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WESTINGH0U8E

ELECTRIC

MD

MANUFACTURING

COMPANY,

PITTSBURGH, L
0

PRNN.

Transmission

of

Power.

POLYPHASE

SYSTEM.

TRANSMISSION

OF

POWER.

THE

MULTIPHASE

OR

POLYPHASE

SYSTEM.

Tesla

Patents.

There power of

are

to-day

thousands
to

of for

waterfalls lack
use.

with

millions

of
means

horse of

energy

going
power

waste to

of

economical

transporting such
Each horse

places of
for ten

power
a

of work steam

hours

for

each of these of

working

day

requires,through
so

engine, about
and

six tons
of

coal per

annum,

that

the of

development
will be and

utilization
the in

inexhaustible

sources

power

equivalent to
assist
but

saving
fuel and in

millions
the

of

tons of

of

coal

each
our

year,

will thus

solving

problem

conserving
The form
means

enormous,

exhaustible,
this is power found

supply. deliveringit
in suitable

for

transporting
uses

for

commercial the for wide

recent

applications of
electric
of power

electricity. Through
energy is
now

developments lighting,for
extent of power of its
are

already made,
the distribution successful familiar this

available The

and

for

heating.
the in

application to
one,

and lighting, its utilization rival of coal

distribution

to every
a

and

heating

bids

fair to make water powers. methods meet be the

method

formidable

in the

vicinityof
not

The
sources

introduction
of power
a

of successful

of

these utilizing demands

natural of cities will

will

only

present

within
be
a

suitable

radius, but
up of of

it may

safelypredicted
also
on

that there
a

rapid building shiftingof


which

industries

in such

and localities,
a

quent conse-

centers

population, with
lain dormant

development
account of

of the

industries
cost

have

heretofore

of power.

When
that

the

Westinghouse
cun-ents

Electric

Company
could made the the Gaulard
on

was

formed, foreseeing
energy be
mitted transa

by alternating
over

only
we

electrical

long distances,
to that end other fundamental theretofore

alternating system
and Gibbs this

and specialty, and which many

secured
ones

inventions,
of

bearing
considered

important field,
more

field had

been

unworthy

than

40v

IV

experimental
system
most had eminent in the

attention. been

Prior

to

our

operations
as

the

alternating bj
the
;

emphatically engineers
of

condemned
the

uncommercial without succeeded

world,

almost
we

exception
in

but,

face
a

of

unusual

opposition,
system
of other has for

rapidly
not

introducing proved
and
a

comprehensive competitor
to which

lighting,
but up been
us

which

only

successful

systems,

by
and

its

flexibility developed
The

adaptation
fields of the In

great
could

distances,
not

opened
have led the into of

extensive
success

otherwise for

occupied.
seek
currents.
a

alternating
of

current

lighting

to

solution

of

problem
the
course

distributing
of
came our

power

by

same

investigations
the inventions

the Mr.

subject
Nikola and the

of

power
now

transmission
so

we

upon his

Tesla,

well value

known and of

for

remarkable of
at

achievements, discoveries,
secured covered Mr. Tesla
to

recognizing
fundamental

the

originality
his and

his
once

and the

character manufacture

patents,
sell

exclusive

right
with

to
a

apparatus
inventions

by

these

patents,
make and

right
thereto. the

to

any

further

might develop
the

relating
determine of power worked that
to meet
we are

We forms

thereupon
of

immediately required during

began
to

best

apparatus
we

solve

problem
five years

transmission,

and
and
at

have

the

past
with of

unceasingly,
now

very

great
the
to
an

expense,

the

result

able that The

to

undertake be
we
"

manufacture
us.

apparatus

any

case

may

presented
offer
"

system

is

altematiing-cnrrent System," fully


covered the of note
use

one,

now

known the

as

the

"

Multiphase
of it
a

or

Polyphase
and is
so

which

is his of

original
that

discovery
we

Mr.

Tesla,
to

by

patents

deem

duty

those

contemplating
to
a

such Tesla's the

apparatus patents

to

direct

their

attention It is

selection of not

Mr. that

presented
of Mr.

herewith.
Tesla's of

worthy
has

especial
been

originality
any
facturer manu-

discoveries power

disputed
apparatus.
"

by

electrical

transmitting
Electbic

Westinghouse

Manufacturing

Co.

Pittsburgh,

Pa., January

16th,

1893.

(Ho Model.)

Sheets"

Sheet

N.
ELECTRO

TESLA."
MAGNETIC MOTOR.

No.

381,968.

Patented

May

1, 1888.

^^"3.

9
^^

^^^'tf.

c/^-^

^y^r

L"/^.

T-

r.

ESSE Wk^ /If

8:

mENTOR.

^^4^ ."Sk.ccx ".**".,

"L^y

4
"

Sheets"

Sheet

N.ELEOTBO

TESLA.
UOTO".

_,

M"ONETIO

No.

381,91

Patented

Kay

1, 1888.

-^-o
.

^M

^Jl

sr

1*^

(No

lIod"L)

Sheati"

Bbeet

S.

N.
ELECTBD

TESLA.
HAQNETIG MOTOR.

No.

381,968.

Patented

Kay

1,

Oo

Ha""L)

IhKiii

ShMl

"

K.
ELEOTBO

TESLA,
HAQHETIO MOTOR,

So.

381,968.

Flteittd

Ha;

I. inilK.

^.17.

Aff.

IS

'-'^.^^

'jjiLj

"""'""

-"--

"^

United

States

Patent

Office*

NTKOLA

TESLA,

OF
F.

NEW

YORK,
OF

K.

Y., ASfilGNOB
NEW

OF

ONE-HALF JERSEY.

TO

CHARLES

PECK,

ENOLEWOOD,

ELECTRO-MAGNETIC

MOTOR.

8PBCXFZCATXON

fonninc
ApplieatlM

PWt
IM

of L"ttMS
OetoUr

PaUat

Hou

381,968.

dated

May

1" 1888.

la. INT.

SwiiaKo.99fi,ia8.

(1lo"o""U

To

all Be

whom

it known

it may that

eoncernt

the

ayatem

/, Nikola

Tebla^

ft'om

caita

I prefer to connect directly with thoee of

the
a

motor-oirnate-current alter-

anitable

to

border SmiljanLika, country of Austria-HaQresiding-al New York, N. Y., have ingaiy, certain vented n"eAjl Iu)]"roTements and new in Electrothe f"AMagnetic Motors, of wbich lowing is a specification, reference being bad to the drawings and accompanying forming a pa^ of the same. of the problem The of tlie practical solution electrical conversion energy wbich
the

generator.
of and tion aoch

The

practical reaalta

ita economical a ayatem, of its construction the mode will be described


more

advantagea,
and

opera-

55

in

and

transmission certain

of

chanical me-

involves and

requirements
heretofore

the to accompanying drawings. grams Figures 1 to 8 and 1" to 8*,inclusive, are diaillastrating the principle of the action 6c invention. of my The remaining figures,are in varioas views of the forms apparatus by
means

erence by refand diagrams

detail

apparatus
have

systems

of

which

the

invention

may

be

carried

employed
15

which wiH be described in capable of fulfilling. into effect^and Such their order. oulsolution, primarily, demands a a is a diagramReferring first to Fig. 9, which formity Of speed in the motor irrespective of matic its load within its normal On representation of a motor, a generator, working limits. the other and to attain with my baud, it is necessary, eanneoting-oirouitsin accordance a l)een

hot

65

greater
20

economy

of conversion

than

bas

here-

invention, M
for

the

motor,

and

the

ator gener70

existed, to construct cheaper and more reliable and simple apparatus, and, lastly, the must of he capable apparatus easy ment, manageand
currents

tofore

such of

that

all

danger

from

the

nse

of

25 sary to avoided.

an

are tension, which neoeaeconomical be transmission, may

high

The motor driving it comprises a ring or annulus, R, preferably built up of thin insulated iron rings or annular plates, so to beasauaoeptihleaapomible to variations as in its magnetic Dondition. Thia rina ia aurrofinded by foar eoila of inaulated wire aymmetrically placed, and deaignated by G CO' C The up free the

75

is directed My present invention totheprodu"^on and improvement of apparatus ble capaof 30


more

ao

than have

those

heretofore

nearly meeting these reqiiirementa avaihible, and thoogh I


various the
same means

diametrically-opp08iteooi]8areoonn"(cted in. paira in producing as to co-operate polea on diametrieatly-oppoaite parte of ring. The four free enda thua left are eon- .80
to

described involve and


as

thc^

main of

parpoee, principles ofoon-

for the

itnietion deserlbed 35 which eoits

mode follows:
are

there

two

operation, whicAi may be is employed motor in cirindependent or more


A alternate
carrents
are

tibroagh
at

which

properintervals,inth^mannerhere* inafter deacribed, for the pnrpoaeof effecting type, that ahown the magnetism or of field-magneta a progressive shifting of
paused
40

T' T', as indicated. T T preferably inside of it, there is mounted axis or sha^ an on a, a magnetic ing disk, D| generally oireular in shape, but havcut away, ahown. two Thia aa a^menta 85 disk is mounted freely within the ao. aa to turn The ring R. generator G ia of any ordinary
neoted terminate Near the

ring, and

in the N

preaent
a

inatauce

ing, hav-

S and with ooil

cyiiadrioalarnuicoila B F. 90 carried

the

M lines

ef force"

in

accordance
a

with

the

ture-oore, A, wound
The the free abaft ^da of each

the two
are

well-knowD of tiie motor.

theory; and
It is

consequent
that of lines

action

obvioos

progressive shifting
be 45 atilized
to set

of the
a

of either
or

element

up of

movement

a proper force may rotation or

through cf and connected, to inaulated leapedtively, coutaot-ringa h hVI/, ient Any convenof collector forma
a or

form

bruah

beara which

on

ench
cur-

the

motor,

the

armature,
cnrrents of the
comma-

ring and
rent to

terminal
a

by
is
to

the

95

that field-magnet, and the aeveral directed through the motor tator
are

if the circnitB
no

and

from
are

ring
L

eonveyed.
the 1/ in the

Theae of
man-,

terminala the
ner are

oonneeted

terminals

in the the the

for

proper will motor

direction

motor

by the wires

and

50 aroidall

uaaal

be required; bat to oomnratating appliances in

formed"

indicated, wherel^ two oomplete etrenita one iadading, say, the eoila B of

100

381,968

half of the ring. In Fig. 6 the armature of a revolution. completed five-eighths and the motor. In this position coil B' develops a less 70 It remains the mode of opdirection as to exj^fn now powerful current, but in the same before. The coil B, on the other hand, having eration of this system, and for this purpose I 5 refer to the diagrams, Figs. 1 to 8, and 1* to 8% entered a field of opposite polarity, generates The of opposite direction. resultant for an illustration of the various phases through a current which in the coils of the generator pass when poles will therefore b^ iu the line NS, Fig. 6% 75 operation, and the corresponding and resultor, in other words, the poles of the ring will ant be shifted along five-eighthsof its periphery. magnetic changes produced in the motor.. o revolntion of the generThe of the armature illustrate manner Figs. 7 and 7" in the same the field -magnets NS *ator between obviously the phases of the generator and ring at threeproduces in the coils B B' alternatingcurrents, Figs. 8 and 8* 80 quarters of a revolution, and of direction of which the intensity and the same at seven-eighths of a revolution depend laws. These the generator armature. In the position of the figureswill S dpon well-known from in Fig. 1 the current in the be readily understood coils indicated the foregoing. the coil B'at When revolntiou is accomplished, coil B is practicallynil, whereas a complete time is developing its maximum the conditions the same rent^ curexisting at the start are re-es85 and indicated in the deaction is repeated fof tablished and the same by the means the next and all subsequent revolutions,and, Bcription of Fig^ 9 the circuit including this 20 also include* say, the coils 0 C of in general, it will now l)eseen that every toil B' may lution revoThe the motor, Fig. 1*with the proper of thB generator of the armature result, duces probe the magnetization of a corres|)onding shifting of the connections, would poles or 90 lines of force around effect I the ring B', the poles being on. the line N S. the ring. This of a body or order of oondections utilise in producing the rotation same being observed 45 The in a variety of ways the coil B and the coils C, the latter, armature for example, between traversed when by a current, tend to fix the applying the principle above described to the The in Fig. 9. disk D, owpoles at right angles to the line N S of Fig. 1*. apparatus shown 95 It results, that position in therefore,that when the generatoring to its tendency to assume made the greatest possible numone eighth of a revolution, which it embrhces 59 coils have in Fig. 2, both l"er of the magnetic lines,is set in rotation, reaching the position shown following the ihotion of the lines or the points pairs of coils C and C will be traversed by the

the

generator C C of the motor, and the other remaining coils 6' and G C of the generator

through

one

has

"

location 15

far as the so concerned. The posi therefore be the ant tion resultof the magnetizing forces of the collar- that Is to say, it will advance along the ring to a cnrrents act

and

in

in oppositioA,
is

of

greatest attraction.
The disk D in

100

of the poles of the poles will

Fig.

is shown

us

cut

position corresponding
revolntion of
tne armature

to

one-eighth of the
of

I have found, opposite sides; but this, to effectingits rotation, as a circular by dotted lines, is also set disk,as Indicated I attribute This phenomenon in rotation. to
on

away is not

essential

105

|o

the generator. of the generator In Fig. 3 the armature has At progressed to one quarter of a revolution! in the coil B the current the point indicated

certain

15

wlijle in B' it is nil,the latter maximum, being in its n'entral position. The poles of the ring B in Fig. 3* will,in' consequence, to a position ninety degrees from he shifted
is coil that
manner

metal shiftingof thelinefsofforce in a continuresults which ous through the same, tangential pull upon the disk, causing its This seems rotation. to be confirmed by the fact that a circular d^k of steel is more effect son ively rotated than one of soft iron, for the reathat the former is assumed
to

inertia or to the rapid

resistance

inherent

in the

1 to

possea^
tlio

at

saccessive ^

existing at each in the re* eighth of one revolution raaining.figures. A short reference to these figures will suffice for an understanding of their ditions Figs. 4 and 4' illnslrate the consignificance. the generator-armawhich exist when
tare

the start, as shown. showntfao conditions

I have

in

like

greater resistance
lines.

to the

shifting of

netic mag115

tion, invenIn illustration of other forms of my deseri'be the rcnmining figured I shall now

of the

drawings.
10

Fig.
of the

is

view
a

in

elevation

and 12

titol section
same

Of

motor.

Fig. Fig.
with
11

is is

part vcrtop View


a

iito

has

completed three eighths of

revoln-

with of

the field in section


the

and
an

gram dia-

55

5o

both coils are generating current; the oppoentered B', having now site is generating a current in the oppofield, site direction, having the opposite magnetizing effect: hence the resultant pole wiil be on In Fig. 5 one-half of the. line li 8, as shown. tioD. hot the coil
one

Here

of

connections.
a

end

01^

side view of that

generator

fields

in section.

Tliis form of motor l)c used in place may shown above. D is a cylindrical or 125 drum-armature sons, reacore, which, for obvious

should prevent
the of induction.

be

revolution has been

of the

ar

mature

of the

ator gener-

splitup circulation
Tiio
core

as

far

as

practicable to
it of currents

within
is wound

completed, and the. resulting magnetic conditiop of the ring is shown in Fig. 5*. In this phase coil B is in the neutral posiS5 lion while coil B' is generating its maximum direction iu is in the same as current, which Fig. 4. The poles will consequently be shifted

nally longitudi-

are

with two coils, Eand 1 30 E',the ends of which to insulated tact-rings conrespectively connected ddd' (V,carried by the shaft a, upon the armature is set to revolve
is

which
ture

mounted.
an

The

armr

within

iron

shell, B

M1,M8

It is dearly will be praotically constant. generatortiie exOeed by eoUectapparent that the speed can never and wires^aspreyioosly explained. ing bmahee by the generarbitrary limit as determined 70 In order to properly energise the fldd-magoet limits at also that within certain ator, and least the speed of the motor will be independare so ent $ of the motor, however, the oonnections made ooila or wires leading with the armature of the strength of the current. thereto that while, the points of greatest atIt will now traction be more readily seen from the lines above or greatest density of majgnetic description how fiirthe requirements of 75 the armatnre of force upon shifted in one a are practical system of electrical transmission
on riogiB

tablished

between those

the

the

shftft and

on

the

motor-ebaft

tor
,

lo

direction
to

those

npon

thefield- magnet

are

made

of power

are

realized

in my

invention.

cure, se-

uniform all loads a first, speed under within the normal tor working limits of the mocited. This arrangement in. the other cases without the use of any auxiliary regulator; 80 as la results in an increased l)etween the motor and second, synchronism speed of rotation. 19, for example, the terminals of generator; third, greater efficiency by the 15 Figs. 17 and each set of field-coils are direct application of the cnrrent, no connected with the more ore-coils in sncb way wires to the two armat oommutating devices being required on either that the field-coils will maintain opposite poles the motor or generator: fourth,cheapness and 85 of the poles of the armature. in adyance construction and simplicity of mechanical In the drawings the field-coils are in shants in maintenance; fifth, the capability !"o economy but they may be in series or of being very to the armature, easily managed or controlled; in independent circuits. of danger from ii^Jury and, sixth,diminution ^o that the same and apparatus. It is obvious principle may be persons ^ motors These in series,multiple be run applied to the varions typical forms of motor may described. conditions well or arc multiple series, under 2$ hereinbefore vention described of my inunderstood the nature Having now by those skilled in the art. and some of the various ways in which The devices for carrying out the or means carried into effect, I wonld call it is or maybe principle may be varied to a far greater ex- 05 to certain characteristics the attention which tent than I have been able to indicate; but I. the regard as within my invention, and I desire to possess and 50 applications of the invention in general, motors secure secures. by Letters Patent advantages which the invention In my independent circuits containing two or more motor, considering for convenience that represented in Fig. 9, ft will be observed through which the operat4ng-currents are led ico in the manner described. that since the disk D has a tendency to follow independent^' By the circuits are to imply that 35 continuously the points of greatest attraction, I do not mean around and since these pdints are shifted the one necessarily isolated from another, for in for each revolution of the armature there might be electrical coninstances nections some ring once them to regulate or modify between of Uie generator, it follows that the movement 105 the action of the motor without of the disk D will be synchronous with that of necessarily A. This feature by' practical producing a new action. or different 40 the armature
**

progresain an opposite direction. In other respects the operation is identicallythe same

demonstrations
other

I have

found

to

exist

in of

all the

am

aware
a

that the rotation

of the armature

produces a shifting coils at right angles to each other has been i to effected by an intermittent ergizing shifting of the enthrongh three haneffect of both coils throngh which a 45 dred and sixty degrees. in Fig. vices deshown direct current of mechanical In the particular construction by means transmitted has been in alternately-op* 15,or in others constructed on a similar plan, of altemattngimpulses resulting posite directions; bntthis method or plan Irethe number 115 of the generator armarevolution fVom gard as absululiely impracticable for the purone poses with is designed at the precedfor which is double as compared 50 tare my invention for the reasons, least on scale iuff cases, and. the polaritiesin the motor are any extended revolution of the twice by one 'Shifted around mainly, that agreat waste of epergy is neees^ of energiz- iso The speed of the' motor unless the number sarily involved generator-armatnre. ing'Cirouitsis very great, and that the interwill,therefore, be twice that of the generator. result Is evidently obtain^ by such siderable rnption and reversal of a current of any con55 The same of any known shown in Fig, 17, where as that strength by means a disposition of the greatest shifted in opdevices is a matter mechanical are the poles of both elements and expense. difficulty politedirections. 125 In this application I do hot claim the method Again, considering the apparatus illostrated is herein involved, which ^ vious of operating motors by Fig. 9 as typical of the invention, it is obthe that since the attractive effect npon having made separate application for such meth(^. the disk is in Its I" is greatest when disk I thei^fore oped claim the following: relative position to the poles develty} proper ing containits 1. The that is to say, when in the' ring R" combination, with a motor follow those of the separate or independent drcuits on the 65 ends or poles immediatdy alterfor all the loads armature or field4nagnet,torboth, of an riQg--tiiespeed of the motor working limits of the mowithin the oormal nating-cnrrentgenerator oontaining indaoed
" "

in which forms one of tlio generator armature of Uie poles of the motor

revolution

of

motor

wonnd

with

two

energizing-

a81,9"8

cirouito

ooonected eircaits
of

indepeodeiitly
in the

to

oorrea ro*.

the

rotation,

of

the of forth. for the

generator
the

causes

proin

spondinff
tatiOD

motor, prodnces

whereby
a

greesive
the
4.
manner

shifting
set
a

polee

of

the

motor

the of

generator
the

progressive
as

shifting
S described. 2.
In

poles

of

the

motor,

herein

In of

system

the

electrical of wit:
a

sion transmisthe
motor

i"ower,

combination
to
or

followeom-

30

system
the
two
or

for

the

electrical of
a

sion transmismotor

ing
vided pro-

instmmentalitie" of
a

of

power, with

combination
more

pMed
within is

disk
or

its

equivalent

mounted

independent

magnetic generto

ring

anntiHur

field-magnet,

whieh
connected

izing-coils
ator

and

an

aUernating-cnrrent
coils eircaits

provided

with

magnetfzing-coils
pairs
a or

containing motor-coils,
the motor the be

induced and and


currents

corresponding connecting
coils

in

diametrically-opposite terminals,
or

groups

to duced in-

$$

the

rectly diin the snch erator gen-

independent
coils
to

generator
coils

having
in number and said coils

geoeralor

groups groups the of the that

of of

equal

order

that

developed through thereby


the Uie

by

the

pairs

or

motor-coils,
of

cuits cirto

will
15

passedand
of

corresponda

connecting
gressive proas

terminals

ing

motor-coils, shilling

produce
of the

the
in

terminals such and order the


currents

motor,
the

respectively,
of the of circuits the

and
ator genernating alter-

40^

poles

motor,

rotation

herein 3.
an

set

forth.

consequent
in the

production
respective
of

The

combination,
or

with

motpr

having
and and pendent indea

proof the

annular

ring-shaped equivalent
on

field

magnet

duec^ motor,

progressive
as

shiftipg

poles

20

cylindrical
coils
or

or

armature,
-magnet
or

hereinbefore

described.

the

field

armature,
KIKOLA TESLA..

both,

of

an

alternating-current independent
the coils

generator

having
and
25

correspondingly
circuits

coiU,
and that

Witnesses:
Frank E. B.

including
motor

generator-coils
in such
manner

Habtlbt,
MUEPHT.

corresponding

fVLkVK

10 do

Ilodel.J

SbeeU"

Bkiat

1.

N.
ELECTRO

TE3LA.
HA"NETIO UOTOR.

Vo.

381,969

Patented

Uij

1. 1

12

United

States

Patent

Office.

NIKOLA

TESLA,

OF
F.

NEW

YORK,
OF

N.

Y., ASSIGNOB
NEW

OF

ONE JERSEY.

HALF

TO

CHARLES

PECK,

BNOLBWOOD,

ELECTRO-MAQNETIC

MOTOR.

SPBCZrZCATION

forming
ApiiHcutioB

part

of

Letton 30. 1887.

Patent
Serial

No.
No.

381.d"9.
(Ko

datad
nodsLl

May

1. 1888.

filed Norember

tSIVMS.

To

all Be

wlioui
it known

it may that border

concern,:

I,

Nikola of

only. results are advantageous secured a by winding the field-magnets with 55 coil or coils and current passing a continuous the following is a specithrough them, thus maintaining a permanent fication, Motors, of which in this feature invention reference to the field,and present being had my drawings consists. and forming apart of the same. accompanying the i^pparatus I shall which I 60 describe October Iji an now 12, 3 application filed by me for carrying out this invention described have devised and 1887, No. 252, 132, 1 have shown of using or novel form of electro- magnetic and motor apd a explain the mode operating a of operating which be the same. thie same, mode may in elevation of my is motor Figure 1 is an end view generally described as follows: The with coils motor. Fig. 2 is a part horizontal euerfbrmlng independent improved 65 5 wound field central or Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic section, and gising-circnits on either the armature and or both, (itissuflicient for pi-esent purrepresentation of the motor generator magnet, poses Smiljan
Lika,
country
but

from T"SLA, Ajietrift-Han-

York, in the county residing in New gary,now invented State of New certain York, have 5 and in Electro-Magand juscful Irnproveinents new netic

erator.
the
the
motor

This being pole-pieces of found

the

case,

the

field-cores become
a

and net, mag-

by induction
that

I have

to
are on

consider
armature

the

case

in

which

the

coils

combined

and

connected

for

operation.

15

the legs or poleLet A A in Fig. 1 represent alone^) and these coils are which with connected are on corresponding circuits pieces of H field -magnet, around up 70 of a continin the circuit the coils B B, included As reun alternutiug-current generator. of this, currents is adapted of alternately -opposite ault nouB-curreht generator, C, which sent direction are through the energizing-coils to impart; magnetism to the said poles in tbt in such of the motor to produce as luauuer a ordinary manner. of the two D D' are independent coils wound progreaftivo shifting or rotation upon 75 netic magThis movement a suitable cylindrical or equivalent armaturepoles of the armature. used in a similar of the poles of the armature which, like all others obviously tends core, the iA the opposite diixKSbe split or divided rotate into alternate to armature ehould manner, up tho movement of the poles tion to that in whidi magnetic and insulating parts in the is mounted in nontakes tween usual .This armature 80 place, owing to the attractive force beway. E E, secured said poles and the field-magnet8,and the to the poles magnetic cross-bars from increases of the field -magnet. The terminals the stait of the artil unmature-coils speed of rotation it equals that of tlie D' are D connected to insulated generator^ supposing and both motor to be alike. mature generator sliding contact-rings a ah 6,carried by the artho poles of the armature As in shifted these are e e' bear shaft, and brushes 85 upon direction which a to the coils the currents ture opposite to that in which this armarings to convey the

rotat43s,itwill
normal
"

be

apparent
the
a

that

jwhen

the

operate
Tlie may l)e

the

motor.

8x"cod is attained
fixed and

^armature will assume p'to the licld-magnct,


the field -mnj^uots

poles of the position relative


in consequence

gencmtor
of

for operating precisely identical of

this

motor

is

or

construction: I have

that bo

and

for convenience

reference

marked

90

F F, the fieldby netic ip Fig. 8 its parts, as follows: maginduction, exhibiting two distinct poles, magnets, energised by a continuous current in each of tho one xtole-pieccs. In starting passing in its field-coils O Gj H H', the coils the carried motor, however, tho siiecd of tho armaby the evlindrical armatui-e; ddee^ ture being comparatively uow, the pole-pieces the friction or collecting rings, carried by the 95 of magnetio armatnre-shaft and atx; subjected! to of rapid reversals forming the lerminals these repolarity: but at tho speed iifcrcasA versals the armatnre-eoils; and / /', the colleotingdclivc-r bccomo less and lew broehcB whieh (he currents develop"^ frenuen^ uul when the movement in Uie armetnn: of the armato the two drooits finally cense =s g /, tnre l"ecome with that of the genwV.ich connec: synch ronons : generators with the motor. 100

will

energised

"

"

IS

381.069

I1i"
Stood

oporation
from the

of

this

system
The

will action

be

nnclerof the

in

synchronism
and almost within

with

the

generator.
on

Motors

foresting.
a

constructed maintain

operated absolutely
their
I

this
same

principle speed
for
45

Miieratoriby'oftuaiDg
m

progressive

sbiltingof
op
to

the

poles
"Her
a

in rotation the

the

motor-Rrinatare,sets opposite
in direction the the

in

the that

all and
motor

loads in

normal observed
to

worlcing-limits;
that
an

practice
be its overloaded

have

if
as

the
to if

IB
Mt

w)iieh
enrrent
""

poles
be

move.

If" now, through


tho

oontioa-

such of
too

extent

directed, energize
which will
not

field
A upon but will

coils, A,
the that the
in-

check its motive

speed
power

the be

speed
not
with

the

generator,
is
tne

|N" need

to

strongly
the

magnet

great
of shown

ished diminmotor. how 50

of

motor,

depends
be its

synchronously
I have in other
of in

that

oic the
power
eretaed

generator,
which In the

increased,

applications
these
or

the may

produces proportion
coils
B 6.

rotation the energy

be

construction be varied

similar

motors

to

supplied

certain

well-known the field


about

'xrays
a

"

^as^
ary station-

for

tkroagh
It reotion

instance,
of this
motor

by

rotating
or

Is

characteristic of rotation
is

that

its
rovers-

dithe

armature

rotating
do
not

conductors these

.within features which within


art to

55

not the

roversed
cnrront of of the
reverse

by

field;

but

illustrate
the

Jog

Uie

direction for
not

of the
the

through
rotation the

its pends debut the

further
I

herein,

as

with

illustration rest in
as

Mdcoils,

direction

have

given
of
a

regard

the skilled

the
struct. con-

upon direction
aro

polarity
in which To

field,
of

power

person

the

upon armataro the


most

the

poles
the cirooits

60 The present
and

shifted. of either

motor,
g

form easy

of
to of

motor

is

cheap,
It for

simple, requires
its tion, operashows
a

eonnections be roversed. found

of

the

ff

reliable,
the

maintain.

simplest
and when

type

generator
constructed

% lifive
Mior
and the be

that

i(

the

field-magnet by
the its coils

of
B

the
B

properly

strongly
cirouits

energized through
the

high
I do

efficiency.
not

65
herein which it
the

armaturocoils
to

claim
power

tho this

method system
of

of

mitting trans-

eloaed,
al bLi
a

assuming
certain

generator
the motor

be

running
not

involves, appli"

speed,
field be
but

will

start;
or

having
cation

made for
I

subject

another

if

the
In

sllghtlv
that

energized
the

in

patent.
claim
is^-

Iteneral
lailoence

such of

condition
armaturo

magnetic
in
motor will
an

What
The

70 with
or
a

the
its

proponderates
condition sufficient the current,

combination, energizing

motor

having
cirouito,
with

dependent inof

determining
will reach
reason

magnetic
with
or

armature

start

and,
maximum is

alternating-current
induced cirouits
a

generator
connected

sponding corre-

its
it

normal to

speed.
at

For
start

this and
motor

witli

the of
75

desirable has the

keep

the
normal

for

effecting
of the
motor current
as

progressive
armatare.

shifting
and
a source

vain
"r

the

motor
so,

attained

its

speed,
or

the of I of

poles
continuous said

nearly
bot

fieldcirouit
to pass

open

to

perit

for forth.

energising

the

field

"ill iMiTe

little

enrrent

through
fields of both

motor,

set

found,
and

however,
motor

if be

the

the Witnesses: FSJLinC B. E.

NIKOLA

TESLA..

Ceoerator

'strongly
starts motor

energised
the is

iaal mM

starting
that
the

the

generator
of
the

motor,

MOBPHT,
Habtlbt.

speed

increased

FSANK

14

(Ho

Halal.)

"

8bMU"

Sll""t

1.

N.
8T8TEH OF

TESLA.
DISTRIBUTlOtT.

ELEGTBIOAL

No.

381,970.

Fttsnted

Hay

1, I

.A{^a"^x^"^-"a,.
"fl7" tCim,,

OtXiCl

/"^p^

16

United

States

Patent

Office.

mKOLA.

TESLA,

OF F.

KEW

YORK,
OF

V.

Y., ASSIOKOB
NBW

OF

OIHB-HALF JERSEY.

TO

CHABLBB

PECK,

ENOLBWOOD,
ELECTRICAL

SYSTEM

OF

DISTRIBUTION.

BPBCIFZCATXOir

fomins

put

of

Ltttosa
urn.

PaUat Bwfaa

No.

"tl,970.

dated

May

1. 1868.

"vplle"tloBflMDM"Bb"rn.

Ho. aa".7IT.

(ir"iiM4eU

lb

dtt Be

wham it known

I, Kikola Tesla, from dmman Lika, border ooantry of Anstria-Hanresiding (it Kew York,in the ooanty gary^now and State of New certain York, have invented and asefal in Systems of new Improvements Electrical Distribution, of which the following had to the is a spocification, reference bein|| and forming a part of drawings accompanying
the
same.

it may that

eoneem:

forms various of electro dynamic induction50 motors and madilnes, including the combined bMU devised. have For instance, generators,
a

motor

is constructed wound and


to

in accordance
on

with
same

wellture arma-

understood
are

and principles,
induced The the motorcoiis

the

coils which
are

constitute

55

generator.

generally of
of of
ooarser

fine wire

generator-coils
current

lo

wire, so as quantity and

procTuce a

greater

This

invention

relates

to

those
a a

systems
or

of

eleiitrical distribution
a

in which

oarrent

from
mitting transmeans or or

potential thad the line current, which is of relatively high potential,to 60 avoid A similar loss in long transmission. rangement arlower is to wind those described of the
a

single

sonrce

of

supply

in
to

main

coils
or

corresponding
similar of suitable the
a

to

circuit

is caused

induce

by

in a*ring
commutator

core,

and
to

induction apparatus a current 15 of suitable in an independent currents working cirouit circuits. The
same
10 Qse as

by

means

kind

dlre^

current
as

through
to
core

indncing-coils 65
movement lines induced of of force
.

main have

objects of the
been heretofore
"

invention obtained

are

the

successively, so the poles of the


which

maintain and of the in the

by the

the curviz., to divide rent systems single source, whereby a number of lamps, motors, or other translating devices controlled and operated be independently may of current, iCnd in some source by the same eurreni; of high potential in to reduce a 35 eases of these from
a

systems

the objections to these detail, it will suffice to say that the the principle of the action or or ueory tion operahas of these aevioes apparently been so in and have their proper up to the present difficulties various
are

set up the currents Without ennmeratiuff

coils.

70

little understood
use

that

tion constructime and been

the main lower


or

circuit to

one

of greater

quantityand

attended

with

grett
to
sorted re-

75

The ^0

potential in the independent tion consumpworking circuit or arcuits. of the devices general character emin

The expense. be injured and


to

transformers burned

out, and
this and

very liable the means other

for

curing

defects of 80

ployed

these

systems

is

now

well

stood. under-

have

almost form

invariably been
of converter appears I do
not
or

at|the

expense which

alternating-current magneto-maof supply. The curdiine Is osed as the source rent developed thereby is conducted through
An
a

efficiency.
The I have the transformer devised and While
to be to

largely free from


which I have luded. aladvance any I would of
to

transmission-drcnit
at

to

one

or

more are

distant located. of inducof various

defects

objections

35

points
These kinds. Uon-coil

which

the

transformers

herein

consist In
some

of induction-machines
cases

ordinary forms
used with
one

state

have

been

coil in

the

of operation, theory as to its mode that) in so far as the principal is concerned, it is analogous which I have above
-

85

struction con-

those
as

and the other in a local tnosmitting-circuit circuit,the coils being dilTer40 or oonsomption ently proportioned according to the work to in that is the consumption-circuit be done of higher to say, if the work requires a current circuit potential than that in the transmission coil is of greater seeondary or induced 4S the length and resistance than the primary, while, the other hand, if a quantity current. of (m the lower potential is wanted longer coil is lo lieu of these devices mt primary.
"

transformers electro that is hence


and
-

described

dynamic
no

induction

it involves
not

liable

machines, except moving parts whatever,and to wear other or ment, derangeno

90

requires
more

more

attention

than

the

other In series

and

common

induction-machines.

I provide carrying out my invention a of indncing-coils and corresponding in- 95 dnced whi^ by preference, I wind upon coils,
a

core

closed upon

itself" in the

such usual

as

an

annulns

or

ring subdivided

manner.

The

17

au.f7o

two

aela

perpcsed

side by side or saof ooilt mrfi wonnd otherwise or pisoed io well-kDOwn effeeiiTe
core.
re-

as, for

into the most to bring them ways another IstioDS to the and to one 5

Tlie

with iron" pointed oat, by inclosing thcMCoUs the colls a example, by winding over layer or layera of insolatea iron wire. bind* The device is provided with suitable
to ing-posts,

70

lo

15

the core on primary eoils woand into divided are paiis or sets by the proper eleetrical connections, so that while the coils of one pair or set to co-operate in fixingthe magn^c at two given diametriepoles of the core ally-opposite points, the coils of the other pair set or assoming, for sake of illnstraUon,that tend to fix the poles ninety there are bnt two this indncpoints. With degrees from such device tion I ose an altematlng-eorrent genwith coils or sets of eoils toeorrespond erator of the aonTcrter, and with those of by means I conneetnp in independsnitable oondncton ent cirenlts the corresponding noils of the generator
or
" "

inddcing

which

the ends

of

the

ooils

are

led. the

The foor

B' B'are

diametrically-opposite coils B Band in series, and connected, respedlvely,


terminals
12 8 4.
are

connected induced desired

to the

ing-posts bindcon-

The
in

ooils
manner.

are

75

nected nected

together In any
shown in

For

example, as
caadesoent

multiple

is desired--as

Fig. 3, 0 0 may be con when a rent quanti^ curof infor running a group
are

lamps, D" while C (7 may be inin series In a circuit dependently connected The generindndlng arc lamps or the like. ator in this system will be adapted to the converter
in the
manner case

80

illustrated. I

For
a

ple, examor-

and
20

converter.

It

results

from

this

in the present

employ

pair of

85

25

y"

dectro or phases in the genm^nets, B E, erator dlniuy permanent attended la mounted ture armawhich between a ^lindrieal are by corresponding nrngwith two netie wound on a shaft, F, and colla, dianges in the converter; or, in other Q O'. The terminals of these ooils are nected, conwords^ that as the geocfator-eoitorev"dve the re^pectivdy, to'fonr insulated contact points of greatest magnetic intensity in the 90 will be eonverter or or progicmiveiy shifted colleetlQgrings, H H H' H', and the foor aroond. lliis principle I have L connect the ImiisIms K" whirled plied line dreuit-wires apunder in the conditions to variously-modified Iwaring on these ringi,to the cooverter tlie operation of dectro-mi^gnetic moton, and order uown. Hotiog the results of tirts comin previous applications,^lotablyIn those havthat at a giren 95 UnatioB, it will be observid ing Serial Koa. 252,132 and 258,561, 1 havede^ podpoint of tisM the coil O is in its ncntrd of eonatraetiag the manner acrilied in detail tion and isgeneratiog little or no current^ while In the pweat and using sudi sMitors. the other con, Q', is in a podtion where it ex^plierts eation dfeet its anzimum ol;|ect is to describe the best and Aamwdng^ttiQt^ my
that the

different

electrical

moat 35 cot

convenient
aware

sMuner

of which
ovt

am

at presas

be connected

in drenit

with

eoOs coils

B IT

of tim

fOO

of
a

carrying
system
the

the invention

^-

convetter,

and

coil Q^ with

BT, it is

piied
bat
one

to

skilled
from

in the

stand
Uoaa
40

propoaed
fef of both

diatribntion; evident that the poles of the riag A will be under dd^ ined bv coils BT F aitwHlreadUy alone; bnt as the of the generator revdve^cnilG derfcripCioa by the dcin aaid a|ppiicatioa con (T less,nnlil O
the

of deelrical

10$

the

gcnti stor and nay be modified. of the details


of

its msilmum Tbeobviow of the the coo a

and result
A

G' its nentnl will bctosUft

pddthe cT coils

In

iOnatialion

thcrelbra my
to

ring
next cnten

throi^
movfment
a

sne^emtcr
cf
tarsL

present

ittv"

The

the

qnaiter cf
a

dnriac

ftoU

cT

18

881,ft70

done, magnetic

the

cnrreots

are

j^odnced
the the
an

by
same

dynamo.

2. ing becoils of
rent

The

combination,
core

with and

an

annular and

or

lar simi-

indaction
as

only, though
with

result
were

magnetic
wound

primary
of
an

secondary
-cur-

obtained

poles
infinite

shifted numl)er

thereon,
having
to

alternating
or

30

by
5

commutator

generator

induced the

armature,

segments.
The other modifications forms
to

coils which
converter
are are

correspofldine
circuits
the
as

primary
the coils of

coils, primary
the

and

applicable
many

to

independent
coils
with

connecting

of

in
more

respects

corresponding
set

erator, gen35

applicable
to

this. of the of

I core, the

refer the

particularly
relative and

herein

forth. with of

the

form resistances and the the

lengths
secondary
or

'8..

The

combination,

independent
transformers
cores

tric elecsisting con-

10

and

primary
for

transmission-oircnitB,
erating opof annular and
or

coila,

arrangements
same.

running

similar

wound

with

primary
of-

secondary
of each

coils,

the

opposite

mary pri40

The which 15

new

method

electrical I have and

conversion made I do thie


not to
one

coils
of

transformer

being

oonne"ed
an

this of it

system
another

involves

the

transmiasion-cirenito, generator
with coiUi

nating-current alterduced in-

subject
claim Without

application,
heroin.

independent
with

therefore

or

armature

connediM

the
cur-

limiting form,
what I

myself
claim with is

therefore

to

any

transmission-circuits,
fents may of herein the be directed

whereby through
in the

t^temaUng
the order

specific
1.
ao

"

primary
and
ner man-

45

The

combination,
or

core

dosed wound

upon thereon
or

cpils

transformers described.

itself,
and and
or

inducing

primary
in

coils

connected induced
near or

up

independent
coils of
a

pairs
wound

sets,
upon, of Witnesses: eration opROBT. BOBT. H. F.

secondary coils^
and

NIKOLA

TESLA.

the

primary
currents

generator
connec-

alternating
ts tions
to

independent whereby progressive by

the of the

primary generator
of the
core

coils,
a

the

DUNOAK,
Gatix"bd.

shifting
as

of

the

poles

is

^ected,

set

forth.

("a

HodtL)

lllMte-3bt"t

S.

N.
BLEOTSO

TE8L1.
HOIOB,

HieiBTIO

Ho.

382.279.

Patented

Hat

1. 1888.

United

States

Patent

Office^

JSnKOLA.

TKSLA,

OF F.

NBW

YORK,
OF

K.

T., ASSIGKOB
NEW

OF

0KB

HALF

TO

CHARLES

PECK,

BNQLEWOOD,

JERSEY.

ELECTRO-MAQNETIC

MOTOR.

BPSCXnCATZON

forming
AppUeatira
filed

part

6f

Xi"tUn
at. tWT.

PaUAt
Serial

Ka

302.270.

dated

May

1. 1688.

KoTeBb"r

V*.t9I.S".

(Nenodel.)

To aZl
Be

whont, it known

it may

concern:

sections,
variations of

so

as

to be

susceptible to rapid

pair being " and t'^ respectively, and of Kew to the terminals certain new York^ bave invented Within this annular Moshown. field-magnet oaeftil Improvements in ElectroMagnetic as tbe A is mounted cylinder or disk, D, a soft-iron following is a specification, torB|Of wbicb reference to tbe drawings on an accomaxis, a, in bearings h b, properly supbeing bad machine. of tbe J^nying and forming a part of the same. ported by the frame- work two In a former coils,E F, of insulated application, filed October 12, The disk carries another,and at right angles to one and described wire, wound 1887, No. 262,132, 1 bave sbown or having their respective ends joined, so that by a mode plan of operating electric motors circuit closed each coil forms a separate canaing a progressive sbifliDg x"f the poles of cuit, and brought
tbe
two free

I, Ni"ola T"8La, a subfeet of the Emperor of Austria, fk'om Smiljan, lika, border country of AustriaHuDgarv, now residingat Kew York, in the county and State
tbat

sulated
This is wound core magnetism. diametrically-opwith four coils,0 C C C, the posite coils

being

connected ends

in the

same

cir-

55

of each

60

65

one
"

or

both

of tbe

parts
of

or

elements

of field

tor mo-

In

illustration

of

the

action

or

mode assumed

of

that

is to say,
or

either
or a

the both.
motor

magnet
plish accom-

of this apparatus, the annular

let it be

operation that

or

magnets

armature, Uiis by constructing

I with

two

or

more 10

independent energlzing-circuits, on

the

tip with eircnits that

and I connect these field-magnets, for example, or corresponding induced generating in an alternating-current generator, so

alternating currents
the
motor
"

are

caused

to

erse travthe

field-magnet A is permanently metrically magnetized, so as to present two free polos diamechanical If suitable opposite. 70 for rotating the fieldmade provision be now plifies exemthe disk,the apparatus around magnet of an ordinary magnetothe conditions be set up in the would generator,and currents
coils
or

circuits.

By

so

doing

closed

conductors

E'

on

the

disk

D.

75

a5

the motor poles of the fieldmagnetof are progf easlvely shifted, and by their attraction upon set up a rotation in the latter a rotary armature in the direction this and of the
movement of

the

poles.
y"

In

produced
of the

is case, however, the rotation maintained tion by the direct attrac-

most be the would Evidently these currents the points of thj9 greatest powerful at or near density of the lines of force, and they would, cally, tend, at least theoreticases, as in all similar to establish poles in the disk magnetic fieldD at right angles to those in the annular

80

magnetic
that

elements

of the

motor.

magnet
reaction
a more or

A. of

As

result

of

the

well-known each
in

bavediscoverMl

advantageous results' may be secured in this system by ntilizing the shifting of the poles primarily to setup currents in
dosed conductor field of the from the field. located within
so

polarities upon less powerful tendency


these
same

other,
disk of
the

the

to

rotate

in the

direction

as

that

85

)5

the influence the rotation


currents

of the may npon To |0

motqr,

that

result

tbe

reaction

of such

ventlon

fully tbe nature of tne inmore I refer to the accompany ing drawings. Figure 1 represents in side elevlttkm the

lUostrate

of a motor operative parts or elements emMNdying the principles of my invention, and In section the generator for operati ng the same. 43

be established. If, on the field-magnet would other field-magnet hand, the ring or annular held Abe stationary and its magnetic poles by passing through its progressively shifted coils C C properly-alternated currents, it is 90 results will follow, for obvious similar that ing of the currents the passage causing the shiftnet or whirling of the poles of tbe field-magA

induces
armature up
a

currents

in

the disk

closed the
D

circuits result
same as

of

the

coils " rotation

E', with

of

95

mg.

2 is a horizontal In

central

section

of the

tor mo-

setting
direction
currents

of the

in the

50

Fig. l,the circuits being shown partly in of motor form diagram. Fig. 3 is a modified In side elevation. tal Fig. 4 is a central horizonorosB-section of Fig. 3. In Figs. 1 and of soft 2, A is an annular core

of such
are

Iron, preferably

laminated

or

formed

of

in-

generated in the the coils E E' in tbe same poles manner, of disk the or continuously cylinder follow taining, the poles of the annular field-magnet, mainrelaat least theoretically, the same
or

shifting. always induced

Inasmuch

the

100

22

482.279

reanlto in live poBitions* This perfect action of the apparatns. In order better
5

an

even

and be the

together
to

in series i

and

their fi^eeends

brought

that the system

as

whole

mode
cnrrents

nnderstoody I shall or plan devised by me


that

noir

may describe

the f, respectiveljr* Between poles there is mounted, in bearingsin the crosspieces G", a cylindricsd iron core, D, which, terminals in order
to

70

for

prodncingthe
shifting of

prevent
the in the

the formation
loss

of

eddying
is
ductors con-

the
In

poles

effect the progressive of the motor.


B

currents,
subdivided
or

and

consequent
way.
to the

thereon,

usual

Insulated

ID

15

20

poles or pole pieces of an alternating-current ffenerator. They are permfinently magnetized and of opposite or other armature polarity. F is a tsylindrical containing the independent coils G Q'. These coils are wound at right angles^ so that while is crossing the one strongest portion of the field of force the other is at thenentral point. in the two The coils G Q' terminate pairs of insalated and/', upon which collectiog'-rings/ bear the bmshes wires connect the g f/" Four motorterminals i and t with thebroshes^and the g^snerator is ro* ^y respectiyely. When at the certain point shown tatedy thecoilGwill in the drawings be* generating its maximum
are

Fig. ly

B'

the

coils

are

applied

longitudinally, and for these I 75 to the secured are plates B K, which copper in wellsides and ends of "ihe cylindrical core These known plates or conductors ways. may form one or preferably several independent the core. In the drawings two circuits around 80 of suchcircnits areshown, formed respectively E and lated insuare B^, which by the conductors It is ad vantagcou;; also from each other. to slot these plates longitudinally, to prevent and waste of eddy currents of 85 the formation
energy. From
of

cylinder D employ may

this

conveyed from the '25 rings/ / to the terminals t i and through the Its effect will be to establish poles coils C 0. in t^e ring midway between the two coils. of the generator rotation the By the further C(%1 G' is brought within the inidence of the begins to produce a current, which stronger as the said coil approaches grows the maximum points of the field,while the current as produced in the coil G diminishes the said coil recedes from those points. The from the coil G', being conveyed to 35 curreni tlio terminals t H and through coils C", has poles at right angles a tenden"7 to establish to those set up by the coils 0 0; hut owing to the greater effect of the current in coils 0 is merely to advance the poles 40 O the result from the position In which remain they would if dne to the magnetising influence of coils G alone. G This progression continues for a qnarter-reyolntion until coil G G becomes and coil G' G' produces its maximum 45 nentral
jo

currents while coil G' is snmed that this current

neutral."

Let

it be

as

been has now g'.vCn the operation stood. apparatus will be readily underTo the binding-posts i t arexsonneeted what circuits from the generator
to cause

is

the proper
a

90

progressive shifting of thjs resultant poles produced by the magnets M


armature.

netic mag-

upon
in

the the

Thus circuits
on

cnrrents

are

iiiducea

field and

cor^ which, energixr a powerful at^ strongly, maintain ing the core the same and the field, which traction between
closed the
causes
a

95

rotation the

of the armature resultant

in thedlree*
are

tion The

in which

poles

Shifted.

tion particular advantage of the construcillustrated in Figs. 3 and 4 is that a con-' and centrated and powerful field is obtained a remarkably powerful tendency to rotation

too

in the may

armature be obtained

secured. in the

The form

same

results in

illustrated

current.

The the

action

described

is

then

Figs. I and 2, however, by forming polar pro- 105 cores. Jections on the field and armature When not loaded, but runthese motora ning are is nearly the rotation of the armatnre free, synchronous with the rotation of the poles of and under these circumstances the field, verv no little current is perceptible in the coils B ls\ if a load is added the speed tends to diminish peated, but reand
so

poles having been shifted throneh one-half of the field, or The a half- revolution. halfrevolution second in a is accomplished tained 50 similar polarity being mainway, the same in the shifting poles by the movement "of the generator -coils alternately through fields of opposite polarity. The same principle of operation may be apof various forms, and I have 55 plied to motors shown of such modified forms one in Figs. 3 and 4 of the drawings. *Io these figures,M M' are to or forming fidld-magqets secured part of a frame, F', mounted These on a base, P. 60 be laminated or msijgnetsshould composed of of electrically-insulatedmagnetic number -a sections, to prevent the circulation of induced and to render currents them capable of rapid These magnetic changes. magnetic cores or with insulated coils 0 C, the 65 poles are wound
coils being diametrically-opposite connected

the that

currents

in coils B

BT

are

mented, aug115 is of the

the

rotary effort is incrtesed

proportionately. Obviously the principle of this invention modified capable of many applications,most
which follow
as
a

matter

of

course

from

described. For instance^ the armature-coilSjOr those in which the currents set up by induction, may be held stationary are and the alternating currents from the generator conducted through the rotating inducing of suitable sliding conor field coiUi by means tacts. It is also be coils may of the motor these which
ent

constructions

120

apparent
and

that the

the

induced'

125

movable

magnetic

parts

modifications reference
case

stationary; but I have illustrated fully in the application to


has herein

.been made.
with and

In the

of motors
armatnre

wound circuits

field and

independoperated
in my said

xjo

their poles, as described by shifting

24

(Vo

ModeL)

Bheett"

Sheet

N.
ELEOTBIOAL

TE8LA.
OF POWER.

TBAI81II88I0V

No.

382,280.

Patented

May

1, 1888.

FiyJ

f^.2'

FigS

Fig.4-'

Fi^aS

I^V^,

6 Fig.

Figy:JL^

8 Fig.

miKTOK.

26

(I*

HodaL)

Bkaau"

"b"et

1.

N.
SLEOTBIOAL

TE8L1.
OF POWXK.

TSASBMIBSIOI

No.

382,280.

Patented

Kay

1, 1888.

mCKIOB.

^^=-^-

(I"

KoteL)

8kMt""

Bhfat

S.

N.
ELBOTRIOAL

TESLA.
OF POWEK.

TKAHSHIBSIOV

No.

883,280.

Patented

H"y

1, 1888.

f^'S-iS

WITKSStS;

28

United

States

Patent

Office.

VIKOLA.

TJBBLA,

OF

NEW

TOKK,

K.

Y.

ELECTRICAL

TRANSMISSION

OF

POWER.

BPaCZnCATXOV OdtiMl apipliMHM


AM

fonalmg
OetriMT It, vm.

put

of

XiMten ltt,Ui.

Patent lUvUad
mmI

Vo.
tkk

S8S.8aO.
m"UmUm

datoA
tM

ICaj 1,
t. IMS

1880. SorUl
Ko.

Itrtal Ko.

lUfCh

iZb all Be

wlidm it known

tnajf

concerns

that

I, Nikola

Tola,

from

tages, and the operation will


reference

mode
be

of

its construction
more

and

deaoribed

iu detMl

by
and

KO

Lika, border oonntry of AoiferiA-Hanjpwgr, and residing io the dty, o6nnt^,and Btate abd certain of lieir new Torki have invented in the Transmiauon of uefnl ImprovementB Power, of which the following isaspecificatioD, reference being had to the drawings aeoompanying and forming a part of the same. This application is a division of un application October filed by me 12, 1867, No. 2S2,1S2. l%e practical solution of the problem of the Bmiyan,
electrical which conversion and transmission of
chanical me-

to the

accompanying

diagrams

drawings. js grams Figures 1 to 8 and 1* to 8*, iuclusive, are diaillustratingthe principle of the^tiou of my invention. The remaining figuiw are views of the apparatus in various forms by
-

means

of which

the

invention

may

bi* carried iu their

60

into

and which effect,

will be described

order.

Bderring

'5

involves certain requirements energy and the apparatus heretofore systems iiave not

with

is u diafirst to Fig. 9, which grammatic repreKutation of a motor, u generator, and oonnecting-ciroaits in accordance 65 G invention, II is the motor, and my
-

capable of folAIling. the generator fi"r driving it. The motor com solution Such formity priaes a tva^ or annulus, B, .preferably built unia a primarily demands of speed in the motor iron riugs or auuular irrespective of up of thin insulated its normal its load within working limits. On plates,BO as to be as susceptible as possible to 70 in itsmagnetic condition. other variations This ring the to attain a IC hand, it is necessary, of conversion than has heretofore is surrounded by four coils of insulated wire greater eoonomy existed, to constmct symmetrically placed and designated by GCC cheaper and more 6, The diametricaliy-oppoBite coils are conreliable and aimple apparatus, and snch that nected of high aU.danger from the use of currents up so as toco-operate in pairs in produc 75 to an economical on are diametrically-opposite parts ing free polies necemry 15 tenaion, which four free ends thus "of the ring. The left are transmissior.,may be avoided. T T T' T', as indicated. is a new connected metliod to terminals or Ify present invention of effecting the transmission of it, mode of power Near the ring, and prefierably inside of the there is mounted a on wiiereby many by dectrical 80 fm axis or shaft agency, magin shape, but and overcome notic disk, C, generally circular objections arc present great prcaei 30 shown. and efficiency secured. out as segments, having two ceonomy away invention In carrying ont I employ This "k is mounted so as to tarn a freelywithin my in which pendent indethere are The nary two the riag B. motor more or generator (} is of any ordiI in tlie present instance energiziog-circnits,through which type, that shown 85 ternating hereinafter a cylindricalar paasj in the manner described, alhaving fldd-magnets "f Sand 35 witli the two coils B currents, effectingthereby a progresA, woupd mature-core, sive free of each coil arc carried ends shifting of the magnetism or of the ''Tines B'. The with well-known which, in accordance offorce,'' through the shaft a and connected, respectively, to Insulated theories,produces the action of the motor. contact-riugs hbh' b'. A.ny 90 It is obvious that a proper ing form of collector or brush bears 011 convenient progressive shift40 of the lines of force ma}' be utilised to set | each ring and forms the a t^^rminnl by which of either rotation eiemeuc i current a movement or These to and fh)ra a ring is conveyed. up the field "nia(?net, I termlnafs of th" connected ofthcmotor, thearmaturc.or t-o the terminairt are and tliat if the carrents directed iii throu^rh the 1 motor by the wires L and 1/ iu the manner 9-. rection diin two arc arc proper comp'etc circuits dioated,iHmwby 45 several circuits of the motor for Lho motor will be commuuiior nu foMMd, one inclndlng. say, the coils ]" 01 the all the Qsnal commuand thi; othe; and C 0 of the motor required; but to avoid Mierator Um ^mt remaining ooii^ "B and C C of the geu tating appliances iu the system I connect motor-circuits with those of a saitable and the motor. directly. antor 1 oC' It remain^ -nin the mode of op to Thepradtfial {o alternating-current generator. molts of such a system, its economical A for thfa^Drpose 1 aftftnrratlon.r tt" employed
'"
'

been

29

98a.aao

9*, phases through which the coils of the geaerator pass in operation, an^ the correspoodiogand when magnetic changes prodnoed in the 5 reanltant

refei* to the diagrams, Figs.1 to 8 and illoatration of the varioua for an

powerful current, but in the The coil B, on the other hand, having entered a field of opposite 70 polarity, generates a cnrrept of opposite di rection. The resultant poles will therefore be of the armatnrci of the "The revolation in the line N S, Fig. 0*; or, in other words, motor. the field-magnets K S obthe poles of the ring will l"eshifted along fivegenerator between "ioQsly producesin the coils B " alternating eighths of its periphery. 75 7 and 7* in the same the intensityand direction of whi"" Fin. currents manner illustrate
1* to
a

B' devttopa

less
as

same

direction

before.

"

10

In the posithe pnases of the generator and ring at threetion quarters of a revolution, and Figs. 8 and 8* Fig. 1 the current the at seven the same in the coil B is practically im, whereas of eighths of a revolution is developing its the generator-armature. These figures time coil B' at the same will be Eo indicated from the foregoing. maximum reaoily understood cnrrent, and by the means of Fig. 9 the circnitindndWhen is accomplished, a complete revolntion 15 in the description the conditions tablished, existing at the start are re-esing this coil may also inclnde,say the coils 0 and The with the the 'same action is repeated for O of the motor. Fig. 1*. result, the next and all subsequent revolutiona, and in 85 tion connections, wonld be the magnetisaproper be seen of the ring B, the poles being on the line tion th%t every revolngeneral it will now K B. order of connections The of the armature of the generator produces same being so tlfe coil B and the coil Cf, a corresponding shiftingof the poles or lines obaeryed between traversed of force around the ring. This eifect I utilise the latter when t^nd to by a cnrrent in producing the rotation of a body or armafix the poles at right angles to the line N B of 90 ture in a variety of ways-^for example, applythe Fig. 1*. It results, therefore,that when ing have made to theappathe principleabove described one-eighth of a revolution, 25 generator-coils in Fig. 9. in Fig. ratus shown The disk D, owing to reaching the position shown 0 and its tendency to assume ersed that position in which 2, both pairs of coils, C, will be travand act in opposition in so the greatestposuble nn ihber r ( the 95 it embraces by cnrrent Ikr as the location of the poles is concerned. magneiio lioec, is set in rotation, following the of the lines or the points of greatest 30 The position of the poles will therefore be tiie motion attraction. reanltantof the magnetizing forces of the coils The disk D i\ Fig. 9 is shown that ia to say, it will advance 'alongthe ring to cot as away Of the on a position corresponding to one-e^hth opposite sidc^: but this I have found is not 1 00 revolution of the armature of the generator. essential to effectingits rotation, as a cin^ular of the generator has In Fig. 3 the armatnre disk, as indicated by dotted lines,is also set 35 in rotation. At This phenomenon I attribute to progressed to one-fonrth of a revolntion. the point indicated the current in the coil B inertia or resistance inherent in t^e a certain in B' it is ail, is maximum, while metal to the rapid shiftingof the lines of "orce the latter 105 which ooil being in its neutral results in a continuous position. The poles through the same, be the disk, causing its tangentialpull upon 40 of the ring B in Fig. S* will in consequence rotation. shifted to a position ninety degrees from that This seems to be confirmed by die

depend

npOn

well-known

laws.

of the coils indicated

in

"

at the

start, as shown.
the

I have

in like manner
sive succes-

shown

conditions

existing at eao"

fact that a circular ively rotated than

disk
one

of steel is

more

effectrea1 10

for the of soft iron,-

is assumed that the former eighth of one revolution in the remaining son to possess k greater resistance to the shiftingof the mag45 figures. A short reference to these figareswill netic Snifice to an lines. understanding of thm signifi' In illustration of other forms of apparatus eance. of which I carry out my Figa. 4 and 4* illustrate the conditions which invention, 115 by means the generator-armature I shall now exist when describe the remaining figures of has comthe drawings. Here 50 pleted three^ighths of a revolntion. both coils are generating currents; but the coil Fig. 10 is a view in elevation and part vertical entered the opposite field, is F, having now section of a motor. Fig. 12 is a top view aerating a current in ]theopposite direction of the same with the field in section and lao a ving the opposite magnetising eflTect:hence diagram of connectioniEi. Fig. 11 is an end or side view of a generator with the fields )n sec55 the resultant pole will be on the line K 8, as tion. shown. This form of motor may be used in place

In and

Fig. 6
the

D is a cylindrical or drum armature-core, xtj of the resulting magnetic condition which, for obvious reasons, should be splitup in Fig. 6*. 60 ringia shown In this phase coil B as ihr as practicable to prevent the circulation is in the neutral position, while ooil B' is genof induction. The core erating within it of currents its maximum current, which is in Uie is wound B and longitudinally with two coils; "ection in Fig. 4. The as same poles will B',the ends of which respectivelyconare nected to insulated consequently be shifted through one half of ried card^f contact-ringsddit 6s the ring. the armature by the shafts, .upon which In F^f. 6 the armature has completed fiveis mounted. In this position coil The armatnre within is set to revolve eighthsof a revolntion. an
'

armature

of one revolntion one-nalf of the of the geaerator has been completed,

of that shown.

so
.

iron
net

motor diell,B, whiieh oonstitatcsthelield-iiiaftor

produce

af steadily-orogressive shifting

by the D, and oonae70 rapidly rotating. quently keep the armature The peculiar advantage of this disposition Is 5 and concentrated made of steel. It is also desirable that this in obtaining a more ^werbe divided of this principle to fhl fidd. The application ahell should up similarly to the As a genarmatiire,and for similar reasons. erator systems involving nraltiplecircuits generally 75 for driving this motor, I may from this apparatus. will be understood the nae device shown in Fig. 11. to Figa. 15 a^d 16, Fig. 15 ia This represents an lo Befdrring now annular or a diagrammatic representation of a modified ring armature, A, surrounded by Mr of my invention. those diametFig. 16 is a horicoils,F F F F, of whieh disposition 'ricallv opposite are In Uiis case connected sontal cross-secuon of the motor. in aeries, 80 so which that four free ends are metal, preferably cut a disk, D, of magnetic are conl^ft, in dotted to tho 'i^ulated oontactrlngihh V ('. away at opposite edges, as shown IS neeted The to turn on so as a ring is suitably mounted shaft,a', lines in the figure,is mounted the poles ""iS. between The contact-ringis of freely inside two stationary co{ls,K'l!r,placed The coils are at right angles to one connected to another. each pair of generator coils are 85 Uicae of the motor, respectively,by means of a fmme, O, of insulating on prefen^"lywound contact-brushes and the two pairsof conductto the so material, and their ends are connected L L and V II, as indicated The generator G is fixed terminals T TT^ T^. on, diagram mata representative oi that diyss of alternatingically in Pig. IS curient machines In which consideration of a a stationary in- 90 Nowy it is obvious from dnced element That shown the preceding figures that the rotation of the is employed. consitts of a revolving permanent or electro-magin the coils net, t5 generator- ring produces currents transmitted F F, which, Mng to the motorA, and four independent stationary magnets, P F, wound with to the core of the latter magnetic rically "k"ils,impart coils, those diametor whirling around opposite to eadi other being connected P"des constantly sfiriling 95 and having their ends secured This eifect sets up a rotation of the in series the core. to the t. tit From terminals these terminals force between the 30 armatare,owing to tbeattraotive led to the terminals of the motor, currents the shell and the poles of the armature; but are mode tively as dkown relain the dram'ings. The of opinasmuch as the eoila in this case move eration is substantially the same the movement to the shell or fidd- magnet as in the pre100 vions cases, the currents of the coils is in the opposite direction traversing the coils of the motor having the effect to turn the disk 1% to the progressive shifting of the poles. of carrying out the invention This mode Other D. arrangements of the coils of both gen^ ing has the advantage of dispensing with the slidand motor efator are possible, and a greater
okher element of (he molior^ This ahMl

preferably formed with a eloi or openlnf, r; be eontinnona, as diown bat it may by the dotted it is preferably lines,and in tbiaerent
is

of the resultant poles G' upon

attractive the

force,exerted

armature

number
seen

of

circuits

may

be

used,

as

will be

in the two
a
a

40

Fig. 13 is
motor

succeeding figures. diagrammatic illustration of


generator
connected with my and invention.

contacts in the system. 105 described In the forms of motor above only the armature or the fieldOQCof the elements"

and in

structed con-

nmgnet"
l"e wound had view view
to

is provided with
to show

It energlsing-coils. both elements may is therefore end similar


1 10

accordance

remains, then,
with

how 19.

Fig. 14 is an end view of the generator with its field-magnets in section. M ii produced by sii^ The field of the motor 45 magnetic poles, G'G', secured to or prqieeting These from a magnets or ring or frame, H. insulated with coin, those poles are wound diametrically opposite to each other being conin pa1rs,8oas to prod nee opposite poles 50 neeted Th is leaves six free ends, which in each pid r. are connoted to the terminals T T T' T'T' T''.
The
tween armature

coils.
motor.

Beference

Figs. 17, 18, and


a

Fig. 17 is an
a

of such

Fig. 18 is

of ttie generator, with the field-magnets in section; and Fig. 19 is a diagram of the circuit-connections. of the

which

is mounted
9

to rotate
or

l"eTwo

Fig. 17 the fidd-magnet 1 15 a ring,B, preferably of thin insulated iron sheets ot bands, with cesses eight pole-pieces, G, and corresponding rein which four pairs of coils,Y,- are The diametrically opposite pairs oT 130 wound.
In
motor

consists

of

the

poles is

cylinder
on

disk, D, of
a.

coils

are

connected
to foor

in series and

the

free ends

55

terminals, 10, the rule to l"e followed in connecting bdng the same cut away, inbefore are as shown. as heresegments of the same stance has in this inThe generator for this motor explained. Anarmatare,D, with two with thrf e coils, B B', at right angles to each other, is 1 15 armature. A, wound an Inside of the field-magnet mounted to rotate The K X' K", at sixty degrees apart. coils, ends of the arn"iLtu re-coils are conThe nected 60 ends of these coils are connected.reepectively, B. to two These contact pairs of contact- rings, d dtt d^. to insulated rings Betfetf'^. The generator for this motor in be of any of the motor to those connected are may ring;8 of the de- 130 of collecting-brnshes suitable kind to produce currents order by means proper sired character. In the present instance it and six wires, forming three independent cirrection consists of a field- magnet, N S, and an armain the strength and divariations ture, The coitB. transmitted through A, with two coils at right angles, the of the currents

wronght-irou, mounted

the shaft

connected

these circuits

and

traversing the

coils of the

ends

of which

are

connected

to four

cont-act*

S2

.^""ItaaeiMn^ylMard
teMtiw (Hope tfdor
tiod
or

Um eomnts

nae as

of

aitiiw within

sithe

ptdaritiet
tare
or

i"f eithor
Held

or

both

dements of in
a

Ctho
motor

arma-

10

nrnnd

magaeior
altematiiig

magnets)
enrrents the
as

by

oiftke
tkoineof

iayfltttioii, "ltboiigb
coTOfMd

do

noiooii*

defslopAnf
eiil

independof forth.

corrootooftnyprie-

eiienlts,
or

indnding
elements^

magnetidng-ooila
herein
set

iaqportuMOi
Wholl"iaiMi"" Xko
Mlfcod

either

both

KIKOLA hmio
dfiMribed of

TB8LA.

eleekricdly
in

Tntneasssi FEAte Feahx B" B.

liiiwiflHiitpowir, l"f
a

whidioowiiti

prodnoof the

KUXIBT,
Hasxlbt.

oontinvooily-prograHive

diifting

?2^==
:v|i.,t4.

34
0

Hfd*L)

akMta"

"kMt

I.

H.
ELEOTUOAL

TESLl.
OF FOWEB

TBAH8HI88I0ir

lo. 382,281.

Patented

Ha;

1,

mvENTon
.

BY

^^^aaaJL^la^,
JTTORKEYS

36

382.281

may and
,

be for
con

of

precisely
veoiedoe

identical

constraction,
I have F marked field-

Motors

constructed maintain all loads in be

and almost within

operated
absolutely
their I normal have
to

on

this
same

of reference
as

principle speed
that for

the

55

in

Fig.

magnets passing
curied the

parts, energised
its the
or

its

follows:
a

F, the H', the


d

ing workobserved

by

contionoos G

carrent eoils

limits, and
if the
as

practice
overloaded its

in

field-coils

G;

motor

such

an

tent ex-

by

cylindrical collecting
and

friction

armature; rings carried


the the
cafrents two

dee, by
the of

to

check

speed
power

the be with

speed
not too

of

the
60

generator,
is diminished
motor.

if its motive

greats
of the

armatnreshaft the
ID

forming and//
the
to

terminals

synchronously
in other of certain

that

armature

-coils;
deliver

collecting-

brashes in the

which

develop^
circuits the be
g motor.

have

applications
or

shown
motors

how may

the be

annatare-coils
connect

the

(/,

construction varied in

these

similar

which The

the of

generator
this

with will

well-known the' field

ways" about

operation
from the

system
The

stood underof the

stance,

by

rotating
or

as, for inary stationa within features which the


struct. con-

65

foregoing. causing
the
a

action

armature

15

generator the poles


the that latter in

by
in
a

progressive
in

shifting of
sets

the

field"but

I do
as

conductors rotating illusirate these not with the the illustration


rest
as

motor-armature

up

in

farther I have

herein, given
of
a

rotation the
carrent

opposite poles
be
move.

direction^to

regard

within
art to

70

which

continuous
so

directed

If, now, through


the which

the the
net mag-

power

person

skilled

in

the

field-ooils A apon bat be

so

as

to

strongly
of the

energise
will
not

I
.

am

aware

that of
a.

device and

embodying
having
a

the manent! perbeen coils 75

A,
that

the

speed
which in

motor,

depends
will sup-

characteristics

motor

of the

generator, proportion
coils that B

beincr"ised, operated
on

v-magnetised by passing
a

the

power

produces
to

its rotation the It energy is

through
oirect
or

has field-magnet independent

increased

its armature

continuous
a

curreiLt ever, how-

25

plied
istie

through
of this is not

the
motor

B.

characterof
tion rota-

in

opposite
I do

directions.
not

Such

system,

its

direction the

reversed

by reversing
its field

direction the the

of

the

enrrent

through
rotation the

coils, for
not

the of tical pracregard as capable is invention for which applications my in principle is it the or same designed, nor mode of the of

80

direction 30

of of the

depends
upon
armature

upon

operation,
that energy. there

mainly
is

in

that and

the
not

shifting
ous, continu-

polarity
in To of I whidi
jrererse

field, but

the
are

direcUpn
shifted. of either

poles
and of my to

is intermittent

poles of the
motor g

necessarily

involved

the

the
must

connections
be reversed.

waste

85
limit
nor

the have

circuits found

f/
that

In of the

present
any for

if the

field-magnet
by
the its

application I do not special form of motor,

self mythe

of

motor and

be the

strongly
circuits

energised

coils B
be

B,

means as

through
the the but

armature-coils
to

currents the alternating producing fi^m what called versed "reare distinguished

dosed,
at bat 40
a

assuming
field be

generator
motor

running

currents,"
the field of the

and

I may and which of

excite the will

or

energize
by
the

"j^

oertain if the

speed,

will

not

start;,
or

motor

generator produce

slightly energized,
that the

in*

general
influence

in. such
of the its* and maximum

condition armature

magnetic
m

of carrent source any desired result.

preponderates condition,
sufficient
or

de-

What
The

I daim

is" herein described of transmitwhich 95

tsmtning
will reach 4S this and

magnetic
with

the

motor

method,
power in the

start,
its
reason

carrent

will For

ting

by

electro-magnetic
and clement and
or

motors,

normal
to

speed.
at

consists

continuously poles by
forth. of
one

progressively
of the
motor

it is desirable the
motor

keep

the its

start, normal

shifting by
other

until
or

has the
current

attained field-circuit
to

alternating
element
as

currents
a

magnetizing
continuous

the
rents curIOC

^eed,
to

nearly
but

so,

open,

or

direct

permit

little

pass fields

through
of both

it. the

set

I have so

fopnd, howeveri
and the motor

if the be

NIKOLA

TESLA.

fenentolr
Umt and in

strongly
starts
motor

energized
the

starting
timt
the

generator
of the

motor,

Witnestes: Frank Frank B. E.

speed
with

is incre"Bsea

Murphy,
Hartley.

qrnehronism

the

generator.

H.
MBTIOB OF OOVTBlTlie IN

TESLl.
DnTEIBUTna SLEOTBIO OOBftEITB.

Ho.

382,213.

?"t"ted

Htj

1. 1888.

:^"

m
feS.i

I
IMVERTOn. ATTBfWef*.

(""

MatoL)

H.
METHOD OF COHVEETIIS AID

TESLA.
DIITUBQT"e BLSOTUO OOUBItS.

iro.

382,882.

Patented

Kay

1. 1888.

INVENTOR.

SSjM^f^^i'itJy.

40

tB2M2

%^s to bring them


latioos to
one
or

into the most to the coils iroand and

effectire
core.

re*

The

device
to

is

provided with
the ends

suitable of the

ing-posts, bind-

another

The

iDdacing
are

divided ^ electrical

lo

the core on primary 70 into pairs or sets by th^ proper to the binding-posts connections, so that while the coils the four terminals are connected of one 12 3 4. pair or set co operate in flzinff the magThe indnced coils are connected netic ally-opposite For poles of the core at two given diametrictogether in any desired manner. in Fig. 8, G G may be conpoints the coils of the other pair example, as shown 75 or seU-asenming, for the sake of illnstration, nected in multiple arc when a quantity current that there are but two tend to fix the poles is desired" of for candescent inas running a group at ninety degrees from sach points. With this dependently while " U may be infamps, P indaction device I nse an alternating-cnrrent in series in a circuit connected generator with- coils or sets of coils to correspond including arc lamps D',"or the like. 80 with those of the con verter^and by means The generator i n this system w ill be adapted
" "

coils are led. The diametrically-opposite coilsB Band B' B'are connected, respectively, in series, and

which

15 of

condootorsi connect indeto the converter in the manner illustrated. np in pendent circuits tliecorresponding coils of the I employ a For example, in tlie present case It results from this generator and converter. pair of ordinary permanent or electromagnets, that the different electrical phases in the genwhich is mounted a cylindrical erator " B, between

suitable

85

ao

by corresponding magnetic changes in the converter; or, in other words, that as the generator-coilsrevolve the points of greatest magnetic intensityin the converter
This

ar.e attended

armature

on

shaft, F,

and

wound

with

two

The terminals of these* coils are G O'. coils, to four insnlated contact connected, respectively, or collectingrings, H H H' H', and the wires L connect the brushes
90

four line-circuit willbepro^preBsivelyshiftedorwhiriedaround*

in the applied under variously K bearing on these rings to the converter conditions to the operation of elec-. order shown. nation, Noting the results of this combi15 modified that at a given point it will be observed tro-magnetic motors, and in previous applications of time the coil G is in its tieutral position and notably in those having serial numbers 252,132 and 266,661"1 have described in detail is generating little or no current, while the 95 the manner of constructing and using snch is in a position where other coil, G it exerts its motors. effect. G to coil be maximum nected conAssuming 50 In the present application my object is to in circuit with coils B B of the converter describe the best and most convenient and coil G' with coils B' B', it is evident that manner I am of which at present aware of carrying (iie poles of the ring A will be determined by 100 oat the- invention as of the applied to a system of coils B' V alone; but as the armature skilled in the rent curgenerator revolves,coil G develops more 35 electrical distribution;but one art will readily understand, from the descripmum and coil G' less until G reaches its maxition of the modifications proposed in said applications, and G' its neutral position. The obvious wherein the form of both thegenerresult will be to shift the poles of the ringA 105 ator and converter in the present case be through one quarter of its periphery. The may In illustration, of the deof the coils through the next quartails movement therefore, 40 modified. ter of construction which tion coil G' enters a field of a turn,daring which my present invenof opposite polarity and involves, I now refer to the accompanying generates a current drawings. of opposite direction and increasing strength, ito to Figure 1 is a diagrammatic illustration of while coil G is passing from its maximum and the electrical connections creasing of of deits neutral position,generates a current 45 the converter the same. direction fore, Fig. 2 is a horizontal central crossas bestrength and same section of Fig. 1. and causes a farther Fig. 3 is a diagram of the shiftingof the poles drcnits of the entire system, the generator through the second quarter of the ring. The 11$ in section. half-revolntion will obviously be a second being shown I use a core, A, which is closed upon itself"action.' By the shifting repetition of the same 50 that is to say, of an ductive inof the poles of the ring A a power-dynamic annular, cylindrical,or and as the efficiency is produced. of the effect on the coils 0 C equivalent form" Besides the currents lao by the subdigenerated in the secondapparatus is largely increased of this core vinon I make it of thin strips, ary Coils by dynamo-magnetic induction,other coils in insncorreifts will be set up in the same 55 plates^or wires of soft iron electrically mted as far as practicable. Upon this core, by of any variations in.the intensity consequence This should be in the ring A. method, I wind, say, four coils, of the poles auy well-known I use B B K as avoidea B', which primary coils,and by maintaining the intensity of the 125 I use for which long lengths of comparatively poles constant, to accomplish which care should 60 fine wire. Over these coi Is I then wi nd shorter be taken in designing and proportioning the coils of coarser wire, G G C C, to constitute generator and in distributing the coils in the the induced this or secondary coils. The construction ring A and balancing their effect. When of this or any equivalent form of converter is done, the currents are produced by dynamo130 result being pointed out, magnetic induction only, the same may be carried farther,as above shifted obtained ample, as though the poles were 65 1^ indosing these coils with iron" as, for exthe coils a layer or with an infinite number of over by winding by a commutator of insnlated iron wire. layers segments.
"

principle

I have

"

41

the
fflethod may dflc S be form

Apjpantns
of

by

means

of may be

which carried The I in but any which I

thii out spe-

within herein 2. The

'the
set

indncUve forth. method herein of

inflnence

of

said

fteld|

as

eonvertion almost I
most

iior

varied which and I

indefinitely.
herein efficient claimed
to

electrical

conversion which circuits

and consists

ao

have

shown and

regard
another do
not

distribution in

described, independent
field

Mfehe.bcBt

generating'in indo"ve
an

ing produccurrents

sppllcation
limit lir may loaiiniilar What 1. The I

have herein

it;
use

alternating
as

in their of and
lutions convo-

myself
form
be
or

the of

of

nartienis result
or

such

order

or

manner a

to

produce
shifting

by

combination of

devices the
same

conjoint
Doints of

effect maximum

progressive
effect of in located the within
as

the in-

9$

capable
way. daim method herein

effecting

in

the

field,
coils the forth.
or

andng
is" of eleotricsl conTCision which and ive

thereby
of influence
a

currents

circuit of the

induct-

field,

set

diaferibntion
in 15

described,
and

eornds^
NIKOLA

TB8I"A.

eontinnonsly
or

progressively
eflSoct

shif^ng
in
an

the Witm in Frahx Frahx B. B.

paists
ife the ceils

line and
or

of

oHudmnm

Induct-

lleldy

indneing

thereby
of
a

ehrrents circuit located

Mubpht,
Habtlbt.

convolutions

42

L)

Bh"atl"

Ihtat

N.
BTBTEM OF

TESLA.
DISTBIBUTIOS.

ELEOTBIOAL

0,413.

?at"iited

Dot.

2, 1888.

INVENTOR

AITORNEf

I'*

deL)

ah"ato"

Shf"t

3.

N.
B78TEM
OF

TESLA.
DISTBIBHTIOB.

ELEOTaiOlL

}g0,413.

Patented

Oot.

2,

1888.

HMi'

^r

INVEMTOR

"^w2..t-ii6a"i1""

ATTORNEY'

45

United

States

Patent

OfficEo

NIKOLA

TB8LA,

OF

NEW

YORK, COMPANY,

N.
OF

T., ASSIGNOR
SAME PLACE.

TO

THE

TBSLA

ELECTRIC

SYSTEM

OF

ELECTRICAL

DISTRIBUTION.

SPBCXFICATXON

fonning
Application

part

of

Letters
10, 1888.

Patent
Serial

No.
Ko.

390.413,
(No

dated
model.)

October

2. 1888.

fll"il Ipill

970.187.

'Jb aU Be

whom
it known

it may that

concern:

invention.

I,

Nikola

Tesla,

sab-

as or

it is used

of Anstria, from jectof the Emperor Smiljan, reLika, border country of Anstria-Hangary, Bidingin the city,, coonty, and State of New

both,

in

illustrates

Fig. 2 is a diagram of the system in operating motors dr converters, Fig. 3 parallel or multiple arc. of diagram matically the manner
more

York, have

invented in

certain

new

and

nsefal

operating two or both, in series.

motx)rs

or

converter8,or

55

10

15

20

25

tion tribution, It is obvious that for purposes of this invenSystems of Electrical Disbe all the following is a specifimotors or transformers, which cation, may reference being had to the drawings acdesignated as converters,''are the Bame,and both be operated by the 60 that either or cofflpanying and forming a part of the same. may In previous same applications lor patents made system or arrangement of circuits. and described electrical by me I have shown Referring to Fig. 1, A A designate the poles for the transmission and of power of the field-magnets of an the alternating -current B^'Steois of electrical distribution of which, being in conyersion and engenerator, the armature and the transformers the motors this case on a ergy, in which cylindrical in form and mounted 65 which contain two coils or sets of coils, more or shaft, C, is wound longitudinally with coils B connected in B'. The insulated shaft C carries three were tact-rings, conindependent oircuitfi up with corresponding coils of an alternating-curof which, as h c, one a ( e, to two of each coil,as 6 J, is connected. The rent generator, the operation of the system beterminal ing brought about by the co-operation of the lenaining terminals,/^, are both connected 70 the in alternatingcurrents independent cir- to the third ring, a. coits in progressively moving in this case A is shown as motor or shifting the composed four with of a ring, H, wonnd coils,1 1 J J, polesor points of maximum magnetic effect of in the motors In these converters. systemb, electricallyconnected, so as to cooperate or as I have described them, two independent pairs,with a tendency to fix the poles of the 75 of the for conductors each were employed ring at four points ninety degrees apart. Within the magnetic ring U is a disk or cyindependent circuits connecting the generlindrical ator with the devices for converting the transtwo mitted with wonnd core coils,G G',

Improvements

of which

**

currents

into

mechanical of this
or

energy

or

which

may

be

connected

to

form

two

closed
80

currents 30 into electric bnt I have that fonnd and

another

is not
more or

character; sary, always necescircuits may


in common,

circuits.

that

the return

two

have

single

path

wire

terminalsj k of the two sets or connected, respectively, to pairs of coils are nals, termithe 'binding-posts E' F'^and the other h ", are to a connected single bindingThe
To

with a loss, if any, which is so extremely slight post, D'. be disregarded entirely. For sake wires are 35 that it may of illustration, if the generator have two dependent ingenerator
coils two sets of nnd

operate
to

the of the

motor, three
the

lineof the

used
with
as

connect

terminals

85

those

motor.

the

motor

two

coils

or

So

far

the

apparent

action

or

mode

of

doils in

corresponding
one

relations of

to

its
40

operative elements

terminal
to

each

generator- coil is connected of the terminals motor

corresponding coils through two while the opposite independent conductors, terminals of the nected respective coils are both conto
one

the

return

-wire.

.45

This
to the

invention
ways,

is
as

applicable
will be
"

to

in variou"

seen

by

system my reference

drawings, in which a Figure 1 is a diagrammatic illu"trationof constructed and and generator single motor in accordance connected with the 50 electrically

is concerned, operation of this arrangement the single wire D, which js,so to speak,aoomfor both rereturn-wire mon circuits,maybe 90 In illustration, independent wires. garded as two of connection with the order shown, is producing its nsBx\coil B' of the generator hence coil B its minimum'; and current mum which the durrent passes through wire e, ring 95 K, wire J, h\ line- wire p],terminal ", brush coils I I, wire terminal or D', line- wire D, brush a\ ring a, and wire /, fixes the polar between line the two of the motor midway Deoni the pocolls 1 1; but as the coil B' moves 100

46

990.413

BiUoD coil The

iodicated

it into from

generates
(he coil B

lesRcarreDt,

while
more.

is three

connected
to

to
a

a oommou

line- wire
rctoni

and

ilie other
-conductor.

B| noving
cnrrent

field, generates
passes

throogh

the

deriees
5 c,

and

wires

designated J,
the ",

e^ P,

F,
the

k, J
of

ly, D,
of

by the letters d,* and d*, a, and g,


the motor will be

the
doe the

positioa
to

poles
effect

cuit
terminals

This

arrangement
attained
two

will

secure

similar

results
motor
as

to

those

but

agcneratorand independent circuits,


to
more

with

ing havde60

above

scribed. When
as

resoUant
of

of

the

cnrrentB

in vanced adforThe

applied
three
or

such

machines induced

and

motors

two

sets in

coils"

that
to the

is, it will
advance

be
or

have

circuits
more

with

proportion
of oi the

common

electrical
of to the

joint,the threeor
would
motor. in this be

tereon-

10

ward "Ofement
one

mdvement

armatnre

coils.

ibinals nected

generator
of the

simply
forms
to

65
of

the of
a

generator-armatore
rerolntion its neutral will

quarter
coil

throogh obviously

those when

Such
manner

machines, system,
The
motors I

adapted however,
others. is

my

briog
B
into

B'

into

15 this shifts

fixed

of position poles ninety B. solely by coils

its

position and coil mazimnro effect, and degrees,


This
a as

have,
the

found

to

be

less

cient effi-

than

the

they
is

are peated re-

invention of various

applicable
types,
and

to

madiines

and

70

action

for tion.

each

quarter
than

of

complete
or

tevoln-

cnmstancesand with
more or

conditions
less

to ciraccording readily understood,

efficient
to any

results. of the

I do

not

When
X)

more

one

motor

other

device

therefore constrnction What


1.

limit

myself
is"

details shown.

of
75

is

employed,
or

series.

in paraleither run they maybe lel In Fig. 2 the former arrangement The electrical

of the
I claim

apparatus

herein

is shown.

device,
as

is shown described

as

sepnVerter,
ia my

L, constructed
Serial The

I have

application
23,
r are

Ko.
two

268,787,
sets of

filed

15 Deeember
eoils mains p F

1887.

primary
to

connected,
which
are

respectively, electrically
the

the

E,

connected The
connecre-

with ing Slava generator circuits current-generating and pendent indeconverter converters a or having and 80 corresponding circuits, of indeconductors terminal one pendent connecting of each with a corresponding generator-circuit The

combination,

independent

with

the

two

coils wires

of

generator.
these the
common

erosB-cirenit
30

{ at,

making
to

tionSy are
torn-

then D.
no,

connected The

wire

drcoits

secondary for indoding, Only figure,


or

coils

jp'jp'' are
is shown

in

of the motor and a single conductor the and verter conconnecting remaining generator terminals, as set forth. The with 2. ing havcombination, a generator terminal

85

example, being
to be

descent incanand

independent
a

himps.
entire 3S tnted When itt this

one

converter

converter

or

circuits current-generating pendent indeconverters having

the

others

illus*

and line

diagrammatioally.
motors
converters
are run

or

corresponding connecting
a

circuits, of
circuits
common

pendent indein
as

formed
to

90

in genverter, con-

part through
set

conductor

all,

series^the two
erttor to the

wires coils continued the

B of

are

led

from

the
or

forth.
3.

the
on

fiiist motor
to

The
set

system forth,
an

of

electrical of

distribution the combina 95


'

then
40
on

the

next,
and
are

and

so

herein

consisting

through
to. the drcuits in
or

whole

series,

then

tion,

with

joioed
both shown
two 45

single wire

D,
J

which

completes
This is the

having

alternating- current generator and independent generatingcircults


or

the throogh Fig. 3, in which


sets

generator.
I
motors. to the

represent

motors electro-magnetic with corresponding

converters

vided pro-

energidng-circuits, connecting
of each
return

coils

of coils

of the

,of line wires operation in Fig.


between
or

or

conductors
or

the

colli
in
ido

Obviously
"tf the flBotor

it is immaterial
or

of
1

the

motors

converters,

respectively,
circuit wire conductors
or

equivalent
terminals of

device

series

with

one

terminal
a

of

the
con*-

what the

order

of eonneetions

is observed the

generator,
ductor the oiher

and

single
the
of

re8pectiv"

generator
in

connecting
terminals

said the

with
as

motor.

generator,

set

5P

I have sod aware; which


fsse

oescribed

the
"

invention form of

its best I
am

forth. NIKOLA. TESLA.

most

practicable
there
be
are

which

but
it may motor

other
out.

conditions For each

under
in in-

carried

example,
has
of

Witnesses: ROBT. Frank F. E.

the

and

generator
one

three each

Gaylord,
Hartley.

5S

dependent

circuits,

terminal

cir-

i^Tui^^f
iiii^.C

F"

KviaL)

UMto-ShMt

I.

N.
DTIAHO

TESLA.
HAO"UE.

ELEOTEIO

To.

390,414.

Patented

Oot.

2. 1888.

INVENTOR

ATT0RHEY3.

49

United

States

Patent

Office.

KIKOL4

TESLA,

OP

NEW

YORK, COMPANY,

N.

Y.,
OP

ASSIGNOR SAME
PLACE.

TO

THE

TESLA

ELKTTRIC

OYNAMO-eLECTRIC

MACHINE.

BPBCIFICATIOH

fbnning
ApfHeatloa

part
%\ta

of

Lettoxs

Patent
Serial

Ho.

390.414.

dated

October

2. 1888.

April 83. lifB.

Na.S7I.CM.

(NowMrfel.)

To

all Be

wTi^m
the

it known

it may that

concent:

which

tbe
of

enrrents

arc

to

be

taken onler

off"will
of tions varia-

I, Nikola

Tesla,
from

snb-

be

determined

solely by what

ject of
5

10

in the currents strength and direction in the for producing a given resnlt is desired the connty and This may be acelectrical t ranslating device. but in thedraw" State of New certain York, have invented new compltshed in various wa)*s; tfnd usefol Improvements in DynamoElectric only of the ings I have given typical instances of which the following is a cation, Machines, specifi- best and most practfcable ways of applying the reference of the best-known invention to three to the being had types of drawings in order to Illustrate the principlo machines, accompanying and forming a part of the same.

Emperor of Anstria, Lika, border coantry of Aoat now York, in residing at New

Smiljan, Ha -Hungary,

55

60

Incertain and

pitentsgranted to

Charles

F.

Peck

and

to enable

any

one

skilled

in

the

art

to apply

15

in any the iavention No. other under case or myself" notably in Patents 381,968 and the stances circumconditions have shown which No. 382,280, May modified 1, 1888"1 any and described of particular cases 65 a plan of constructing and require. may operof the ternating Figure 1 is a diagram illustrative atlng motors, transformers, and the like,by alof applying to the wellcurrents the invention mode conveyed through two or from known circuit drcnits more or continuous a Independent type of closed generator taining machines. formers transor having- such relation to the motors Fig. 2 is a similar diagram conas

to

produce
the

therein

progressive
nected

an

armature

with

separate

coils

con-

7c

20

movement

of In

force.
and confined

the

magnetic poles or Tines of said applications the descriptions


of of

illustrations
to those

the generators

were

is generally diametrically, or what called an Fig. 8 is open-circuit'' machine. vention the showing a diagram application of "e in**

types
the

machine 25
are

in which

current

alternating current generating coils

to

a a

machine
cominon

the

armat

are-colls

of 75

which

have

joint.

independent or separate; but I have found that the ordinary forms of oontinnouscurrent in use may be readily and cheaply dynamos now tinuous adapted to my system, or utilized lx"th as conand alternating current generators construction. 30 with but slight changes in their of effecting this forms the snbstaoce The mode of ray present application. Qenerally stated, the plan pursued by me in is as follows: On carrying out this invention in place ^ the shaft of a given generator, either of or in addition to the regular commutator, I secure as pairs of insulated collectingmany rings as there are circuits to be formed. Now, that it will be understood in the operation of in electric generator the currents 40 any dynamo the coils in their movement through the field of force undergo different that is to phases rents say, at different positions of the coils the cur"

Referring to Fig. 1, let A represent one of my motors or transformers, which, fur improved I shall designate a.**converter," convenience,
which with

consists
four

of

an

annular

core,

B, wound

80 D, those independent coils,C and gether todiametrically opposite being connected lishing to CO so as operate in pairs in estabfree poles in the ring, the tendency of grees each pair being to fix the poles at ninety deThere the other. be an arniafrom 85 may the ring, which with is wound ture, E, within coils closed The themselves. object is upon of such to pass through coils C D cnrrents relative direction to produce as strcyigthand the of a 90 progressive shifting or movement the magnetic effect around points of maximum ment a rotary movering, and to thereby maintain
of the

the F

armature. of

I therefore

secure

to

shaft
the wires

the

have
45

certain and

directions
that

and the

certain
motors
currents
or

contactbear

strengths
in the

"

transformers

that in my it is necessary

improved

by

rings, a ^ e collecting-brushes a' 6 Vff, connected H the Q O H, fespectively, with


of coils for
are

four insulated generator which I cause to d, upon

95

tain energizing-coils should undergo a cerof variations order tion. in strength and direcHence, the further step'" viz, the conbetween the induced or generating 50 nection and eoilsof the machine the contactrings from

terminals

and

D. that illustration,
the maximum

Assume,
coils coils D C D C
so

sake
lo

of

the
100

receive
same

at

the

instant

the

and minimum

current,

that

the

polar line may

be

midway

50

390.414

between
therefore niatare-coil
fo

llie be

coils

D, the
to the

rings

h wonid
ar-

coinicctcd
at
or

continaous with

its neotrnl the

points

respect
with

the

field.

point corresponding

brushes, and 5 that of the ordinary commutatorbetween which exists the greatest difference
of potential, while
(exists
10

rings
the of

would The
from

be

tended
The brushes
are

continuous c d. portions ah 65 bearing on the continuous tions porfor taking off the alternating currents i*epre8ented by a' (' "f (T. The collectingto
or

form

brushes,

those

whicU

may

bo

used

to

take

off the Two

direct

current,
the

are

designated by
-

M.

70

nected con-

pairs of

armature

coils

and

their

totwo]["oint8 in
no

coil,l)ctween

which

cominntators

are

shown
be

in

the

figure as being
a

difference be
at

potential.

best

re-

utilized; but
manner.

all mav

utilize"i in

similar

snlts

will

obtained

by making
equidistant
connections L

these*
one arc

nections conother, an-

points

There

is in

another three

well-known
or a

type

of

nia-

75

as

shown.

These wires

est easi-

chine
on

which

A' morcj^coils,
common

B' C,
of

made and 15 the

by using
loops
or

between

the the K.

rings
coil When I

the

armature

have

joint, the
a

wires of the

J, connecting
commutator in

free

ends
in

being connected
This
form In is

to

the segments

to the the

segments
that the the in

commutator.

converters

are

made

this manner,
currents

it is
in the of

Fig.
to
a

3.

of generator this case each

is illustrated

terminal
in

80

evident
secionsof

phases

of the coil

the

generator

generatorconverter

will For

be

duced repro-

derivation

the

coils.
an arc

2c

after the the

tnrn"ng
conductors maximum

throngh
L

L, which

example, of ninety degrees before conveyed


the mini* in the

directly or continuous ring, abe, and a' 6 V, l)earingthereon, take


operate
case

connected

lecting-brushes col-

off
tor. mo-

the

that alternating currents It is preferable in this


or

the

current, will of current by reason mum poUtion.of their coils, and


25 for the has
same reason

receive
the it

motor

change
is evident in said

coils.A"
those the latter coils

employ a 85 energizingB'' C", placed symmetrically with


transformer with three

to

that coils

of the
are

generator,
connected

and to
"

the the
as

circuits
terminals when

from of
are

the

current

to the gradually fallen from the maximum in passing through the arc minimum of ninety degrees. In this special plan of connections the 30 rotation will of be the

such

either
"

directly
means

they
0' and

90

stiitionary
e.

or

by
In

of brushes in the other used from

tact-rings con-

this, as

cases, the
on

magnetic

poles of the
with

con-

ordinary
for

commutator the

verter

synchronous
the whether from
a

that
the

of

the

and

be may taken current

the

erator, genfor

it utilized
or

arniatui-e-coilsof
will cuits 1)6 the
are

generator, and
the continuous

I'esult

exciting the generator


purposes.

field-magnets
to illustrate It will the

95

same, from

energizingcirture-coil armaas

other These

derivations
or

examples
of
the

serve

ciple prin-

independent
in

coils,
dotted normal

in

my that the

invention.
case

be

observed

35

previous
I have brushes In from M

devices. shown M in

in

any

it is necessary
or

Fig. 1,

in

lines,

contiqnons
establish
the It will

contact

only to add the collecting rings and to


between that them and is

100

their proper practicethese brushes


the commutator and
an

position.

the
be

connections
coils.

40

erator
or on

excited
the

by

be removed may the field of the genexternal of cursource rent; be allowed off to
a

appropriate

understood

this invention
"

brushes
excite

the

commutator
to

may and the

to

remain

to take

converted
used

current

field

j or

be

for

applicable to other types of machine as, for the ii^duced coils are example, those by which the and brushes volve; stationary and magnet rethe but of its application is manner
obvious
to
oue now

105

oUier
45 In the

purposes.
a

skilled described

in

the my

arL

certain

well-known contains
a

class
number to

of
of

machines
coils the

Ilaving
claim
1. is-^ The

invention, what

I
no

armature of

terminals

which

connect

commutator-

segments,
armature 50

the across being connected is pairs. This type of machine In this machine each represented in Fig. 2. pair of coils goes through the same phases as in

t lie coils

the

coils
and them

in

some

of

the

generators

have

ing havcombination, with a converter of a continuous independent energizing-coils, direct current chine, or dynamo or niagneto maand intermediate circuits permanently connected at suitable or points to the induced genemting coils of the generator, as herein set

115,

shown,
utilize 55

to obviously only necessary pairs or sets to operate one of of converters by extending the segments my the commutators belonging to each pair of coils and causing a collecting-brush to bear on In the continuous segments portion Df each in this way pff from
more

it is

forth.
2. The

with
a

combination, independent
or

with

converter

vided pro-

of enei*gizing-circnits, cnrrent

continuous

direct

generator
armature-coils

pronected con-

20

vided form

with the

continuous to of

collecting-rings
the

in derivation terminals

to

two

or

more

circuits

may

be

taken

circuits
as

corresponding
s^t forth. TBSLA.

60

the or including one generator, each pairs or sets of coils, as may be desired. In Fig. 2 11 the armature-coils, represent T T the poles of the field- magnet, and F the shaft carrj'ingthe commutators, which are ex-

to those

of the

converter,

herein

NIKOLA Witnesses:
ROBT. Frank

F. B.

Gaylokd,
Mukpuy.

'

"

t-

52

United

States

Patent

Office.

NIKOLA

TESLA,

OP

NEW

YOBK, COMPANY,

N.

Y., ASSIGNOR
OP SAME PLACE.

TO

THE

TESLA

ELECTRIC

DYNAMO-ELECTRIC

MACHINE.

SPECIFICATION

forming

part

of

Letters
98, 1888.

Patent
Serial

No.
No.

390.721.
Sf12.1S3.

dated

October

9. 1888.

Application

filed April

(No nodol.)

To

all Be

whom

it may

concern:

I shall to the The for

describe

this invention
hereto which motors of
a

by reference
annexed.
current
con-

it kuowD

that

I, Nikola

'

10

15

independent coils or sets of coils J J',in- 70 M M'. eluded, respectively, in the circuits In my said system, as I have heretofore These enei^zing-coilsare wound on a ring or field or on pole pieces thereon, and shown, I employed a generator of alternating annular in which duced produce by the action of the alternating curthere were currents rents independent inor a generating coils corresponding to the passing throngh them progressive 75 from the repole to pole. magnetism lations shifting of the 25 energizing-coilsof the converter, and and H of the The is of the generator motor converters were cylindrical armature wound coils at right angles, which two with generally such that the speed of rotation of form the magnetic poles of the converter independent closed circuits. equaled be employed, I connect of the generatx)r. If transformers 80 that of the armature one the greatest efficiency, To it is necesset of the primary coils, as N N, wound on a secure sary 30 the machines at a high speed, and to run as M', and circuit, ring or annular core, to one this is true not the other primary coils, N' N', to the circuit only of those generators and M. which motors then The are be particularly adapted for use secondary coils K K' may of incandescent in my The system, but of others. practica- utilized for running groups 85 at very ever, high speeds, howlamps P F. 35 bility of running I employ the With exciter. an particularly in the case jof large generagenerator tors, is limited This consists of two by mechanical poles, A A, of steel perconditions, in manently magnetized, or of iron excited by a seeking to avoid which I have devised various efficient curplans for operating the system under battery or other generator of continuous 90 mounted rents,and a cylindrical armature-core 40 conditions, although running the generator at low rate of speed. wound with two on a comparatively a shaft, B, and nal longitudiof these coils One consists of another end of each C C. coils, My present invention b e, respectin of is connected to the collecting-rings accomplishing this result, which ively, way while connected the other ends are both certain respects presents many advantages. 95 to the Invention, in lieu of driving to a ring, a. Collecting-brushes h' c' bear on 45 Aooording of the generator L conductors the rings b c, respectively, and the armature at a high rate therefrom L convey the currents of speed, I produce a rotation of the magnetic through the L' is a comE' of the generator. coils E and of the generator and drive of one element mon IM)les a'. Two simithe other return-wire to brush at a different independ- 100 speed, by which ent circuits thus obtained to those secured are formed, one by a including 50 lar results are coils Oof the exciter and E E of the generator, )tipidrotation of one of the elements.
with
20
*

of the Emperor of Lika, bordercountry of residing at New York, in the county and State of New certain new and York, have invented in Electric Generators, of useful Improvements which the following is a specification, reference and being had to the drawing accompanying forming a part of the same. to the My present invention relates, chiefly, invented alternating-current system by me in prior patents, notably Nos. and described 381,968 and 382,280, of May 1, 1888, in which the motors or transformers, or generally the ing shiftve converters, are operated by a pr")gressi of their magnetic or movement poles produced by the cooperative action of independent .magnetizing-coils through which pass alin proper order and tion. directernating currents

ject Testa, a subAustria, from Smiljan, Austria-Hungary, now

diagram

drawing
the

generator

supplies the
or

operating

transformers

55

sists in this

ring or wound annular with four core diametricallyEE'. Within the ring is mount^ opposite coils, wound a cylindrical armature-core nally longitudiwith two independent coils, F F', the 60 of which ends lead, respectively^to two pairs of insulated contact or collectingrings,D D' G G', the armature-shaft. on Collecting-brushes d "t ff ff' bear these rings,respectively,and upon the currents throngh the two independ- 65 convey
*

instance

subdivided

ent may

line circuits M
be

M'.
one or

In
more

the

main
motors

line there
or

included
or

formers, transarc

both. in

If motors

be with

used, they
my

constructed

accordance

invention

58

3d0.72i

the other the

coils C

of the

exciter

and

E' K

of

at

rate

of

speed equal
armature

to

the

sum

of the

goierator. It results from this that the opemtiooof tbe^xciter produces a progressive of the magn"o movement poles of the annalar field-core of the generator, the shifting or of said rotary movement poles being synchronous
with
tore.

speeds of the

magnetic poles of the generator, so that a. comparatively low 70 will produce speed of the generator armature a high speed in the motor.
and
It will

be observed
on

in connection the

with resistance

this
of

the

rotation

of

the

exciter

arma-

system
the

that

diminishing

Oonsidering the operative conditions of thus established,it will be found that a q^stem the exciter is driven to energize when so as of the the field of the generator the armature rotate at a latter,if left free to turn, would that of the exas "peed practically the same
such If under conditions eiter. be F' of the generator-armature themselves
or

external

circuit

of the generator-armature

75

the
closed

coils F
upon

ing or by addby checking the speed of the motor translating devices in multiple arc in the secondary circuit or circuits of the transformer in the armaturethe strength of the current This is due to two circuit is greatly increased. in the to the great differences causes: first, and generator, and, secondly, speeds of the motor to the

80

no short-circuited, currents, at will be generated in the least theoretically, In practice I have ob"aid armature-coils. of slight currents, the ex the presence "enred

fact
a

that

the

apparatus

follows

the

analogy of
as

transformer, for,in proportion


of

the resistance

the armature

or

sec-

85

Sstenoe

of which

is attributable

to more

or

less

pronoanoed fluctuations in the intensityof the magnetic poles of the generator ring. So, if
the the armature-coils
movement

ondary circuits is reduced, the strength of the currents in the field or primary circuits of the in the generator is increased and the currents armature augmented correspondingly. For
sinrilar coils
reasons

motor,

the latter will not


with of

through the as long as of the generator-armature is


closed be turned that of the exciter its field..
or

be

the

currents

in the

armature-

90

q^chronoos

of the

trary, If, on the conthe from above de- 95 be It will be understood .thespeed of the generator armature be in any tation checked,so that theshifbing or roscription that the generator-armature may way of the shiftingof the magtively relain the direction of the poles of the field becomes run netic in will be induced more rapid, currents rapidly, and that in such poles, but more This armature-coils. will be equal to the si"eed of the motor the case obviously follows between the two rates. the difference ftom the passing of the lines of force across 100 conductors. In many The the armature applicationsto electrical conversion greater the this system tively and distribution speed of rotation of the magnetic poles relapossesses great and armature the more to that of the efficiency, advantages both in economy, idly rapthe currents developed in the coils of the practicability. I claim is What one latter will follow another, and the more 105 will in response revolve 1. The combination, with an alternating-current rapidly the motor generator having independent energizing tiiereto, and this continues until the armatureis stopped entirely,as by a brake, field and or ture armaor independent induced generator if properly constructed, runs exciter the motor, when coils,of an alternating current coils the magnetic correno apt the same speed with which having generating or induced with the enei^izingspending to and connected poles of the generator rotate. coils of the generator, as set forth. effective strength of the currents oped develThe of the generator is 2. In an in the armature-coils alternating-current generator, the of the elements named and cocombination operatively dependent upon the strength of the currents in the following manand associated the generator the number upon 115 energiaiiiR with of rotations ner: a field-magnet wound independent per unit of time of the magof alternatwith a source ing the speed netio poles of the generator; hence coils each connected will depend in all cases armature of tiie motor currents, whereby the magnetic poles proof dticed the relative speeds of the armature by said coils will be progressively upon moved and shifted an or 120 through the field, the generator and of its magnetic poles. For wound with independent coils, armature-core example, if the poles are turned two thousand from and which the is currents unit of time armature each having terminals Qmes per deliver^ to the independent external cirwill turn cuits. turned are eight hundred, the motor hundred twelve times, or nearly so. Very 3. The system of electrical distribution 1 25 conslight difTerences of speed may be indicated by motor. ing-current 'balanced sisting of the combination, with an alternatm di^cately that power is applied be assumed Let it now generator having independent wound with energizing-coilsand an armature to the generator-armature to turn it in a dixection coils,of an alternatingindependent induced opposite to that in which its magnetic exciter the In such result would coils correcurrent case having induced poles rotate. 130 with tlie enei^zingbe similar to that produced by a generator the sponding'toand connected electri* coils of the generator, and one or and more tated "mnatoTe field-magnets of which are rocal converters of in opposite directions,and by reason having independent inducing

magnetic poles

rapidly very generator increase is reduced the speed of the armature when direction the when as running in the same magnetic poles or conversely.
of the

"

these

conditions the motor-armature

will turn

or

energizing coils

connected

with

the

corre-

54

kTimitiire

coils

of

the

generator,

as

having ing
to

indaeed and

or

generating
with
as

ec^ls the

Qorre^Mod-

brth.

eonfiected

energisingooils

mbiiiatioii,
itor

with
a

ao

altemating-enrwound and
an

of

the

generator,

set

forth. NIKOLA TBSLA.

haTing

field^maipMl
ooils
"

lendoift

energising
to said

Witnesses: BOBT. Pabksr F.

ida|"ted
eed

be

rotated
of

within
an

the ezdtor

Gayloju",
W.

by

magnet,

Paqe.

H (I*

ModsL)

Sheet!"

Bha"t

t.

N.
REeDLATOB FOB

TE8LA.
ODBBEHT
1COT0B8.

ALTEBSATE

No.

390,820.

Patented

Oot.

9, 1888.

J^J

"^3

I
p-sFi

fr^^^q'

o*

United

States

Patent

QFncs.

IV

"CmiUITOII

FOR

ALTmNAT(.^CIHMtMT

liOTOM^

AmB
of

Ito

and be
ao

ceil

ainsty Ihtotigh
wivered.

"!%"

evrfsal

of Ihift dawiesk daaetthUMsaQf with Miter

bcoadljitI 55
^

isyiaieatMi
themaftftsrof
f^csM
now

WIthiSi

a^iii^ii^attdiMtii^t
ta"

fta
the

saaMk

whaeh 1 wlU

vaafciQ%

el aiy the sal^^esl aapiste bjf r^l^ieec%

1^

aneflipMyiiM( el%""ftkM of the ia sMs FIgve I li% view sestKNiMUa^ 9I|k Siaahcokea legalatair. Ulasmii^ F%. $ Is adiamM ef Fff. 1. " "
el

^%wiaMk

npylyii^ Iha

sii("*

The

regaibter
tesseare

aiM

he I

sosstmelfd
aow awaA'O

wsija hesi form la


4Wl to.ni vp
m

the ^
a

dsslied
am

bal lesttlli

ia VASiy In Im

|g^

of which
1 aad

U Isshova

FHri^
"

IkflLMoton; incof theB8gMtiepolei"f also " mppiicibi" to oiker y^r* iBTention I emptoy will liereunfter M apponr. 15 potent "f Tsryiaf the for the th" pwpcM
th"

b"t

here

Rn^Oor

^ced
The

oflhcM

BoCon. eoamaiB of
ooe
a

i"v"H' is aov ptaa whi"h idl iroa OMOi of dividiif iq^ followed ahiy %tto^ sal^ieetodto the iadaoaeool which ate he adopted l" the "aa* should aati"g eaneats stracfioa of this device^
state

isptiseats
thai

ftaaie ol

Mtd iroai^

I w^d
71

the

xfgvlator proper
or

form,

of
ea-

B mary

are

the

cores

of
cores

the A

coBTerler

JO

35

suy to the frawo with zespeet to the other, or bolted fahle of iBoreneDt wm bealtared, theiadiietiYerQlatlooa wheiebj 't is a shaa mauated to the sido biftN^J"\ the par* either mannally or aBtomatioaIlT,for a ssotioaal Iron oorsi is seourod which and on indoeed the of the atreogth pcae of Tarying ssooudary ooili9i% induced or with an wound in" R) device this I pzeler to eoostniet enrrent. with whtoU are pftrsUo) of convolutions the F, or indoced the secondary that sadh manner of the elonent
core Tiio cods the axis of the shaft. witJi rcspeol to the be movable may in the apses so as to At closely rounded off, are relatss ihr as other; and the improTement, so permit the core K noles snd the two of the device itself, betwecB merely to the constraction to the ^ leourod hsndlSi Q, A, turned. be to in the combination, with for consists, essentially, li ihsA provided D, the of prqleotlng end of an armature two

traaafotmet

with

eleaMat

colls 0

C^lald

i"iduei"gor pri* belsf iateiirftlwllh |^


in vroUlinowii

40

opposite magnetic
with
an

poles,
coil

wound

insnlated

and

monnted
to

on

this purpose.

Qeld produced by the position of the core of the poles" The normal " that in which \t mM element 45 secondary circuit between the closes magnetic completely in this and the poles of the primary dement, eflTective position position its coil is in its most it of the primary action npon for tiie inductive
50

it may a shall, wherel^ the within sired extent

be

turned

the

de^

be employed may Any means in soy given lug the core snd seoonUsry ooU by the handle. 95 it is turned position to which dsvlos will bs The operstion or effoot of the understood by referenoe to thedlagramallluM' the trstinj In of Its application. manner alter Fig. 3, lot H represent an ordinary the Aeldnihgnetsof generator, nsting-oorrent esolted by a sultsbls son fee of onr* which are form of rsDt| I* Let J designate an ordinary

for mslntsln-

100

ooils; bat
either side

by

turning the

movable

core

to

the induced

currents

delivered

by

58

W90MO

electro
neta IL

'

magiietic
It is wdl

motor

prorkled

with

ad

anuitare,

S^ eominotator
known
cores

%
that be

and sacb

lleld-BMga

motor,
np

if its field-masneto' 5

be divided

into

insalated

practically ated operby an alternating current; bat in nsing I incladeone legnlator with sndi a motor my of the motor element only" say the armaturesections, may
coils
"

tion
neatraliEC
As
one

a corresponding impulse in the oppodte will direction; hence portions of the carrent

another.

before

ttated, the
may conditions

mechanical
of the

tion construc70

of the

device

be

greatly varied; but


invention in which will the

the be

essential

ftilfllled in

movement another

apparat-us any of the elements with


same

^in the

main

drcnit in the

of

the

generator,
way. I also

effects the rdations dmilar

results the
two

respect to one by varyinelthe


elemeuts in
a

lo

anking
and the the indode

the

connections

through the brashes


usual

iadudive
manner

of

75

commutator
one

to that

described.

B is not of the elements dso be stated that the core of the regulator^ It may tor: stationary coils" in the same circuity indispensable to the operatioiiof the radiabut its presence is obviously beneficial. and in the circuit with the secondary or movThis valuable able coil of the regulator I connect the 80 regulator,however, has another up 15 I prefer to use flexifidd-coils of the motor. ble property in its capability of reversing the mo* conductors to make the connections IWuu through a halftor, for if the coil F be turned revdntion the the secondary coil of the regulator, as I therein podtion of its convolutions the use aroid of sliding contacts coils G G and the lines relativdy to the two or rings of force is reversed, and without interfering with the requisite moreconsequently the 85 lo of the core K This will be reversed. BBCBt phases of the current in an opIf the rwulator be in its normal position,or will j^rodncea rotation of the motor posite in which its magnetic direction. This droott form of regulator is that is most also applied with great advantage to my induced nearly dosed, it ddirers its maximum tem sysof utilisingalternating currents, in which the phases of which so correspond #5 caixent) 90 of the those with the magnetic poles of the fidd of a motor that the are primary current will run of the comand motor shifted both Add as thoosh ture armabined progresdvdy by means main exdted efiiMts upon the field of sMgnetixingcurrents were by ue the speed of the motor ooils indndedin To Tary to any rate independent drcults,through the or* 95 bMween minimum which in proper and maximum alternating currents pass rates, y"
aay
.
.

the

UMw

E
to

and
an

coils F
extent

are

turned

in

dther

di-

der

and

relations

to Mch

other.

55

40

45

50

55

60

65

In illustration, let P represent of my sired produces the deone generators having two resolt,for in its normal independent coils,F podUon Uieoonof coil F embraee Tolutions and F', on the the armature, maximum and T a diagram of of lines of force,all of which motor nomber act with a having two indepeodentenergising- 100 effect npon said coll: hence cuits the same coils or sets of coils,B B One of the cirit will its maximum from ddiver the generator, as S'8'" includes one current; but by taming J- set, B' B', of the energising-coils of the motor, the coil F out of its podtion of maximum of lilies of foroe embraced while the other feet the number drcult, as S 8, includes the bx it is diminished. The inductive effect is Uieresecondprimary colls of the regolator. The 105 the current delivered fore impaired, and the other by ary coll of the regulator indudes to diminish B of coil F will continue in proportion motor. th^ coils, B, to the angle at which the coil F is turned While the secondary coil of the regulator ia til, unafter jmssing through an podtion it produces us maxiangle of ninety in its normal of the coil will be at muin degrees, the convolutions current) and the maximum rotary effisct no ductive ri^t mngles to those of coils G C, and the inis imparted to the motor; but this effect will be diminished effect reduced to a minimum. in proportion to the angle at which the coil F of the regulator is turned. other Inddentally to certain eonstmotions. will also be reversed influence the variation in The the canaca motor may by reversing the position of the coil with reference For examcurrents. ple, strength of the induced to the 115 case.it will be observed in the present coils G G, and thereby reversing the phases of first oertidn of coil F a that by the the current movement produced by the generator. This carried lybpnd of the are portion of its convolutions changes the direction of tiie movement the line of the direct inflaence of the liw the armature of follows. shifting poles which that the magnetic of the main One foiee^ and path or circait advantages of this plan of tao for said lines isimpairea: hence theindnctive of power. When regulation is its economy would be reduced. dbet the induced coil is generating its maximum Kext, that after is obof energy amount in the moving through a certain angle, which carrent) the maxiipum bv the relative dimensions vioody determined primary coils is absorbed; but as the induced of the bobbin coil F, diagonally-opposite coil is turned or fipom its normal position the 125 of the primary coils redness sdf-indaction inthe portiona of the coil will bedmultaneondy clnded in the Add, but in such of energy and positions that saves expenditare power. the lines whidi It is obvious that in praotioe either coils G produce a enrrent*impalse in G or coil F may be used as primary er secondone portion of the coil in a certain direction ary, in the diagonally-oppositeporwill prodace and it is well understood that thdr rela- ijo
.

leoClon

which

'

^.

59

$"0,810

tiTe mny

proportions
oealred nod
aware

iii"y

be^
or

yariod

to

produoe
In the
in-

supply
colts,
2.
as

the set

current

for

one

of

the

motor-dr-

differeoee indneed that ennentof ooil

dmilftrity

forth. with bv
a

dneiQ^
I
5
am

onrrentn.

The
run

combination,
or

motor

adapted
currents

ao

it
an

i"

not

new

to

tuj

the
ing mov-

to

be

operated
with

alternating

leeondary
one

indoeUon-ooil
to

by
the

and

provided
of
a

independent consisting
an

energisingof coil

with
the

respect ihdpetive
the

other,

and
mally nor-

coiis,

regulator
and

stationary
capable
turned
to
or

thereby

varying existing

relatioaa
two.

indudng-coils being
greater

induced it may

of
a

between

This

do

rotated,
or

whereby angle
respect
or

be

25

notdaim.
lo

less with

to

the
thereto

primary revmed,
indnded for

coils,

its in-' and the

What
1.

I The

daim

is" with
a

podtlon
^lotor
of
an

the in

oombination,

having
alternat-

dependentdnced in-

coil
to

coils the
as

bdng
earrent

eneigising-cireaita, ing-cnrrent
of
15

adapted motordreuits,

supply

due

of

regulator,
and
to
one

consisting,
eoito

essentially,
movable the with

set

forth. NIKOL/L

Indoeing

induced

TESLA.

respect
of the

another,
enrrents

whereby
may be in

strength theln-'
to

Witnesses: BOBT. Fjuvk F. B.

indneed coils

varied*
and

Qatlobd,
Huspht.

dneed

being

indoded

adapted

"1

United

States

Patent

Office,

NIKOLA

TESLA,

OF

X^W

YORK,

X,

METHOD

OF

OPERATING

ELECTRO-MAGNETIC

MOTORS.

Vol

"01,5a0,

dtttoa April

16^ 1

ilMniii^ltilSn.

8iiUBi.S0fllSM.

To

all Be

whdnn

hum Hiat

com^cerm:

naUoRS ator.
or

it known

jeet of the Smperor


lika, border

I,Nikola Tbsul, a sobof Austria, from Siniljan,

Its actual

produced per rexxilntion of thegener^ speed, therefore,may l)e faster


than
that

slower
to

of the

generator;

but

it is 55

eoniitry of Aii8tri*-Hiuigmt7,aDd York, in tiieooanly and State 5 residing at New of New invented and eertain York, have new in Methodsof QSefnl ImprovementB Opentting tlie following Electro-Magnetic Moton, of whi^
10

said

it preserves synchronous so kmgas nJhUive speed. the same I oon^truet In carrying out invention a my which has a strong tendency to synchmotor ronism be with the

generator.
this

The is that

oonstrue-

60

specification,reference the drawings acoompfuiying


is
a

being had and forming


of altemat-

to
a

tion the
sets

whidi armature

I prefer fo^

in which

IMfft of the
As is well

same.

tions.
certain forms

The

is provided with polar proiec^ with two fietd-msgnets are wound

known,
in

of coils, the
to
a

terminals

of

which

are

nected con-

ing-carront madiines
connected 15 rent ciroait

have with

the pn^ier^,
an

when which

switch

mechanism,
may

by

means

of

65

idtemating-cur-

the line-"^urrent

be earned

directly

in syncoils or indirectly generator, of ronning as a molor chronism through the said modified. its phages are therewith; bat,wfaile the alternating paths by which will of
run

throii^.
To 70

enrrent
a

the motor

after it has attai ned


with it

start
a

such

rate

sp^ed synchronous
it will not heretofore have
start

that

of

the all

set

the swit"h is turned onto motor, of contacts in one which includes motora
"

generator,
fo

IIenee,in
have

cirenit
in

dead

resistance, in the other


two

an

ductive in-

instances

where
are

these

"synchrobeen

resistance,and, the
derivation, it is obvious

circuits
the

being

as nising-motors,** ran some

they

termed,

Umt

diflterenoe

in phase of the enrrent been in sucii cironits will adopted to bring of the When the 75 motor. rotation a synchronism with the generator, set up or ai^roximately so, before the altei^ speed of the motor has thus been brought to the desired rate, the switoh of the generator is applied to is shifted to throw "5 iiating current In Instances mechanical the main drive them. some curreiit directly tlirough the motorin both utilized for this purbeen cireuits,apd although the currents appliances have pose. of the be cireutts will now In others special and complicated forms same phase the 80 constructed. diswill continue I have motor of motor have been to revolve, becoming a true much To more secure or a simple method plan synchronous motor. greater 30 covered I wind its polar proof operating synchronizing-motors, which the armature quires reor efficiency, jections other than with coils themselves. closed practically no on asparatus itsell In other There various tiie motor modifications and words, by a certain are impor- 85 of this method tant features of the or change in the cireoit-conneotions plan; but the main will l)e underI convert it at will from cuit double-cirstood a principle of the invention 35 motor in I have described from the foregoing. as motor, or such In the drawings, to which I now prior patents and applications, and which will refer, I have illustrated the action of an start under alternating onr^ by the diagrams the general 90 featurce'of construction which and operation which rent into a synchronizing-motor, or one it has* distinguish my invention, Figure 1 being by the generator only when 40 irillbe run drawn certain to illustrate reached the details of the plan a nous speed of rotation synchroof the In this above with set forth, and that tions Figs. 2 and 3 modificagenerator. enabled to very jqI the same. I am manner greatly extend 95 to secure the applicationsof my system and Referring to Fig. 1, let A designate the fieldforms of both of altematmagnets of a motor, the polar projections of 45 all the advantages
means

the motors

up

to

ing^rrent
The

motor.
'*

which

are

wound

with

coils B

included

in

expression
"

synchronous

with

that

of

in its ordinary is used herein the generator,'* is said to ^that is to say, a motor acceptation it prewhen serves 50 synchronize with the generator certian relative speed determined by a of alterof XH"lesand the number ts number

D the armature independent oirouits, and with with coils E polar projections Wound dosed in these themselves, the motor upon to those respects being similar in constraotion in my described patent. No. 382,270, dated of the May 1, 1888, but having, by roiison

100

^2

401,580

polar
other
L L' 5
an

projections
similar
a

on

the

armature^core

or

startingof the
considerable conditions

motor

is

more

dlf"cult
must

and take

the
up
a

and

well-known

features, the
of
a

dead and inductive

resistances

properties of

synohronizing-motor.
line from the

represent the conductors

proportion of the electro-motive force of the circuits. Generally I so adj ust the
that iti each of the force used the electro-motive is that which is motoroircuits its circuits when operate the motor

70

Near

alternating-current generator 6. is placed a switch the motor

tion ac-

lo

of which is that of the one shown in the reqnirod to I follow F in series. The plan which follows: as are drawings, which is constructed 75 F' are two conducting plates or arms, pivoted in this case is illustrated in Fig. 2. In this and has twelve connected at their ends poles and the by an hMulating diagram the motor with has polar projections D wound cross-bar,H, so as to be shifted in parallel- armature stantially The switch used is of subcoils ". 'ism. In the path of the bars F F' is the condosed tact

2, which
15 is
one

forms

one

terminal the contact

through coils C, and


terminal
to

cuit of the cir4, which


nected con-

shown

the same in the previous five contacts,

construction,

as

that

80

of the circuit of the wire


L
or

through coils B.
of colls 0 is the
sponding corre-

ever, figure. There are, howwhich I have designated cuits motor-cir-

The

opposite end
the wire end

bar

F', and

by the figures 5, 6,7, 8, and 9. The B C, which include alternate


are

field-coils,
followdead B
is 6
90

1/ and
2o as

hsa
bear C

F; hence
on

of coils B- is connected to wire if the bars be shifted so


contacts 2 and

connected One

to the

ing order:
to contact

end One
contact

terminals of circuit
5 terminal 7

in the C

85

is connected
a

to

coils B
in

will
arc

be
or

included
two

4 botii sets of in the circuit L 1/

9 and

to contact

through
of
to

resistance, I.
connected
to
a

circuit
contact

multiple
levers
2

derivation. other

In the
con

path

of

and

the

F 3.

F'

are

tact-term

i-

through
to contact

self-induction
of

coil,J.
are

The

niJs, 1 and
35 contact

The

through

to 1 is connected contact artificial resistance, an I,

site terminals
8.

both

circuits

oppoconnected

and

3 with 4 through a selfcontact contact the switch-levers induction coil, J, so that when shifted onto the points 1 and 3 the are

circuits
30

multiple
and
of will

of coils B and 0 will be connected derivation to the circuit L or arc include the resistance
and

in

L',

F, of the switch is made extension,/, or otherwise, so as to "bothcontacts 5 and 6 when shifted into 95 cover It will be observed the position to start the motor. in this position and with that when
One of the levers, as
with ^n

duction self-in-

lever

F'

on

contact

the current B

divides

tween be-

coil, respectively. A
the
are

third both

position
sets of

switch shifted
In

is that out

in which

the levers F and


with

F'
35 of

of contact

C, which from their in electrical character produce a difference progression of the poles that starts the motor
the two circuits
in

100

points.
The motor

this

case

the motor of

is

entirelyout

rotation.

When

the

motor

has

attained
so

circuit. and manner purpose by these devices

operating the

the proper the levers

speed, the switch


cover

is shifted
7 and

that

the contacts

9, thereby

follows: The are as connecting circuits B and C in series. I have 105 is found that by this dis^ition the motor beposition of the switch, the motor in rotation is off the. contact-points. maintained m synchronism with ing out of circuit, 40 lliis principle of operation, the generator to be running, and the generator, Assuming in converting by a' change of which consists that it is desired to start the motor, the switch otherwise is shifted until its levers i"st upon a double-circuit or mono points 1 connections thus conThe motor-drouits two 3. and tor or one are operating by a progressive Shifting with the generator-circuit; but by reaof the poles into an ordinary synchronizingson 45 nected normal
I in one of the resistance presence self-indnotion coil J in the other the of the phases of the current is coincidence of the motor

and

the

ways. shown

disturbed
50

suf^ciently to produce
poles, which

progression

instance,instead of using the switch in the previous figures, I may use a the genground- circuit between temporary erator

may For

be

carried

out

in

many

other

115

in rotaof the and motor, in order to start the motor, tion. sti^rts the motor the si"eed of the motor When in substantiallythe manner has run indicated in Fig. 8. with the generator, or apLet G in this figure represent an ordinary np. to synchronism proximately is shifted over onto alternating-current generator with, say, two so, the switch

lao

the 55 have
as a

points
J,
the
so

2 and

4, thus
the

cutting

out

the coils circuits


now runs

I and

that

currents

in both
motor

phase; but the synchronous motor, which


same a

to

be

very

desirable understood
motor

and

is well knoicn efficient means of


power.

converting and
60 to

transmitting
will
run

ItwiU the
or

l^

that when with


two

speed the
cironits connected

brought up only one of


the main may circuits latter

wound with poles,M M', and an armature N N', at right angles and two coils, connected The motor in series. has, for example, four wit" coils B C, which are nected conpoles wound in series and armature with polar an with closed coils E ". projections D wound the common From the joint or union between
two motor

135

circuits
an

of both earth
to
-

the ends

generator
is

and

the

or

C connected the
"

with

connection
or

established,
130

or generator circuity

while
are

the terminals

of the said circuits

be

in

series.

This

65

niunber

current a having preferable when of altemaUonsperunitof time is employed to drive

plan is a high
the

that Assuming is a synchronizing-motor or the motor one that has the capability of running in synchronism with the

connected

the

line.

the

motor.

In such

case

generator, but

not

of

start-

I.
BLEOTIO

TESIA.
HABKBTIO HOTOK.

Vo.

406.868.

7"t"lteajuiia

26,

1889.

"nniESSES:

BY

^/7
"TTOI"E"

65

United

States

Patent

OfficEi

NIKOLA

TESLA,

OF

NEW

YORK, COMPANY,

N.

Y., ASSIGNOR
OF SAME

TO

THE

TESLA

ELECTRIC

PLAfcE.

ELECTRO-MAQNETIC

MOTOR.

BPEGZnOATZOV

tomiaff

part of LtttUn
8,1889.

Pafteat
8"U

Ha
le.

405,868,

dated

June

S6, 1889.

"nliMti"fM7uwf7

806,748.

aieaiod"L)

To

all Be
it

wham
known

may

eoncerm

that

I, Nikola

Tbsla,

from

of AnstriaSmiljan, Lika, border country of AosHnngary, a sabject of the Emperor York, in the county and 5 tria,recnding at New State invented certain of New York, have in Electroand uBefol new Improvements Magnetic Motors, of which the following is a, specification,reference being had to the drawand forming a part of the 10 ings accompanying
same. more clearly the relations the subject of my forming of to others the application bears present it pertains, I will recapitulate 15 class to which of altemating^urrent tors mobriefly the forms

simultaneously, another, are magnetized currents. same approximately so, by the This principle of operation I have embodied the I obtain in which practically in a motor the angular displacement between necessanr in the points 01 greatest magnetic attraction
one
or

55

two

elements
"

of the motor

"

the

armature

and

In

order

to define

which

the

motor

of the by the direction of the lamination of said elements^ and the best magnetic cores 60 this result of which of accomplishing means in the shown I am I have at present aware accompanying drawings. with a Figure 1 is a side view of the motor exposed. Fig. 8 portion of its armature-core is an end or edge view of the same. Fig. 3 is 65 field
a

central being I^et A A

cross-section shown

of the

same,

the

ture arma-

invented detail Of in my these

b^
prior

me

and

described

more

in thin
more

and applications. principal types or forms: those 20 first, containing two or moreencaused to are ergizing-circuits through which differing from one pass alternating currents in extent another sufficient to phttse to an produce a continuous progression or shifting fect, 25 of the poles or.points of greatest magnetic ef-

patents
two

mainly designate two


or

in elevation.. of soft iron

{here

are

sections
or

laminsB
one or

plates built ^up of initiated


and held to70

less from
a a

another

gether by bolts
and these which the the of
a

secured coil

to

means any other suitable The B. inner faces of base recesses


are or

plates contain
a

grooves

in

or

coils D of

secured

obliquely to
WiUiin 75
a

direction

^e

laminations.

in obedience

to

which

the

movable

ment ele-

cdils D
of

is

disk

E, preferably
iron wire
or

composed
or

of the motor is maintained in rotation; ferent second, those containing poles or parts of difunder magnetic susceptibility, which of the same current or 30 the energizing infiaenoe currents two coinciding in phase will exhibit their differences in magnetic periods or In the flrstelassof motors the torque phases. in difestablished is due to the magnetism from portions of the motor by currents 35 ferent the
same
or

spirally-wound
concentric

ribbon

rings and mounted on a shaft F, having bearings in the plates A A. Such device when acted a by an alter- 80 upon is capable of rotation and nating current stitutes conthe operation of which I exa motor, plain in the following manner: A current or the coils D tends current-impulse traversing to A the cores A and magnetize E, all of 85
which
are

series

from the

indei"endent
in

sources,

and In the
en-

within of would the

the

infiuence The

of

the

netic magtablished es-

exhibiting time
second the the class

differences

phase.
from upon

field

coils.

poles thus

torque
of
a

results
in

the

eigizing effects
10

current

parts

of

motor
"

which

differ

magnetic

tion of the laminations and appear ^inothei;words, parts which at or near relative of a the extremities of said same degree to the action plates. In the disk, after ferent however, where difthese conditions simultaneously, but current-, not not are ent, presintervals of time. In my the poles or points of greatest attraction present inof being line at right angles a to the are on 45 veution, however, the torque, instead plane of 95 in the of a time the result difference the coils; hence there will be a torque solely. lished estabtractive magnetic periods or phases of the poles or atof the by this angular displacement canse due, is prostarts the disk parts to whatever poles or magnetic lines,which duced of in rotation, Uie magnetic the lines of the armature angular displacement by an with and field tending toward re8i)ect to a 50 parts which, thongh movable position of paral- too

biUfy

susoeptirespond to

natursklly lie in the sameHne at right angles to the coils D, but in the plates A they are deflected of the direoby reason

90

406,868

lelism.

This

rotation reversals

is continued
of

And in

tained main-

directly, by
rent,

means

of the

an

alternating
of the
two

cur-

55

by the
D of 5
or

the

current

coils

D,
the

which

change
A A.

altornatoly
TIiih
incrt^astnl

the

polarity
tendency winding

field-cores will
with he

i-otary

effect disk

greatly

by

the

conductor

G,
radial
of

Hosed

uiion

selves them-

part
ciagnetism
of
a

to

cores

ments eleof the duce proor

motor,
of
one

and
or

by

the ofthe

direction
same

lamination
an

boUi

to

angular

displacement
force of the

of

the

poles

lines

of

magnetic

oorep,

respect-

60

and the
disk
lo

having
be

direction,
the'

whereby

ively.
What
1.
a

magnetic
will

intensity greatly
the currents

increased

of the poles b}' the energizin coils

I therefora An

claim

is

"

electro-magnetic
a

motor

consisting
and
to
a a source

of gle sin-

ing
G

effect the of have

of

induced
in

the
1).

coils The

field-magnet")
coil

rotary
to

armature,
connected and and
to

by

alternating winding
been of of and

currents

adapted
both the

be

65

plan
tion Na 15
not

the

principle
in my

of

opera-

of

alternating
to

currents
armature

impart
the the

ism magnetmaximum

fully explained May


the

patent,
with

field-magnet

382,279,
The be is of
cores

1,
disk

1888.

angular
as

displacement
forth. eleotro-miiffnetic
a

of

and

field

may

or

may
"

points,
2.

set

of
to

different say,

magnetic
may to be

snsoepnbility
be
of

In

an

motot,
to

the

oombi-

yo

that kind

they
so as same

both

the

same

nation,
with proximately apa

with
source

ooil of

adapted alternating
rotary

be

oonneeted of
cores
a

iron,
be

magnetized by
and time the the
may

at

currents,
the
to

the
20

instant
iron

coils other

D;
of

field-magnet
of to

iind
are

armature

or

one

may order the


case

of that

soft
a

which be

in

such

relation and
as

the

ooil

as
or

hard, in
between

certain of their will be

elapse
but

energized
in sueh

thereby
manner

subdivided
to

^5

periods
rotation

magnetization.

laminated

produce poles
or

an

In

either the

pn^uced;
with

angular magnetic
.3. In
..

displacement
lines
an

of
as

their
set

tiie

nnless 9$

disk

is

provided
of

the the

closed above-

therein,
coil of

forth. the oombi80

energizing-coils
described be
The
cores

it is desirable

that

electro-magnetic
a

motor,
to

difference utilized of various the


to

magnetic
in

bility susceptirotation.

nation,
with
a

with
source

adapted

be

connected of

assist and
as

its

alternating
ooil
to

currenta,

fieldto

field
ways,

armature will

maybe
well the
as

magnets
the

with of

laminations said and rotate

lying
a

obliquely
or

made
30

in

be that

undertions laminato
secure

plane

circular

disk fieldunder
as

stood,

it
in

being
each be

only
in

requisite
such

armature

mounted both flela

between

the

dii'ection

magnets,
the the forth.
4.

and

armature

being
the ooil,

85

the
'

necessary

angular
be considered
of true of

displacement Moreover,
as

of

magnetizing
In

influence

of

set

points
the disk infinite that

of greatest
may

attraction.

since up of
an

made
it is

an

electro-magnetic
a

motor,
to be

the

coml"i-

35

number is

radial
a

arms,

obvious wellforms

nation,
with
a

with sourooof with of with

coil

adapted

connected of fieldto

what

disk for

holds,
niany in

under other this

alternating
laminations the ooil and
or

currents,

90

understood of

conditions,
and
my

magnets
the

lying
a

obliquely
or

armature,
no sense

invention
to the

respect
form of

plane
mounted

circular

disk

is in
40

limited

specific
the
are

armature

spiral
between

concentric

tions laminaboth 95

armature

shown.
be

the

field-magneta,
under
as

It will
of

understood
ont

that invention

specific
almost I do
motor not

ways

field

and

armature

being
of the coll.

the
set

ma^etnation, combito

carr}'ing
number,
to

this

out withlimit I

izing
5.

influence In
an

forth. the oonneeted of with the


a

and the

that, therefore,
form
of

electro-magnetic
a

motor,
to

myself
45 have

precise
shown. I

which

with
a source

ooil

adapted

be

herein

of and

alternating
a

currents,
armature field and

fieldclosed
100

I believe
of
an

that

am

the at

first

to

produce
as

tation ro-

magnet
coils

rotary
the

armatui'e,
for any

least
or

such

could purt pass*

thereon,
under and

both the

armature

be

utilized
means b}''

general
an

practicable
cun'en

being
coil

magnetizing
to

ipfluence
an

of

said

poses,
^

of
a

alternating
coil
or

laminated of the

produce
ef the NIKOIJ^

angular'discores.

50

ing

through
as

single
which the

several
a

coils

ing act-

placement
AVitn

poles

two

one,

and upon

have
cores

direct both broadest the

izing magnetarmature
sense.

TESLA.

effect
and I

of in I
am

esses:

field, and
further

this believe

I claim

its

Edward imGeorge

T. N.

Evans,
Monro.

that

first

to

19

rvoiHtL)

\.

R.
sucTio

TB8L1.
MAenno motoi.

No.416.10L

Patented

Beo.

3. 1889.

^immii

/e^.i^

}*":(

A9

400,850

H oRintB

H.

When
motor

by
is is
or

tlus

ammgemeiit
to

of

motors

herein

described, connecting

which intermediate

consists

in of the
motor
lo

the

brought
broken and
for

speed,
the switches

the gen-

^ectrically
the

polnte
and the then forth. of which Intermediate

gnmnd-eoDiieetifm
eiator K molor K
or

between

indncing-eircuit
of
a

^
Uie

the
motor

generator
untfl and
as

motor

both

ground,
this pnipose.

energising-cirottit
The has reached such
apor

being
then

employed
mns as a

desired

speed

rupting inter-

synchronising
of varioos
to to

motor.

connection,
herein

set

This

qrstem
which

is

eiqpable
it

useful describe that

2.

The

method

described motors,

startii^f
sists con-

"$

pKcatiomi
in
lo

is

not

necessary

operating
in

qraehronixing

detail;

bot

it of

wiHbe tiie

enough
system
isa

say

the cirof

electricalljr
of the

connecting cS
Of has reached either
as

eoBTertibility
cait
to

from feature

double
in

points
and earth

inducmg-drcuit

the the

generator
motor to

sin^
Talne and

circuit

itself

the untU and

energizing-circuit
the then
motor

great
I do

utility.
to

the
or

desired both of

30

notwish
to

be

undeistooa

as

confining
or

speed
of the

interrupting
set

mysdf
eonnections

the

precise
herein
set in

arrangement

order

ground-connections,

forth. TESLA.

forth,

as

these

maybe
Witnesses: Edward T. Upstill.

NIKOLA

obYioosly
Whatldaimis"
1.

Taried

many

respects.

Evaks,

The

method

of

operating

synchronizing

E.

C.

70

do

Model.)

8 Sheets"

9heet

l.

N.
ELEOTKO

TESLA.
MAONETIO
MOTOB.

No. 416.191.

Patented

Deo.

3, 1889.

_u"

-"^mi^-'WSSSM^
*-

")
"

^ijjjir"
"

"""

4^-.

/S^/o^%

G*^v^^
cSitofrvmyt
""

78

416,191

tains

effeote

corresponaing

to two
a

the

resultant
armature

The and

circuit-connections field coils


are

between

the
as

35

poles Fig.
both
5 sets

prodnoed
3 armature of

by

the

field-cironits.

represents
and all
in The
.

disposition
are

in

field

wound
are

ment
whick in the with
two

made, through

cated indi-

previous
are

figures,
not

brushes

and

rings,
the

which

shown. I and have made but this of


case

coils,
circuit.

multiple
armature-coils the

to

the
are

line wound

or

In of will
the

above
terms

description
"armature" that

use

main
to to

"field;"
are

it

40

correspond
their

with

field-coils A

with modification

respect
of is
to

be

understood

these what

in
true

self-induction. is shown
in

convertible field
one

terms,

for of the the

is

the that
tion. rota-

this
ID

plan
two

Fig.
two

4
"

that

say,
are

is is

equally stationary,

so

armature,
other

except
of

the
in

field-coils
to

and themselves

armature-coils and in series


in this

capable

derivation another.
in

with
case,

45 I do
or

one

The

armature-coils

not

claim of

in

this

application
a

the

method
motor

as

the

previous

figure,
to

are

wound

for with

ferent difthe

means

operating
its circuits way circuit these but

double-circuit different the than in

self-induction
15

correspond

by

making
or

of

tion self-induc-

field-coils. Another In this


case

in in made

any
one

retarding
more

phases another,
of other

of 50

modification

is

shown

in
as

Fig. D, other,

5. is

current

only
in the

one

armature-coil,
while the

having

features

subject

included
as

line-circuit,

applications;
What I In
an

C,
In

is

short-circuited.
a

claim

is"

2o

such where the

disposition only
torque
the increased.
one

as

that

shown

in is

Fig.
ployed, em-

1.

alternating-current
with field-circuits of of

motor,
different

the

bination, com-

2,

or

armature-coil the
start to is

selfture-circuits arma-

55

on

somewhat

inductive

capacity, electrically

corresponding
connected

reduced,
is

while

tendency
In such

synchronism
a

therewith,

somewhat shown
in

disposition,
conditions

as

set 2.

forth. In
an

25

as

Fig.
In

6,

the

opposite instances,
of

alternating-current
'with

motor, Jfteld-coils
of

the of

bination, com-

would

exist.
is

both

however,
with
one

independent

dif-

60

there

the

advantage

dispensing

ferent

self-induction,
one or more

independent
in circuit with

ture-coils, arma-

contact-ring.
In

the
as

Fig.

5 D

the
are

two in

field-coils

and
arc.

the In D

arroa-

field-coils
6

and

the

others

short-circuited,

set

30

ture-coil this
shown

multiple modified,
the of
two

Fig.

forth. NIKOLA Witnesses: TESLA.

disposition
In 7 in

is with outline I have

coil

being

series is
an

field-coila

Fig.
motor

the

general
this

form

of

ROBT. Frank

F. E.

Qatlord,
Hartlbt.

which

embodied

improve-

74

(90

MoAel.)

Sheeis"Sbeet

i.

N.
METHOD OF OPE"ATIVO

TESLA.
ELEOTRO M AOBETIO M0T0B8.

Ko.

416,192.

Patented

Deo.

3, 1889.

^\^'B

*M

^eLyCtrv'wL^

76

United
NIKOLA

States
OF NEW

Patent
THE

Office,
TESLA ELECTRIC

TESLA,

TO N. Y., ASSIGNOR YORK, PLACE. SAME OF COMPANY,

METHOD

OF

OPERATINQ

ELECTRO-MAGNETIC

MOTORS.

SPBGZFIGATIOV

fbrmiiiff put of

Letters

Pfttmt

Va
lo.

416,108, dstod 311,414.Olowidd.)

Deeeaber

8, 1880.

Boial "piaio"timil"d]EiijSO,18M.

To aU whom eoneem: it may ject Be it known that I,NiKOliA Tbsla, a subfrom Smiljan, of the Emperor of Austria, Lika, border oonntry of Anstria-HnnKary,and York, in the county and 5 a resident of New State of New York, have invented certain and of usefal Improvements in Methods new Motors,of which OperatingElectro-Magnetic reference bethe fcdlowing is a specification, to the drawings accompanying and 10 ing had forming a part of the sama

in

patent granted

to

me

April 16,1889,

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

and No. 401,520, 1 have shown described a of startingand method operatingsynchrotion Synchronism. nizingmotors which involved the transformaif In the drawings hereto annexed I have of the motor rom a torque to a synchronizing This I have heretofore done illustrated several modifications of the plan 70 motor. above set forth for operating motors. The by whereby a change of the cirouit-conneotions, the start the poles or resultant attracon are figures diagrams, and will l"e explained of the molxir were in their order. tion of the field-magnets shifted or rotated by the action of the current Figure 1: A and B designatethe field-coils reached synchronous speed, of the motor. until the motor As the ciitsuits includingthese 75 after which the poleswere I have. of different self-induction, are coils, merely alternated. i8l"ased upon anoth.er represented cuit The present application this by a resistance-coil R in cirthe main with A, and a self-induction coil S in cir" way of accomplishing this result^ features being as follows: If an result inay of mnrse alternating cait witJi B. The same be passed through the field-coils current on)y be secured by the winding of the coils. C is 80 of a motor of the armature-cirouit^ the terminals of which having two energizing-cirouits different self-induction and the armatureare rings a h. Brushes c d bear on these the motor will have a with the line and field o6il8 be short-cireuited, rings and connect short cireuit or strong torque, but little or no tendency to cireuits. D is the shunt E is Uie switch there- 85 synchronism with the generator;but if the around the armature. current in. The operation of these devices I have which energizesthe field be same passed also through the armature-coils the stated above. It will be observed that in such a disposition tendency to remain in synchronism is very is illustrated in Fig. 1, the field-oiras considerably increased. This is due to the fact that the maximum magnetic effects produced cuits A and B being of different self-induo- 90 in the field and armature more nearly tion,there will always be a greater lag of coincide. This principle discovered by me I the current in one the other,and than the armature have utilized in the operationof motors. In that, generally, phases will not motor dependent ant other words, I construct but with the resulta having incorrespond with either, fleld-cirouits of different sefi-inIt is therefore important to ob- 95 of both. ture. ihe proper rule in winding the armaserve duction, which are joined in derivation to a if the motor of alternating currents. The For instance, have eight armaBonroe which are or more tnre I wind with one coils, poles four in each cirouit there will be four connected with the field-coils ing resultant poles, and hence the armature-windthrough contact and around. the armatnreshbuld be such as to produce four poles, 100 ringsand brushes, for openooito I arrange a shunt with means in order to constitute a true synchronizing ing In starting this momotor. or dosing the same. the armaturetor I close the shunt around Fig 2: This diagram differs from the previous which will therefore be in closed circuit nections. one only in respect to the order of concoils, the current When is directed through In the present case the armature105 instead of being in series with the fleldthe motor, itdivides between the two cireuits,coil,
" "

is not necessary to consider any-case where (it than two cireuits used,*) there are more which, 55 of their different self-induction, by reason difference of pluwe between the*two secure a in the two branches currents that produces a shiftingor rotation of the poles. By the 60 alternations of current other currents are induced, in the closed" or short- cironited armature^soils. and the motor has a strong the desired 9peed is reached, torque. When the shunt around the armature-coils is opened and the oprrent directed through both arma65 field coils. Under tions these conditure and the motor has a strong tendency to
"

L_

N.
ELECTRO

TESLA.
HiaKETIO HOTOK.

Patented

Deo.

3,

79

United

States

Patent

Office,

SIKOLA

TBSLA,

OF

NEW

YORK, COMPANY,

K.

T^
OF

ASSIGNOR SAME PLACE.

TO

THE

TKSLA

EI.ECTRIC

ELECTRO-MAQNETIC

MOTOR.

PMtant UM.

Voi

416,198,
d*]

dated

Deeeiaber

a,

188a

liridBi.Sll4U6.

lo

15

"5

30

35

ing of a motor invention having the followcoils which The general characteristics: in that jeek of tlie Emperor of Aostria, from included Smiljan, are energizing-cireuit which I make is to have of Iila,.border oonntry of AnstrU-HnngmiT, the higher self-induction roof relatively low York, in the oonnty and State coarse adini^ at New wire, or a conductor 55 of Kew and York, have iiiTentod eertain I use the new resistance, and greatest possible in vaefnl of turns.In Uie other set of Eleefcro- Magnetic ImproTements length or number the following is a specifica- coite I use of finer Molora^ of which few turns a comparatively wire more, of higherVesistano^ Furthera wire tioB,referance or being had to the aooompanyin order the to approximate ing dimwIngBw magm^tic 60 relates to altemating-copThia invention quantities of the poles excite by these ooils, of I use the general description inrent moton much in the self-induction cirenit cores TCBted two or more enby mc^ and in which longer than those in the other or reristance shown cirenit. in the drawings a moI have are tor eigiiing-eireaits employed^through which these features. alternating earrents differing in phase are embodying 65 piSBcd, with the resnlt of prodncing a tor Figure 1 is a part-sectional view of the moproof the poles or at right angles to the shaft. gressiTe shifting or rotation Fig. 2 is a attractive effect. points of maximum, diagram of the field-cireuits. In In prior patents and coils in the applications I have Fig. 2, let A represent and diown various described forms of motors one motor-dreuit, and H those, in the other. 70 The cirenit them motors A is to have duction. in the of this kind* are Among higher self-inwhich both energizing-cirenits I therefore are use electrically a long length or a have ing of turns of coarse stike" Uiat is to say, both the same wire in formor large number electrical resistance the coils of this circuit. For the cirouit spproximately the same ^in the operation of which and self-induction smaller a conductor, or a conductor B, I-use 75 the alternating currents used than such of a higher resistance are as primarily copper, of different German silver or iron, and wind the ooils with phase. In others the difference of phase In applying these ooils to a mostance, fewer is artificially turns. tor produced as, for inin cases the motor-cireuits where I build up a field-magnet of plates C, of are of different iron and 80 resistance steel, secured self-induction, so or together in the usual divided between Each that the same current them manner by bolts D. plate is formed in one to a g^reater extent with four wfll be retarded E, around (more or less) long cores ference which is a space to receive than in the other, and the requisite phase difcoil and the an in this way. To this latter of short projections F to receive secured equal number the ooils of the resistance-circuit. relates. The plates 85 class generally tny presenji invention in shape, having ternating The are an generally annular lag or rotation of the phases of an alin the is directly proportional to current for receiving the center space open I prefer to wind and with dosed the sdf -induction armature inve,r8ely proportional O, which of the cirouit through which coils. An divided beto the resistance alternating current Be it known
eoncem: may thnk I, Nkola

aU

wham^

the

Tbsla,

snb-

"

"

40

the current "the proper


two

flows. difference in

Hence,
of much
than

in

order

to secure

tweco

the
in

two

circuits

is

retarded
a

as

to

its 90
tent ex-

phase

between
to make

the the
re-

phases
relative

the
in

drcnit the

to

much

greater

motor-cirouits,
one

it is desirable

self-induction ristance
45 and

higher and
the

the

much

lower

self-induction

At resistance, respectively, in the other. the same time the magnetic quantities of the cirtwo poles or of poles which the two sets enits produce should be approximately equal. I have found These to requirements, which led me of this kind, have to 50 exist in motors

of the B. By reason disposition of the cores and coils the magnetic effect of the poles E and F the armature closely approximate. upon than
cirouit

sizes and

95

These

conditions

aro

well

understood

and

skilled in the arL readily secured by one An struction important result,secured by the 'conshown of the motor herein is,that these ooUs which the aro designed to have

100

so

416,108

hiicher
surroanded
is

self-iadaotion

are

almost which the

oompletely
reta^clation

an

excess

of
as

copper
set

or

conductor

over

that

in

by

iron,

by

the 3.

others,
The

forth. with
a

considerably
I do not claim of

increased.

combination,
of and
of in

field-magnet
an

"S

herein, secnring

broadly,
rotation

the

method

composed
center

magnetic pole-pieces

plates
or

having
cores

open

and

means

by
the
carrent
nor

artificially
in the
one

of said

different
cores

producing
motor^ircnit
of

greater
than
in

lag
the

of

length,
included
the

coils

surrounding

and coils of
on

other,

ase

independent
cores

circuits,
an

the
excess

poles

or

cores

of these in
are

different
f eatares

magnetic
which I

sns-

longer
over

containing
in

per cop-

30

oeptibility,
10

as

have filed
4.

that

the

others,
with

as

set

forth.-

specially by
me.

claimed

other

applications

The

combination,
of and of in

field-magnet
an

composed
I
An

magnetic i)ole-pieces

plates
or cores

having
of said

open

What
1. two

claim

is"
-cnrrent motor

center

different
cores

alternating
more

having the coils of of of size the


or

lensth,
included the

colls

surrounding

and coils of
set
on

35

or

energlzing-ciroaits, being
or

independent
cores

circuits,
an

the
excess

15

one

circuit

composed
resistance of
as

of and wire forth. of

condactors those smaller

longer
over

containing
in the
core

per cop-

laige
other

size of

low
tnrns

that in the

others formed

and

being by.
the

in.

fewer

recesses

iron

plates,

higher
2.
20

resistance,
In
an

set

as

set

forth. NIKOLA TESLA.

altemating-carrent
with

motor, short in

the

com-

binationj

long
indnded
on

and

fleld-cores, independent
cores

of cuits, cir-

Witnesses: ROBT. Frank F. E.

energizing-coils
the coils

Gaylorq,
Habtubt.

the

longer

containing

82

United

States

Patent

Office

NIKOLA

TESLA,

OF

NEW

YORK, COMPANY,
ELECTRIC

N.

Y., ASSIGNOR
OF SAME PLACE.

TO

THE

TESLA

ELECTRIC

MOTOR.

BFXdFZOATZOy

forming

part of

Letters

PateaC taUl

Va

416,194,

dated

December

8, 1880.

AppUoatimiltd

""790,1889.

!". 811,418.

(loBoddJ

2b all Be

whom

it known

oofusem: tnay that I, Nikola

from

the

other,

element;
l"oth
the
more
"

but

in

motors

in field the

Tbsla,

sab-

whicl\
are

the

coils of
with

armature external

and circuit

ject of the Emperor of Austria, from Smiljan, of Axistida- Hungary, Lika, 'border country York, in the county and State 5 residing at New of New and certain York, have invented new useful in Electro Improvements -Magnetic the following is 'a specificaMotors, of which tion.
relates to the. alternatinginvented electro-magnetic motors by in which a tation me, progressive shifting or roof the poles or points of maximum magnetic effect is produced by the action of These I motors alternating currents. 15 the have constructed in a great variety of ways. As instances, I have built motors with two or I connected more energizing-circuits, which corresponding circuits of a generator up with so that the motor will so be energized by alternating currents differing primarily in phase. I have also built with motors indepeijdent acter energizing-circuits of di fferent electrical charI have or self-induction, through which the phases of an 35 passed alternating current which distorted were artificially by the greater another. circuit over retarding effect of one
10

connected
can

This

invention

current

perfectly obtained. In further explanation of my object let it 55 that the energy be assumed as represented in in the field of a given motor the magnetism The ten. that of the armature is ninety and of these quantities, which represents the sum in total energy driving the motor, 60 expended is one but, assuming that the motor hundred;
result be much be is
so

constructed

that

the

energy
one

in

the

field
armv

represented by fifty and that is still ture the sum by .fifty,


while in the
and

in. the the

but nine five

first instance second the

hundred; product is 65
thousand is that other
70

hundred, hundred, in proportion


those
motel's

in the
as

it is two energy

developed
it is clear
"

to these
are

products
most

the
"

efficient

in which the magnetic things being equal field and energies developed in the armatut^e I obtain results are. by using equal. These the same of copper amount or ampere turns

in both

elements

when

the

cores

of

both

are cur-

equal, oi* approximately rent energizes both;


currents
of
excess

or

the same so, and in where cases


are

75

the those
an

in other
of
or

one

element I
use

induced induced in the

to

I have it is nqt

also

constructed

other
or

forms herein
is
an

of

motor

the

in

the

coils

operating
30

by magnetic
my

electric

lag, which
in detail,

necessary'

to describe

element While invention the formal

over copper conductor.

that of

primary
80

although
thereto.
wound

present
such
a

invention I
use

applicable
armature

I know

of

no

way

illustrating this

In
with

motors
or

coil the

which coils, external

is sometimes
and
some-

connected
35

with

circuit

40

and to both lorms itself, the present invention tors applies. In these mothe total supplied to effect their energy of the operation is equal to the sum energies in the armature and the field. The expended developed, however, is proportionate power to the product of these quantities. This duct prowill be greatest when these quantities are in constructing a motor I determine equal; hence upon

times

closed

such will meet as by a drawing requirements of an application for for convenience a patent, I have appended cbnventional I emsuch as figure of a motor S5 ploy. I would state, however, that I believe with that before which I the him problem have have
be

herein

stated, and
any out
one

the

solution in the

which
art will

proposed,
to

skilled

able

carry

and

apply this invention


if

90

without

difficulty. Generally speaking,


armature
or

the

mass

of

the

cores

of of

and

field

be

the
45

mass

of the

armature and
as

and

field

cores

and
as

the
to

windings of both equalize as nearly quantities of both.


armature-coils

adapt the two so possible the magnetic


motors is which

copper coils on

ampere
should

turns also

both

equal, the amount of the energizingthese be equal; but


in well-understood

95

conditions

will

be modified
of

In

have

closed the

this the

only

mately approxiin action

in different forms ways be understood that these when

machine.
are

It will
most the vantageous additions con100

results the

possible,
50
armature

as

energy
of

manifested inductive

existing
when

under
motor

is the

result

presented

is running

83

4ie"iM

iritii iiiv"BfiaB

its

nofsal thift

load,
fact

and dMMild

in

ouryinj;
token

oot

tlie
ooo-

1.

An armature

eleetFO-mapietie
magneto
of

motor

having strength by
a

field
or

be

into

and

eqiml

magnetic BfliBRuig
; to

quantity
as

when forth.

eneigised

given

"5

the

drawing,
C of the
in

is

tbe

fieldand

enrrent,
2.

set

"Mgmet.B
D liie The

tibe

armatnre,

liie

fleld-ecMlit,

In

an

alternating
wftfi field

-carrent

motor,
armatare
cores

the

annaUire-ooils,
aNrtofB
aa

motor.

combination, application, pointed


claimed Witnesses: BOBT. Pbjlkk oi

and

deeeribed
to the

this

eqnal

mass, amonnte

of
of

enei^gimg-"oils
copper,
as

oontoinihg
herein
set forth.
so

fiieept
Ofot in

features
are

speeifieally
described
to

eqn^

the

cbdnM, patents
me^ and

and and

NIKOIJ^

TESLA.

in

prior by

granted
are

applications clamed.

filed WhatI

not-

herein

F. B.

6atix"ri",
Habtlet.

It. TESLA.
SIICTftO UIBHETIO

HOTOE.

lo.

416,195.

Patented

Seo.

3, 1889.

L__f__J

Z"if^f.^.^^
"

*^"

I-

8h"eti-'81iatt

R.
ELEOTKO

TE8LA.
HAGNETia
HOTOB.

No.

418,196.

Fateitsd

leo.

3.

"

87

United

States

Patent

Office,

NIKOLA

TESLA,

OF

NEW

YORK,

N.

Y., ASSIGNOR
OF

TO

THE

TESLA

ELECTRIC

COMPANY,

SAME

PLACE.

ELECTRO-MAQNETIC

MOTOR.

SFECIFIGATION

fonning

part

of

Letter*

Patent Btrid

Na

416,106,

dated

Ddcember

8, 1880.

AppUofttumflUdMaj 20,1889.

lo. 311,419.

(VeaodtL)

To

all Be

whom

it known

it rtvay concern: that I, Nikola

Tbsla,

ject sub-

lo

15

2o

Emi"eror of Austria, from Smiljan, country of Austria-Hungary, residing at New York, in the county and State and of New invented certain new York, have in Electro useful Magnetic Improvements in both conditions and field cothe following is a specificaarmature incide, Motors, of which or tion, the energy be60 reference being had to the drawings acdeveloped by a motor and forming a part of the same. ing measured companying by the product of the magnetic This relates to that form of alternating-current and field. invention quantities of the armature motor invented The is by me,in which object, therefore, in this invention m6re to so construct that two there are or or energizing circuits organize these motors of the alternating currents differing the maxima magnetic effects of the 65 through which in prior caused I have two in phase are to pass. elements the armature and field shall This in various forms I accomplish more nearly coincide. jMitentfi and applications shown I may various motors which best explain by having or first, types of this motor ways, reference various to the drawings, in which two more or energizing-circuits of the same results electrical plans for accomplishing the desired character, and in the operation of 70 illustrated. used differ primarily in the currents which are with a plurality of ention illustraergizing-circuits Figure 1: This is a diagrammatic phase; second, motors
Lika,
border
" "

of the

in certain for efficient working oasesr-as, of the resultant the progress instance, when is very attraction poles or points of maximum of alter- 55 a high number great, or when very for it is apparent that nations is employed tained a stronger tendency to rotation will be mainif the maximum. magnetic attractions to

"

"

of in
or

different

electrical

acter, charin my

of

motor

system

such

as

I have

described

the alternating prior patents, and in which currents of phase is proceed from independent 75 with and differ primarily in phase. sources 25 motors in from induced A designates the field-magnet or magnetic currents the one being in of the motor; B hereinafter I shall frame another. currents B, oppositely-located tion show the application of my the coils of one present invenpole-pieces adapted to receive to these several types. C Considering the energizing-circuit; and C, similar pole- "o and of any structural operative conditions pieces for the coils of the otiier energizing30 firstof for example, that circuit. them These circuits are one spectively, designated, reas, which is mounted the armature to named Deforming by D E,the conductor fluent a common in to the obedience rotate return to the tween Beco-operative ingenerator G. action of the energizing-circuitshas these poles is mounted armature or an 85 it which closed for example, ooila wound are a armature, ring or annular upon upon 35 in whicbcurrents and wound with induced themselves series of coils F, forming are a a closed circiiitor circuite. The action or opby the energizing-currents with the object and eration of a motor thus constructed is now result of energizing the armature-core ; bu t u nsuch conditions exist in these well understood. It will be observed, howder any as' must 90 that a certain time must it is obvious that the magnetism of poles B, for exmotors ample, ever, 4.0 of an the manifestations established enerelapse between by a currenirimpulse in and the coils thereon, precedes the magnetic effect gizing-current impulse in the field-coils, in the armature set up the corresponding magnetic state or phase in by the induced rent curestablished inin coils F. the armature the mutual by the current Consequently 95 dnced attraction between the armature and fieldthereby ; consequently a given magnetic 4.5 in rect dithe effect which field is the influence The same or ditions conpoles is considerably reduced. win result of a primarj'-current impulse will be found to exist of if,instead have less weakened lost become pendently, more or or assuming the poles B or C as acting indebefore the corresponding effect in the armawe regard the Ideal resultant of 100 has ture its reached both is the real condition. indirectly produced acting together, which 50 This unfavorable maximum. is a condition To remedy Uie motorthis,I construct
"

the difference of which by means and, third, produced artificially, a plurality of energizing-circuits,

"

"

88

418,105

fi"ld with sitaated

secondary poles 15' C\ which


between the
coils

are

venience coils D
of of
one

I have

indicated
in the

this
".

others.

These

polein

much
two

larger than
circuits to
a

coils

by making By reason
70 current than in

pieoes
5 The for

I wind

with

D'E',
D and

the former
latter E

this

difference retarded
Let thns of

electrical character

derivation
main
a

to the coils
or

f ),the coils

to coils ".
are

the
are

the

phases
be
will

of

primary
sef-ind

wound
of the

greater extent

the

different
and if the

notion
in D

from

that
so

other. A
motor

this difference constructed


an

thirty degrees.
rotate under

eeils D'
that

"', the relations


currents
a

being

fixed
ample, ex-

andlE

differ,for

10

in quarter-phase, the currents each secondary coil, as D' "', will differ from those in its appropriate primary D or E by, say, forty-fivedegrees, or one-eighth of a period.

by

alternating current; but as previously described the happens in the case ture corresponding magnetic effects of the armaand field do not coincide owing to the time that elapses between a given magnetic
the action
and effect in the armature the field that produces it. the I

75

condition

of
ploy em-

80

15

explain the lows: Assuming


in circuit

action that
an

of

this
E

motor

as

fol-

therefore

tion impulse or alternais just beginning while in the branch D it is just falling from the conditions of a quarter-phase maximum,
or

branch

difference.
20

The
of

ideal the

resultant
two sets

of

the

at-

tractive therefore from


"

forces
may

x"olesB is rising to
to
zero or

poles B C be considered as progressing to poles C while the impulse in


maximum and

of

secondary or supplemental poles B' being thirty degrees difference of in coils D E, the the currents phase between 85 magnetie effects of poles B' C should corrediffering spend to that produced by a current in coiliB D or " by fifteen from the current degrees. This I ma}'' accomplish by winding each supplemental pole B' G' with two colls II
the C'. There ir. cuit
The

that in D

ing is fall-

coils H H'

are same

included circuit

in

derived
as

cir- 90

polarityset up the however, lags behind 95 ia the armature, of field magnetism, knd hence manifestations the maximum points of attraction in armature instead and field, of coinciding, are gularly andisplaced. This effect is counteracted The poles B' C. 30 by the supplemental netic magthose of phases of these poles succeed poles B C by the same, or nearly the same, the effect period of time as elapses between of the poles B C and the corresponding in35

minimum.

The

having the
ooiU
as

self-induction
a

circuit

daced

effect

in the

armature;

hence

the magnetic

poles B' C and of the armature more nearly coincide and a better result is obtained. As poles B' " act in conjunction with the poles in the armature established by poles B C, so in turn 40 poles C B act similarly with the poles set up. by B' C, is an end view of the motor former with,the in section and a diagram of connections, respectively. Under such "x"nditions the retardationarmature of the magnetic effect of the armaand ture Fig. 4 a vertical section through no and that of the secondary poles will bring the field. These also drawn to figures are of the two show of the dispositionsof two fields that one more nearly into 45 the maximum and coincidence be adopted in carrying out the invention. a. correspondingly-stronger may secured. The in one the retorque or magnetic attraction poles B B C C are maining field, In such is shown a disposition as in Fig. 1 The former poles in the other. are 115 it will be observed that as the adjacent pole- wound with primary coils I J and secondary either circuit are of like polarity coils I' J',the latter with coils K L. The pri50 pieces of mary in derived certain coils I J are a effect between they will have weakening circuits, another. I therefore of their different self-inducone tion, move npon which, by reason prefer to rethe secondary poles from the direct inthere is a differance of phase, say, of 1 20 fluence of the others. This I may do by conthirty degrees. The coil^ I' K are in cijrcuit with two with one stmcting a motor independent sets another, as also are coils J' L, Itnd 55 of fields, and with either one there should be a difference of phase between two armatures or in coils E and L and the currents or their correelectrically^connected, by nsipg two armasponding tares field. I'hese modifications and one will primaries of, say, fifteen degrees. 125 be illustrated hereinafter. If the poles B C are at right angles, the armature-coils 60 illustration of a should be connected Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic directlyacross, and motor the difference wound of from end to system in which or a single armature-core Thei*e are two end may be used; but if the poles B C be in phase is artificially produced. coils D D in one "nd branch Jbwo coils E E in line there should bean angular displacement 130 the other of the branch main circuit from of the armature-coils, as will be well understood.
of

conditions

having the same cuits ", so that if these cirdiffer by thirtydegrees the magnetism of poles B' C will correspond to that produced 95 differingfrom that in either D -by a current " by fifteen degrees. This is tme in itU or For other cases. example, if in Fig. X the cluded coils D' E' be replaced by the coils H H' inin derived the magnetism of 100 circuits, the poles B' C will correspond in effect or be so termed, to that prophase, if it may duced l^at in differing from by a current either circuit D or " by forty-five degr"^ or one-eighth of a period. 105 This invention as applied to a'derlved^ircuit motor is illnstinted in Figs. 3 and 4. The
D, and
in

self-induction

circuit

the

G. These two circuits generator or branches are of different self-induction, one,


as

D, being higher than the other.

For

con*

The from the operation will be understood foregoing. The maximum magnetic condition

H,
ELEOTKO

TESLi.
HAQHSIia HOTOB.

No.

418,348.

Patented

See.

31,

1889.

.2tt,avi\iBf

91

United

States

Patent

Office

NIKOLA

TESLA,

OF

NEW

YORK, COMPANY,

N.

Y., ASSIGNOR
OF SAME PLACE.

TO

THE

TESLA

ELECTRIC

ELECTRO-MAQNETIC

MOTOR.

APBOIFIGATION

tanxdng

part

of

Letters

Patent Bokl

Va la

4^8,d48,
311,420.

dated

Dabember

81, 1889.

AppU^tloiifi]"d]b7 20.1889.

(loaodd.)

lb

all Be

whom

may

coTicem:

".

ject 1, Nikola Tbsla, a submerly forof Austria-Hungary, of tl\e Emperor of Smiljan, Lika, border country of Ausresiding at New York, 5 tria-Hungary, but now

it known

that

(Shown, for better diameters.)


One end
one

illustration,
to
one

as

of different

of end

coil A

connects

C, and
The

of coil B connects

with

in the

county
in

and

State
new

of

New

York,

have

and useful ments Improvenetic Operating Electro-Mag60 Motors, of which the following is a speciTo being had to the drawing fioation,reference of direct current and forming a part of the same. connected with a or source accompanying L by means of a switch M. In The main trolling conor a April 16, 1889, {Mttent granted to me ahcde and and has five contacts No. 401,520^1 have 8ho"m described switch " of operating alternating-current moconnected method two levers / g, pivoted and by an 65 in paralto move so as /i, lelism. by first shifting or rotating their magihsolating cross-bar netic 15 tors to the levers These are co^inected or poles until they had reach^ passed of alternating carline-wires a synchronous from source a speed and then alternatingthe G to brush' is connected rents N. Contact a poles, or, in other words, by transforming the from dead-resistance R and^yo circuit-connections motor and coil B throuffh a by achangeof dependent inContact brush F with wire P. one 0 is connected 30 operated by the action of two or more coilS and coil A through a self-induction energizing-currents to a motor erated and opseveral connected to wire O. Contacts are or e by a single current c and acting G F, respectively, through the wires brushes as one. The with is a specific way dis directly connected invention of -P O',and contact present 75 H. the same it con"nd brush The lever sists invention; end, / has a widened 15 carrying out in h. in the following method: the contacts When On the start I which a may span such (2, i"Togre88ively shift the magnetic poles of one position and with lever a on contact element divide field of the motor the between the alternating currents or by alternating currents and of their dif- 80 two differing in phase and passed through motor^i^ by reason shortdiflference of currentferent self-induction a independent energisdng-circuits and 30 circuit the coils of the other element. in roWhen that starts the motor tation. phase is obtained the motor thus started reaches the above In starting, as I have or stated, passes limit of speed synchronous with the generathe field-coils are short-circuited. tor, I connect the coils previously ^hortWhen the motor has attained the desired up 85 with of direct current and is shifted the position a to 35 circaited source speed, the switch of the circuit-connections in dotted shown lines that is to say, with the by a change duce proof the poles. The levers / g resting on points c e. Th is connects a simple alternation then motor in synchronism continues to run in series, and the two armature-coils the up with There the generator. will then are motor. as run a specific- motor synchronCus many 90 in which into this may be carfield-coils are The 40 thrown circuit with aUy-dilferent ways certain Methods of
'
"

invented

to remaining ends are connected H F G bear Collecting springs or brushes of a lead to the contacts the rings and upon The fielddescribed. switch, to be hereinafter in binding-posts E' coils have their terminals themselves be either closed upon K, and may

ring, as ring D. 55 ring E.

ricMd out, but I have the principle. annexed


motor 45

selected This

one

for

ing illustrat-

the

direct-

current

source

when

the

main

is illustrated

in

the

switch What

is shifted.
I claim

with used

is a side view of a drawing, which a diagram of the circuits and dein

herein
of

as

my

invention electro
in

is-;-mag95

1.^ The
netic

method which
or

operating
consists
it has

vices 'The

the

system.
is
one

motors,

first progressively
a

motor

shown

of

the

ordinary
or

forms,
solid

with

field-cores

either

laminated

50

and with a cylindrical laminated ture armawound, for example, with the coils A at shaft of the armature right angles. The carries three collecting or contact rings C

poles synchronous then alterpating said poles speed and and passing a direct current through the coils of the other element, as herein set forth. 2. The of operating electro method magof
one

shifting
element

rotating the

magnetic

until

reached

100

92

4181948

ooton,

which
of
one

ooDHiste

in

shoH-cirouitthe

and
currents

through

the

armature-ooils
in

ing alternat-

"coils
1

element,

an

field-mag-

pMBing

through
element,
as

the the Id

energtzing-ooils
armature,

rent
Witnesses;
li. E. J. I*.
cur-

coinciding

phase..
TESLA.

NIKOLA

other
currents

alterami

differing
has
the attained

phase,
a

then, speed,

he

motor

given
a

Stonby,
Coffin.

Jr.,

throngh

fteld-coil"

direct

(10

""dtL;

"

IkMU-SkMt

n.
"LEOUO

TESLl.
HISISTIO HOTOk.

Ho.

424,036.

Patented

Mar.

26,

1890.

United
NIKOLA

States
OF NEW

Patent
N.

Office.
XX)

TESLA,

YORK,
COMPANY.

Y., xVSSIGNOR
OF SAME PLACE.

TIIK

TESLA

ELECTRIC

ELECTRO-MAQNETIC

MOTOR.

8FSCIFICATZ0H

forming ApplkMthm

part

of

I"tter" SO, 1889.

Patent Bnial Ia

Na

494,080,
do

datMl model'

Xarch

85,

1890.

ffladlUy

311,416.

To

all

U'Jioin

it

may

concern:

Kiguri' Tbsla,
n

1 is

side

view

of

the motor

in

vation. ele-

Be
of

it known

thatl, Nikola

subjei't

the of Austria Emperor -Hungary, from of Austria-Hunin elevation gary, and Smiljan,Lika,bonlercountry (Uirt section of a uioililieation, and York, in the county and residing at New Fig. 4 is a similar view of another 5 State of New certain modification. York, have invented new and in Electro-Magnetic A useful Improvements In di""signatt" a l^tise or l*, Figs. 1 and U R the supporting-frame of the Motors, of which the following is a specitica- stand, and Itoltod motor. to the said companying tion,reference being had to t^e drawings acsupport ing-frau\o and C C', of two forming a part of the same. or are pole-piectv* magnet icconv* I have
an

at Fig. 2 Is a part-sectional view right angles to Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is an end view

55

60

invented

and

elsewhere

describetl

iron
or

or

soft

steel. in

'I'hese

electro-magnetic motor oi"erated or adapte"l to be operateil by an rent, alteroating electric curis now and which commonly' designated, correctly or not, a "magnetic-lag'' ^5 whether motor. The main distinguishing features of this motor is the following: An are armature within mounted the magnetizing influence of number of fleld magnets a certain or polos of different magnetic susceptibility that is to or position comsay, poles of nne(iual leng^th,mass, and wound coils with adapted in the operation of the to be connected motor of alternating currents. to a When sonrce is passed through the an alternating current
" "

laminated,
or

which closed

case

bo sulHliviiled may haitl iron orstet^l


or

plates
be
iron

bars with

should built up

be

used,

tht\v should
a

65

wound

coils.

1) is
or

circular

disk-armature and

of se"*tlons

plates of
the

mounted
to conform

in the

frame latter
are

l"etweon

pole-pieces C C, which
curved of.
I to the this F F
are

circular

preferably shape therea

70

may

wind

disk

wit;h
main

number

of

clo.sed coils E.

the

supported in any coils, the supporting-frame,


include within
their

convenient
or

eiiergizingmanner by
but
so as

otherwise,

to 75

magnetizing

Influence

30

^5

D. pole-pieces C C and the arnmiure The beyond project out pole-piecas C C fleld magnets coils of such the coils F F on a or motor, the oppasite sides, as iiidicaled If an to manifest in the drawings. their attractive poles do not appear alternating current of 80 the armature effect upon be passed through the coils F F, rotation simultaneously, the this rotawill be produced, and tion magnetic attraction of some appearing to lag the armature that of others, with the result of proI explain by the following apparent behind tion acducing of operation: An rotation of the a motor. mode impulse of torque and or such with in the coils F F establishes two made motoriccurrent ties polariGenerally I have The closed armature-coils. in the motor. protruding end of 85 another of motor, invented form I have sign, pole-piece C, for instance, will be of one be caI1e"l a and the corresponding end of pole-piece ( "' will which, for similar reasons, may fers also be of the opposite sign. The armature "magnetic-lag" motor; but in operation it difI have from above that which exhibits descilbed two poles at right angles to the coils in the F F, like poles to those effects or phases of the in that the attractive j)olc"-piec^es 90 While rfde of the coils. rent poles, while lagging behind the phases of curbeing on the same multaneously siwhich is flowing there is no manifested the current appreciable produce them, are after and not successively. developed; but tendency to rotation I employ To each current a begins to fall tor moor impulse ceases carry out this invention and in the the principle of construction the mag/ietism in the armature embodyidg 95 in an described of a motor and claimed ends of tlie pole-pieces C C lags or continues "hh to manifest which January 8, 1889, No. Itself, produces a roUition plication filed by me tween that both the annahire of the annature 295,745, to the extent by the repellent force beaad field receive their magnetisiiLfrom asinthe more closely approximating point" of oolls aotffle eneigizing-coil or a plurjiltty of maxittinm magnetic effect. This effect is 100 eootinned ing am one. by the reversal of current, the ik"* motor which embodies A inventfoDi iarities of fleld and armatare being simply my the certain with modifications thereof, is inn^ One Iwvwed. or bofb^of the elements trated in the accompanying with cloHe"l be wound fleld" may drawings. "miaturo or

bath

the

"

/"

"::..|

96

484,086

induced in the

sign as that of the nearest Upon the fall or cessation of the current im- 70 these 5 the currents mainly in those polarities the pulse that established convolutions coils which which the current or are parallelto the lags behind magnetism coils F F. A modified form is of this motor itself phMe, and which continues to manifest shown in the i"olarprojections G C and the armam Fig. 3. In this form G is one of two ture, standards that support the bearings for t!ie prodacesby repulsion a rotation of the 75 lo armature-shaft. H H are uprights or sides of The armature. effect is continued by each a frame, preferably in reversal of the currentWhat magnetic, the ends C C occurs of which multaneously siare of one bent-,substantially as shown, .to the case pair of pole-pieces occurs conform to the shape of the armature in all, so D and that the tendency to form field-magnet poles. The construct ion of is measured rotation of the armature by the 80 in the prethe forces be the same of an exerted as sum 15 the armature by the 'polevious may In this motoir be simply a magnetic described. figure,or it may pieces, as above disk or cylinder, as shown, and coils also the magnetic lag or effect is intensified a coil or F F are in position to surround both with closed insecured both or cores by winding one the armature The is shown The and the poles C C. coils. armature-core ar madaced as ze 85 ture is detachable its shaft, the latter When from closed coils are used, the thus wound. after it be laminated. should baing passed through the armatare cores l"s been inserted in position. The operation It is evident that a pulsatory as well as an 6f this form of motor in principle alternating current is the same might be used to drive or that as and needs herein no described; but I 90 previously described operate the motors explanation. 35 further prefer to use alternating currents. One of the most It will be understood nating-current that the degree of important feata#es in alterbe is that they should of the iron in the cores, motors subdivision, the mass in of alternations adapted to and capable of running efficiently their size,and the number in the alternating systems must the motor in present use, in the current employed to run 95
same a

coils to intensify this effect, although of the but one drawings I have shown of the motor each element fields, stitutes really conwith field,wound being induced the closed

ends

of

opposite sign and


between them

to
a

set

up

in the

armature-core

polarity of the pole-piece C.

coils,

30

which

almost

yield
Such shown in

a a

the generinto consideration without be taken exception ators hish of tions. alternanumber construct this motor. very I have designed by a development the proper motor all such motors
'

in order In other relations

to properly

words,
between

in

the principle of the motor of the of alternations and the number mass, be preserved 100 Fig. 3, making a multipolar motor, size,or quality of the iron must is illustrated in Fig. 4. In the conthe best results.' These order to secure struction in 35 which of this motor! well stood underare employ an annular ml^tters, however, that are magnetic frame J, with inwardly-extending by those skilled in the art". ribs or What I dlaim is" projections E, the ends of which aU bend turn in one direction and 1. In an alternating-current motor, the comare or 105 genand field-coroB" to the curved sdr^ bihation, with the armature 40 erally shaped to conform face of the armature. Coils F F are wound of stationary energizing-coils enveloping the from next and adapted to produce polarities one adjacent, said cores part K to the one the ends of or loops of each coil or group or poles in both, the field-cores extending out tli^ shaft, from the coils and constructed to exwires toward no so iis being carried over to them to f ori)^ U-shaped of convolutions hibit the magnetic effect imparted 45 saas groups at each end of the armature. of current The i"ole- after the fall or cessation impulse set forth. as pieceis C C, being substantially concentric producing such effect, with the armature, form 2. In an alternating-current motor, the combination, ledges, along which circular in 115 the coils ai'e laid and should with armature-core an project to shown. The as beyond the coils, configuration, of a sUpporting-frame, field50 soitte extent D fs of the same armature over portions of cylindrical or drum extending therefrom cores constniction in the other motors ing-coils as described, the periphery of the armature, and energizafod parts and is mounted to rotate .within the annular surronndlngsaid armature iso J and between the as set forth. ends frame of the field-cores, U-shaped or the 3. The rotatablycombinatiou, with 55 bends of the coils F. The coils Fare connected of the circular frame J, in multiple or in series with a source of alternating mounted armature, that with a extending the ribs K, with polar extensions currents, and are so woand gizing-coils current cufrentor over impulse of given direction portions of the armature, and tlie enerthe alternate C of over portions of the pole- i as F, wound they will make i"ole-pieces the ends of 60 one polarity and the other pole-pieces 0' of pieces and carried in loops over herein set forth. the opposite the armature, as principle of the polarity. The
operation
herein of this motor is the
same as

the

other NIKOLA Witnesses: R. J. Stoney, TKSLA.

two described, for^ considering any impulse passing pole-pieces C C% a current is wound bridges them or 65 in the coil which both tends to establish polaritiesin their over

Jr.,

E. P. Coffin.

United

States

Patent

Office*

NIKOLA

TBSLA,

OF

NKW

YORK,
CX)MPANY,

N.

T,
OF

ASSIGNOR S^UIK PLACE.

1X"

THK

TKS1".\

KLKO^KIO

ALTERNATING-CURRENT

ELECTRO-MAQNETIC

MOTOR,

"fMiriUATWm

fcrmJngiMurt

of

IMIw

PMUat

gg

4a""700^

aitid

Aurwl

ISftg

magnets,
Be it known th*t
from jeet of the Emperor conn Smiljan, laka, border try of AustriaYork, in the county Hungary, residing at New and State of New certain York, have invented and useful Improvements in Altematinenew ElectroGnrrent Motors, of which Magnetic the followifigis a specification,referencebeing to the drawings.accompanying formhad and inga part of the same. This invention in that is an improvement class of electro-magnetic motors in which the rotation is produced rs by the progressive movement effect maximum of the or magnetic tion points or poles produced by the conjoint accircuits effect of two or enersizing which alternating are currents, through passed of rapidly-varying strength or currents
,
-

each
source

wound of

with

coils
or

CH^nuecteil

Tusla, I, Nikola of Aostria-Hangmry

sob-

with

ing currents,
or

alternating but forming two


The

rapid l^'-yar"'"
separate
one

imths I pnw

circuits.
to
a

magnets
extent

of

set

from the enorgi4lng 5] of a msgnetlo by means shield the mag* or screen interposed between and its energiiing-ooil. This net shield Ts properly adapted u" the conditions of itartioufar cases, so as to shield or protect the main 6" until it has beoomt" from magnetisation core itself saturate and no longer capable of containing all the lines of force prouuoe"l by the current it will bo seen that By this means the energising action befflns in the pixtteiited6j of magnets set certain a arbitrar^y-(lete^ mined period of time later than in tho other, and that by this means alone in oonj uncor tion
tect

certain

action

of the current

with

other

means

or

devices

heretofore
7"

to

of

kindred

nature.

The

improvements tion subject of this applicaare more particularly applicable to that


of motors in which
are

dass

two

or

more

sets

of in

enersizing-magnets
bv artincial "5 which to of time is made niazimnm of their
or

employed,
a

and

means

certain

interval

the respectelapse between ive minimum periods or phases attraction in


or

a employed practically-economical difference of magnetic be sooured. phase may readily The and operation of ^he Invontlon nature will be more fully explained by roforoiico to the accompanying drawings. Figure f is a view of a motor, partly In secillustrating the in vontion, with a diagram tion. Fig. 2 is a similar view of a modidoa-

71

magnetic
or

effect between

This the

tion In

of the

same.

Fig. 1, trhich exhibits tho slmploHt form artificiallv when sets of magnets, of a 30 two duced, of the invention, A A is the Aeld-maKnot prois limited It is desirable, in extent motor, having, sav, eight poles or iiiwanlly13 and C. The however, for the economical projecting cores H form working of such ooroH that the strength or attraction motors set of magnoisand of one one are energized by coIIm The should at the D. be maximum, the other set of magnets cores C, forming Hot, aro that of the other set is minimum the coils nro energized by coils E, and 35 time wheta conhave not snd conversely; but these conditions in series with one anol nected, preferably, her, be^ realized except in oases heretofore where in two derived brancho"l circuitM or K (}, redifference

interval

phase

K"

Hi

the two

currents
sources

have in

been the

obtained
same
or

from

dependent infrom spectivelv, Each coil E is

suitable

source

of current.

different

40

macliines.
The

is to present invention establish conditions more nearly approaching the theoretical ing, requirements of perfect workartificially or, in other words, to produce of ma|;netio of phase by means ,4S a difference from suffia current a single primary source dent in extent the of to meet requirements practical and economical working. In carrying out invention I employ a my with two Sttnotor field sets of energizing or

object of the

by a niagnotU; shield IF. which is preferably oomiHrntai of an oxidized wire inui annealed, insulatedi or the coils in the inanntir orwoundon wrapped indicated, so as to form a close"l min^miiUi
circuit and the around thecollsand
cores

surrounded

";"

l"etw"3en C. lietwfjcn the


of

the
ihn

Hiiine

magnetic
cores
as

jk/Io tjt

pieces or K, which,
is wound

is mounted in thhi

Hrmaturo

is usual

type

rnfl^hin")H,

with

coils L closed If

The
is
as

oi^sration resulting
follows:
a

vttn. njion thi;rnf""il from this dipifK^ition

corrent

impubi^}

l"e dl-

i"

90

488,700
i"oted throtifrh tbe two oiroaits of the motor, action of the current in that circuit will be while in the other circuit G itw;ill ^ will-quickly energize the cores B, but not accelerated, 80 the ooree C, for the reason that In passing be retarded. The shield H may be made in through the coils E there is encountered the many forms, as will be understood, and used in different ways, as appears from the forego-45 5 influence of the cloiied magnetic circuits The formed by the shields H. firsteffect is ing description. I do not, however, limit myself to eifeotively retard the current impulse in form or arrangement; but to any specific while the time cironit G, at the same I claim ifrWhat tion proporof current which does pass does not mag1. In an itltomating-current motor having two eneigizing-cirouits, netise the cores the combination,with 50 10 G, which are shielded or As the increasing the m"u;netic screened by the shields H. and coils of one of the circuits, cores force then urges more current deotro-motive of interposed magnetic shields or screens for retardingthe magnetization of toid cores, through the coils ", the iron wire H becomes as set forth. magneticallysaturated and incapable of car^ and hence ceases 2. In an alternating-current motor having 55 15 rying all the lines of force, to protect the cores 0, which become thecombination,with netized,two energizing-circuits, mageffect the magnetic cores and the coils of one of the developing their maximum interval of time subsequent to the circuits wound after an thereou,of magnetic shields around said coilsat rightansimilar manifestation of streuffth in the other gles or coils wound 60 to their convolutions, is arbitrarily set of magnets, the extent of which as set forth. ao determined motor 3. In an alternating-current having by the thickness of the tions. condithe oombination,with two energizing-cirouits, shield H, and other well-understood the magnetic cores and the coils of one of the that the apcircuits which energizethe said cores, of magFrom the above it will be seen netic shields form ing dosed magnetic circuits 65 by First, 15 paratns or device acts in two ways. the around the coils and interposedbetween retardingthe current^ and,second,by retaraing the magnetizationof one set of the cores, coils and cores, as set forth. 4. In an altomating^urreut motor from which its effectiveness will readilyaphaving pear. two energizing-circuitsderlved from the same the cores and the 70 of this source, the combination,with Many modifications of the principle 30 cient coils of one of the circuits that energizesthe invention are possible. One useful and effiof the invention is shown in iron-wire coils wound on same, of insulated application lar the said energizing-coils at right angles to Fig. 2. In said figurea motor is shown simitheir convolutions and connected up in series to that above described, exin all respects ^^^ ^" ^^^ ^^^ ^" ^^io^ ^ wrapped with the coils of the other energizing-circnit, 75 35 ^'^P^ around Uie coils E, is in this case connected as set forth. TKSLA. NIKOLA The iron-wire in series with the coils D. Witnesses: and wound, so as to coils H, are Connected ROBT. F. Gaylord, and being have little or no self-induction, W. Paob. Parkbb to tJie resistance of the circuit F the 40 added

179639B

Ai.l'lkt.t'iiHi-

ccMiif

^.ir.iii

'M

490^701

ThflM

caO"
whxeii

m
atq

(soitnai.*i"d bcafliM

in

wriw
a

in ftoiu

two

J
a

netio

shunts
AS

or

bridges
sec

o"oauiK(in^

ihou

tree

eireiiifa^

Kit

4in."itit

duds,
:).

hei-eiii
on

forth. jawu^ h\
riio

Ill
sen*

aiteruaiiug-ourreut
or

moioi

3^

mmj

be

lo

woond^

or

thi"

mp^tfciv^

cMix*uit"

two

seHes

of

pole*piovoN
cirouiis with

ouuixi^cU froiu oi
aokiue

coils
,

iu

iudepeiideui
the of

tbafethe

eireiiU
of

of the
a

eoifs

will

]iav"

iiid4""

source,
or

oombiuaciou,

ouv

liio :^uuti"

""("

peadBBtly
in

partMaJkNtfoacrttccwa
kgftiir
seJf-uniucciiML

^"r"clianth""

series

pole-pieoes,

of their

msguoiLc

ol-

doRiuied eiiaait fnmrthwi

bridges
scribed.

couueotiug

fre"

ouds,

.i"

dv^o

o"ar
10

orbcaociL of 'ov" for


so
a

The tkttfe

th" ^^

A^Jtm ciMcor^a
eac7"ac

qc

bMigm
C
co
a

ia

3.
a

In

an

alteruatiug-eurreui
or

iuou"r

haviii^
pi-oor

tk47

"'^^ eireait

aoloMil

laminated with
the

subdivided
sets or

Aeld-iiuti^iioc
series with
of
cores

"fntilifff
tKmined hA IS flf
eorrent force

up wh"a
Co

pr""l"by
linea

vided

two

poie45 in of

strenfth^
and than forther with of free the each

that

sacuratad
mora

pieces,
of
two

combination,

sucb

pole-pieccb,

anabla
a

earry

energtsiug-coils
circuits derived
currents i
ron

connected,
from and
or

respeocivoty,
the
sauic source

corront

produtMH
extent

they
inter"

villtoao feie

approciable bj poXea
at
a

alternating
di

lauiiiiaicU of
and suuUItfr

or

:"ubcixms-

development magnetic

stronger

rant cur-

vided

shunts
the

bridges

the

en^^

of

the

sectiou

than

pole-pieces
the
cores or

jotuiu||( pieces
ire
a

the of

.tw"

Qoraa
"

C. aaeh et^la
a

free
motor

ends
to

of form

all

poleo

ouo

In in free the

the and in of
a

current

is

so

retarded of the yond beeffect

set

closed

msguetio

its,

as

soi

the the

manifestation

forth.
4.

magnetiam
the

poles

is

delayed

In

analteruatiu|^H,'urreiii
with
a

motor,

liio tieklof

smui

period
B
motor

maximum

magnetic
torque
with is

bination,
and

set

or

seriw*

of

poles
an

""

in

polea
the power

that

strong

produced

energizing-coils
set of

wound

thereon,

in

tj

nd the

operates
in
a

approximately
of this
kind

termediate
of in dosed

pole-piecos
circuits
from
as

forming
ami tlio
1*01

port
U

ions

derekmed

motor

magnetic
derived ourronUs

ihoroiai of forili
00

tneq^hssd
lenis

by

independently-generated by
in
a

cor-

circuit

sauio

sourot^

dilforing
elaUn
an

full-quarter
this

phase.
is
"

alternating

the

oUier,

as

Hci

Whatl
]o 1. te"o

application
motor

NIKOL.V

TKSI.A.

lu
sets

altjemating-current
or

having
the
oombiof

Witnesses:
ROBT. Parkbk F. Gat W. LAIRD,

series
one

of
of

pole-pieces,
sets
or

ution,

with

such

series,

mag-

Vaqk.

'*"*"^'

".
XUSTBDIAL TSUVQUIBB

TBSLA.
01 MOUOTXOfl D"VXCS.

5a.

433.70^

Fateated

A.iig. 6,

1890.

Oil

.ly

"J^--'

104

United

States

Patent

Office.

NIKOLA

TESLA,

OF

NEW

YORK,
COMPANY,

N.

Y., ASSIGNOR
OF

TO PLACE.

THE

TESLA

ELECTRIC

SAME

ELECTRICAL

TRANSFORMER

OR

INDUCTION

DEVICE.

BPXOZFXOATXOV

temiag

part of

Letton

Patint
8aU

Vo,

488,70S,

d"t"d
aioaMd"L)

Auarast

5, 1890.

lpiiliofttlmflMlUnbSe.1800.

Vo. 846.890.

To

all

whom
it known

mu,y

ooneem:

Be

that

I, Nikola

from jectof the Emperor of Austriaof AustriaSmiljan, Lika, lM"rder country York, in the county 5 Hnn|?ary, residing at New and State of New certain York, have invented in Electrical and useful new Improvements Transformers Induction or Devices, of which the following is a specification,reference beand ID ing had to the drawings accompanying

Tesla, Hungary,

sab-

produced, pass through the two circuits of the grees; of phase of ninety demotor, a difference
or, in

other be

wordi), the
maximum To I obtain of the

current

in

one

circuit other attain

should circuit
to

when
more or

that

in the

is minimum.

perfectly 55
secure
an

this condition retardation

forming a
This its main

part of the
is
an or

same.

invention transformers

improvement
converters, and

trical in elechas
for

for seobjects the provision of means between the a phase difference 15 curing, first, primary and secondary currents adapted to the operation of my tors alternating-current moother and like purposes, and, second, a constant for all loads current imposed ui)on the secondary. *o

rent secondary curof bringInstead in the following manner: ing the secondary coils or-ci^ primary and into the closest possi- 60 cuits of a transformer has hitherto been done, I proble relations, as tect ductive the inin a measure the secondary from action effect of the primary by surrounding or either the primary or the secondary with a comparatively-thin magnetic shield or 65

increased

screen.

Under
as

these

conditions

or

cfr^um-

In

transformers it will of the force

as

constructed

now

and motive electro-

long as the primary current has a small value, the shield protects the secondary; has reached the primary current bu^ as soon as a certain strength, whicnl is arbitrarily determined, theprotectingmagneticshieldbeeomes
stances,
saturated and the inductive action upon the

70

heretofore

be

found

that

the

incides secondary very nearly cowith, that of the primary, being, howlime the *S ever, of opposite sign. At the same currents, both primary and secondary, lag be-^ hind- their respective electro-motive forces; but this lag is practically or as nearly the

same

in the

case

of

each

it follows of the

that

the

30

maximum

and

minimum

secondary
differ in be

currents

sign
not

or

primary and will nearly coincide, but direction,provided the secondary


or

secondary begins. It results, therefore,that the begins to flow at a certain secondary current without fraction of a period later than it would 75 tion the interposed shield, and since this retardawithout be obtaided tarding necessarily remay tional addithe primary current also, an tween lag is secured, and the time interval beminimum the maximum periods of 80 or is increased. the secondary currents primarv and
1 have
a

further

discovered

that

such

loaded

if it contain

devices

transformer

On property of self-induction. ing its several relations the proper well understood 85 hand, the lag of the primary behind a manner the impressed electro-motive force may be diminished the primary and secondary windings, between of the magnetic shield,and other the thickness by loading the secondary with a noninductive dead r^istance such or descent incanto yield a constant as conditions, be constructed be at all loads. No current lamps" wheteby the time interval beprecise rules can the maximum and or the minimum 40 tween periods given for the specific construction pro- 90 of the primaiy and is increased. secondary currents portions for securing the best results,as this This time interval, however, is limited, and is a matter determined by experiment and the results obtained but the genferencecalculation in particular cases; by phase diferal in the operation of such devices which scribed deI have plan of construction as will be found under all conditions to 95 alternating-current motors can 45 ny only be of proapproximately realized by such means to the attainment of this result ducing conduce or trated In the accompanying securing this difference, as above drawings I have illus35 the other
"

having

the

by may, elements

properly proportion^ in find determining

indicated,for
there should

it is desirable exist between


or

in such the

cases

that

the

construction
1 is my
a

above of

set
a

forth. transformer
xoo

50 secondary

currents,

those

primary and whidi, however

Figure embodying

cross-section

improvement

Fig.2isasimi-

IM (MsKodal.)

N,
ELECTBO

TESLA.
UAQNETIO UOTOB.

No.

433,703.

Patented

Aug.

5, 1890.

107

United

States

Patent

Office.

NIKOLA

TESLA,

OF

NEW

YORK,

N.

Y., ASSIGNOR
OF SAME PLACE.

TO

THE

TE6LA

ELECTRIC

COMPANY,

ELECTRO-MAQNETIC

MOTOR.

SPXCZFIOATIOir

forming

part of

Litter*

Piitent

Vo.

438,708,

dfttad

Aaguat

6, 1800.

AppUoa^oB fled
To aZl Be whom
it
eonoem: may that I, Nikola

April4| 1890.

Serial Ho. 846|608.

(Vonodd.)

it known of the

Smiljan, Hungary,
and
new

from Emperor of of AustriaLika, border country residing at New York, in the county of New

Tbsla, Aastria-Hangary,

ject sub-

to utilize it by rendering it more pronounced in the operation of motors This in general. object I attain by constructing a field-magnet

in which exhibit netic

the

parts

of

the

core

or

cores

that mag55

at different

intervals

of time

the

State
and

York, have

invented

certain

in Electro-MagImprovements or netic the following is a specification, or reference to exert their attractive thereon armature as being had to the drawings acand effect successively in the order of their 60 lo companying forming a part of the same. is an This invention in alternating-current I secure a improvement By this means magnetization. I have heretofore similar resolt to that which motors, and has for its general in other in forms or object to produce a single-circuitalternating- attained types of motor and current of economical which simof one or more torque-motor alternating by means currents I have produced a rotation or pro- 65 [5 pie construction. of the invention nature The will be understood gresbion of the magnetic poles or points of from the following statement. attraction maximum of the field of force. It is well known that if a magnetic core, even In the drawings I have shown a simple form if laminated with an the of motor, which will serve or to demonstrate subdivided, be wound coil and insulated of electricity diI 70 rectedprinciple of the mode of operation, which a current 2o in general terms. described have above through the coil the magnetization of the entire does not of such motor. core immediately Figure 1 is a side elevation ensue, the magnetizing in of a more effect not being exhibited Fig. 2 is a side elevation ble practicaall parts simultaneously. This I attribute to tion. and efficient embodiment of the inventhat the action of the current is to Fig. 3 is a central vertical section of 75 25 the fact in the plane of the axis, of rotation. the same or energize first those laminfe parts of the nearest the surface and adjacent to the core Referring to Fig. 1, let X represent a large and from thence the action prowhich be composed of a number exciting-coil, may gresses iron core,

useful

Motors,

of which

imparted to them by alternating in an equivalent currents energizing ootl ing coils are so placed with relation to a rotat-

effect

toward
30

the

interior.

certain

inter-

of

sheets

or

laminie
core source

of

soft iron
a

or

steel. is 80

val
and

of

time

therefore

manifestation the internal


core

the elapses between of magnetism in the external sections or layers of the core.
or

Surrounding
connected
currents.

this
a

is

coil Y, which

with

If the may

be thin

of

small
but

other tne by at oil near center, and any When the surface. a ourpoint, as a, nearer 85 rate if the number of alternation of or rent-impulse is started in the magnetlzingone, of the current coil Y, the section change or strength be very part at a, being close to the the coil, is immediately energized, while the great Xhe time interval occurring between manifestations section in the interior of magnetism ient convena or part at ", which, to use and in those parts adjacent to the expression, is "protected" by the inter- 90 40 of the core in the construction and and coil is more marked, a 6, or layers between vening sections ever, Howof such which motors not exhibit ,t8 magnetism. signed does deat once as are app^^atus of a increases, h to be run the as by alternatingor equivalent magnetization currents such also affected, reaching becomes as finally its pulsating or undulating I have found it desirable maximum time later thau a. generally strength some 45 currents 95 and of the current to give due the magconsideration even Upon the weakening necessary netization and of a first diminishes, while to this phenomenon h still to make special provisions in order to obviate its consequences. exhibits its maximum tinued strength; but the conThe specificobject of my is of a is attended sequent weakening present invention by a subof this action or effect^ and of ". the cUr100 Assuming weakening 50 to take advantage

be

inappreciable;
or even

this effect mass, in the. case of a thin

conditions
as

rapidly-varying Let us consider the magnetic now at any existing in this core point,

E of

35

thick

core,

of

comparatively

"

"

108

438,708

rent

to

be

an

alternating
This of

one,

will

now

be

sections
then

are

reversed,

while

" still continues


action

of the

parted first-imthe of
a

begin
is

to

similarly weakened. exhibit an opposite


later

may

60

polarity,
change
B and C

polarity. Ihagnetic condition


5

continues
that If disk be
an

which
on

followed
this

by

similar
B

6, following; simple
axis"
a

in

C, and

action
be

continues.
as so as

the
"

manner

above

described.
a an

ture arma-

may

therefore

considered extended
most
to

separate
to act
on

fieldthe

for

instance,

F, mounted brou^t
of into tion rota-

magnets,
armature

being
in the

65

to

rotate

freely
to be the

on

eflicient
that in
or

positions, and
my

proximity
will
lo

core,

movement the

the of

effect
motor
"

is similar

other

forms

imparted tion depending upon the the tendency core,


of the disk in nearest

disk, the direcits position relatively to the porbeing to turn tion


to
to

the

maximum
"

viz., a rotation points of the


such,
in

progression
of force.
as a

of

field

Any
disk
"

armature mounted

for field

instance,
would

70

the
This

core

from
or

to

this

rotate

from
to

the that

2i.as indicated
of 15

Fig.

1.

action in

ciple prinpracin

pole
which It

first

to

exhibit

its

magnetism

operation
form of

I have

embodied

exhibits
is evident may

it later.

ticable

motor,
in

which

is illustrated

that be

the

Fig.

2.

Let

A
of

frame

cular cira figure represent iron, from site diametrically-opposaid

carried
such

scribed deprinciple herein out m conjunotion 75


as a

with
set

other

means,

I
more

have

elsewhero favorable
or

so

35

the of which cores points of the interior of th ree is composed main Each core project. C, and B, B, and they are similarly parts with formed a straight portion or body 6, which around the energizing-coil is wound, a extension carved an inwardlyor arm c, and is made Each core projecting pole or end d. their sions of two polar extenparts B B, with up direction and C a part reaching in one with and two its polar exbetween the other tension in the rea"^ing opposite direction. In

forth, for
action

securing
of the
of

efficient

motor. the

For sections coils 2.

example,
C may be 80

the wound

polar extensioud
or

surrounded
dotted will

dicated of these retard

by
the
of C.

by closed lines in Fig.


be
to

L,asineffect

The

coils

still
of

more

magnetization
wish any to be

the

effectively sions polar extenas

I do

not to

understood
construction

limiting
of
this of action
a

85

myself
form
or

particular
as

of

motor,

the
be

same

principle
out

order
currents
are

to

lessen induced insulated

in

the

cores

the the

circulation several
in
tions sec-

30

of

therein,
from
one

operation may variety of forms.


What
1.

carried

in

great

another
cases. are

the

I claim
an

is

"

90 -current

manner cores are

usually followed
wound in the
same

i n such

These
nected con-

In

alternating
with
an

motor,

the

with

35

40

parallel seriefsand or supplied with an alternating or a pulsating current, preferably the former, by ", represented a generator diagram mat ically. their is the cores Between or polar extensions mounted similar armature a cylindrical or witii magnetizing-coils F, wound 6, that are
closed
of
*

coils D, which circuit, either

combination,
core

energizing-coil
parts,
the
one

and'

in

from

of composed magnetization
it with and

two

protected

by
the

other
of of
as an

interposed
armature the sot 95 of

between mounted force


2.

coil,

the

influence
said

fields
forth.

produced
The motor,
of
a

by

parts,
in
an

combination,

rent alternating-cura core

rotating
of
a

armature,
and the
a

fieldwith
100

upon

themselves,

as

is usual

in

motora

magnet
two

composed
in

eoil
to

45

50

general class. is as follows: The operation* of this motor is dicurrent When a impulse or alternation B B rected the coils D, the sections through in close and of the cores, being on the surface to the coils, are gized. enerimmediately proximity sections The C, on the other hand, are of the magnetizing influence protected from the coil by the interposed layers of iron B B. of B B As the magnetism increases, however, C are also energized ; but the sections they do attain their maximum not strength until a
this certain
time

sections'

proximity
the

coil the

and

an

inner

section formed

bet\^n
or

same, with

sections

being
around
3.

extending
the
The

provided in opposite
as

polar projections
over or

dii*ections
forth.

armature, combination,
of
a

set in
an

105

rent alternating-cur-

motor,
and
an

field-magnets energizing-coil
of outer

frame rotating armature, a of each thereon, composed


wound
or

around

001*0

made
no

up

and
of

inner

protected
or
-

magnetic

sections,
with

each

which

is formed

subsequent
B B of

to

the

exhibition

by

pieces

independent laterally or projections, as herein


NIKOLA

extended

provided pole

described.

55

the

sections

tlreir maximum.
current the

Upon

the weakening of strength sectionsC but


as

of
B B

the first

magnetic
while the Witnesses: ROBT. Parkbr
F.

TESLA.

diminishes,
maximum

have B
B

still their
to

strength;
the interior

Gaylord,
W.

continue

weaken

I^age.

,-n.'l

110

United

States

Patent

Office,

NIKOLA

TESLA,

OF

NEW

YORK, COMPANY,

N.

Y., ASSIGNOR
OF SAME PLACE.

TO

THE

TESLA

ELECTRIC

ELECTRO-MAQNETIC

MOTOR.

8PECI7I0ATI0K

fonning

part

of

Litter*

FKtent

Ka

446,807,

dated

January

27, 1801.

AffUoAtloii f]*d Maj 80. 1889.

Serial Ve. 311,417.

(ITo model.)

To

all He

whom

it may

coiidcrn:

suited ject sub-

to of

working
my

conditions invention.

is

the

specific
serve

it known

that

I, Nikola

lo

of the Emperor of from Smiljan, Lika, border coantry of Anstrla-IIunn^sidingat New gary, York, in the connty and of New State certain York, have invented new and asef a1 Improvements in Electro-Magnetic the following is a specificaMotors, of which tion, reference being had to the drawings acand companying forming a part of the same. forms the various of alternatingAmong cnrrent motors invented which by me is one I have described in other applications, and which is constructed
as

Tesla, n Anstria-IIungary,

object
The vention

present

illustrate

following explanations will which the principle upon


is based. Let it be assumed

to

said that

in- 55
an

follows:

I build

field-

15

which is poles, between monnted that is generally wound armature an with closed coils. On of the opposite two which poles of the field I wind primary coils,
core

with,

say,

four

nected ordinaiy alternating-current generator is conselfup in a circuit of practically no taining induction, such, for example, as a circuit conincandescent lamps onl3'. On the op- 66 oration of the machine alternating currents will be developed in thecircuit,and the phases of these currents will theoretically coincide tive with the phases of the impressed electro-moSuch force. be regarded 65 currents may currents." im retarded and designated as the that in It will be understood, of course, duction less self-inor practice there is always more to a corin the circuit, modifies which responding
"

are 20 same are

connected
cores

up in the
I also wind

main

circuit

On

the convenience consideration since


that

extent

these may be

conditions;

but

for

70

which secondary coils,

this
of
same

25

through coils on the other pair or when ing alternatpoles. In this motor an ij caused current to pass through the primary coils it energizes directly one set of in. the secondary currents poles and induces to energize the other act coils,which poles; but in the secondthe phases of the current ary
set

closed

of

the

disregarded in the the principle of operation, next Assume laws apply.

be formed across a path of currents any points of the above circuityconsisting, 75 indu'otton for example, of the primary of an device. The pas!liag phases of the currents duction through the primary, owing to the self-intwo

coils may
30

differ in time
a

from that

those
or

of the shif
t-

of the

the of will

same,

will

primary current, and hence ing of the poles is effected


to

rotation

phases

the

impressed

with not. coincide electro-motive

80

imparts

tion rota-

force, but

the

motor.

These other 35- which

motora

ways; I have

but

only necessary

be constructed in many may for purposes of this case it is to consider the specific'form

such the same^ lag lag behind tion being directly proportional to the self-inducance and inversely proportional to the resistof the

said
cause

coil.
a

The

insertion
or

of

this

coil will also

lagging
and

retardation delivered

85.

thus

improvements The object of


render
to 40

generally described, as my form. relate mainly to such


my of

of the currents the

traversing

by

present
motor
or more

iuvcntiou
of

is to

motive electrothe impressed generator behind or force, such lag being the mean sultant re-

this form the this


motors

efliclent and

improve
In

its action

mode

operation.
accordance

constructed I

in
two

with

principle
to say, is.
one

bring
the
of

energizingin the
motor currents
are

circuits itself which 45 induced of avoided.


"

into that

inductive
set

relation the

secondary
the device

energize
in the
an

field-cores

motor

and itself,

ment employis thus

external The

induction

ever, operation of these motors, howthe existence of a is dependent upon difference the curcertain of phase between
rents

50

in the
a

primarj^and
of

secondanr

coils.

Tq
is

obtain

difference

phase

or

lag that

of the lag of the current through the des- 90 I have that of what primary alone and in the current unretarded ignated the the consider Next entire working -circuit. ductive conditions \ninimposed by tl^e association coil of a relation with the primary generated in the 95 secondary coil. The current the primary secondary coil will react upon retardation the of the currents, modifying tion of self-inducaccording to the amount same, resistance in the secondary and cirouit. circuit have little self- too If the secondary but it codtains induction as, 'for instance, when incandescent lamps only"- it will increase the
" "
"

TESLi

B.
ELEOnO

TE8L1.
HAeHITIC MOTOB.

Ho.

155,067.

PftUntedJune

30,

1891.

"
.

Inv"nlor

lU

456,0e7

section

of

modification Hections of

of the the
core a

same.

and

aro

held

together by

rods

Or

bolts L.

The

Fig. 4

is

one

of

the

tached. l)oUs de-

Fig. 5 lA a diagram disposition of armature


5

showing
or

fied modicir-

induced

eoitB. The tfBted

in one plate pass through n large hole next hole in the one adjacent, 70 and a small and HO on, connecting electrically all of plates of a condenser, and all of armature K, as one

^neral plan
m

of

the in

invention this of

is illassent repre-

plates K'
To

as

the

other. abd"'e

Fig.
frame

1.

fignre
an

either of the condensers


may to reference in be

described
as ex-

the
of which

and

field- magnets

nating-current alterthe armature-coils

connecte"l,
1.

75

ID

are

motor, the poles or projections with ing coils B and C, formwound

plained by
In motors closed
any

Fig.

which

the

armature-coils for example, ^as,


motor set

are

15

ed energizing-circuitsconnecteither to the same or to independent sources of alternating currents, as is now well understood, that the currents so flowingthrough the circuits, ence respectively, will have a differof phase. Within the influence of this firtd is an armature-core with coils D, wound E. In my of this description heretomotors fore

independent

upon
of
one

themselves"
armature of

in in

form

alternating -current
coil
or

which the

position
to the

maximum

induction

of coils is in 80 with respect

these
"o

coils have connected


case

been in
a

dosed the

upon

them-

selves,or
the series the of

closed coil
or

series; but in
connected the

field coils or poles,while the other the induction position of minimum in one series, coils are preferably connected are 85 and two points of the cirouit thus formed is illustrated This bridged by a condenser. E iet in Fig. 5, in which represents one is in the
"

present
a

each

of

armature

-xioils and union


It
are

"'

the

other.
a

Their
denser con-

coils

terminates

in

opposite

points of
F.

joined through
that of

plates of
ends t$

F. condenser For this purpose of the series of coils are brought out to to

disposition
branches

will be observed self-induction the

in

this
two

90

the

through tlie shaft


are

connected

bmshes The
30

collecting-rings O, which condenser by contactH and suitable denser conductors, the conbeing independent of the machine.
the
are

" and "' varies with their position relatively to the field-magnet, and that each branch isaltematelythepredominatingsour^') the effect of 95 Hence current of the induced F is twofold the condenser Firs^ it increases nately, alterin ea'eh .of the branches the current and, secondly, it alters the phrase of
.

armature-coils
manner

wound

in SDoh The the follows:

that of

adjacent

connected coils produce


or

opposite poles..
action

this motor
in

plan followed
The
jnotor

and the effect of its construction as are

the

currents

in

the

branches, this being the


which results with from
a

well-known above the

effect
a

such

100

being started In opera35 tlon and the coils of the field-magnets being traversed by alternating currents, currents induced in the armature-coils are by one set of fleld-coUs, the poles thus estabas B, and lished acted are upon by the other set, as C. armature -coils, however, have necessarily 40 The a high self-induction,which opposes the
flow of the Fnot ferrence 45
acts currents

disposition of

condenser

This described. it working of the motor, because proper in the armaturethe fiow of current increases and cironits due to a given inductive effect, 105 cidence it brings more also because nearly into coin-

cirouit, as effect is favorable to

thus

set

up.

The
or

denser con-

only permits the passage


these

tmns-

of

currents, but
of of the

also counter-

the

effects

and self-induction,

by

projMr

adjustment

the self-induction

capacity of the of the coils, and


the condenser

denser, con-

the
may

periods of the
be 50

currents

made to overcome the self-induction.

entirelythe

effect of

It is preferable on account of the undesirabllity of using sliding contacts of all kinds


to associate

the

condenser it
a

with

directly, or make
55 In
some cases

part of
up

the armature the armature. of


nular an-

I build

the armature

heads

phites K K, held by bolts L between M, which secured are to the drivinar-

magnetic effects of the armature-poles. that the It will be understood, of course, that contribute of conto the efficiency causes 1 10 above densers when applied to such uses as must be given due consideration in determining the practicability and efficiency of the Chief thesd is well motors. is, as among known, the periodicity of the current, and 115 which hence the improvements I have in heredescribed are more particularly adapted to a very tion high rate of alternasystems in which or change is maintained. illustrated Although this invention haabeen 1 20 herein in connection with a of special form that it is equally motor, it will be understood applicable to any other alternating-current
the

maximum

ooacting

field and

motor

in

which

'

there

is

60

shaft, and in the hollow space thus formed I piaee a condenser F, generally by winding the insulated two plates thereof spirally around
the of shaft the
core

coil wherein action


state
or

the currents

of the that of

field, and,
a

armatureinduced by the furthermore, I would


a

closed

are

125

the plates of the condenser. example, in Figs. 3 and 4, N is the driving-shaft,M M the heads are of the 65 anratnre-core, and K K' the iron platesof which the core is built up. These plates are insulated from the shaft and from one another, For

In other itself as

cases

I utilize the

plates

of utilizing the plates magnetic core for forming the condenser, I regard as applicable, generally, sections
to other ratus.

the feature

kinds

of

alternating-current appamy what invention,


com-

130

Having
I claim
1. In

now
"

described

is
an

alternating-current motor, the

115

465,067

bination, ing-circnit, adapted


in it8 to circuit and

with of be

the
an

field-magnets
armature-eircnit

and and currents

energiza core

with coils
of the

the

induced
of
a

energizing
condenser

coil
nected con-

or

energized
by
the
curi*onl8

by

Indnced the

in
wi

fleld-cirthe
anna-

bination,
armature,
therewith
or

and

made

part
the

of'

the

mature ar-

rotating

element

of

motor.

cnit,

condenser

connected
as

Ih

5.

In

an

alternating-current
with
an

motor,

the

com-

"s

ture*circuit
2.

only,
an

set

forth.

bination,
motor,
in

armature-core

composed alternately
of
an nected con-

of

In

alternating-current
with armature-coils field condenser and connected

thecomlation re-

insulated
to

condueting-plates
form
a

bination,
to
lo

inductive in said
a

condenser,
coils
wound armatures

indnioed
and of the

ergizing en-

the of
a

closed

coil
to

or

thereon

nected con-

circuit,
as

bridging

circuit,
condenser.

the

plates

or

said

30

set 3/

forth.

In

an

alternating-current
with
an

motor,
and
coils wound
to

the

bination, com-

G.

magnetic composed
from
to form

core

for of other
two

alternating-current plates
and
or

armature

two

energizthereon
in and of

apparatus,

sections

sulated innected con-

ing-circnits
15

formed inductive

by

each the

alternately
or

different

relations
or

the

field

parts

armatures

of

35

joined
condenser

in

continuous the
to

closed
are

series, connected,
the

condenser. NIKOLA Witnesses:


Parker W. 15.

plates
the forth.

of

which

TESLA.

respectively,
or

junctions

of

circuits

coils,
^. In
an

as

set

Pagb,
Murphy.

20

alternating-current

motor,

the

com-

Frank

Li

f
,

118

United

States

Patent

Office

MEOLA

TESLA,

OF

NEW

YORK,

N.

Y., ASSr(;Nt)R
.

TO

THE

TESLA

ELECTRIC

COMPANY,
ELECTRO-MAGNETIC

OF

SAME

PiACE.

MOTOR.

ftmnxne

part

of

Lstfcivss

Piitant Swial

So.

450,772,

dated

aeptambai

SSI, IBftl*

*HiBimtiim ffladkgO. 6, 1889.

lb. 306tieS.

(IhmaUL)

To

mil Be

whanb

it known

it may tJiat

con"eem,:

with

current

of
motor

very may in

high
not

number

of

ternations al-

jeet of the Emperor

I, Neeoiji of AostriA,
of in the

Tbsla, a subfrom Smiljan,


a

the
To avoid

respond
and
to

erly. propeondi-

this

objection
which

.st^u't up

lAksL,border
5

country

re" AastriA-IIiittg"ry,

^*yncilronizingmotor
obtain is I have
one a

these

siding at New
ef New naefal

York,

county
certain Electro-is
a

and
new

State and

tions

the

object of

York, have inyented in Improvements


of which the

therefore

pi*^ent my combLne"I two


tite other

55 vention. in-

tors, moa

Motors,
lo

following
had
to
a

Ma^etlc specificathe
same.

synchronizing

motor,

tioa, reference

bein^
and

the

ac^ drawin||;"

multiple- circuit or toi*que motor, ami by the latter I bring the first named to ^tpeed, up
and the both This then either throw
motor

60

eorapttnying
As is well

forming known, certain


have with

part
forma

of of

the

whole
or

current

into

alternat-

synchronizing
of the
motorn.

opei*ate

jointly
Ana in

tng^OTTent
connected
rmt 15

machines
in dreait of

the
an as

property, when

alternating-cara

invention features.

involvea It will both


motors

several be

novel

generator,
will
a ran

mnning
; but

motor

in ayn-

useful
first

observed,
are run

the

6^

dnoniffln
einnrent

therewith
of

while

the after

alternating
with that in

place, that speed


that of the

without

the

motor

it lias attained commutators the than be of the

of any of the

kind, and, secondly, tliat


motor

rate

speed synehronons
it will not when
are

torque

may fewer the

be

higher
as

"if the an
30

generator

start

it.

Hence
have

synchronizing motor,
it ccntaios of
a

will 70

ina"nees heretofore ntring motors," as they


some nni, the motors means

these

^synchrobeen

case or

when
sets

number
motor

termed,

poles

poles, so

that

will

been readily and easily brought up to speed. adopted to bring be more be conmotor the genstructed synchronism with may erator, Thirdly, the synehronizimr nating to have or ao as a much morepronouneed approximately so, before the alterwithout to of the generator is applied to current lessening synchronism tendency

have

np

to

75

25

drive In Serial
an

then.
an

the filed

facility with
In

which I

it is started. have illustrated the vention. in-

application
No. system

February
and

IS, 1889,
described

the

drawings
1

300,220, 1 have

shown

improved
or

of y"

moiors,which

of operating this class consists, broadly, in wind-

Figure
motors;
of

is

part sectional
end view end
or

view
of the and

of

the

two

Fig. 2, an

synchronizpart
tion sec-

80

35

40

in such manner arranging the motor of suitable it could switches that by means be started as a mnltiple-circait motor, or one operating by a progression of its magnetic to speed, or poles, and then, when nearly up into an ordinary synchronizing so, converted in which the or one "otor, magnetic poles In were some as simply alternated. cases, when and when the is used a large motor of alternations is very number high, there is less difficulty more or Jin .bringing the motor 't^speed as a doable or tor, multiple-circuit mowhich renders for the plan of construction the motor best adapted 'to run as a synchronizing motor impairs its efficiencyas a torque

lag

ing motor;

B''lg. 3, an the torque

view

double-circuit

motor;

Fig. 4, a diagram of the circuit connections grams empU"ye"l; and Figs. 5, G, 7, 8, and 9 are diaof modifieil dispositions of the two mo85
tors.

Inasmuch work while

"ts

neither
current

motor is

the
to

is doing iicting upon the upon of the two the

any the

other, I prefer
shaft

rigidlyconnect
mount

tures. armasame

I therefore

both B
motor

90

A, the
and
same

field-magnets
torque
D. The has
rotate

nizing synchro-

C of the base
motor

being securetl

to

the

synchronizing
its armature, imity to the

preferably larger polar projections on


in very close prox95

which

45

or

double^ircuit

motor

under

the

assumed

poles

of

SO

This will be readily the start. conditions on tor understood, for in a large synchronizing mothe lengtli of the magnetic circuit of the polar ao are great that projections and their mass time is required for apparently considerable Ilence mi^pietization and demagnetization.

respects it conforms that well understood,


action. synchronous the wind pole-pieces

in other field, aad to the conditions, now

the

are

necessary the

to

secure

I of

prefer, however,
armature the

to

with

loo

closed

coils of

",

as

this

obviates
The

ment employor

sliding

contacts.

smaller

119

459,778

torque
a

motor,
ions

on

the

other

armature C3'lindrical

project
I 5 liave

"Hnd

wound in

with my

described No.

notably
up in
two

382,279, dated
the H

hand, has, ably, preferF, without polar closed coils 6, as previous patents, The May ;, 1888.
(^re

field-coils of carrentf
or ID

series
rom

motor torque and I,and

connected

the

generator
these
a

alternating is directed through


circuits
the in any

the

divid"*d
to

l)elween

two

rent be acted by the curupon rious time, and I have devised vadispositions or arrangements of the two of these for accomplishing this. Some motors illustrated in Figs. 5 to 9. are arrangements Referring to Fig. 6, let T designate the and S the torque or multiple-circuit motor synch ronizing motor, L L' being the line-wires The of alternating current. from source a

in, for both


at

may

the

same

70

75

manner or

produce
of result the the
two

points
this

maximum in

progi*essionof magnetic
a

poles
I

two

circuits
of

of the

torque
in

motor

of different

effect. way in

degreed
N

self-induction, and

designated by
to the

secure

convenient
the
a

by
in-

"I, are

connected

derivation

wire
80

connecting
with 15

motor-circuits from

tion derivaance resist-

L.

circuit

generator,
dead

sorting
and

in

one

motor-circuit
other
a

to then joined and connected They are the energizing-oircuit of the synchronizing is connected of which motor, the opposite terminal to wire in

in the
"

self-induction in

coil,by
between

L'.
start motor

The them

two

motors

are

thus

which
the
two

means

difference
of the

phase

series.

To

I short-circuit

the

by a switch P', throwing the same of fiield- the whole have If both motors current number 85 through the torque motor. the the depired speed is reached for a given number Then when 2o poles, the torque motor will tend the to run switch P' is opened, so that the current of alternations at double passes In such tions an ment arrangethrough both motors. speed of the other, for, assuming the connecfor this it is obviously desirable to be such as tis to give the best results, its and the into series divided two that a proper other reasons economical and 90 poles are of poles is virtually reduced relation between the speeds of the two motors one-half, as numl)er number which be observed. should being acted upon by the same the tend to rotate of alternations armature In Fig. G another disposition is illustrated. the main S is the synchronizing motor the speed. and T the torque at twice By this means is more armature easily br6ught to or above motor, the circuits of both being in parallel. 95 When the speed necesto the motorW is a circuit also in derivation sary 30 the required speed. S' is a P". for synchronism- is imparted to the main circuits and containing a switch is shifted from On the torque switch in the .synchronizing-motor circuit motor, the current into the other. S' is opened, cutting out the start the switch motor T" for carrying out A convenient S. the Then motor is opened, throwing 100 arrangement is shown in In said current the entire Fig. 4. ing T, givthrough the motor 35 this invention the field-coils of the sychronizsired it a very When the defigure J J are strong torque. H I the field-coils of the torque, motor. ing, and speed is reached, switch S' is closed and L the of the I/are conductors main the current divides between both motors. By
divisions current is secured.

synchronizing

line.
40

One
L of the
same

end

of, say,
a

coils

II is connected coil M.

to One to N.
are

means

of switch

P"

both

motors

may

be

cut

105

wire end the The

through
other
wire

self-induction set of

out.

coils I is connected
a

In the

Fig.
same,

7 -the

thraugli
ends the of contact of which One

dead
two

resistance

is substantially arrangement except that a switch T' is placed in includes


the two

opposite
to
or

these
m

circuity
a

the
the

circuit which

the

two

circuits

of
1 10

Connected 45

of

switch

the with

torque

motor. motors in
a

handle
the of the the wire

lever

is in connection end motor of the

Fig.
a

8 shows around is .also a

with series, switch B T.

line-wire

I/.
The From

field-circuit
to

shunt

both shunt
a same

containing
around switch the P'.

synchronizing
L.
n.

is connected in theswitch-

There
In bnt which The

ing synchroniz115

other the

terminates

motor

S,
0

with

contact 50

diagram
P motor of

it will be
bo turned will start

readonto

Fig.
each
are manner

the

ily

seen

that
rii

if the lever

motor

is of

disposition is shown; provided with a shunt, in


P'
and

contact
I'cason

the

tongue

by
the

switches

T",

as

shown.

of

the difference
in its two

currents when

phase between energizing-circuits.


is attained
contact
n

Then

be

understood
I do not

operating the systems will from the foregoing descriptions.


1 20

the desired V
be shifted will pass

speed
onto

if the the

leclaim herein the


in toraue
so mr as

55

ver

entire of the be any


ter

motor

nor

current

through the fisld-coils


and
the other

part thereof, except


into

they

en:

synchronizing doing no work.


60

motor

will

the combination

which

forms

the subject the


sub1

torque operated in
have
not

The

motor

may

be

constructed

and

various

described deem

of which I ways, many in other applications; but I do in

of this application, for I have made the distinguishing features of said motor ject of other applications.

25

What
1. An

now

claim

is

"

principle
of my

it necessary of construction

illustration
and
to

of

the

mode

of

present invention
It is not
cut out

describe

operation these
one as

65 further
motor

herein.
be

that necessary of oircMiit while the other

ing non-synchronizcoupled with a synchronizing alternating-cnrrent motor, substantially set forth, whereby the former the starts
electric
motor and throws it into

alternating-current

130

is

latter

synchronism

with

120

459,778

its for both

actaatiog-corrent, directing
of

and current
as

switch

mechanism either
or

starting

device with

for

bringing generator

said

motor with

into which

the motors,

through
set

synchronism
it-is connected. The

the

the

forth.
two motors upon
an

2.

The

combination
of

of
are

the the
same

ar-

5, current

combination,
motor

with of and coils


an a

an

alternatingmultipolar
armature upon ternating aling hav-

matures

which
of said

mounted

composed

shaft,
current

one

motors

being
or one

alternatingin

field-magnet,
the

torque points by
the the other

motor,
or

which

poles
of G.

wound
a

with

dosed
as

selves, them-

magnetic
shifted
lo

poles
of
the

are

progressively energizing-ouran

starting

device,

set

forth.
the
bination com-

action motor

In

an

alternating-current
of
a

motor,

rent,

being

altematinganism mechwith
source

field-magnet
when

having
connected
to

poles

wound with
a

onrrent8ynchronizingmotor,andswitch
for
or

coils of

adapted alternating opposite

directiog
said

the

current
as

through
forth.
an

either

current

produce polarities poles


connected
or

multaneously si-

both
3.

of

motors,

set

magnetic
with ooils

The

combination,

with motor

alteroatingone en-

and

an

armature

provided
wound with

jections proin
as

15

current

synclironizing
of
a an

having

and
a

ergizing-field,
motor

alternating-current plurality
to and be
a

torque

continuously-closed
forth.
7.

unconnected

circuit,

having
and

of

energizing-cirby
for
currents

set

cuits

adapted
in

operated
switch
or

The

herein-described

method

of
which

ing operatconsists
rent cur-

differing
10

phase,

directing through
in

alternating-current actuating
to motor up
a

motors,

the the

alternating
several

current

currents motor
or

motor
a

by

an

alternating
-current relative

circuits of
the

of
as

one

the

single
purpose

bring
to

second

alternating speed
and

circuit
set 4.

other,

and

for

the

synchronizing

to

forth. The

the

actuating-current
motor

then circuit NIKOLA

switching

the

combination,
motor

with

an

alternatingwound to
a source

synchronizing

into

t5

current

having
to currents be

field-cores
connected and closed
an

with of wound of

TESLA.

coils

adapted

Witnesses:
(tbobge

alternating
with induced

armature

N. T.

Monro,
Evans

coils

upon

themselves,

Edward