af he pase, tempera ey lng sek EBeShny ater ao sna | sta ea ate sont he um of teins energie of tc ich intially on exch se of the apa. However, te py cea eels ate gs tur tenn shock pesomen arte re ret mache foe ee cena ioe raetee ene cera Roy este ice ee meee es the ape, he pope ofthe ges Ue are lavaed se al Teepece af be es. fleas the dag, Inthe flowing a lop an exersion forthe presse ri, py ee te ein wave i of Vy te thn devo a capesin er ie presses 28 ml shack wae int of Yo. Ply, theo expen ny be Facey sing he hat Vi = Vad np sa eat eqn WA {Fetes pinto ny be ei, AGP re 2 nce fever he rin of proper sre i enpesion rer or thers, coer te ener ate inure mara down «being eta ich ie anvng tomate an Jae a bownin Hg 53) As longa he atin! wate mores atte ped {isu ete th then te Sale Vly ft we Ve The x st yi uae oe * o {Aleuardavegesnal wean) shen be atearnong si wl tenaed sso i | test oving ay hob ned ine a we in Pig 8, ett By tobieg cnn equ oh cone oe of Ppt 3.490, i ole atin wy [oy es paniotdonesd¥) ee “ PTT, S 8 om om om A trtver-noing ines we, and) ben evar ove logic dfeeine ego ar fora n= fC), ffi Bee Amount i ‘ten 4p 9 om | eet ny fom ech the tay one dow the tbe, Terie the Bow ei on et and my Po coon act Pars a © Final, hel asses wave bem, 2 pl! PvE Comsat Te, apt erection je “ is qoon may now be waned et Equatn (3.4) lt eB] exw [Sosy gre cto ee eo te | genie aren, sr shown n Pe 5450). Te fo eo the she nae a nde ey by renege socal shack wee tomar), sb st, he sonny eon my ow be mpd oe cvel volume oa ow uinng Kauss (39, (40), (40 an (S42 posible bn aye zene ow nene-Wod oan ‘Asn iss my lo 3 Seed oie ini wae, sos es we ceo ts suo z mf to * guia (54) and 40, 9 tan of mgt nd we red ee we etn yw eer thea tes ie sk be & & ‘ tera egw 3 4 ie 80 Fe e z 7 Yea,2, (1-2) cay PE 5.45 6 Asari nal heck wan and) whe rain wih YO. nein 3104 epson waves canoe exh thr, bt hy et inl pote rod sora Oyen ne hte: oat th nara shack wae, th ent gota Bec ob nl eapeaures ofthe hi-res an ores ne he eno = Fl en one (S46) and (9) sco (eV and fos fusible we aban amen aren ren piven Pet meetin) 69 prepeemlin Val! -a¥t ay oan aati prce scot atone mena hock yar with extra wa, the ft a of hemodymis tse tay Ma pees bed by id er. Figure 66 proses bo te petra, Py, ote daphrag ves the pes a, Py, 085 he al see ae ‘be hes Eoons (47) and 48 maybe combined yd ee ave om noe = overt, the ean fate fer pet ps 9 oR, and he define ‘feel of sands a" CURT, may be combined to ill p=eoJh In tv eae, pun (0) bevemes pratmal bole eon ay belied wih the af Bgntn (47) 0 sve sige atia 50 nj0)-1) and «PART. Then, Bunton (5.0) Daseaoe pet Sublatig Eze 6) Bon 6.0 vtec =A | spunea | re ana ‘ElBqa®5:g5 Verinton of tha peossure ratio, paps, across the dlaphragm with tre cri etn ser il, St te os ean, Ym be lined wits he aif Bags 6.59) ty eyes —ensinistaial samp 512 rat pty fs cpt on ‘Gaevag na Sack ao, a own In le ‘har onto Sa oh pag e909 The cag sun Avardsareng a nora snack wae peaeasa rar I ‘posse oe anaes of emparion wavs to pate nade he igre age, ae shawn niga 847) Dern 1 topos Dna th noma sbock wave, 5 ihe wloay af om rae! sock wave, ie tenprenie ate vay tnd te norm ebook wae 4 fn apoo lhe cove suas. {tm ressra,vloshy ad tops bend te cnt ie, 1 MEST ein tes at een ‘yt bctan fa rama sok wv he contact sue and th sso ees a 201 by ‘mn woes a uncon oe [a he vernal shockwave mov ihr nth shock be, whi I town Inoue Sih maybe Yndeed sonar, 3b Shown Fgure 2, The ae vin | tow pes a mms Cet reso ll, te Le Le ae 8 pee 5.47 See Esa .12( bart oho Sapa) ae Fp ofthe spoon ihe emporio Pe a ee | i * Tew is | exe ato maestro stk we yb eve ther Ho ne a Fa ci ee pes ato i i “Fim= 0 esa 2s aon dpe ia pipi=4047 or pr=(uounye0%a 0) Now. using Appa 0 wih pup. = A087, My 180. Th apse of 0 Ye Mas = UT) (9082871 he 1) (Ts tamper sc the vey ben ter sock ae ay now potas om dopant D ereasonng tol 120, 52 oF Tuono) = 402.4% (.sraiecesme) Tun ~.608 17) (0) Te posse ae he veloy babi th conta utc ate exact the | Sen, v= B= 60.9618 (Eine psn bind coin ay oD dy crning iagiwtontommnsa =a {1 The wave at he head of he expansion wave aystom moves levers lng) sed of sound viv th gas wh lo to, Here, Ve te AT) = 0.42872 J KQ00 1 = 373 Henover, ho wav le i a expan nave etm raw lids a the sped sundae Yo the gexec s moors as spe et ance sate vey of nave athe al ar = Y= ART) 2871 Sg “HTB =" 299m" ‘hewn on hates lhe al fhe eon War yo ming ns ie ean mal sock sym of expansion vaves we presenta Teton ne Pe 5 hock be fen dst wo bec of higs rescind igh tenet for 4 maxim peso ie, Uo feos behind the oral bk wav peal al te pase oft coma ‘at gon ‘gure 40. Taloaiong oth wma eos, ceric aca este Fett des aratnton of Ure es chet to im sna = = =. ou "fque $50 Tho coins pstion a which a at jt shud be asain cd ESN laa pan tanner fice, oe hc efi hed fhe bc th an of || jose tpt soe ef ftom te opment ae 350 os |b Sverre ten vrs uci on ae pre of em | rsp stat te Th oman potion twee we objet ul | elad’h rw ct nlm ow colon of peer nh _ Teepe Bain ie rns bce i Pg 38 Tet ‘rene oe oak eh wh he pcre ao si de dntnen omen ete sre in eof Sm m gh a para o 200 ad a presute (opie, A dope at en al hae sues rp aig ‘Sipansen waves posgaa om ha bo, sown Fue | stcepe cere ora, 1F te sloty a he ned ofthe expansion waves, . x TEESE ancrnentnensmrssinmorene at of mm © mone i gue 51 Soe fr Bale 839 ‘ha sped of muna he ein thn Foun a = 873 Seg aH6 214 me ower, ne at of th gunn wav sem moves givers a the space {sou lve otha gee which mov avast spac ot Ve Heo, Ie abet vlaty oe al of te axpansen wave Ie ya as me" 1637 mer" = 160m | runtHen READING © coma, 4 nd el, 8 (989 Gu i, Dae New a | Bath Sng Suse! Cpe Fs, Rogar Oe. || Pag Wt edo, 99 loti 8 Fe nt ha Whee New Soe 1 SENG Se prs yt tes me A | Uepinn W eschG85) Bo of ep, We: New ‘etn tn or ed expan wees © rac he dosed and of he i, he weer ot a Done to swpuson waves and Re Bayt al tthe exparsion wave. zion upto weiner oe ate] Onc 4095) Fada Doi, en Tet esc tee us leh a ont TB Samco oh Vow a BT) 2878 99K IG KO) = 9479 Tho twat ote He epson ware toreach he led ea spit, Av H. 093) The Dyan ond Tema of Fit Few Vo, Romi ress New York “tyson a tin B56 Ga ani, V3 Wy New Sr ae jonah cpn dl ot mares the snot, hn te 82 We auncon wa pe ab ast ose ‘tan a rang tS wh aa press of Pe and Prowse att ‘iss tamewature a 15°C undergoes a roel sack Deterine Hato and we slogan cole ar he oF vlc fer he so Ti pesees 9 norma shock wave with a Mach ura of 3.0. The Steqnaten omoertr aa ho sagnalon posse of the aura {0K and S004 rexpacey.Osemin the orp hd he ‘soya ang hin ao er ee 162 Arora shook wave tandem cnstaneres det, Al sppaaces te ‘ata shack wat wih stapraon tempers of 1000 ara {Sagnton pes of TOOkFa at a ach rub: 00. Deere the Urner counseram lhe sos Compare ownaten Prose he vet woul bo Testa by daceraing He ‘Sleteonlenopoaiy othe sane subs ach ember. poe pana 1008 a tho vty of he a ir he expansion wave pte may tan toes tom Emuaton 5.4) 0 coo nigh insite te ete pace acs epson wae ei a toons Sa he tars ww nan(af"-oom(m) mere 4 Airwhion et deg det sland dom by arma ck ie, ow: Sang tom tpn, bow that ‘Sen nie fre Ses, oe arava vr tho ct at 9 Mech w2nere 5. a omen te Mach rmba of 40. Te ah = eae ric nec ca hem crosses Orne won Arne pees a cons al tuck ve A Soe 3 fae ane oot ose a tem, ‘wery 147 robon 8 7 A poral shock nave mores a corsa vy 10008" a Seo pee Spee Sek pac te vlc of ho Bind tensa shock wane 1 tesa prevsre a empath the na ook wa, and ||) _& etonton pos rt mpm btn Prem Se 7 5 nae soc uae sober a move trou a x Oe aa wit tongue 3 G01 The ae arts wave a moses be 800" Osta |e aral soe ae {|i -59 Retsonn uses suscnyacotrate oa vel of 50m wen {atee snl shock weve nav ne tony nth We ‘One scin ine, ssn coony acs em 6013 {0 me" which cases astcong noma sok fo move oe "Ube! Te tal temperate th a 001 1 Datamine he vy oo a nd sac ora shock wave 8 Ronin nw ape ome acorn on Be Probe 5.4 tp neem ta oom sr pret sects eae cea See ee ee Soo temas tos oc attra etstae BRE te ereretd oe conan tne eae re ena a on Wnslncares ibe ma wea of 108me" Suse. the ond he ube ia nee sac wae pepspis tac hugh Po bc Yl De rr Sook Ware. Problem 85 10 A noma stack nave kava way o 1000 {Gepuaure of 76% ara postr 10 Pa an vss Bak tom Dane wa etemin foc of tees naral sce wae rena eon he nade rl Shck Ne, bonpresrre andiempettt etn hese noma shack 5:12 The inosng aca angina canbe epproinaed a # nema soot ‘hove revenge vay 0 860 mae" donned tn ra weurnes Mow farted bel ea pressure pd trope of 00a oa ‘Bo rapactoly shown no Sout sb Aes Io, be ‘ton mong ops 2 unr out 0 8 me Otome te 1+ reser ang on tp foe ae ora heck wae eis {ome ace. Acme fest tre behaves Ike 9 ero ee hd hae he pepsi oe ETO 1987) Problem s.12 {48 Anal sock wave mows down 9 hock ute a ylsty of 700m fiotne ana resniee of 10K a omperte ol 950% z Ul (i Cen “woo ‘het Problem 6.18 a "| Re ee eee ee A Soutaacrastvear et ' pony ct es ma cn nt i PERNT a ee freee and lmpararn ae tb KPa and 200 espace. Tha oct tot otosa none seas ha rare ar G02 mar EO abet Determine 3 tho tue pcss fr Be oz 0 Be poy expands he delgn bask pram fr subsonl,ronsanep,overepanlon rein tw egies. ne 111 498 02 eon ypu o the thon conergng-detng nee, the ‘gay, peste a pra ea 2084 me" BONDS ard 127°C rapacrey. The tao of De ot ese coatoal wea he ve ‘Sous tones be ree 20. «Dalam th anos of ha backpressure austen, nosso, ‘rerun ind uncreparsion aw eine. Sho ho vrin othe res wih dance lg th noel cian of he forte whote te cesta! te ate ha of Ie rete he tare er 13. 6 A emarging-erga nz supple om age a esenoh.The radon ost rane 1c aan remo 2 eT ese ra tangertute ao rear 300 Waar 30°C, reaper. 1 Detar he anges bck poss ve wih) eras wave npr nha mra, obi shack waves he et, pe pane es » Gatattarase dwt tough te ncaa where aera ‘ek nave spas a he ex ano. ‘Ne tows Brough a eanecing-deiging rez. Th How cen bo ‘isla o te tenes ad ada. The esr, rere ‘ele and coaesestoal rea la ston ne ake pa ‘hsv a5 uh, £71808 me" and 200m reopen. Tho ik ‘lunancina ees ote nee 0600 rt ana the back pres rnarnnenitcrrRcketntmeil 3 ema ome amare mace jmomnomnnaen ‘Retengrdue naps a 20K and Pa pee. he stew i apremattaie Seite Seneca ago tg enc collet at a sagntion ssi of a0 KPa and 3 Secrest es seiner Seles ee te mareat aces a suimauiminentetet ms ‘Dalrnie the sagnaton prsere osaro the ori, 1 batarmie te mas ow ae 4 Bose not pase, 1 Show he procns on a Tos dag. (wer 3) 6:20 Ar upd 1 9 coming desing nae om a ge eae ‘Mare tempers 20% at to fe Dale 300 6 ‘hic fs vonrean te tas te volt e120me"_ Anon shock “ive state cvering pat ho nz wae te corr apna WWenle ow dAy= 2h Tne rose cna re of oz Seatac nora dchuges oan arnt posse 1001, arervarhs role 6.20 oti te presse nha etn, i, rh tga re 1 The loathe et eon Cones ees 10, The ent gen Seger nga ae of Ses etapa onprnre 180 scans ae mt tne mir onan bea pare! gw ops heat loo ‘Shame man fg bak Seba eo st ‘ot rh ot sock ean Eka Reamer dverant rors wi sho te gue Bl ‘Spo ina fos lng otro spon ny ot isto snore hs pene ofp Tho uta sane om therm sen by A= Ath) ae Ae ost tes at a eig pat fe rae Eo sempre cea ea oe ernment sentcna samen igs iaracecamticunc arity iti oasmanmscmmemsnsts fee oman ereaeeieeeerecl eee tees eect Stan ee ee eae ein Sbiaaay a chew ecpeeet vane encreeemarteriteal ee 4.28 The cue shown ote tout blo fa wha rom age ese “fo ninth oe! ay be eaniere seeps exceat wounh ‘seh wes Tha eon secon oa edt corso sey terme show ware eoton 2 the us echoes no 9 elon te tach mi te at lan of thet, Presa th fat ea a. 2 it apoton poste ne atewo which nes ne dot we on Neel sch Mem ck Go aystan robien 8.25 5.26 Acupatione wna tune! st be const, toni at loss prea pasia INOUD ‘omcigng- verging nora cova fet oxctn ong then ro atm tank Tho tet une sarod wna possue of ORP an ISPho ny cre fw orton o tae et Shot fonune oan neon be ser Wh «dat 81 ‘Se osgn teh somber 24 The weve 3 th ‘Eicshe enone 01h an 20" ape te 8 ‘Woot et aot mn ok EET 183) Problem 8.28 15.27 A psn nt hal wich shown in te tue, 08 rom |e an Th lear the atmorpere. Te Mach nda {heart setae 208 ana narma hack wave tarde oo 0 ‘in toa no presere taco ines ster he noma ack ‘rivets Tabi? oe went eoep Tough te sera sas 1 Dalene pus a Ms £ Werribee nao hen acute presi mes Dy ho Pra ee wer 265 ‘3.20 superset wind net deel stra spac a tet eeten, However, dg te sro ho a une, a norma ‘Set weve sland th Setlng eon of he nase, Upsteare e nal shose wav, he aon moe and rsnio ae 12 ar 0 ‘erp The sors sacs aa he owe oat 08m Te {evprture h ost son ith eons acona eres O02 rb {cing ve 10°C Orme 3 te nmin pombe vl o he ser oat ef the same mass ow te were one 9 fa ead uo wind ns en by meso fa. The ‘agnatontangrture anne sagraon posse he spy a ‘ote and 10010 comes. The tone neo «ou! Cos seterel Sta of ott and rye et soon wah cart ose ‘tonal ses a 08 The trot and wx roseeatene! rts of he ‘Sure se 056m! and 12 vegeta, Dene ‘te macinum poele Mac numba th a secon, 1 tw minimum silo tina woo oso sectna aes, 2 wheter nla supa ow ca Bo elaned a ost sek, 4 e ack procs for ne was epetating cnation 1 Ino bask peru chat tha Hwa en orl, a 1 Salen ote oral aba wave wan te back ress ee ig ting enon nesses by 8 pa eet to tne pres tor he bes eprtng conto, and A erage of bck prance or be sno, ese ne 1580 in speconle in un, hin fe snem he re blo, oes we} ‘terete shot ones wich maybe sent th overt tan ar tre sgnaon conatns. Th operating tach ‘mor te test cocten Tha dor boa! sosscotoal fe 2b neo i hat sexe 8. imps nt betwen We esos sang lathe peso ao bowers te vxevots te bet oprtin what woud be te sien tach cuba that coud be ied by ‘hang he et sation aru ny? Wha wo be era of et Reson sscrona ea ei roseressoctorl re he + Seer me Toa) problem 8.20 11 A coniuaus oasonomery spel wad ue esis fa a et ‘actin ach aro 13 silt contons ean ate ot {roo mane ne poser sd arpa ae 08a end 228.9K toprol sccton asm eoee sacra oe of O08. ‘Skin ai e comarest lo anvete wh ent ose tne to ‘pts ante rl he ito ins cae, he ‘emperor tie segrnsr san ba aun eaal be ‘Shantou o eat secon. eling eson, eterna ‘ho we equreents othe sarpssa dig sande operabon {ie ng spo eb eat ETO 1281) ete he net ‘Sto ooat sors cocaral tsa e008 mand 8.08 rnp, * Sen ch ne ih mt ro Brine each mb fe woh st sf rt enti = onan wae the dos aM Mach rmbt Amie eit same sige a in io etna a8 when the sma ake wand Ie st [$4 A suprsonc nt guonety i, in shows ine te bale ‘amosphae coon zsh end 2068 K, Th a way ot coossecion aie ging to be home a nama aback hinge a he ie ip Pw Warten eee ‘wrowgh te stocks. cae ie Galle the sac and stagnation pressres al secon 3. feru tes) { | contbed Pol ube eves far earn tha vey of 2 epee un sai i gran rssios se nau fe 10K | {a zetia teopcivy a terparatire othe spooning Senic anne veloy he ppreshing ston ‘rca osne on sl veg pero ensue Boo sngaten passe hs roo he! napenecoans we 1 tele ane 20a oe ue bw «tha alot of he ea Wain sno vty gency wn epet 9 an obec wo SES Ceuta eng eee eck «ave pene tah ose ean. 5a 15.37 The pros ra eons a apron chock a 8. Th ta Pe ef he a on elo perience fe ogi 604 Tine te tl svprtie Sach abl te saphranm 0K ‘hoyle ae ol ara shook weve $Me hieh bar tthe ein aa shock wae, 2 ie ale eon aa tanprare ling arma neo wae '398 A be wih alent of 2m con a. resi ol 5HPa ae 2 tapas e001 Wen Sor a ie and fhe We uplrd,»nxma tock wave manne down te Me, The aden Resi ote 8p nay rgb 1 te eeoly an sch nba te at Boing the nl perma ack ‘¢ te satic pressure and temperature behind hein normal shock wave, 4 te ly ofthe nome! stock nave hit rls om he aed on ‘tho time ia! he oe object = subject the preusue and the aperture thin et nara ahack wat ata rind of eat shock ‘A sock be ha eng of 10m an phragm oad mia long (ho bn Th hgh an ow rosea seston sna ira 200 Pane "oka, espacivay tet Sete laces he tow pressure st, & Betrme te vets fe cnic curae. € Datrno te bach number Shin the rma sho wave 1 tenet te beta te panage tw noma nec nave ad the ont stage onthe et Se 1 Determioto vloty e rtecte sock we, 1 Prove an 2c degre shin ha to fo hock mee, the ‘ata sack ate and he cre suracs a tna te, 1 Detrina tho lenin of th txt cle tat ald pod infer nator binant hk mas ra oe ith ae f 29 at 2 anges 209 an "KPa leva at tae ssn ‘pres eating eparin was propegte cow Be be Te ‘lot presse 100 HP, Deere 4 he velit of het expansion wae, 5 ten rqurac er expansion nao reech ne csed an of ne 6 the vl ofa tole he epansin ve, 6 he lay oh est acon a ‘A norma nak wae moves in conan i 9 acy of fa0ene en eles rom te epen od tte ib ea sre of ‘parson var. wn prose a ompnesue are 1D KPa [erent enteer tn iectemrmmncnerenasanorc eames and 350 rept, dts the vl fhe et ae a og actu veo 1:42 Sal rence oscos a apvey shock te 2. is lesb sujet et eject moony corns ih probing rd lonpwanre ora prod of 0s batvar te te pasa ot be in! sock wave ed he tin passage he sk vo reacts im a oe ove et cj. Tat oe fe ied #4> a) Aiea seine tf ays niin teat the sk rte Seed te ste converging cae per teegh bon a eye cabng enon sol he nnsteope fo coins Sethe fow a The dsb the ears sng fe dct a lee be a te thn th eo pes gual te bok pete Thi Bu ge wl rot be ‘eed deta sine he A peers pn convergng-aieeing mole ne ‘Gree Sens 4.2 and. te the sists Now pater In 8 dt ‘Seated in Seton 81, (G0 Ile shock condon (ne 0) Simin sono shck we appr ate ae fhe du and he ow an Inthe sonepngaveraeg sou serses Is et ence cen, The for "hehe the econ, oe ese dese lng thd sors Indo pers Pf Figure 615). Ai tee per the some athe Eck DrereTe prsee Oii2s-lyet forthe fow pate is sown cathe P| ‘eg of Fe 0). Go Bow sen with shook (a> o> os) Its ow pie, anormal sack wae a presen the dot, Pow ates ot ie 150)» ple veresnton of ths To rege. The Pes Ince aang th dada apo fom aie he ara seca | abapt ato the nel chck we and eres song oc in ‘Sno tw as th sual ed wove Ar nog a fe oe eve the dc ot ‘ton apni thee peared ack pee re te sme Te proces GIRS ye nts toe pater hewn cee Ts Saga o Figse 6150, (9) Bs shock conan (n=) A te tok ee ec sora hk woe moves et ple {fede a bow by Sow ptr # of Figure 6150). Tn thse the Sow | Stneronic inthe Gir andthe pee mene aiang theo. Aer ero | ‘20crume teres tes bpd ser toot atone pets vo ‘st ene one th ats ‘nee Uren as wine wis “tne ° (Sogo ana te rw cnt ‘hoon ure (The dt hoes nate! 04'm on = anak schagee oe soap wh = eau of 10 ¥P a, (90009850) 595 worn) “hon, te Mac aunbe a e Iist otductcoraspondng (nO) = 0.85 “nay be bined tem Appena © ahh 089, Then, eng pana mons, : lew 08250 or py=(0320)900 ¥Pa) = 2475 8Pa Htha cial pressure may now be oblained fom Appendix E eoreeponding to asses pio" =2011 or p*-2e7enPaeart~ 10248 # 6) Staten sd To diya lr Exaile 63 ‘tong a he fs tthe nf ha oe, an eet reso ‘rst ta th ac pose, a pe soniee noe i choke ae tl asumgtion erat. Tasos te Mross mata (0) Th pacer oot eet peo s702 KPa in) (020254, aw on al ru ome et i a) 0c gag ve i tn Spas a . Ter 0889 o Tox (OA5I(6001)=309.3K ‘of cane tom pens Eo sO 88 Tut ng pone a (0 mats i ta ooh he St may now be euted tom Ape c Sarempondinao =0.3 pipe O7098 «© m=(.7HEKH804Pa)= 10. KPa MEE ogsze a a Sm cite pressue sy nom eae om Aopen Ecorespondg Io 40 Noooo w a saseaa kgs ip = 1641 p= 110 Wea m7 8P sor oh ll sesamin, the preset et of te ee eh be [[ feito bs ete pes, at {Te process ie sown one Ts arom Fg 6.11) Keng 400 and sagt prez 60a ib ‘opted ton croneaas insite ut ough news comerang Selah tn Pe 6120) To dha Smee 94m aa f= = T1456 Ivor sg ahe pessar ies thn te babe poss, the la 1 2 Smpton ena se theo net eho. Te ow ibe shoked ‘ronovrnemogwaty dt ng gout tan ee! Cut r Input. Thlo, ho datrmnaon fh nagrary dt gh Fae 612. See and T+ Gag er Ean 4 so thar the ot es cl 0 te bck pene The a shock coin ‘Ronn ty the posse -setety one Tes dag af Fg 615 (9) Orecspasion Bow rp (> A> Fd pectin SS ‘octave {Rept empl fh sete shown Oy fw pase 5 of Few 6.10, eae Ihc fon teline the A mpevnetonghou he dt td he ere eae sng theo oeandd at he et of he de ie he en ‘ci prepre inet he bc pene The open which ees ote é i detinete urn obec wer, wie ceoa te ues « ste emuepon fenestra flow Te poset iS oe th Bow [even tla ens a the de sho i Fig 6.196, (0 Deen eontiton po.) sono ton ot Sow mutase 6 of Tigers 380) epesens the comibn foc wilh th Comenglgng aon pd the as ae devel i hs ee, he Bw ee ane ntscly super win oe dct nd she exe pesue Hee 0 he bak es [rome Toe pessintses along ted The owes Gt, eds ‘Sodan town in Pee 130. erage (i) Unereapension Bow rine (P< fd | sear ‘Rao mater or How eine ncn by 7 a Fane 6.100 The Tees ftovlnentdy Sperone within te dot ap the peste nents a he J, ‘Taegu uncrepenedt he ett dryset a perce hier hk {he bok presse, Te eps, whieh scare ete the dt nes om Foc lq capone res ich oot be tes i the een of rede e TepoesQ-e fre oan Wn he zed the dit bowen Fue 6150. rer ‘ “AE owe 6.16. Sen and ho T-s dlagam fr Example 83 I. Solution ||) BS ene soemne tora oon eres | oe hows cate ot or soon ee ‘eh |[| Section aca, na mn eine heh nt separ 85 Sodtpecane ch ia teres «nama shock weve lth et planet | fe eof he de far Aeron © Wa ps re pasion ote st er anion, GMOS Sotaetae hse sate sre pene | son ack rs ibn oy aio oie wih Mae nnn ba se be cerca on ge xampe 68 fn etic dy an netopl caning ering nz than onrato of 22 oe snow i gue 81) Tr eaoain ses nthe “pp tesar 200470 To ng fe act 2m ad the alee of {iors oor: The average evo aca the dt 001 Dern mees0 l= 0.08352 or = (08552900 ¥9)=25.054Pa 288 FTONAL OW CONSTANTAREA UCTS PeREORUANCE OF ADABATEGUETE AY VOUS PRESSURE RTO. 287 “he macmam aonsle at lng covespandng ent Mach arr, "fe When bo act is pean ate dsgn codon, tere ene raeal sho Map may be stare tom Aopen Ea {me nine dict ms cae, ing Agpand Ew hia 220, (n{0)on 09809 0.3009 oF Ke BACON 3 ‘qioaony “08 arco, gen tog ssn ana sont eh itnnews iw an celmaponng stn apts Wash purer 220, he somata Ma ‘Sm ne prosaa maybe eae on Aor api-02500 oe pi=29.06kesjas9 -78.07ke og Fue 6.189), poste wie (H#hcafDin= (alo 02900 S002) yy =0847 (eon) och runes he resis toe fh dt may now Be eines Ippena wih len/Dho = 0.1809 Se Mga s7 + paras $A480. oF py GAE020.08 175) «169.04 No, rom Appendix, coneponieg fo My 0.5, (HhonfOby 0.705 wa palpi 5710 of pan 05710)7007 WP} ABAE KPa Fo the cig enon, he at an hw Bac esse te he ee, hat pom me AS.18 kha pu 6160), ha design condone indeed by How patra 2 exe! chock a, ha a plane We dhe jp = 1494 of p= 1S9BKPap.80¢= 92a sing owe 6.18) ti oss owe (Whe Dhr =D 0 Fao or an a essa tlre tho shock ve Mer = 57 and worms E212 sant “porn 4515870, apace. The. Kom Nop, crooning o ‘Te Mach munbsr a th resis a he eit he dt may pow be cin fr Aponte = 08281 38 ~ Teen men crs ett nt ce om efi .705 oF Bum 1-7EENTOSE RP = * na | {@) Ranges of back pressure for tho regimes are as follows: Sonntnuranaa arrester UL cae : premier oF 9001Pa p> 148.7 py 7088 i pee 22. law coghne with shocks: ew pata 1 which uatpondf the et shox conden sho n Fae 8100) DoD p> pn or METRPE> py > 120.0% ccmarsieemtrersentamasionneanmmcamninal 2 Ovirnpensiae ow eogins padi > ey of 223 kPaD pyDasisiPa (Leni) 0.008 4 Unerxgancin fo reine pavie0 a 4515KP0> p> OHPe eee eee ‘Tintaor eer forthe dt ol Eatrge 66 150 a, han tone istece to ato i at whi ara eck wave os, dnt lay ao w93600 LIEV) 2599 (Bot Mach mabe an te prescre ua of he nama shsk wave my bind tm Aponte) 0.05 co [plan he nmancaus fo ata sown ogre 8.7. The Rrpocr mentee fw rg wih sho ere te 8 rma ‘rock wove ech Tho ost is normal sac nave an be fond by ip" =0.4828 or pin(048e4y 7007s) = 25.0018 wow be Mach nae anne esse sonnteam oa sos wae ip sctconangts n= 130 may Socbans fn Rede 9 Me y= 0.608 Prlpe=B870 or =(987095 80402) = aK KPa From hppend E,corewonng 0M = 0.80, (n= 0008 ovr is oi wwe i (tniOh = nd, 0 Te se panon MOONE M1 5 Hi om 15 tne mac upon andthe ses tho he at may abe fund ia | operon oi Mano ip" = 1876 or pea (isreyr@or sy a2 a rer ewer toa 0 ln pepe stoke gue 6.17 Sach x Exanie 66 “ovlesteton fo Exagio 68 am 7 OM WirwiD} oso c2uo 2800 Me te a Pip" ese adres nase pes) Pr ” ame 0618505000 les sa sets aro pte) ts ss 70 5 ld umes naire ater (4onfO% omee vaste o3eer Me om ogee ae" sen $01 mle + peta) wea ero tte Shick mvernent = = OK ‘slong she ele bck pressure Nh thant gn nw te (Seat of he ermal shh nav mit eve downed in he dul. Tho ot {he taons io sone n Tals 64 Mr cooergoren, een te ‘ma’ wav es Tob a (Atle te wn gn get ton temas toate tena ‘con titi tt whe fet nemo conerig avenge nines eng han he sme alee lent a show in Figure be datouos of he ‘Tin. Te seco wins i the bck ese 0 presente dat ae peed in Figue 6180. (@ Neco condition psp) ‘Totegin iy pps ht he ae ced shawn by Bw pate Fgte {EisQh yt ce the pret cantrt neetoat he comerng- ergs eee bl he cs sch tet ype = ote 20 fo 282 TIONAL OW opMETANT AREA LETS & oor woh A} ttn ction (i eit Peomanc eh en adapt dct tl on nn cong ret erga eS eae tn ems aoe) (8 Seon ow regi (a> fo > #3) a Sia do seine te fo ey aba inde dA he Back rete toned he oie coneging-ivegig nop though say | tenon Gaal nce (be fn pacer fas conven dere ile ae [enna io Seton 482 and Sy andthe abucie hw pate ae Gewred in Scon 6, (a Inet shok contin (74 =p) Streets wave opts be inet ote dct, andthe ow pace Enuheconrsig-dveig tne rench here orl shsk ware soda, ftircit Tete etre erases aro tthe et of te dt ig he lth ave Tne Sow Svapontthe dt bone the pres ‘re sg the dy so by Gy pen 2 of Fg 6.180), tn te ‘treats outa athe pre The roe Oe? eee? rt Bow patent showe ii 4 ga of 618 (Go) ow oie with shack (Pa > 9 >) A aioe meal sc wine tap prevent te ut low pate Sor Tigre 100) spent pa ow poten fhe ein ‘The pee Jncen ang th ft diving npr ow bef he aa bck Wa hoe erupt seo the pm sock wave a ese te oa ig ‘Teton ty atte the anna shock wave” Aw ling ae fw lee he des ‘Ebro pede remus pete eth ams Te roi (Gabi pa aia Ow pene shown onthe Ts gra of Fue 6180. (9) Sonic condone") St tech prose ined he nit Mach er ech a hos by A pate of Page 615 ln eat, the normal shock ware hsv dele esi dat, Efe he tal sce wave, te ow spe and Ferenc {Bost sare Aer the ncn sac sie, the fw bcos sbvenie a th ects dees eg te ct i seni oy. The snl onion ‘Exel t thet wire th ut pete exact equ oe back pea. Ta ‘Son is shew by the pies setuid an the To dng ps Cis. (0) Unerepanion ow eine (4 < 2°) Sow pon tf reper 6189) fows eal fa pte be cng cadisn nthe sotersing-erig soe se win the det ogee pu ndvepanded the x of he ot ce he ext pes Hghr kant tae per. The expansion wh net outset a ae ie i a hiner obo expsin vats which aot be weed with th sa arden! ow, he pce 6<--Spre frUs ow patn owe pr ng to wae « ire 610_ Sith Soa 627 Sone wes Uegexsin ‘ono «tha dstance tom ho re fe dt al which the shock Wave I ced wha) thet soi th i oo 63, mf «4 Irebuk oso chat bere arta shock wee a et othe i, «Ie anos of back pei fr he abso fw regen, Heo one wk ‘Hosts se hs undress Ne pmo. sonar spatesm othe ran! sas ware nay now bein Else Cth ob te ami tet rote a be noma heck wave eessoning le Meee1.87 may be 4 seen ‘Arent D ne Myo 2880 Fam Append caveaprg 2 Whan/Omy=05787 Setaton o fein are hve superna the exo he conversing ving ‘riety us ec athe eat These, cores 30 rearalo of MA" .7, ow ays ho Mash urbe ad ths esr at fe fhe dst tom Append we (Aaah =(6LeaDhy 475.408 m= 0 ag 4008-025). 5 go90 (O26 Hach ute heat of edu hen the 081. As or a He ot sn a edt ei, alo tthe al shock wave free! ‘oUt downeen oases ora hare te estos 0 " a M208 plows0.18e or =(0.130Q(40 4a) = 47.284 “The mexinun atone dt nth corezpending 6 an st Mach bora Rigen Sn enna Bc wanes er stk vr a he ct, ia ee
p> HOOKER 2 Unerergansen tow ine: pub on20 1 1200100 > p> 0K (jee seaiy and nor tow wit fico, the su ofthe res fe mt {Tian fxs stng onthe sont ae of ar 20 tae y the jane of ehnge free ments ss the ne ale, tt = et hated eae —mbt Elscnpiepvi-nvtatri-¥) on) hie Fi he tana Suc sting on che sie wall fhe ol one |G) etn or of ermacnamies 5 4.88 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR ISOTHERMAL GNE-oIMENSIONAL FLOW WITH FACTION i SonstaNT-anea Ducts, Tee into cxter s arko he come! vlume, te Best aw ‘Nom, consis sey one dina athena fw of a er gu tsa onan se de th fon sown In Pega 6.9. The governg ees rads ni sen Sg STIRS Sy as mented no nee 2) (0 contnty exes . Foe sett got tl ete Soe te epee ene Siew ce ssn sem i so erin ited (ine NepiVids=paVida scoot (9 Eeuation of etate Sera pret r,t eo of ts ie os Be sony change. ; spook (640 Asin @ eee Timea emma aonecninainy | {oe dsm deny owns hen waster in scons en Pe BODO sigs 4 Goce ssn ine thermody es by Ein 2.30 Farha IT “oct ects cis te heed reon di WANs (2.220 g 9°" (0025 m2 600me) = BABS Hg! ' Torna BE _ rg sett nn te apices ty be Da fraps dhe and pT a fran f pepe ves 0 Ten eos at ein 2 may no ba eat ta te equation o ate as tee a Be a ng ba ate hc yb ime we he enya 6 . n-ne -Rls (2) =n (2) sale DN he tray ough a dt wi x erat ecto! re ct 0.085 ‘Somin igi 92, sean he presi, trpora ad Ys re ‘tone, S00K ad 10 me enna. A eon 2, he ssi 1001? 1p es fw ae, 2 the proper ston 2, . ewe tmome yt ome fier tocar ago ampere at aefon 2 may now be eaclted uno (88) a Taner Banseoks OOF sek fa Te gg, OK rcs Jag} “Geneumirg ta nega entopie paces bata sae 2 adit es Isso ta, te sapntn presse at seaten 2 =¢1004rm (298K). esha 1) Te Wena oc, acting on he cont volume may Be un by yng be moran sqm tthe onal vows ol Pie S21 a6 Fis Bik Bakshi pov Yi) Fes to1= Ati) = (29 000 Nem“ 109 020 Nm *H0.05 = (6805 196°}200mo""~ 100 me") = 1920 awe. Saacn er ample 88 5 coninuty equation rnd ed noe hw a ech rms, te suse dw ete oma oe, “sso aes evra on tent! vue by he dct wa The fee, hing ant dat aban é Fo Fm 100 E HinpVAn(otboxVeaVoA _ {00st eatin Me let stat pn en -3 eter fasion gl tt Fs tao _paiayhivendavesi soon giv ions Ts" ‘hn, he ameent eat ars may be demi Yom the fs tt remedy as ste ota nF) = (6.05 4991108 Jig HC S199K 005019 way os (01 Tm envoy change sy nom brats by ng Baton (642 a8 mf he fasion fcerané he press fe ating econ vse ee ‘be aend by he ate of chge of ear neti Sn the Cote rn) = 20s (i) wo oan (04994 10 deed) “nV 40 EFFECT OF FRICTION ON FLOW PROPERTIES IN AN ISOTHERMAL FLOW =A Apne thee nb AW pAV AV 10:1, ovetning equations in liferontl fm [Sie ar pen by Egutiss 65) and (610) pect, he ment gen Conse eens then fow of cme ud in oss ict wih etn nr shin Pgs 622 Hew Cafes ion been the ,, SEITE Mite at cae nes cnge tow peers, ne tee PP temareavay on ‘hanger ny be sted to each fer y apg thease equ fo ‘nantes! cel lame, o shonin Fgwe 2 he tet lof thormodynames . Tetrion sha wk et ow of hed cont wee | ere edgecgr ele ates gers eg Jeakeov Figue $2 sein cont vote fe tho anf war fo Nedesting secon onder ei, psi ab eavay (Equation of state ‘Secguntin oft fora pevet wove form thermal proes The seond ia of hemesynenoe {eet pce we eon od et eer G oad 6a 6102 Valation of flow prportias with etn i an lotr son Proesre , $s aon. ranting it o=RT==D, positon a aye MIE aye ae Howes by wing Hans (40) an (46 it ole to obi “Tece mat gS wen | Fo omen omy Densty Gilat Ege (46) nk Als de, aw yte od 3a) ID & (©) Veet rn ns (64) sd (4 pew a art oR wey D Vela VYCRTY, a by Pri irene wi epee 2 once AB) WIM pe : Se eT SD sv Stognaton pressure pevotdelasonf te entoyic sagan peste an be ane og ihe seopie span presie conespoding to »gvex Kea satt it hic ould be ated the seam were eet epi) bor, ne tbe ste ero vlc. Then ror Equation (6.2), age, MD gue peop Take Dae a ly, wt he i of guts (6.48 an (51, sponse vob AM =f Dae sata nas 1S ce) 1) Stagnation tomperatre [he peeiw denon of te sabre apne epee ck erent dace stone sogonontempetue coresponcing te nen fa eat te peice whch mel be stan hese wee deserted satay hee sito these of eo vec. Then rom Eqn (6.20, 4m dpa Te HUTA DAP) I os) emereceanesestnnwinnesnanmmstn manner sacnmnnsttetil = {o) mputes notion et fa pet ps dhe aT and pp RT. Ao, for sa thecal roses ‘Som he ditan of the pu uon given by Bauon (4.29) UI. ete Top ei?) f ap, ME yas aa as S os) on eet ofr conta te st .ge, BM sae 40:3. Summary of elon elects In a eotermal ow Tp rene ae 4 athe frmalaonof ne mrentam eqn, sumed ht he sea ce 2 {ins cecson oposite to he dacesn of Sow. See he a Ie ne be fost, ke hear ntene mat anys in din opponce othe daecon of bri, by oneain epee eno ow, tele, 6/45) Nowy withthe i of Egon (A) abd (60, the fwng ean maybe 4 Ait ape isan pe eres 1D (650 JE? Ip dco of change in the Mai open dpe om thr he Mach yr i ene oes tan If Wacsdng to Pans (1)659) Coe | Hyco (5), nce th ea (1-H) appa the ewan ef xh fe eqenons. Oe soul soo ht raion of chnge a te gation ete ae Seends onthe te [t+ 0) spp inthe mart of _Biatn 50 when > These ne std ible : [[8t1 RELATIONS Fon THe isorHendiaL rLow OF A PERFECT GAS IN A CONGTANT-AREA DUCT SSP ems tn Tarek tle 60 etext tenon tlw goptisorelethenst eo pra ann eontarin coe aces HTP econ srening in oedema «pti gin susie ‘| eats dst wae esd nc 63: longhorn rnd an | eee raey we dc eto, ion ae ed see ns me ir {U jem n mr ra fom nnn tow eon deo cba ot {RSNA ner te nee ta ——p Dewees tenn 6144. Nonlimonslonl ton tte vost» Orceset ren in (5 e+ eta gen which sa he age in he Mash veto ¥ ImmaenOoseaes erotica i Aenea pee bel scmton ncaa eres tr Sowa in Fue 23 Porageada hy te eto Ege 60 ee. {eter send? wu potas opt fan yay Tt we Soin wen tare teem ume ar ek bine oa doves tr |] ff tcemered ten Toe coos a snl yg tent ee {ei Ls tc svi aa ah an tu wns tn prove at ch re a Stesran tpn, Te remes_Osowaes 19th hch sonar any tsar Ife Tht, ar en ve Impe o, Orcas Ocoee idea Mach naar dn tees a yea i at enon. 2 Innes Doonan ct Ln th te Mack mb bie att pot to seats, — by tt chr AA, wo i ectrescnstn or wthernal fe, he aon ely may Be = MBE seo wag te tte Figue6.29 Courtesan an ued won ofthe How chosen a xtc condone corresponding 1 » Mach cuumber of (band Incas Or sn Site mpi ae unin (6) been ny nme nd hoe te * Fn xn of efor pera, 9 pte nn dma pene Morb oben thea of Exton (05 8. ™ , on godt (PLR gy os So ce Saar ae) 635) “The seh se fhe eguton maybe esd ing ings by pt. omaves on the ken sy the Eton tay f 2 fen of Rn ‘mbes em p¥ By whee is he abst vic of he Bul, Fo owe in atc dc he pn a conn song the Cet inne! bythe SEES Conta, teen te verona ey? mer sexed ony by SSiatin te flavicnty, Teanaveepe can et, revere uct ene FA.18 Nondneaonaegpten pest Cece enone : sai be dened 2 oo 4 at poke [trae on Pe . sng atin 1.2 fr od 76a in a sn epi Buti (5 to [erate ae Steven einas a <8 a ga . fhe NH gay con Le oo “Tis gut gs the msn vain of 41D enrespnting ty ie is ‘Meh suber Sic thr nonSimeneal in eter, LD, fen of the Mach node, he he de ogy Creed fr te Bow ch sun ‘hone fom a i ae oy t0 Kl ae of May e fond fn $0)", “ BoE Noving hat T=" fora ate ow al xing Euan (4.2 pou 2.11.7 Nondimensionalimpue fonction Frm he ean of He pe acon, = p40 +440) by Baoion 9, ‘Th fr conneses its. Poy ‘No, sing Bann (52 theft hat" 1) i onl a aban sane Tea 5 5.118 Monsimansionl entropy “The egtogy chnge beeen any wine and he efereace se giten byw coun tm omer fran term Sow FT" and by sing Eguton (62 soe SF cao we 642 WORKING CHART ANO WORKING TABLE FOR THE ISOTHERMAL FLOW OF A PERFECT GAS owmus dered tts due ete mea lesan and ie {chon fen inv lander peed. The manera eons ab {SSlous by inwodactag t meting Co and» meg ale The fling uns th nomimensna rope fore hea ow os pee ws ‘Salve deve Ine pei eon foun om} sepa Gon a a ene oo ute 620 vor erat toto lahaal ow of a pare gs wth k= 14 (eo info suse conataren et wih Math uber of 0,3 "A lpm of 2003Pa and manos of 00 show pure 25 6a] Ae erin et wnat ot 7m tater 0% m nd on toe eon oun, | Es nema tow te {es nner ant nd pa wh! it = {wa Stg oe we han AME san iy t6an |] Ge rts eater ttlon ‘61241 Werking chat or the notermal ow of partect gms {The mass flow rie yb dtarine by using pond C, wth M059, “The ehh sie ofthe sve atone ate fnew ofthe Mic mane, : Tis he iwc hes ah The now Seen propeia on he hd | ‘Ber ote suns cn the be eres is eile Mick Iinir eh napenest eb Sach wring har fot he theron Bo ret pie gen a igre 6.24 fe Bt ien=0890 of pms 200KPH ORO 297248 Wf 208524 ee y= 00Kjaasee= 215.0% sti ee malSlY27 0 Nmfeyooemye 16.122 Working able forte iotherme ew ofa portoct ge Oe DS i Cee “The deans fo pepe an abo be epee In wb fn with 0.5000 Kg" ‘Muck miter she fig sale or a. te ele of se nn ‘Seon ropes Sono the Mack abe a en a Append. |B) For Appt, coreponng 0M 0.50, ‘ereomenl-ncs he lining tle of he so-so popes ae gen inf Tee? he (tenioh= 08072 Tele 7 hatang vaso ha non cinnsen! opr fri esata Nw oa pee go wh ip''= 1600 or p= 200 ¥Paj.e80~ 1189 as a en ee on 6.25. Soi or Exp Using Flgue 628, ie pose ota (Aran = WhaDh~ Med sors MOONE, 9 670 ‘oot ‘The Mech purer ang the rsa eton 2 may vo bo erat by veg opend Fh (g/D} = 05073 pip 1248 co pen (64a\s889404 = 147 0K7a ‘ong a he leper eine same an chen! proce fen fea T=a00K (e-health det was maybe expres as\e rence baa te pls fete a secon 1 and. Mom nun (459) th pus etna eton Tf rates) eo coon SOLA «4.90577 om a pen apn M50 tesa oe Pema “Tempio function aston 2 may now be etd by using Appar: F vin es ("21928 oe fen @o7a 1.0 = 8085 0 ‘hon the Hoa fre sxead onthe ly the dt was seman Fre-he9SN—2003Ne -348N “Th forex by ha 0 he st (The sapnaon pert te et of he ds may oH Ba ane | tm Agena 6 wth = 088 98 Tifx=09160 of Tau S00 Kjostes=32r8K ae, A.B a ening, 8. H, (958) Ga Dyn, Dover Nee York si, H. (96) OxeDinetnal Compile Foe, Peron: Ot, end Me, A. 97 ti Fe can, nd [| foun 1-1 A. (190) Gat Dy, 2d ey A fe Baca: Btn, MA, Papin Ha Re, (57) les Da, We: New | Orc Ih 096) Pda of Gs Dri, era Te panto, At (G9 Te Donets ed Thema of Cpr id (aac, MT nd Baim, JD. 0975) Go Dyan, Vb Wie New “esa | 01 Ae fone nasoatcaty ina sonsanteres duct At nt fhe dt, he tise aemben reste ac tempt re 9.08 c0 Ks and 300% | tesa, icsing 2 it ont 04 maar f 0.9 | Siete teeth te ate” i mesine wt 62 Av tows ebay ns coatant ae duet Athen te dc he ‘thy: peso an tpoatre ae $00 me", BIO Kea an 90K, fepetty.Asunng & cet ag of 1m, et ameter of 0.02 mere enor oe con, seme te Maen nanbar, oper ang ‘rosute theo lhe ducts ao clit ae 10 6 93 frit doing vugh on aie dct wih «conan corsets Boe art of the da te vl, mp and pres ae ‘Soma. 300% ene 20 Pa rxpecin, Dae th opera axe ‘ho-segntn omar a he ex thet ware Senay Segre Al, eal te eropy erase, ii lu edaptaly rough ¢ cut mw cost coseancna aoe eo ve ues te paver, ampere an acy ae 10 25S atom" sapecinay heal lhe dl. tb oper ‘za. betrann iw tach mrt and he pressure thet scien + hats sagen notre rcs Beton ho eet ae ease. ow tug and edabatoaty Bough pe wit # costo! ‘Mona bona ito tof he dur he pee an enpware wo {GoaPs ant 30° eapeotea, lh tf he et the onpenr uty re 10°C an 60 me especivay. Demin ha Mach urbe uh voy a he et econ na ao ie ns owe ‘A Sealy an edbaaty rough spe hs constr o- ‘ctona se: A ona e pb rough a aiepe erweana ‘Senn rome lge tr hare the rane ar trparatre oe B00? ‘ra 3001 respoctsys To rose eft lw dts 70. $e pare ate dw 276% sarin ho prev ath Butea andthe onto ou. 667 An saver fone sony a aoateby in dc witha ce, Sete te of st Ae to au ho prove onesie ‘Sattar ne 00h, 300% a 1604g "2 rape The ‘tac peso to lh th bo sshaute cow teflon cheng tne ot Cute {th ch nba a he 5 teach mune, mente ad rss to ext ae tbe, and 2 tu acon larson oh must te eneadin oo ak tho st nay teh am rrp converging ri th it of the The pmsoureonpors and Mach rumbor we 1SOKPa, 20K and ‘Ragoceay Ib fae coked a eos re dct ele th errr the et fre ef no uate oop Shane ‘89 mt comes per, es sown ne ie abo BS ‘Samer 2c and Ie Halon foto OD The prove op ars the ago 8 y— pr i The ame a te ites ‘Sous ibe the pba Sie rine ne hv re ra Ret me. “roca reper soe ngs be ue tes ndttey, Saat Mach preva 82d tha onto Oiod ah ote noe: ETO 97) SY 1510 A dct ith a laste 0.4m fas tom conarong-drln noe tt teal ra of 0.00965 Tho trprare ne esr DK. ‘The duet nage oto snore ia rats TOD Tinie emt oe ar ar ‘we betow desu th en ra raz out. ae the How i dot sane a Won caters teat e005, {lenin he ss fo rl. (ETD 187, ~—— “9.11 Averng dct fod wh a oma eontntaea lp of 08 LP'" Gceranlan ore. Ate titan fhe soar ip. he reno ermpatieanvlaty ao 1784, 99°C oa 177 2, | SRS)" averia wot shag the soaps wher the Sense G0kha, The ont crsnsesona rena he eran dat» zi rnd the ach numba ot the te ha serging uc tho ow ‘tate an wston, (WET a8) tt cae fe 0974 m do een cote: 0.005: The. Stagaon preset gran onperur vse ha duet” | Mow iP 206, aps Tho bast pose io wnsh 0 cat | ‘Schnee 304Pa fie grmm ato of he oe! ar ho a ow ate, Asre ta the fo uo. nt orale Gisane taught (HET 108) ‘annette cs i com sos scan ea a ih by an iscareni sanorgg nese rm age rvar, Noe he forgrae tho paver 3200 a 2004s, respec. The det hae caer ST aorm ands gt of fm. Aiming a on fer of 200 ‘ina ha eng a ace paver ho sora ne he persica! ow reais. ‘14 Ae spied sn Douted dit wih concn oss eco are 1 though comeing nota ae args rover wae te Yompeao ne prasere re 250 and 400K? reapecaly. The dt har a nah im and sams of 0.025"m en cesharges othe ses ih {mss of 100894: Aarne ton tesa Obes, ees fh Maoh manbors me el at to of eat, Sein presto an temperate ate ea tho So 18 6:16 An nae cortataron dct fe om ae rear tough 30 ‘Reacpi emerging ross, Atha il! he due ampere et Drona ae 300K an 1003Pe, poco The dubs a ag of Bet {cone of 0.8 ard deren ote amar 2 fe pasar ad para tb et fe nd P20 ‘An vn dct wh contr ronson! ra th it by an ‘Sento cong neue toma reanee wher th onpaat ard ‘ronste te WOOK ahd 160 a, respec, The det tas nth ‘Em angs damotro 2047 andt cng loo box pase ot ‘ane Aesming ston ear 000%, rine © te aes ow rate {1 coma ot ia eu rai atte ts {Sng am anda aartar of 20 m. Ans inet th bs Turiparate aod pressure re 000% apd 1504, spacey. Theat ‘Snares oa back posi 0 105178 Asuna & Hon faster of St darmine 4th Mach urbe the let i hn dt, 8 the rss ah ienperatue lhe oe th ea na ‘An ada dct fo wih by an eto conering-aagg ‘ez in an se rao of 9.7 gration see nha sy ‘Scar ie A00KPa To ang al hats Sed he dame’ of ho (dete Oem Tho soap Mn factor heat 0.001 Determine 5 faonekpossronan tal bans snrma stoke ate ne tet presse fo operant cei concn, 4 Wenascpmeresch bartcele noma secant stim sw ot ana, « Rarasos of bck pes fa stn eo, tow emo wan ‘ect, veepanion fo repeat unerepnon o en 2 site es wa a yan emp emering- rang ‘zh a al of 20. Tho saan tempat ane the SIagtnpossre oe 200K and 30 8Pa spac. Te dt hae @ Uthath of 2m and ama f 04a aenrge Toe ba frre 20 ne vee con ar 8.0, otra he umber, posie and tnaratre het he Ss an 9 ‘cist hs ‘redibats da od vith a yan sensi omening-rging ‘tz ih an wea ral of 1.7 Tho sagnaon tongue end a Sugden pase ne sty eso are 400 Kane 200, ‘sso Th dat has aang 2m ands dams tm, ang ‘Snhorer ea back rssice of 20a tn average ion ac Son iia etch tr, pase an angers oe one ‘A state dct os wy a ye oto omefing Nerang ‘axa wth an fe rao of 20, Th sagt orpaae ans th Stagaon pase re 0K and 01m epi. edt hae @ inngo ot tm and ner of 28 mend Socherps tom Srsptre wih bck pass of 1098? he svete cen lector lt samira ec rn, ay pas ate ck Se adnan ct ios ih by an esto sonerng- charge ‘enw pare rto of 2, Tho stagraton orgeree a to ‘Tagan prstre ee 250 tnd 600 oa, een. The dot ha 8 Toot of tm ag a later of 46m, and aches a bx pasowe ‘a8 HP. te avrage Heton fate le 0.0% ering he Ma tener erent a reste hoo ealen oe Guta ag Fras to 1.28 Arte spins oan sib dct hough en nee ‘veri aera poss thane allo ol The slogan Drawer ee ugnaton tomparaue th sup eer ae roar and 49K repose. Wa Gut ong em te ue ‘Inmet ee mand ne avrage elon fo 0.002 erring be manu slowest nth ines © the atarc tre th nit of ct st hich ho pra ack nee fete when ha Howe ron a he xt to dit, 4 Thebuc sae sh ht or paral shot wi * thorans of the bec pseu ache sore fw rate, Hw ep st sagt and ensrenpasion fe emo. 1.26 An ait dct tes wd by 0 wane comergng-aetng geri mn an ave eof 17, Ye agnor ae te ‘Eton tera ae 200 Pen 0 epost. THe ul hat val stm anes dana af 08m, ora cestarge oe Dk Bromre.cl 04a ibe ange Hen aor tho at 0, “inerine he Mach rumor rere and rosa a he ext te ‘he tdi ae ow (625 Airis augaea fo an adabae eal ough an onople ‘aera rong aozle than son rato oT sagan [sere a th stgraon rps be pl eto er {SovPa and 30 respucey. The cot has ng of ©357m and a ‘Stn o 0 md exchargas fo a acs pressure ! 8 Pa he Sera beso ein tho dt 0002 eterno Mach non, Frowur ed operat a hoa a auc an lo te rast few at {8.28 I oud to an acaba dct though on fons ‘lower onl ith 2 ae ao 2.0, The stagnation Pressure ed te span empath sup reer ae Bro ane 20 seapoavoy. tha duet hae eng ot 8 ‘Intra ohare ta ack pea 0 18540 to {rove isn fair nw it 000%, stern he Wash pune. fame en rosie ae to ee and lo eae (0.27 Ai entra contntra uo te ley of 20/6 ane snd ‘Seestely tom ge rove wih a lomoerare of 20K and 2 ‘mare of 100 ¥Ps. Th dst hase angih of 19 snd 2 ameter of eon Tact of 001 mine 1 te Mach rumba, aperture and resus eof he suet 8 oc aed ye ont {820 ir ners a costar en uel voy 2 S00me" a amperes a 50K an «pose of 130Pa The duct ata engin of tm ene ‘ameter of 02m Asan ht Ue fw etal wh an eeF08 teen lr of 0301, ceeming 4 te Mach mur, tmpotatie a rosie at neo eau, 8 me ce esr yn ent do, 4 the ca of heat arate. 18:20 Al eles 2 constantarea dst at @volty of 807m5", «tangerae ot 12° Sook ant upon of 20 the The ct as 4 Gani of 0.0 an {hs th esha thon seage to fat 9.08 1 oe ‘rote th en a ek, serine the ich suber, tamptrtre an rete a he elo he ct 3 Ihe oe exened by he ur an ce, ‘com an ensure of 0a. To aha ce fm. a ‘Se torn teal whan eat eon lao 3808 hon Sada needa ee cane 4 he hc ir, owe nie a he th 3 Seti ce ane ce eta an sage co.eus 4 j 12 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR ONE-DIMENSIONAL FLOW _ 7° ie conerantvanea oucrs winw Wearing on Flow in constant-area ducts with heat transfer (Conta equation earn Be when, ema fot 14 IWTRODUCTION HepdileaiAVncresast ‘om ane mena psatf ve, he tee mos conmv ters wih pra ootinaus changes nfo’ proper () chimes the cet 3a, {Gel son ad i cay ele aca xtra hes ech conbaten ‘ate seenonon In Chip he ec ee ng on a pert ‘Tere ete ob sence irl and egy eect sch ae we {iemel enone fows or sane aeastange owe. Howere, in Caper 6, ‘Sev offen on tc Sw war comlod tite tence fre chang td etsy ‘Sot, and sch fowe ne ale sige inn Bs Take cope, ann wl be ered ona pace ela cangs in the stag ety o inthe apcon temperature ol i seta whch fs it {ESSimcaee cn win coal tne Sic owe vealed snl stapatin ‘empectr-change foe ‘Sicha pacer rave icut skeen pact. the span vpn Infaed ce lomeced ar suk o nem est ech, tos fl ec wl tube peat owing th coanestin Btwn teenies fete ta at inte Siaany, change Inthe sagation esperar ae ought sa ‘Susi te thw ben hangin chemel compoon. Fil reaction {2h api tempera heap espraon of ul In tp sea Shc ees shana the nose Baath specs cpein ft pt "Homer, may portent colons of pac siieane cm be acted by avait slope Ts change hu en depres om arp ach Bost ‘lel Peete bn od cing rere xe et xc, ‘bol ec et it ng a det wb vey uporantcmpre th he beng oe canting eles fr Ul Seg of the dc. fa theca he {Shera itn noren the Ot all nd the moving et fe Ite, fe te canon of ieee wih a, he float tray od there the efor het Ching inthe hema conposton ae qt all ‘hmpaun nt the eet us to hage se sugnonfenpeae Gait Ani¥s neath -pVercnsane a |) Momentum oquation Fer seafront etnies fows, esr ee at on the enol been of eet eee by et on of tn reo ale, hat PAs -Paba werden Gis Cora woe fr seny, edness Yow wh test 3 [eh eee LP Es (6) he fat aw of hemedyamls 4 cele ‘hen te etal mon cont vin nd when chrgs int ‘en ae ee 4 detveitetarea(st-a-!) oy tn ti ir ne tT ‘bests ips rig he etn a ual mele singh ang ota : (9 eguaton of ea Fovarpret the eton of ee sven by peek? a ho envony change (6) The second i of themedyramies {Fert reese tert tener cet sean law of thermody oth ‘enone oa alae mye Be 0 fre os ‘To caalae the entry chang, the termi lars raed AP yo nf) =2.780K98" “Th wala selon 2 maybe turd by apphng he mamentam ouaon ibe coal aan of igo 2 a2, ravedeer ®t a DA Phe VIA nV is se bee Fa itt he ei an ART Then Son Ton 0 1h oe een el ot he he i ‘Aton wit ogi Won ough a at its a csssectinal {ate mat shown gto 7.2. Asc I he restr, tempara sd Atlas ae 1604s, 260K an i0dma"s reece. A selon [evn o754Pa ibe a eed Sivaoh secret an eenive 1 te propor etn 2, (9025) (S0O80Nn* 75009 Gop me Gre) ‘Using te comuy satan deny at action 2 ‘ea snap suonon tgs en 2 row be aa rears TaaTee arose PE 128K Herons ant ont nage por te 2 Scones ertauacremacr ratty paen(ls) "earn tne (yon ts ene ence Tate Wheosons UOOMe es 99K ans Y “Thos, hs amo of a ranalor may be determines rom be eney eatin io e= To = (8.72919 9°9006 Jeg KH1205K- 985) (6 Tre ene onnge may ro bo eva by weg Equation 7:7) oneesn(2) -n(2) = oossta¥e = HART it Boat 0.2 ye i Poe = corse) «7 ak VARA) enor ia ation.) 13 THE RAYLEIGH LINE “The Reig ln ws ie nodal ing the cus of eel bak waves tn Seon 3.1 the condos wpa ae enol tne ete ate es, the codons seo be nnd a the Sete sting een rt etl VG) 9g yb ltd oo the cont eq.) ‘riy Geral othe mrss cotton 72) (Ts sy be fond eh ‘eran a ote) sal) ny be aed tom Euan. ‘Thee, te caine eqn (7D, the moments eqn (7.2) aud he unon oftme Of dedoes nce tes png anh ete yh ame ‘te Ray won the daa. See heey enn. Bante Fg Foe) | feeling de sine Bauaon 0.8) Now ving Bganion (78 by Bapon (7.9) ye : ares ‘Eiteeat ae Sos we howe a ge 73. ian Pepv ap RA) conte Sguson of sty ppl; and she cenit wf the Mach somber 2) on ‘Sty, ih quan of tae p= pT, and the eon of the Mack uber regain (hoon 09 te te aD wera ocr pect gm, Reh--Desh, MPT Lee Pie oa ‘uation (7.1 none tt apne A white dope ofthe Reig ie [Site ics suber. Tak ms the ontoson she in Seton 33, ‘Shots sesion wad nt teow ante ay econ ‘tperomi tw Pinay npn 8, whee he sop fe Raleigh Ene 2, wel ‘San proce spl eating heodyenely ees, a us corrsond fot eto incense oe retin mst arp a ‘ZRtopydetone. hese te Mach mbes ith eg acces Sr colig salon pede. Howes, peso speed ch Mach mame ‘seer etn snd tne Wa nbn. Tau, he proce fe i, {Sin ston atm os te Mach uber Hens the Sv canst fone bent <1 wh ec hs adam or hx wletin ne. Hone, {he ebiletin of besing and caolng can alow «tow to ers = witha deominasy. uly in creing ate hat ring be betingo sabes {hw betwen puns al Bethe Reo ny the stat temperate Serene, 48 Me 7am 74 EFFECT OF HEAT TRANSFER ON FLOW PROPERTIES OF FRICTIONLESS FLOWS IN| CONSTANT-AREA DUCTS 741 Govening equations terest fom \Conier owns ies Awe compresibe in sonst aes ene oe gue 7.4 trie ano ean re nae o to Pag ine sepa Rh tne orden wt ele if ct beat ae shown Flee 74 Het waren te Bid an tbe srpanings ane inten changes Inte fow propery ad tee ange mn be clued by applying tse eto (0 th nites! conte (Sime of sre 7. cont an See tr form th rec, he i ow asin econ, aptantasanrrann Arisphrornsrsariessfeed Neng epoch tein, ant ing by 0A, pnb wv, 20g oa 1) Momentum equation The sum of the resect eng ote cnr ear ut be alae ye MeKp apd ea) i? apm pve AS ating ening ov 2 T an te denon fh Mah ter a pa a) q ae {) The tat i of thermosynamice anos hn no eon we Yen ee ens om area (wean sir 4r) | Nedlata he escnoderdifee, ie posible wot esa VaVede Dur or pet pte AOA and Mo ISBT, Th as Ved? ART, and ae wo tot on ty emt ote eathe quaon fae p= eRT mt be only reine ye a ‘te a a seated ove | (9 1 eon of oman oe Mansanntehion : wsadr 219 in sate rome ere aap eed wn ‘be bentopi gto pst cocoon to hee sae Ue psi ish woul be tne he cme deserted beoiel ea he e8 eo teste Velo, Ten, fom Banton (25, 114.2 Variation of flow properties with heat tensor () Yoecty het yan lnain le nd pn aatinn (14 by wing Batons (7.31 and.) ponaliob ac vel ¥ FRE att orm a6 ee de, aac ae Now sisting Hapa (1.16 ino Beton (7.13) spss won oP ly wih te ol Buon (7.8) nl 7:2, spose chain Sy hare em Men. ier aa (2 rompertre ‘Getta Eoin 16) 4nd 7.17) ys Soar rae on (0) Pressure (Gtr eons 12 and 17), poi woiin dp at ; Pecan ita aan 143. Same ofa tnt tets js mations ron Tu RECT ONS 1 cnenan i pine a henge om Fs Basch Bab fa henson empath ecry ene exe sring nemo iis on «prt in 2 {Ci fennel Seon 92 Ah ny ‘nd san fons, masa fit of hee ego Oe and decent when ee Ae sory a Tse 7.1 ow ope "Toe vation the naling Guid groper ecang the tempentre 18) 0-0) and 2 depen whee De HP) appt a | Tesigulon o Easton 7.8) inves cat che tempt iets supnrnk fore, Hovevey fr bone lw, the semper tee whe, ‘Covey ding Soe sau depts all he este aes tet foal wantr en eHow prope of a pel ous Ing fol fend can be sled ng tse egeton, he slton etn be Fplied by textging hen To toe sual fom, Uh cise fo epee whe wpa an downs soos of cont vl alge lb robe interme othe Mach nombre a hes see. romeo euton 7.2) es qa 025) Tena (heen of ete or pet a8, pep, he went a Is oe from foevim towety tow Re prey honing heating soning ening ow mfg inte hh df he coniny exon (1 te Mach aonb; Metnses——_Onraies Dearest Ap a Press 9 Oacromeas——ecansen oceans act nae ‘Temperature, T —orenses increases ——Deerensos Dacron neroucing the detnition of Mach sumber ot VM (ART) yells, fort fora, easy decrnen erases aii bem > ae a> [,won Baio 7.25) it ponible bin ony,» eons erates nernses—_Osrnse ae om vyacom, ¥———noanes Cease Dacascos | Rami dente 4 Siagnaon : pense, py ——Doeasen—‘Satone eases ereect HLT 5.9 veloc rato Fao seucuses boon iting Boon (7.29 and (7.27) no Egon (7.28 ys temp, Te esses tones ita = 08860. or To-900K/D5556 550.41 “ran the amt au ante par mas e 25a To)= (108 JHg"K"N TOBA K~5004 = 140.710KG" open G maybe und of = 20 a Uy 120 @-eymatai8 (eeprom (218-0904 Sa207.4 JG") = 9886S (a) Th proses, wi sted ante T-8 dagen of Fg 7.5), foows Lp supaconte branch the Raya ne > sae may ol be soni seed by pot Super pects cul ely fe sue if in vend in of temo vie in Ue frm of ea “Ganson hock ave fom sate fo ste. Hovevet, esol te at he elo val aly when te heer eo ne deta, Others, 2 cent Bw Cue tcl eos Mack ube yoy Reinga ie inne of gre 7.70 ar wc he ow Ge oct fo sagan “spel conn rom sate’ ae 2, en tents se perl nde by yl of Fg 7.70), the ne hich lloned by nora sos vat sate, Troma 1 sate lod angle etn uso ‘pees ron ste ose i spl eng wpe ped om tate ‘rsa terween tater nd flowe by acl Sack wave sod conte ‘dl hating abn pede ow or Seder of Ta, neato of he oa Noch mamber, Mi erate [il ach narber, fy ze een In Fgue78, When T/T = 1.6 he ee «Sane fo thie in ich here tn hangs te at ne hed le epee wins soma seck wae. Fare pl ae To Fo = 1, “Spresponsngt hen ann, there we to brash, Ope crespodig 38, bie bow sad the i one coronas nl sien How Fecha eo branche he ve two the a Mach mabe is ee] ae fi" rus a o 7.7, Tho pose wn elas ‘boon wan he hint sip § t <1 31 <1 >t I o8) Weak dotnaton Notpussbia 31 31 31 ct ot 1-0) Netponle == = IN{6-H) Weak ligation Pomble <1 t ct {Coit het coin ad min, wharas that of dtancon wave [onl by she sro presse sand Tempete ens asec ‘hte normal hack sae SrmnnH.Got xe Bontat Comet Fl, Peto Ot [Regn onsale 8 Fa Me ln New ae [sash Ph. G00 Ss yi, 98a Aly Bee: Bon, Epic a ef es Now br J (880 Ant rts ob ete Shapiro, A. H. (1983) The Dyer and Themsodanis of Fluid Flow, Vo. 1, a en Now ae [oy A ta 1.99 Get Ded, V1, Wh New gure. 13 To moos o wank ttn wove 4 ‘No the Royle onc he Hoga curve wih lene of oes, ‘it two pty Pan ©, Poe orerpeds to eon ostn wh ‘bad fy wide pot Gi for wen Stontan wt al super ow. As ‘Tl weak tonne ot pole, aice sb Kv at pm B cmos Be ‘etree spare ow at pat © by aly the inp ato of bt on he Rael ne Q “There, aly tong detonation and ek defagaon waves at pnb indent ngs Th Same oped degen wave cone 3 pas 7 Atta conan i Ht. Lf ee, trac nono ese an san ere me 0400245 to 0 reaps an tt ney toh ura Me cx ssn boston ten pt om, te aa 1 ‘cote tea hea nao 113 eosin sont flo hs Hom caning dvr eee, A 1° fisted te stapstongrstr,sagnaon noe “i ach utara SDK, S00 BRO 20, especialy. Ato oxo {he aoc daney i 25k Assuming ties flo, string 5 es oh oy and rm he eof St A te et iNiows witout tetera a sho seo fa consartven dil A he ‘etn te Nach rene, ampere an arty 00, 09 Kant Sham rapeslny. Ate onto duet he ac mambo 80, Datmira hnFost wart pt mass, te entny change an te ange the Sagrton peur fr he esos. ‘Ne towe uae 0 ge wea a dul wh a ootesectna eho (aA eoctn, te rps and posar are 0K ane {to ¥Pe repecnay Ain ent 20a, the fo i choes.Caenoe be ‘a of hat rain onapy choge ns te hang ne sagnaon Dna. Aer scons No [Ret wo won tough dot of contest danee, Thoin Arb tin ogra an opin rea the fonts, Botarmine te staple lps ad fe ach umber dot oust. As, ae the sang De ep ond Ine tagmton presse ote proces. [eoreemares dst conrad fo ighpressue a ese tough {2 canrsging nos, The wa fhe te oad cree uPbY io co ig" io he apaaing rough be cu. To rose ae femparive he resan we 750s ane 300 respecte. he ‘hc atages to on simoopar th a prose st TOPs, hn + Semin te nas tora to the dc at lam of 005 find feng 2m. Asus en w n he nae an too Howie es QUETY TO, ‘Aires aN thought 6 in nh an 0.4 min ‘Senor Inecotomn ion ince 98 Te sagaion ‘tala, torpcely. To el lace cng a ete ‘ot hat ress wv sansa ason Sr tc ates ‘i Terao gb it hg ote ETY 165) ‘irae toe tee 9 alg et 1. nt Te ‘Sorc ot en ve et 2 038 sinning nd So sagan presi sh it raat re 310 ae 291 ‘ewpoctely. Te mata et ant fe tw 0 and, ‘tees: his ard a oma tex tare ce 07 {font onvanco of cc. The ass two ough te ate {Figen tw ct cores ek wae he pose 108. {peta ona ranch cs YOR, the et sh nba ‘ree ate sing ona ck GET ed) ‘Rupee att roe yr a, now nh ue bo, fia svcd wore he alr emp #2370 tn ¢ ‘ety of 88 me" Tel ir anesoes a he sips ne ‘Scapa nth at aot a om ‘opi omoares wh os fow veut bo ergo. Tho eoebsion ‘hander may be sonore a a caineare wise ot {iougn ne Gut canbe ponte as sap change foe Te pee tus egies 3 sg Catt tal econ inher og meesan uncer eve crane ne ‘anon Sambo soumed ta he properties of Bt cans ru pode wo sgt oon resp oe ester wa ae Spee hat Saw ne et hb neo taon Steady and two-dimensional supersonic flows 44 IeTRODUCTION omit spon neu os toning on bth ef yal with ne, Shih taeacuved sco, shorn n Fg. Ashe plc where the allstars {Gru the stsmins acto wl eine ddet Aa ety pee ce end hore ee open Sch we Theale atin ‘kin wave teste he ach rl, Wc elite he Mah Somber Hgutin 10) sienct "hfe oe cept fhe ala ne amber of Mah ees asc tonerteoving ee conse angein he ean o eum. The a Somes ante rr sly st oe csespooding ration at the wall “Rranhstes lah nes Tere, to cons water = eat o he pe ower athe wet ae oft wll = ae formed. The Bow n-decane ‘Satis conga wanes on the lowe side fhe Wal whl eee ‘sentiment caput mare te upper ade, The erate he hn wall ‘in the hed of tse waves aso be The ste Oe as de ost. ‘hg og he ch ns, "he lc er othe Sow Screyte angle of iniason of be Mich synesthesia the Macs og, deen, tented by Bgetin (Soar ong rhe teh number increas ees tpn wae che the Mach ane dene fot a eslg the Mich mae odie, Hower, terssocompresin meio Mach ume decrees the Mach glen omy cing te Hac wet emerge ad oman bine sec mae, ‘hic ined he ow deo, Tithe destin eth wl hinge bp thea the expan wae ese + ented expaton nae, wile compen wave cog intr gb ok ‘Shera sin nig 2 The deeion ange ofthe seam fn Figue 2 he Spe a dat Pvt Sip: ound ben cre in wich oan expansion waves | continue ccpraien wars eo are fn ele! Paseo Th he chanor slg sec wanes, Prndt- Mayer ows wd el opboos sce onde gue 82. SupseneHow oe comer 2 OBLIQUE sHock Waves ‘Aon shck vae pepe fw isin wa studied ia gee S| ‘owas, many pen sts, wn obbqe shock wove, whch ined © | the Bo detox i Aho the vy owe sienon eligue heck waves epteseat deg ‘iam eadinesanl fy he eed odin th age shock aves ey {ibe to the of te eal bce wes Ben tah a9 lave sec re | ine he Sowden, seers aden a anos conan ehngs Int propery, th honk psc elf bg sata Tn he sen ‘shen sed he to dneienat sgt link Wat, MC igh ‘eur rng he presence weenie steam o eo pcos ‘opted tn crm bwin Figs 83) and 3) especie {8.24 Governing equstons fre staph abiaue shock wave ‘When 4 soli supronic aan ie feed to cane is diatom dew be ean of ny he ow ten the eam cannot acs tbe pene OC ry pada sch an sjcuent only ponte by + Sen shang te Srpers i he a fm us tock ware Ae ae spent Boe EtTtwedimennal concave corey sow Figte 8. Fo sl deleton ‘gly, tefl asst te peyton igo ec, ‘Mech sachet corner The foarte sc wove fem sn ‘esl toh wi withthe ete ow bring Ben ened thang he dens Sele "Th gretng eqns wil sow bs writen a worm peace once cunt by testing the com ase we in Figure 8 “Soc shld ate thts adorable, te tangent lw veloc, i ined can the shag fw det se te alqn Sok Wee omever, a he eae meat «ete guy te lear mone ‘tuo re cial fr two-dimen Sow Wi th dna ale ‘edhe dol ton, de uly of he rw osm ilu bck vei ‘Sonia se spies tanta sss ral eo wee = SON oe. = = =& ‘ « » awe 8.9) Supasone toa about a ei: sptoio conpesonin acne 4) Poca ant str tw apace an dome of he ile sick wae, ‘he stow te cone oat npn “TIE ere Yn nd Yaa vk compensa te shock woe, The shat [Bite wre uso ant ends oa ts, Got nVaam8n an {Momentum equation | levraea a econ ah tm tena esas oar Then [> Sani oem estos ee Pheer tada ents He Aston sth cossetna area th as ow ae constant es oe = D-temoVe-pVan BU Vad a 1 te ngetl eeon them casein he peste ot it Wale) = Vn oe caetling as {6) The frat tow of thermodynamics ~ “TE: uve yt bined by using Bouton 15) ina esto nema the igs oe ee of ements © | Bie ae wa) facpatsntnen > hoaael Maan iS) an Ce te te ch een click ea eee van aman thon ven cna Serta Honors tee ‘toe nub ie Sse Set ee. | alr ttnan he sacar sng nd dict a . Sn nt enn sass sto a Yaak ME eo the dw aor the ablgue ak wave a a Ya 24h Di 240 Data Va" Ge Ge batae Prom Pgre 8.4, oe shou ae tit Ys Vat and Vu Vt 8), Hence (aye sxcord int of hemodynamics Ste aa acl heck severe ere of eee tons poy ngs ose tk ee Tey ee as sn 8) 240k DA alos so Gena (9 Eh fe aye en nc Va VT above equa nw be sole he election an ore AF ami tme on L foe dco lh oan rl re eng Pde Tosi te Se ho eae [Saas eh tp i a conn Mee ee he aoa ti i tan in a we Th we sv slg na eri erat ute Tere ane nce lato ge kone ate a oa Ibnctvor pac ea Sik wooo ced econ a [sien ess een es cea Me ek Seca owe aa eee Cocina te nee eb fe wom sn Mowe ten nebes es i eMail Sear toee Ulsictc cng delet unease ene ga | foe bn es etnies Actes li is mans te hens cia ne tg mn te ena ga oa bene ae a) oa hs poi ne may coe ht gn. (2) nt 4 col cy te ‘ey capone sd ey nda Ege 2 3) {Eins nea ot west won a ee sberk mae be ‘Sec wae fs Gr wei conc hrmal © Be foe den, whe Be {Paeab tsp compen en wc 18.22. latone fr the Sow of prec gas across an obiave shook “The gunn avrg the ow wn og shack wane wee en ite ean cloning yoo ese he aw aot eae sek. ‘ne mye banded cling tee egos, he lotion an be flied by ron chee quinine ae frm nhs seton es eto oched (a) Rolain batveen the epstraem and the dowretream Hach numbers ttan seewen the Machonmbers usta and daenteam of blu shack et atar ffosn(ie ure 8 shck ange uc oh lin er as Ti ohio at raver hho eto dtm ang, ee hn he mals fw detonate, sient eno mo one ay stereo Figure 83. Unie et ‘Sit, the ue sock ve no laper stake othe wee Dt ts ‘Este fo of he ond, ashen ge 6, The deed sk cure, SerSagth decenes opel om tha se shook st th apex of BESS ach wave rtm the by. There te ee ge of ‘Giger noes nih take bk fra gen upeeam ln Shmber ty Te cnpe e wave she shock decent stance ae pede aie Hach pan snd te sap of he body Fo verte by oi Tuuievtncopeet ieee wes he wang ioe heck ave ets ‘Moni es besslon he wedge here the wea ols sosk pee. "Suche suqu seca ln oso wath spent: Bow na once come, Sheen in Pipe 87, The harass of hs obqu ack wove are eat he srr thcurper blotted ahve Powe £6. Thvean been ifenc rece) th cee eno Pigeon soe th enn sno ho aed se tt a EE na ad 17 Bares ans pte of te hw ch de Ef with nw Mak maser occ we cay se ee he flaso Qi (9 pen nas nti ec E Pacem ence tin [Sums dhgenseie eet et yest en Beata Beh forest (2 Tempus arn eles soak wre |= ‘eeepc rth ort ola sk ny be sd by i Exif areal te igo tk wer a Ty_ (haat (24 sin 1) 1 Foe pan aba oun IF ow tov erat stuns cnet hn UE cenaons. to restr a amseraire of he ree ee 25 KPa an 20, npn anerate fe psc al pote tone io tovnroan aes mabey be Yo aan onde Dns a scess on oblave shock wore {Pid maces numa sk ae es by Banton 5:20 snes tote fom normal te slg sec we Ge rath DME i Segoe butt oun {0 Woacty rato sco an bq shock ware ‘nine coon eon 1) ate sy en (19 el My oe, 24~ DAE ae ‘eed {tren ne posse, para ane nama canpanant of ho Mach narrate (9:19 41. bie stock wave careapendng 0 Man 50 may be eve we (g) Stagnation prossur ratio across an oblique shook wave ‘Fetaann pest soe x norma stack we en by Equation 3.22) ‘hn tow be tpl tthe ow srl he oq tho mae a8 Be (eating) Pip 2468 ot oyu BHSB)254a)~ 6.45 1Pe Ten 1520 or Tra(t.s0j0 = 286.8 2 sat -2=3 Geeta (0) Entopy change acorn obque sok wave : 52 cru fre tagy cnet an ign nk wine may een! ‘yspn a 8. Bow nh pret esha Han 03574 Tun T 80 K8871 = 808K ho. tom Ao arpa = AKER EK 847 he : Maar fp ene shoud noe tae Mach mur shran cg sbak wave smi" i=1) ao ‘Bampoat ‘Nar upeson al tow rvs se Mach ear of 0 pass ovr 8 ‘anew carter, se shonnn Figure 8. An ebiue shock tae, which kes ® a cre ch Store by 20" a haw a ure 03 he bess ana onpnatire otal ow i Pa snd 10°, aspect, sain ho ch nba, rosore a ampere sonst “Tile cas shok wave and aso the doco si sone wich ecb 1) sock wa il Became aoc Fete 88. Ste to Exam Bt Fave 09 Sten wr Bango 82 Solon Foran penn Wh nba f= 39 nr a deleon eg of b= 29°, Eng my ctr the ono ap tam auton 8) 2. ue cots une ‘fat roln see for sper tow ovr a const ctor, he Wee shook ‘sites to oecar One atts ot hal ough etnate he sod fre gn ona on Fi 5, ow cnet Maas in 9776") = 1.997 ow on say us Apna wth se = 18 dataning Mp 08078 9 Mya P)Pox9789. oF py (4749 (00%) «227.047 Htea 582 or Tea (hstayaania ato nay, se manu icon age shove woh te clgue shock are tne 9? eles oligo ok mae Fates ol an clive shoo wane [823 Retlacton and interaction of que shock waves a © (a llcton ofan oblique shock wave trom wall ‘hens vo dexsoay i ethene nv | Deets, [when a mpenonic dow pases oer x cose eo eblgne sock ei uence a the eee. Thi shor wave delete the ow toa al le ‘ening te rules foe the elerSoe snd nesting sek wines ae ‘Sr, hl tock wae pang oo pane al te ow cd td th tock et sn Pipe 810 stb resent to dee the a ask ‘ire theme ng nd ener the oy In sa pore ote val ace “i's oer hn lg ten the veel shave mele ane eet EN te any ee on it oi ee is Si cen ne et bmiorviematn diet thinnaanece sueetaet Ta co eeioe st spruce cyan eae Soap iaystmeencae eae lees SSeS Sion ieee EAM iis cle neo, Now, Ken Aopen, COME 0 My = hsb « [Gen 20718 Mee 0041 soon Mach rer art eben shoe i : Nye gle crt 287 § Tag eay aa 2TH Newton may dtrana he wae ange aero let shack nave i277" om Euston 2) 28 i souseran ese Fe 0.11 tach con +1 ase ne ames, cot serr = (M43 = una, 1 Bi Rereeresm nator amano elf | SSPEARS anon mma ogee GE eeunnmer ger momaca net Ser ee |e, he Weak shook elton ou eee Now, tom Append, Caesar Hn = Myc BaB7}(6n 9824-85, Mg 20097 6 ye Mt gO gw aT 1 te Mach mambo ater oles ano ve. a 2 te ada niche rete shoo av end i th How det, “Sowidn . [ae eaten angle earspaning te M80 an = ay be ‘eterna tom Eaton (28) 88 soo nth wor (Se gedaras|-eor ee eee eseemataagreaetorena omnes ates ona 1277 «aa4r (9 ha ong a8 he ecw eo ta 38.24 teal dtr th : a rc nh ced en sn th rtd soa wove, hen om iy | )Reetion ofan oblique shock wave from 3 re pressure boundary \Couer nj a vith stoner prea on the bur ho fn "Th net ohgae ack nave dele te tw bya ane ef 3 ri he trendy nde oan ri the pe te Bing “ough Aes rol, he presser he oie sack are er ti he bint proses fy > =P. Hovever, he pie! une cnn ie thatthe peste pen © mast beats, Tero, an oe hue cro tl expan wae in ref dete prere inlet sack wae topes the fw mt pw wal No it gwen 3.12 Sou or Erle 83 ol ae pat Os ml ye ee sgl athe ame ec, then he ‘ rn na aoe 2 @ Imiietigs ont ‘gir 413 Resin of an elu eck wate fo pase boudiy ” x ces ZS manda ra Pap hod eet occas a shown in Figure 8.16. This tow pattern nvalvess aoe shock wave called sith fn re ie ee ods pc es ene eres acerca "Js Recon part pc, a om Poe 7A cata cos sso, he we ne woos wat tums cowrer Pq an ange 0, wh al Soudiey conon ai ol her i eect one hak wae, RL eine the al true an appropri eg te tees eit ‘post enc omy be soageded oe neal (0) Iteeetiono atique shock waves ee sere cs sark ver OA an OB ines and tar hui, ee aren Tne When th segs ofthe 0 ack WAS SERS fe tu poner elms 2 9 ae to ret. The pl TEENS; hod ar otc O vegas tn te se esses rei and 3 ore the seme However ater proper may be iter, These, ra Pine houch pt dive ei a8 08 kn Oe Hae ie etons {sod $e then pall te te ip Hoe Te 355 une bush wave ae eee ich at the penrsineie TEES ne dowcas Te inrerdos of ro cq sock wate ksowa 1 ‘eeu itrecton ‘Gi tei me san ee wagnie bq snk wives ssn a Aeyrconons the re ote ope, aos the Mach nersestin, ae tioe gu Anh rst of oc tek wes sc ag ‘tay, te eheckavo anf tthe owe gu shook wave coreopndng sou ad tnd be 2 maybe erntad om Eaton a) #8 cote (5! aattngsa ite bear Fig 817 Sheth for Example 84 in may hen bo sole orth wa sbockinee ng il and ov Ne a 78am tach rumba ow arma awe aback Ware two ok wives ne ners lO, anne par a ah a an ta aslo oe ow wn Agath oon 77801897 se ve ale et ne shock wt crepe 6 ‘ow th nol emponent the Mach nber anh smi Tete ans toy bo elute rom Eason 8 uso numba ah tamu nel 3 (9 alti) cy ne wa a cect 8 ed SEES. eve nach member fh tral he upper eb ibe 8789 or py=(.789}2004s) = 7585 1P reply. Fray, the Mach ramber a eaion 3 aes nee t cans tho aon fb pion, one centon i ene egln || 4or mt ba iow. The mst conn gaat: eraon tho et _]ic tow denon ange, One may assume tht no ol tow Sleton ag In bho upward drcion angen he aalecton sige fhe one wats gener, en prone. Henge, an Reta stun ib Roeeany and a ‘he may soe Bw to From tho georery Me aaa ge in = 2728") = 1.390 Now, he scm eomponent lhe ah uber ed the pass in ein 2 Fhe domino Appar O 8 i= 1.8 9 e074 seetohadt yt nips=2055 0 pr=(@05}2004Pa)=41301P8 a8 e101 m0 TODMENGOIAL SUFERSONE RS fomave con waves 28 a ed ‘the shoskrnarl of ho uper eased eas sack ave cevesperna fo Mer S08 ands a" may be vated om Eason ape ees ME an 2 teeth ae cot 1h (1421 800" Va sass ease eatin) 4 a eee eee eitograuma mn at ce 2S ns cre! vastness Pa Pon tapi as wy Sn ae one pipes .te ot pr=(@a59(sr.04P3) 967.5 178 From te gromety in gu 8.17 pease oe Ha . senha tet ‘Ten he shoskorve arate of he lowe tte obs shok wae Sto be evs om unten 8.9) prea) 788 98 Tho os of te Haron sas in Yb 1. Ale ho 98" p.a13014Ps and py t206 kha pinta ese tek re cry each re ot i Ia O868% 20d M0806 en Apoenc,rxpeclvey. Tha Be Mach subs Stans 4 and Soe he ast asa To” MH ‘hm thon bo sald fhe waa shore an by land: 2 WEE gate he ach insert of noma th oer reece ecw a= Mend (00069 4.03") 1498 Now, he peso In region ay bo doting em Apeend OW honda les 2200 oF praleSeoy7se Pa) = 185 1 ie po one shoul ot tt pe 07:5 Pa py TEE HPD A ta Day enanertarveninio) ‘volvo unscopat Ses fs, ow mast te mor tones ‘Copa wal in oro nreon to prcer elon 4 and dcrease Kn elon {Ponda abe tet lone may sac larger nt fow dstectn argo done aso1e aia) T= TE tn ehh cena cone ag sn 2h aera ants iacned tothe ppseting Howat an ani ef, Whe he SA'S te ows hm a lo Te stl lay arse tach pants ew tear oped of sound. Pl prope SORPSEEE Sac we nic te they ee ol onto of ana oie am m mln hs me ation fe Mach mer = MR) dierentats lgscitmcaliy ” 3:1. Governing equation forthe Prand-Maye flow av ea ar ver an ot aie don, ere ss change in the gran merce. Thea, fom Bausin 20, aa . Via Verny(W+¥oen 4) Veer p=(¥ 4050 da psn) ‘Since dei nites, con dv» 3 and sin dv = dr. Hence, eon (Waa feo nn 6) q Aye an Now, bing Byaos 17) (18) an (8.1 its eleven -fat=D Tiana Re at ane fee hhh ure cs fo so ane [i atin ae TR . (Meson iar) wwsar-0f aay | = aes ie wet (21 ar) wean aan ‘ow, eson ys Verge Voor nna Vain gd sing adr Negketing the prot he renin an spin ayvounedr co an) Figo 8.18 louima gunn of peo eum 1a. erey no De DMEM sPUnEENE LOWS in ms mp ig ie Sov smn stricter ease Mach me ae tet im bu om in Appentic ford me Mach mater eng the epee arable "Th snl ge whch ofl ao ue ing he expen fom Mich umber of Myo ay ely be dined y sarang "Pa ation of the sername pope tong an expnin fm yb oan by ng he toe ais. ‘Xl savean ata ach umber 20 expands oath #10" eee 0°, respecte ta Mach rub, Bes ane Temperate ere exgensn and ase comin the an a9 {str tse ig 020 ‘ure 20, Seach or Example 8 fours Ub legatn coeds ber tho oxparion maybe deterined by who Dopanaie Gh ye 68 ip =0128 oF py = 25401278 106.04 Tlas0SS58 or Tyn22nKiosese 4014 ‘ye Mach eng a th Pranat-Meyer ange covesposing a Mr = 20 tray b be om Appar H 92 |e ution pnt an pir so erpason fn eos ‘tp =G7057 ce y=(947057)105.64P3)= 19.60 KPa Than 04688 or Tra(OAsHo(e014K)= Yom le n= a) 20" 2488" 1") 18.18 _,Iaspeai flow, Mich wares se need ts mach scare sro ‘i Fe Thre Mach waves thn li ure ne sea re [cue shock wee nthe region berwen te wall th cle sk wee | wis Leal nd poset the ane chac# he stone apron | fin Therfr th eqns deceit ate soo ape oe hr epi aw exon sa core corner tes thegh compen he aces a il, il eal be neue, este fo Ses The prs of Pantie ow oa cst cre depends onthe carte opr Fae me rh eer ens J mad len i east Bef r= ea 1.9.2 Maxlinun toning ange for he Pranl-eyer expansion ‘When ac ow isexanded teh soon comet Mach numbet of, {he pene fe gunn fan ace sw own in Figure 9.2L eta ‘einer nl, be ren y Eqn C.2D,apeots «Sieve (Tilo The mma ng snl ae peta fr decries ‘fe otinan usin endererganed ome cognate ‘Tescomatc deg of cert may rege modexion in rere pee, ole damage fhe ht east 112. Reflection ofthe Prant-eyer expansion tow essen tre sr oa Toca men roa or ae EEE catia Spouses (a) Reston of exponen waves fom 2 wall {hen te eapnon ve ingigs open al the Bow ae he aie ‘Spann save odes away Goa the wal t sha a Pgue 8.22. Theron, (i reste exponent e pres fo dele the Bow tk tho thesomngi mt ror tor ina econ pelt wal There ech Machine sei exon slit arom espason Mock wae tomas ‘hetboundny con athe a. he nein of tenia an elected Mach (esl out sare ow wii the neacton egion nae ‘Rleaed exon over gue ea )nereoon of exeonion waves rm at reser bundy atte rth an sam ee et a oe ‘Stuhr enw aw ey fom ny ame ae deca nc fw Sng eva em A Fgue@.21 Maxau tuning angle ore Prat-Meyer exansio Potost of Payer expansion wes fm aw ssreunay iw 823 loin ol cxpartn wares a ate pseu bounry eal he pee after he nde exposon ve smile han the eet ese tht <= ne However be phy andr conden tees ‘ha he restart pin’ O mst be senspee. Tee the expan tes ‘rr ral cmp ann ede tne the prea ck ‘enphr pes, Alon se he onze wats comes tty aly landform an oe sock ve Ths ego she we deste he Sow “fut ay om he Buna OVEREXPANSION AND UNDEREXPANSION FLOW REGINES IN CONVERGING-DIVERGING NOZZLES ‘Oneespnson sn undrepusion fw rps in convening sees, were previa diced In Sen 48.2 The Gwin both tae sean |) Sess wit th role ad demi Ne desgn condnan, Howe, te {yuniny coon lng he cine i nay these ata on lan wll ‘ainsi fo. Te reser 1 ceed these tack ee freon 2by meta of at ease sock wave. Hwee, the foe mw ted tote the cng Torn te Sam bck tod th sna the tage nck wae elec an he oe of reecion om peel Tne 3 fe [2 Stow pute oe enestine bur he reste een ha oe eck pre fons eee one shock we Par tha ety he ends ck ve fects om the extemal raced examen a, Ashen he ea ean the tack peste fe elon the ow bn tre aay othe alin, Tota he vba rd te boat epee eet | fom he cnt ofthe a expr wes Tocco, eT el = decent he em es sn bck pre ft it one hold ot atthe pecs get Cong x competes and cates fj) repent Ac eet ofthe apenon rckt nse the a ptr ge 1 sits fines Aough tis patra soul eed oy mine ct he ambient aon he et bonds he we pene ‘od Aye Baw 8.4.1 Overexpansion flow regime low parece 6f Figure 4.279) ea pal epretnan of i fw eine When Rte ane thy Cy le ec cn | ‘Diack cf ome regentestnn, or chova la igre 824, Theoweespaicd “SSompen he ack pes haath ston okaue shock ware Wing {Be tack penne is ec! fhe ee eae ppt a he aw omoresiel pw gue shock waver tached tote ext pane, a an Fee yr pon mi ot noe ‘roy, Atl ht tals of Bo rps Whe eptin ei nd SSfct eons of crt Tite, oe seton ool ows ou Bt “tse hee ht hs ee ek ee, chur cock waver fc # the nade Tae fot he exit ofthe ae ‘Sate wb unform end pre Stereo ea owe sc te cent ‘te ete vey compen mathe eminem be eo Hee, he | beanaie os Inrrempee omer ti ase i ot sh ante i sticshanin Foun oh To eae depen oo ae 7 Fgue.a4 (iow in an aeenpani spar mee wth epson lpm =0093 82 & py 204Pa/905062 2108 he Til =05081 or T= 150408001 = 2952 Four 8.25 town an oerpsnded apse ces ges ‘song a he pasion ren 218 equ he bck press, ‘ow, carespucing to egress atop 40 1P 9/20 KPa = 2 on ay ‘wave anh stagnation resaueo econ Hom Append oe Mus 198 ys O72 nd = 08876 ox pa (O9E7ORI8W HPA) = 207 Pe From tho vl angle nrogion + of Pus 828, nba a 6192 o 6 =9810" Now the deletion angle cepa eM 220 ad =. 18° ray be ‘hina Ham Equoon (2) 28 oe (ater oo (Hass “the dana Mach number may pow ba ote ns] Nh tw NE agn he Bj BAG" = 12 peots an cua ses wave, eo aaa, 0 Ta Tye 2882K “Te tompesiy 6 etan 2 fy M21 7388 Wf 06050 of Tou hersozos2n)= 104.7 from Aen. fom tate evarcs he cre by en ante ete tea" {9 sTEOY sN0 WOMENS PERSON FLONS ‘Shinn upeoar ae ear Mach manor norma te OH tee fee 1290". me ‘cas, or may etait shoskarve eal lhe eee tock ‘areapondng fo Mam 1.798 and by 1290" tom Eaten 8) oe re whch may hen be ees the wos heck nave ange by lad er a8 = #0." Now, oe may aban ha nod separa fhe Mach eu saree ratte noma shack uae a =n Min fy 1.736 88 = 1.316 = 93760 pyre L088 or pealQoun(.206 = Tae kom Whe 1206 a Te(toerw(tsog=2204 ofr 05750 or po = (.0758)(07 KPa 00a nina IT non, to ow pura tho arta, co ‘A ng te te one on expan fon i canepl ana see the ‘htaue shook wave is edebte, an ra 92081 ‘hz, he ross een oq! th bck saaie 20 tat pen pen 60s ons eesponding to praia rato pp. = 40 WP Pa 180, oe Ina cbt Mach brand tampa ate teaspoon a fn Dosena Ce Meet fee 08280 o¢ Ten (04285/@352K)= 105.8 rossecvay ety, the Pand-Mayer aces for Mach murbec My = 29 ae Mec 72a be Sianed tom Appr , = 8B08" and = 140" ls by an angle cs = 1840" 608" = 12.50" especialy, stat ie Ho e wera ay om 1842. Underexpanion tow rogie Po pute ot Fg 427 i piel specs of heuer for Tene Fo atthe on onereapaded hea shown ge B27 Along ‘Ste xt pes ens tan tet pres the coed ep ik Ferns sie nulcei ne oduct per The aw he we ofthe {Summed tem snd pale The per rele a he back pes Ineglon 2b tn capes Arh sume ne he Bo inca 2 ind way Tom tee ceateline, oe th ow be ae the ot “icc de expunon an ell em he ceteline stesso 2 ‘Sincng' Ge prem pean 4 elon the bac pes. oe thi aoe he ‘teed syn of espana nave! telecom the ein ya of emptsan see. Ti ten of compression wavs wil ht fai Fra ‘Save ss wave whi again loses peste in ein # to de ick ‘rome Hower fc fori aw trod woman tec. Toalgn he tow ‘iki oa est, those sos wae relat os ote ogee quer Eton in an aneemanses agen nus eae In hl eth pree neo ai ihe an th bak pres [this pit, on aud ote tt the posse eae eaugh compe ee sn conte tepet ell A he xt of th pero cokes morly the ow "ave ptien won example 87 fa aod c-cd on ‘ote a 209 shown foe 88 The paar a onprin eat ‘tthe opie ot vos are 2 4Pu and 200K teopctre,Ite tac femeca 1s dee trae npr a atone Ssotuton | Sancaonang on? ay onan en oe q lem = 0.1278 p= 20KPaO 1270 158838 0 O86 a Ty <0rKsice- amok Feepecoay A ong a8 he wxprsion prose lento, hn e eat x» 4 ny wn x Figure 0.20 Site fr xame 87 OvERERPWSON MH, UNDEREXPNNGON NOW REGED 2 om, catesponding th pressure elspa = 1 KP 1665 kPa 0.06059, {he ono tack nunbor an lenges maybe clad on Append Mew Wf 04665 o¢ Te=(0450),9001) = 104.K ‘sey tam een bP ers an ob eahoet and naar eapectity. Th, he How nee been tuned ugh a a arene egret ot438" 85 ‘SUPERSONIC OBLIQUE SHOCK DIFFUSER oom ets an ese eligi ped esi t alow doa he Fag peste wih nium tin agate pes In ‘isin 9, cometpngven dine wee ed tit wah oot pete nal tthe dlp sed. Torte, hey se 00 ery pact ‘Toinesereap or ef-dvign sons. Abo, oe ud note ot he ein ‘ain ome Keene watou hegig the tvs reo veecg ions tn eit the oto of ring eastern verging ie, he ‘htm be semoved Thre bese sig noc eos ies, hav n'pure h39" The psu hcl bate pets th 8 ‘or shockwave wa fare cleon inthe ening pat Te “Enatge ths coaaton the hgh agoon presi le arn ie ‘nl sk wae orth ean, K ea be wed a Mich mbes che tw. "Tis oape ny be cine by sing a p-peq sos cir, sth nigra scant pron dele lner opecan {pewdetinghnsoh clue hackware. The decent pron 2 then 88 ‘Reap noun sock st the on nee esng sabes ow es foie Faw 8.29 Aromat sack ser SAG Figure 8.90 A ephetype clique shock ter win one shock decent in he vega pacage A ogo the gt Mh nme decreed shh ne eet Ona ik wee "he te umber of ce thst rete the ower agnton peste ee secre, hsp Sq thse de ith wn eg sho showin igs al Ones nte that howe he bundy eer ess oe thespi, Theond onal dk eave rater sn aes ese pant We > fay cut fo seperton. A the mer tue sack wares tetey She Tendensy for ow natn eraser Thee, dag te esq okey iq tack die, he cesper shold ue conpome betwee the al Staceion pear emery sath ined tone for Bow nepeon 1 cen the mus fog shock wes np tis ow pt ina conser Sverige rely pendent onthe fine geome, ho ho pera nthe er alley te dane > Conor. Thre ete mode of ope A thecal operating cndon, ‘Jo Sieh dom iaPewe 8.30) te noomal shock wave eae co et mn te ne opting cep spent When the reac tothe Bow a the > Gunna onze the nr scm mre hl fh alto (a Stn ean Fiawe.s2 Operon des of psec sho in Figure 8.320, ad the stl opnting coin is bined. Ta hi Sona he aon ow spe over an bypass the int. Ava eye net ‘Seoul te mao sar So tI sation © chs dca, he ‘Sitmine per recovery oe vey Eo! see ater some the ew were ‘orm ceck moe athe design speed, Os the oe: Id, the dowonteam feinmee dees then the spt operating coo baie a he ‘Sr sek ve ees ie the ie, shown nig 8326) Ts cn, SET lt tae he deg mondo erlang the oral shock ave (as hgher Mh mines than the eat mde the Sgnaton preire fore thn tt of theese oon, ° "Arenson pene tse af devpn pods and a dierent ange of selene operating teil mode ay be ped It the nestle bei mod whee th os Bw te eee alton rene) ‘Phir us ceon, nt tare esed operate tthe spel de ‘otha they ao pl fat the ber md by «eal dere nine ‘need. Althagh the super oe dos et pete a soguribe pee ‘roe aswell teeta mode, pie the ons oe examen ee . tne he Slagnatonpeesre recs! shook ten, 3 sateyge cng shack tsar wih ae nae. rt 2 6 kell shack er ih oats sna na en aa set es eo We an al 1% Salton 65 er ror tak th dnton ste oe ra ale 08401 1) The shecave angle of he esue shack, aespndg 1 My 24 an | st 10% ny bm ote yng Eason 5 98, (8 arcs ne wen may an soe fr th shocenev age by ean ere a opm Figo i9 Stach x Exale 08 ‘urEREoN OMIGUE SHOCK DEFER 57 120.0%". Then te Mach number perpen oho eb hock wa i Agta Ao 88.02" = 1.208 so bate ox cargonent fhe upton Hath mmber and th larson emu va roca hs sleeve ve ospendng Mn 4.5, Men 07008 prion 20977 trom Koon 0 especialy. The Mach rumba dune othe obgue shock nave fe ag a ase To “Thane stagnation pest ao art the nema stork mat fo Me 2016 pedo rom Aopen, Fy, he vel stagnation peur i, Ba Do enasjo.g79 = 0.8802 Be Be 835108779 = (0) Tosrckonave an fe sand cq shee, cospenlng a Medes and ne toy be obiane by ag Easton BA) a a cane CE gations SH mystic ch may then be ved fr he stoseweve ang by Wa ander 88 cot ro" (: 49922 Tan be Ma crane osc obese My i = 20890 97747) 1.278 tbat ne nama! compen the upstream Mach rnb end he staan os een as sa wee ceo Me 07060 wa E Palpu=<.seer om aro ruses domo ofthe sco weg grag a aS) Than the sagen peste a oes the rome sack wav fo My 1.718 : Pris 8616 to Aopen Fay oval tegration presser a Bi Be Be Be asimjogeer0977 Example 8.8 ‘Naatotp clas soe iter wt oe teks coma a ach ‘umber of 2.0 Fae 8.4). Th eperat nd gresor oh eorosting 1 ae 2501 and #7 Wa, eopecvay. The ees snconal se he col et i007, The conyanctanl won whew rere ck soci {tm The al eal of espe 15 Dorn be mat ere on De _, Sagnaian presen or 1 he sport operation a. Sotaton {athe tego prssuce an ampere at ‘Sain tem Aopen C as ulin 042722 oF pram APKP|O.02ER= TTP Tf 03671 oF Tnx 850409571» 001K gana sg othe ebigo shock, crespondng © M. = 90 ond maybe staat by wing Eaton 8.) 8 "Then he sagan posse aah ara shck wae th My 2.50 fe Mosh ramoer 20 maybe pore 04860 oF py = PA0R0N46KS HP) 80.8 PH Pe pays 12 Na 820. 84? = 6972 formic cerer mamma eatin (ratte an 6 te inte Scns el ie ee Sd es Noch none’ oi =280 may han be ced Wom Aponte AYAS=B607 of A= 00752697 = 008044 nF ich ny eh be sed fa th move ang ty land er as TETErIE Thane tlsen aurser perpendicular ohe on shock wee lg le i a= in 2738") = 1.980, hl ster conpanen of te ateam Mech mum ae he ington pranre afte cose sack wa, eorespona 0 y= 128, Padpre= 09890 oF pu (0830/1757 Ks) = 186018 fen AppenO, repactey, Tha Msc nunbor dome othe ove ‘An al mas te eid ovat ce whe is perpen we te > Sec det. th aton tot UE Toth eng fee eh epost othe How decane af Eccl eet Fo tase ees tere cores exa be eda nape hat shes he ee ‘ecrne rte aarp, Home, when i rere in pee thee eer thew il bean atte wu Sosk wee ee i Swot te ose ae sfl Cue 35), ete wl be deched shek wane Che defection gle ay ugh pte 3.30). bt othe css, the ese afer hk wave Mghy pci exiie wave de toed psec tees wae Por ean sapere ato ters very shrp ened be nas pone Tae tea ee a tat ple ai" TO" (cs sha ae nt that be stagnation tamper Is conta are an (Sante obigw sack wre a “Toe tho mass ow ea 8 Mach urbe o M250 ay boobed is epee 4) oso7 op ina 250TH007S mK 269.004) ‘ao aR Teg00.1 1 mrzsige ce ® ” que. Asianine astro enone 0m hed ook 1n Figs 6.2, a wo-dimensnea fat pate i inlined at an angle of atack oto spears ees wha Mach sber f M Te ow on he vee susie fect ugh cio sec wave wih ces pene om Oa si al [zporer the fow oe opps sae or hap at expansion fn wh eel te nor oft tl deveving he rene oa epee. “Tere pst st fee, rprosaced acing veal wpwardy dy J bernnen a Fle 426 Pic cevaion ona ape aspen sen aot Lelpeeperecora os) were thc gh sn pu le he reser on he pe ad one ert el pny. har eee cc nf, ‘nich ppt th om diction ad may Be sien 3 oe Exampe 810 ‘at lst locos in supercon flow th 2 Mach nna of 2.0 ata angle ‘tataeko 10,28 ssn Pg 8 Ie chard nah etre Theta eg cottons Dein-poesine ao ‘Una, sgsomy te expe the and dng orcs noninenons fr the i coca, Cao the dog ole Cy 1 | Th stagnate pees of ho Yo aoa corespondg Yo Ma=2.0 may b> opie a2) ned tn Aopen © 88 Be ule B1278 oF poem pO.2Ta= 78259 a For to Pra aye axparn fan ert ale nota at Mata ne > ttn esl ng han 2 ones or oa con foal Rea Naw, no Pant Meyer age atthe etpnaon one ‘pave roan 10" 22828" +10" 982 repeal, hich carson Maoh mambero My 8.28 os Appin H. One shovel igure2.97- Staten Erampe 8.10 ot at Yow gh a expan fan rosa 20 at pose Be 7825p “Te presets covespondng os Mah be ot My = 2.98 may now Be oad tem Aapenh ‘plow "0.07087 py 08705717. 825p) 0.58220 “Te stock angle of the obique shock corespondng to =20 ant AS soiny be atime by ushp Equation (8) a2 (aration Sopa) hs nay hen be ste er th teckine ary la ar as BLSe83t" than we tach moms prpencul ote cue shock mee Mage sn nn 9831") = 1.207 ant eesponing 386 a om hapa Ds plpen i718 oF 176 he hand ea cos my row be vated a La(pu~ pens 42 (0715p. 8822p. Yon8 1) a) 1.1656 De (m=pu) sn won (1.IBpy 085220.) 0°16) 0.2050 arpa Fal, Be it ond ag ool are arse" Rata waaeon aes A Com yes" aaa" BOR eon aI | apace. Pry, 2 fat ple stool wih 0 hes 6 ok pose, Ante eb «cried mene! ere cee he request a 8 I gue 0.38 Acaned sma eee i «cues april mt ess pnd er, aw in Figur 8.28In tii, En th pe nl oer es eee et when the eof ack i200. BURNIE ielocnaded nits ef he aT oe ae EA Gs ts pe, ei ed trang res we rf one Bow ‘Secon me seo eae n tht one pe tee Sree Ee mieten en ner hee age feet ET ante ‘tan ae tow alope nets Te od acme eg | 'etnentond darondstaped sos pce ns mn oy ‘hook weve Seounes detache tsa crtesponding inxs the dag fre | flac rumor of 2.5, o8 shown In Figure 8A, The angle of sac le 10". 1 te aie aed gen fo bt nom pet tw SHE hr ong ue nr ean ep cnc To weige hat see ane Site few ce wer etme epee es Monge Fault Meer fen ceed pt 8s ten ede 9 aor one cet Mek Mecucbretegmecienmsmetrmct | sain ee eee tmcietan terrane toe ord | lon pon to erea conn se 25 may 98 oe fiosean ete sr Dei low on verter own tm a eal a a are hl fo hi We {Sfancapuun vhs Pt-Neye an ae past Fils bok oe poe = 005858 or prem p58 ~ 17.085 ‘gal how dts he er fw sat expanded he eta eae ‘Stoughton f pain wees m pin B. One had oe ee Dome Fer te oxpason fn contd tpt At hear the usar | meat pe mg i 5 yo te um Ap ee Myn272 and dea 24 especie, rom Arpndi One seul ate hte How vough en gue 8.39 A canontceped ara aspera oo xrason fon nol, 2 that hat So ough exgonsn fan snopes thet ban Pus 1588 ‘The stagnation pase rato caesponding to @ Mach umber of a= 225) obo stane am Aopand Cas Paleee=000848 oF 2 (0008 415899.)= 1374p. “he fant ofeach sea he anon eos ‘he sagan pss ts canpnigt Mach numba ot May = 272 a Ma'3 4 may now be cane’ tom Append Cas olan = 024165 oF y= (00AT BSKY7O85W)=O7186 pulows= 001908 & p= (0018 08(17.0094) = 8326p 2250 oso19m . espacio. Forte weak ogy hack wo, the socnate ange ‘Sefnpunolng oho ead y=" maybe obtane rom Equi (88 toute 8%) (door 8) ~(auites 8") -{pana 16) “fo s010 m2 a58pnfon 187) + (274paN 20S) ces \ Herongate hs ote crs (UE gap Pica ines w De tpn 8% +a 5) (ov s(n 18 (05019 (east 1574137405) =(0.7100.) 8") (0281p. 18°) 0.050. especialy, be Mt and ag owns ae Gas" a” aaa “oh ey onto aie th tocktae ang ty ian ee WE Soe than te Mach mab: perpendcu othe ein shock wa ag i ta = en 98.84") = 180 a tha coaspndg doves sre nr the icv sock ‘Seo dug steers poss or APDen0x Oe Me 07014 ines 05588 © pur=(S200)97090)~ 18800. a “ bb, 6505p sya Oo" ke Hinata “OBIT ANT me palpe=245® or pu =2488ne rempeetely The non eenonent athe Mach nubs alr te igo shzck respect Ma son FunTHEN READING Gr aE =H orth epanin ln carted a pa the eo te Pran-taye are fete maybe ellos tom Append a n= 23.02% Nowe ‘ant Mayr eagle te ne expan an 8 7 sens 410" 2002 10" 233.02" tin corespnd Mech unr of a= 22 orm Appar H. One sods — | Cotte, A and Jasin, BH, (58) Gas Dyn, Dorr: New York Dunstyay, H.C) OweDiamanal Compre Fo egaon: Ox, Pon, BW, and MeDonai, AT (1909 feden Fla chant, Sd Gdn, Wey New York {oben EB (1980) Gat Di, 2 en, A & azo: Beto, MA, _ Linn, Hs Ref 98D Ba a pat, Now ar rn n get 20° th th tow tection, tated the won Cine ie ve sng beau ard tort nh uror® ‘ow re SO a ard 20K, espe, Slr te presse and “ {ho-serar naire gen condos the presi and longa ie the unl Now ae 40 WP and 253, ospctvy, ester he esta an empath deen ch et ee deeton ae, A, i ha naimar lewabeetcion ae aire abu ak wav Stones tom he casa cre Problem 6.3 184 A unr supine oy aeling a Mach ror of 2.5 passat ‘vara wge win éatlete no by 1% fom te gue bao Ain prvaura snc orpertr tthe or ow ee A042 an 1 repay, solemine Ie sheknve argo, ech nab, ‘resets on tempura downs othe ote sot Ua riot 18.2 A unm sapere row avtlag a Mach ruber of 25 passes ‘rar aedga sachin tant blo. oa chook Was, WED a sotto Protem 2 18.5 Air at ngs scar of 25 we tough a ale shock We Ne ‘rine 2 tothe tw cecton, shown th fret. The ‘Sma ans he om ram 2K sn OP ste prsaue, porte ane Mac rumber ater nn sheck wa, # tepresteomousts sn ach numba fete shear, «© tangle ich he otete hack waves tina me ow ate, £8. nobus shock wave sapnga on a6 2 shown in th Hue fon hoje sr a tgemre ot ua and mov ith = Mach untae 0, smear pressures 1094Pa. Tho aga nen of {feaiga sock nav ohn rele 30" Dearne he Mach oe, ‘oso, onperse an ange tw few no tial recon 1 haga 2 and 2 inven 3 Prion 86 17 fa obs shock we el on dD, eho th {gure bon The bourse nga So et ‘elo laste sock wm Detrane te Sle, > protien 8.7 1 Two cue shock waves, eae ay anal cf 20° wa ute ‘ty tate! ao chown Ih gu bow. The Mach numba, rssue {ra umpraiveo euro Sow ar 2, Ps ahd 0, ‘espe: Daerine 1 tease, rau and ach une ater ene hack wave, 1 Inepresue, temper and ich mbar alr Be let heck Wve «Inman st wniehtberoeced mock wives ett te owen, 18.8 Ae ata Nach numberof 40 ard pressure of 100 KPa tows between two freon pal pa, 2 sowa nthe pt eles Acro ete “Tenet ectagte ootack rosiue of 10164, Deamln he Mech ecto, th wpe al rs downsaea Prough wane 10% vite mer plssue, lenpualie and Yow Secon vegans 3 ee {wor oe ln parse vg an nao 20°, ess cane ern two ote sos wanes te gaerted Tete fo tock Wane, ‘hon brea fin Derma e preset oh ach ube ‘Ogone# and bn a a af tec os ow Provten o (8.40 A cil asa a a Mach arbor of 1.5 expands ough 20" ‘Gomes ena short ue oon Hee pessre end {enpertr os natn aa s Hea an 250 eapacvely, orig the ec nonber, pressive and urgeratue arte woanson en ao {iemin th fon ae ‘ae ae "my 1214 An tomar converging zal dsgned fo an ei Mach runste 0's nthe gr blow. The posure ana engeree ‘twa heen la of ha sxe te 40K ad 280K espectiy, Prt .30 19 An undone converging roc ened fran ot Mach ‘inbor of3.0 ans Int ie bon The renee ah omperte Se lth ent sae fe nse are sO x ae 209K, roses Ine ts pressre e 20 4Pa amin the seh um, persis ‘nd etn of fom dounaee ohe epancon fa Protea {4.14 An uncererpandd comacging-drgog cae ha hres! ad i oe ‘one ras ol a0" me ane coe 238 rexpectnoy, shown te igure tos spl ton age reac wae te presse and ‘a tempura ar 101Pa and SOOK, owpcto ifthe back ees Ie01t aaemine he Mesh nurs, tempers snd dean roti 8.18 1.18 Aapitetype obique sock fuser wih one shee operating as Mash Furor ea shou ne re bl. Tne ampere and resis of he appachig a ate 29K an SP reaps. The ‘rons ncn aon tcl nt 001m Outre te es sur a tongue asta Sock wave ach eb ‘hock wa re teow 3 1.17 Asphatype cue snk fuer wb one those erating ot ach ‘bea 25 ah spurs! mod, shown the gt ble ‘Tho tpt od resco aprosching si af 270K aa. Gri, espacial. he ems srcel seam com st O21 a, ‘ese seen see wha ner sck wesc tae bnemine the macaw rae prowra ad lompeatre tee thera cock ware etal ste se 10 A at plat sae lca nan arava th aac mb f 2525 18.21 A womans eaters blo. tal of stk 10", Stemi te it 2 ia dan orien 5 pause wha gc numberof “x snon in oie tH tw aap clack 1, dtr fro iand ag costae Probie 18 £8.18 A grossa ert lan 2s thn ne gr bal. Probe. Sh gee ac with Mgoh rue! ip tsa 0c 122 At pt atc pce nan area wit a och nub of 2:7 8 Siena ae on ang eck 1, etoren Proton 0.18 Prom 0.2 18.20 Atle sors pions nan exon na Mash aber of 80, 36 ‘otntinne eave below Dare the tend ag costco sue rote 8.20 1 sUA0y AND ODMENGONAL SUPEREOWE ROS ‘pont A conte ‘ws fo)_Tonporste Appendix A Properties of the standard atmosphere 33 #8 ze ate eae oe 3 S rd a oe Stirs isacie see inne Ione inci eon pies isco ae tse we are $3 ey SEE a gon toon seater ise es rel vost nee dete tare pe beta inate Sie gets Mente Se en Sore Se ae a4 + tone tee see ears sre care ieee Sone Sire Ene . Appendix C Isentropic flow of a perfect gas (k = 1.4) Appendix B Thermodynamic properties of common gases at standard temperature and pressure (15 °C, eae 101.325 kPa) ase ee i ik Ge Sigs Gi Ge a ies EG Ge is iss ee i i is i ee ee So. an meme iw Ee Se ie om wm GE Re 2 = Fe 2 Bo & Ss ze Bi Ge Fat Ey ees He Ge I is ee = 8 a ou 2 ig fo GP Ge i ze RR ER mi giz ee = eee oe Zee 2s ‘Append. Canin! ‘Appendix Condmved Moise im Gi “i Tene ote 338 ase eee aa aRirale aS 1B, Append. Continued ie 7 Hu ig # gig ie ig Bie i i ame ig B23 ie Fd ge ie Bie a fe tm baw Appendix © Came Append Contnoes te Tho fe Gf i Be Ee iS i Ces Sue ey Sete Soe Soe ie ae Zea Gow Sawer, Soest Sn oo. bo Sawa Gams cons Sm So, zon Soe hase Sor ie ise fou Goat am does, So ae ie oan tam tue Sy ee fm Sons tem ase Sie Zoo Et aeust oie Sac ae ioe foe Soe tztm Seat ah ioe Hie soe tiem she aa ia ite Ghost Sam ames Sa ine fos Gots tam sere as fos Goveat Azim Seen is ue Em hows tao Samo an tee iit Gir Gass Games Se oe ae ae ‘Appondts © Contnuns as “tT a ae = ee ee ge igs ae ee a ge ae ge if: igs ee ie igs ie ie Ee ie tee ie igs ie Ge HBS AAppensix € Continued Appendix D Flow of a perfect gas across a normal shock wave (k= 1.4) tore Append D_Contoued ote Soar Som ans ‘ppensxContn rs . “ oa Pe | 2S ee 1 HE Ea | 22 = . EUR us | Bo i | 2 ie es 2 Py 2S = 2 Oss as BE = oS a Appendn.D Cantnued oe & bo Be a comes ie iS Ste Be Se Peels Sis = = eats ie 3s = Ee ise is i eae se ee me ; | i: E i oe ‘Appendix Contuoa Appendix E Flow of a perfect gas on the Fanno line (k= 1.4) ‘appenaix E Contes woe ES tae is stat ti tare Appendix © Canines u a f ae = 2S z = os = Eo 2s = a He Ea iz oS = : Ea Oe = es Be = z a SS is 2S = i Be = i 2 ‘Appenex Contnusd 22g i ein He 2 i a ‘Appendix Contes ‘pence Contnd | i ie | 8 ae 1 iS #3 2S Bie Appendix Cont en “ i i Fa i ia ie ie Sy tit e260 ores us Hig se ie ia See Gas ten Oe (ast Si Sims tae bent ‘a Sete mecmis fs ease mechs ie Appendix F Isothermal flow of a perfect gas (k = 1.4) Ro ohon Gs thre ise tase Gon Samo See tam ‘AppenxFContiuod ‘oes asta prema F Continued ‘Appendix Condes M Bed ornare neers teemncatntnenntntnretemee eam pend F_ Continued Aopen F Contac «foe > a z= = a mg ro “OE i ig & ig i ig = 38 2g = Ba 2 & Z BoE = 3 gE i 2 gE Ea = 8 Fo ome Append F Comins “ nm @ 1 as ao 7 & # ge = ie ge = eI is it S ig = = & I S Append F Contes Appendix G Flow of a perfect gas on the Rayleigh line (k = 1.4) Append: Conus “or oF | He baer i tee ts oom ta oem te oa ze ime ie ine t «oR oF 2 os z= — i awe See Ser ain 3 Si Sar ise Ge Shear aaa Sm aier Sher io Ste time Se ler kam es nppendtx 6 Continued ‘Append Contuod . oF + Rf oR 8 crc Lt i as 2 is ei i ee te ae ‘os uae ase fetes! ; : Appendix H uo eB GF & a q Prandtl—-Meyer flow of a cone one ‘oma wea asm : perfect gas (k = 1.4) fee ge fii £2 2 ee fh Stee Bie tier tran Oat em oom ‘es am th Ge the See st Ose the tia Pome Shoda tie Sette ae is Rk i te 1 fee 222 ges 2 8 ih tee ai for thse asset ‘aman Game Se ta SBMS ANE ae Sete ge te Sr ie 2” cones Som tom "Stem in te ts cr = ema ato Sea ts io maesmaes oman Bm 2 ae fe manmncsl BR 22 5 ven BEER aesnrrnnenstonrnsnenmatnsin - 7 — sna onan spent Conant a 7 «oe omecoeees oie aes | ieee eames eee | Reena Rd bd a | PaO be he sss = | a Ea omnes! EH 4 a ae sm = ' ee Ee wot ss | x ae is ts hae i = es eoies Ee g Ey ae a = Fs eiaas i is Ee ee EA sem Answers to problems ‘HAPTER + 12 tis a6" 3 (9) somes; )unstady 14 Heer 3 Seow (a) 20004 0) 494s 40 (0) 21 cn04: (9 4208 socom 28 nai oomatig 2. (95281) BeNb Ag: A722 HP 6 208K ‘CHAPTER 9 33 (q)sotame ey orz2me 3 2a 4 tame, 38 tonme', waive 240 wasne Bu arm 332 same 3:78 tft 0) Soome" Ye e200: 91.1 28 fava chapren « 44). 003800 por con 2 SEsonrn soca 126 bre sank “Ac 305.8 ms; () 952 ms" 0.8802, 0.5682; () 82.2 me ae a) © nat Resa 04K 269, 2679, 370 fam, 268k ira ozo Bend ge" 7 daria oon 2887 me" 25 feor hos, tezokPe bas 4 on see fo Oates Hates 8 oe tana 1 oo, Sabre tr yr, ozo ge 118 arin, 04 se fine treome%, tenbnPa, ae mt 1 10 ome Siva birame o4aie igs ‘ig tadarn os, suk aouamesoatentge* 9 1 ane tone a, 2ratage™ 1 soura ove e0oR com ot, figs 109 tn tnskre 09K ocr am 22010” {Uap ieoien ove at2¥ oesoow oe 22 toneata 12 Ns pe ogee oo 23 dutashas och 4 iat ossetoe or fase 225 di, fenan, s07ata 187170 oatsine? a0 aan, 2:34, 22:10 ho, 22.19, 0.4667 gs ‘ap fooke 999, 0007, 02001 tas 131 fontPe, 837, 30124 0100 ge S32 toned arene, Tori 35 tae, recta, 2003 2907 hgm— 34 osmanige™ 1136 (ats, Oba 21704, 1224 kg Gheoaba, sane 17,0424 agro") OoMor, canes ‘4.0 (012.0, beat 2841108202 19S" 705 me: 6) 6080KO (Goaoubaeoaame' 2578, 247; (6) 698%; 0089 47 ( - 1a wy 4130 (9) anaown, (287 Nsho™ © £707 ‘tao Srsco oy am ft conapren 5 7S KPa 4128 2764 me") siagaeric™ 23 somante, sor 94Pe 54 (5am 6.58 io Saaoe Fe GebtSne s e s00 9 6016, wo tee SS diedrne so aneira oon S14 9 rune fy saraure( toni: (9 a0 Ara> o> er ee 6 transom eatin 2inaia> p> foe sine Re eative pee tania bare eae utaba es eek, eaten mien, Zeke) omar sar Ryartatge nme, 10049258, 108i Si SONSSth Sree! s3a7 ms; 0) so7sime", 519 6) 1980 (atras 520 Sea 109447, 400K 328 tials, 108 oper, 15 Se a204Pe. 050 528 (0st 0 97406: 21188 5.2T () 268402, 41 94Pa, 124840, 04006) 1188 7 5:28 (a) Sz6rkae 00102 wt 5.28 (2a en 2) Yo, posse; (55.28: (0) 20.0 Pa: {0 a e.02 Ks oo wea» > 9607 a, Sharma ms suasien py < s695 tha 590 ser Gomes «te vara 5:32 (268) 70) eBa7 oe": (9) 5445 06" 539 (0) 00Ha 89 mi @) O89 Tn Be (9 44re 130 (6 Hee HP, 828930 525 Sine 536 (aatr7 me" gaan." 298K 5.37 (a siaame" a0; (6 190ePa 4063 S.2n (a eases) rig ms" Onste (8.7 Wa, 402K, (0) 137299" (3.700% 10"¢ rf (4872 ( ssesme 6) o0cseo «| san Glaone @arisme osm (9 om03H 0) 28a. 240 rine 0 sr wma se me zane 542 aie CHAPTER 6 164 040 2080% 1985465 casa tos tas, arosreaptanen aoa tgs" 83 erraK atedk feaulig ee 84 G00, s1308Pa 909K Ss omane adie 7 (a 0.720 @) 100 265.0%, 24.24 HPs) ~9.70618 83 Staak aan ateatgrk™ 89 086,040,019, 010 oo eabtlae 4.6249, oatteige” ip an. 161Pa, 831680 p>01e2 fs), 100; @) waa xa, 2017) O287e noe 8 (a) 030, 08%) N100%Pe I7AK: @) O2baROS 47 (O81, 0.7% §) eEOAPe: 2080 K (6) O0OsBOE 18 (a) 2107) S02 APa (877900 676 (@) bien, > Waa a, o2Asea> py > B76) a> p> 97.701, Siviessmeo 6:9 oat, nm wre 609 1 45 9 0 jan, Sroka, 0 on ge at ti, aoa eat ea, 025190" 8.2 a. 58.81 a2 bs, 821910 6.28 (dota ms) OHH, 6) OA m1 15954 {auptras py isisiPa, toa hPa p> 6.24 100 274, 28g 8.2 04s, 20038, 158 87 gy co 20041, 71 abHPu 6) AEN; 0.000 008" 408 W 18.28 fo) bom, 950K 10DkPs @) 107HG Caso age te) —D.seOHWY 29 () basa 300K, 5028 Pa; 15704 6 01089 Ag= (SBD 30) bees, 00K, 177s hha: 4290, ()OsTORNgS (2) ~4BA7 HW 1 aera g 635;00 72 ost tiv, 00, weO1 72 a8, some", eoHPa, 76K” 74 eaiakg, S202 dIg- Ke, 17288 13 ssezin, i8Jug Kiosk 18 taskbar, ae ng IK, DANS pangs ‘Syme 07040 79 oats, s7eaN 740 sous chaprens 8: iho, 2008, 161, 10874, 22 2 eee son 9K, 2.47, 001% 23 3 Sts, 20ss, 09 ¥Pa a0 a ane, Nore, e832 mrs, 07.2% 05 () eater, 209K, 2.100; 19901, 5007 K 4.674: (9 263" 8 ( 2967, 2is0nPa, S188, 1277") 288, 100K? 20.9 K aN" 2 () eb atare, 278.2%, 2160; 10LD HPA, AK, tA; aa 1.9 Yooewa, 2.00, aera 216, 93" avio 227, anioia 034K 340)" 8.1 2304, owe anak, a9 fouPe soeaic 1a 1.12 4004, tobe, 2088, ~ia6r tonne ab e372 San wean 200" ‘hab gs 5:7, 75.1 waeege~ aan ke, San {oosege abe kPa, S36 estos dose Baa ais, 0308 605, P18, 470K. 0°, 289, 1,200. 4a 9841 0" Index ey swe oy, 267 (64 smear hone 253 rs ot fc 5 Soa er 8 ome ‘Chae Togs oi 816 alee ein 93 1 enon ey fey ae gon we, 255 Keel 3 ioe ‘sso ‘9 ‘hel fo ing 7 ‘etow codny nda bw pe 1,392 ae Dato 32,388 tan 1,314 irl een 1 Sit ‘en, 9 feb oy emg mnt 2 {ly comeing deg ae, 29 ‘Seal tows wine wtie 2 toy omens, 3 Erin aut ‘Beene popes ‘orm ce Sing fee fe, 2 ‘cre these yen, 42 a igo ‘dre 20 ‘Steed 2 nan ar ‘et, 1 io lew ad soe pitta ncompresne ow, 6, 5 teins Ea a Aateral fore, 6 rt seca ine, SESS cme ap ‘everspein, 192 Soest 2 ovr a ote Pane wena, 0 avis ono tegen, ‘ ot ene Lagos esi 1 Eat achat 5 eh ge, 73 Heck com 7 lk en 4 Mee Mn ty, 7 cota cua em SSStion ae cei 2 1 See ite as m.90 cae cea, 9 ee ic nan = hg ek ye 3 pe sees” Creer, 2 waa on, 26 eh ch 6 Hepp fo 96 Pomona Sn, at tn Poe nb 30 Fen on fo xe " Bese ant eaivim po 3 (oteedinenne tw, 25 Eoinkess, arebeton wave, 1 on eae See nn Retention 48 ic. =" cece my (fo ia, 0 ue etl en, 76 uf beste 2 cae ‘inh, 38,297 ce saee So sm energy, ‘Spa ete 15 Stl tn, Sen at 6 97 ar enn ee > see pai, 130 Set Speed of sound, 6, 65 ae ‘Saunton, 80 oer ears Bes Ser ‘Sted ste aibatle eigen, 66 = = ‘ca = Substantive, 15 sea c i et engine i 86 Ssuperoni Som, 69, 78,322 ee dee, sce oe eee “perce operation moe 338 entre? = ae ‘Teeenss, ain “oeteen Tha ce ein, 18 sel oie ran Bo, Pana coc, 9) nse fo | se no oon, si ‘sor, rae we ro est pti dn, 00 ‘ot cntn $e etn oneal wien, ‘ee 73