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How to Use the Harvard Style of Referencing

An Guide to Using the Harvard Style of Referencing An overview of the Harvard Referencing System, including a a supporting presentation. This knol is aimed at students in higher education but will be of interest or anyone who intends to write a report or paper that will acknowledge or refer to related work.
Contents

Main Features of the Harvard System The Citation Quotations The Reference List How to Reference a Book The Bibliography Standard Harvard Style Finally References

In scientific and technical report writing you will often want to refer to other work that is somehow related to your own. It is best to do this in a clear and unambiguous way. Indeed, failure to properly acknowledge your sources may leave you open to accusations of plagiarism. There are a number of different standard ways of referencing other peoples work, but they all share some features.

A citation is inserted at the appropriate point in your text. This is intended to indicate the existence of related work that is relevant to the current text. A full reference is given separately for each citation. This is intended to give sufficient information to enable the reader to trace (and in principle acquire) a copy of the corresponding work.

There is more detail about report writing and plagiarism in these separate knols:

How to write a Great Report Plagiarism Explained

The example text below shows three citations and a reference list that contains three references - one for each citation. The citations are shown in green for illustrative purposes only - this is not a requirement of the Harvard style. Each reference in the reference list gives full details for the corresponding citation.

Interesting Facts about Computing

Google's search engine uses the concept of PageRank (Brin, S. & Page, L. 1998) to assign a value to each individual web page. This enables it to identify the most important pages that match a user's query. The weak A.I. hypothesis (Russell, S. & Norvig, P. 2009) asserts that a machine may be programmed to behave as though it is intelligent. The strong A.I. hypothesis, on the other hand, asserts that such a machine would actually be intelligent.

Alpha-beta pruning (Knuth, D.E. & Moore, R.W. 1975) is an optimising search algorithm that stops evaluating a move when at least one possibility has been found that proves the move to be worse than a previously examined move. Reference List Brin, S. & Page, L., 1998. The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine. In: Seventh International conference on World-Wide Web (WWW 1998), April 14-18, 1998, Brisbane, Australia. Knuth, D.E. & Moore, R.W., 1975. An Analysis of Alpha-Beta Pruning, Artificial Intelligence 6(4), p. 293-326. Russell, D.E. & Norvig, P., 2009. Artificial Intelligence: a modern approach, 3rd ed., Prentice-Hall.

You will notice that the citations in the text are all within round parentheses, and that the reference list is sorted by author's surname. These are some of the conventions of the Harvard style. Without agreed conventions on the structure, format and organisation of citations and references, there is the potential for variation - which may lead to ambiguity and confusion. The Harvard Referencing System is a collection of rules and conventions governing the use of citations and references, which is intended to reduce the potential for ambiguity. The Harvard Referencing System is not the only such system but it is a very common one (Wikipedia contributors 2009) particularly in scientific and technical disciplines.

Main Features of the Harvard System

Citations and references follow these general principles. 1. A citation appears, in parenthesis, in the main text. It normally consists of the author's name, year of publication and (optionally) page numbers. It is intended to uniquely identify an individual item in the reference list. 2. The reference list gives full details for each citation that appears in the main text. The structure and format of an individual reference may vary, depending on the type of work being referred to. For example, identifying a web page requires a uniform resource locator (URL), while identifying a book does not.

The Citation
There are two ways to cite a work - which one is chosen depends on whether or not the author's name can appear in the text without interrupting its flow. If the author's name can be used without interrupting the flow of the text, then it is cited by inserting the date of the referred work, within round brackets, immediately after the author's name. For example:

... Brin and Page (1998) designed a search engine that is widely used and has earned them a great deal of money ... Reference List Brin, S. & Page, L., 1998. The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine. In: Seventh International conference on World-Wide Web (WWW 1998), April 14-18, 1998, Brisbane, Australia.

If, on the other hand, the author's name would interrupt the flow of the text, then the author's name is included within the brackets, along with the date. For example:

... Google's search engine (Brin, S. & Page, L. 1998) is widely used and has

contributed greatly to the company's success ... Reference List Brin, S. & Page, L., 1998. The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine. In: Seventh International conference on World-Wide Web (WWW 1998), April 14-18, 1998, Brisbane, Australia.

Quotations
It is sometimes necessary to quote a passage of text from a related work. If the passage is a single sentence or shorter then it is simply enclosed in quotation marks, and accompanied by a citation in the normal way. For example:

Creaney (2009) advises that "If the passage is a single sentence or shorter then it may simply be enclosed within quotation marks". It is reccommended that "If the passage is a single sentence or shorter then it may simply be enclosed within quotation marks". (Creaney 1990). Reference List Creaney, N., 2009. How to Use the Harvard Style of Referencing [Online] Available at: http://knol.google.com/k/-/-/1hzaxtdr9c09g/14# [Accessed 20 May 2009].

If the passage is longer than a single sentence, then it should be given a paragraph to itself. The paragraph should be indented and without quotation marks. For example:

The following indented paragraph illustrates how to quote a multi-sentence text passage. Different types of works (e.g. books, journal articles, conference papers) need

different items of information to uniquely identify an individual work, and so the Harvard System prescribes a specific structure and format for referencing each type of work. Some of the more common ones are described below but this is by no means an exhaustive list. (Creaney 2009) Do not change the text that you are quoting - even if it contains spelling mistakes. Reference List Creaney, N., 2009. How to Use the Harvard Style of Referencing [Online] Available at: http://knol.google.com/k/-/-/1hzaxtdr9c09g/14# [Accessed 20 May 2009].

It is sometimes desirable to edit the author's original text to give context or to make the meaning clear. This is achieved using:

three dots within square brackets to indicate a deletion text within square brackets to indicate an insertion

If you edit a quotation you must be very careful not to change the author's intended meaning.

The following paragraph illustrates an edited quotation. Different types of works [...] need different items of information [...] and so the Harvard System prescribes a specific structure [...] for referencing each type [...]. Some of the more common [types of work] are described below but this is by no means an exhaustive list. (Creaney 2009) Four sections of text have been deleted and one section - "types of work" - has been inserted. Reference List Creaney, N., 2009. How to Use the Harvard Style of Referencing [Online] Available at: http://knol.google.com/k/-/-/1hzaxtdr9c09g/14# [Accessed 20 May 2009].

The Reference List


Each reference in the list should begin on a new line and they should be sorted by author name.

If an author has several works in the list, then those references should be sorted by year - with the earlier ones coming first. If an author has several works in the same year, then those references should be distinguished by appending a lower case letter to the date.

This is illustrated in the example below.

Reference List Brin, S. & Page, L., 1998. The Anatomy of a Large-Scale ... ... Creaney, N., 2005a. (Editor), AICS '05, Proceedings of ... ... Creaney, N., 2005b. Generating Quantifiers ... ... Creaney, N., 2006. (Guest Editor), Artificial Intelligence Review, ... ... Knuth, D.E. & Moore, R.W., 1975. An Analysis of ... ...

Different types of works (e.g. books, journal articles, conference papers) need different items of information to uniquely identify an individual work, and so the Harvard System prescribes a specific structure and format for referencing each type of work. Some of the more common ones are described below but this is by no means an exhaustive list. The reader is referred to Anglia Ruskin University (2007), De Montford University (2008) and British Standards Institution (1989, 1990) for more complete collections.

How to Reference a Book

A reference to a book, thesis or dissertation has the following structure.


Author's surname followed by a comma. Author's initials in capitals, with full-stop after each and a comma after the final full-stop. Year of publication followed by full-stop. Full title of book in italics with capitalization of first word and proper nouns only - followed by full-stop unless there is a sub-title. If there is a sub-title, this follows a colon at end of full title, with no capitalization except for proper nouns - follow by full-stop. Edition number followed by the abbreviation "ed." - followed by fullstop. Only include this if not first edition. Place of publication: Town or city, follow by colon. Publisher - company name followed by full-stop.

This is an example of a full reference to a book.

... Semantic networks (Russell & Norvig 2009) are often ... Reference List Russell, D.E. & Norvig, P., 2009. Artificial Intelligence: a modern approach, 3rd ed., Prentice-Hall.

How to Reference a Journal Article


A reference to a journal article has the following structure:

Author's surname followed by a comma. Author's initials in capitals, with full-stop after each and a comma after the final full-stop. Year of publication followed by full-stop. Full title of the article - not in italics - with capitalization of first word and proper nouns only - followed by full-stop unless there is a sub-title. If there is a sub-title, this follows a colon at end of full title, with no capitalization except for proper nouns - followed by full-stop. Full title of journal, in italics, with capitalization of key words followed by comma. Volume number Issue/Part number in brackets, followed by comma. Page numbers preceded by "pp." for a range of pages and "p." for a single page - followed by full-stop.

This is an example of a full reference to a journal article.

... Alpha-Beta pruning (Knuth & Moore 1975) is a technique ... Reference List Knuth, D.E. & Moore, R.W., 1975. An Analysis of Alpha-Beta Pruning, Artificial Intelligence 6(4), pp. 293-326.

How to Reference a Conference Paper

A reference to a conference paper has the following structure.


Author's surname followed by a comma. Author's initials in capitals, with full-stop after each and a comma after the final full-stop.

Year of publication followed by full-stop. Full title of conference paper - not in italics - with capitalization of first word and proper nouns only - followed by full-stop unless there is a sub-title. If there is a sub-title, this follows a colon at end of full title, with no capitalization except for proper nouns - followed by fullstop. Full title of conference, in italics, with capitalization of key words followed by comma. Location followed by a comma. Date followed by a comma. Publisher (company name) followed by colon. Place of publication (town or city name) follow by full-stop.

This is an example of a full reference to a conference paper.

... The concept of page rank (Brin & Page 1998) is ... Reference List Brin, S. & Page, L., 1998. The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine. In: Seventh International conference on World-Wide Web (WWW 1998), April 14-18, 1998, Brisbane, Australia.

How to Reference a Website

A reference to a website has the following structure.

Authorship or Source - followed by comma Year - followed by full-stop. Title of web document or web page - in italics - followed by "[Online]" Date of most recent update - within round brackets. Available at - followed by the URL (underlined) Date of most recent access - in square brackets - followed by fullstop

This is an example of a full reference to a website.

... Creaney (2008) discusses a range of ... Reference List Creaney, N., 2008. Legal Issues for IT Professionals [Online] (Updated 26 September 2008) Available at: http://knol.google.com/k/n-/-/1hzaxtdr9c09g/7 [Accessed 30 January 2009].

How to Reference a Table or Diagram

Whether you are reproducing a whole table, or simply some data extracted from it, you must acknowledge the source. The format of the reference depends on the nature of the source - whether it is a book, journal paper, website, etc. - and you should include the associated page number.

How to Reference a Corporate Publication


Corporate publications frequently do not name the author. In these cases, the name of the organisation may replace the author's name. For example:

... Anglia Ruskin University (2007) provides an excellent introduction to the Harvard style of referencing ... Reference List Anglia Ruskin University, 2007. University Library: guide to Harvard style referencing [Online] (Updated September 2008), Available at: http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm [Accessed 30 January 2009].

How to Reference an Unpublished Work


If a work has been accepted for publication but not yet published, the reference is structured as follows:

... A range of scenarios that evoke ethical dilemmas are discussed in Creaney (in press). In many cases ... Reference List Creaney, N., (in press) Dummies Guide to Professional Ethics. O'Really.

If a work is circulated informally but not published - for example lecture notes - then the reference is structured as follows:

... A range of scenarios that evoke ethical dilemmas are discussed in Creaney (2009). In many cases ...

Reference List Creaney, N., 2009. Lecture Notes on Professional Ethics. [Leaflet] University of Ulster.

How to Reference a Photograph or Artwork


If you want to reference a photograph or artwork that is reproduced in a book, then you may treat it like a reference to a diagram - which is described above. To refer to the original artwork, the reference is structured as follows:

... Sepia photographs (Creaney 2009) are not always as old as they appear ...

Reference List Creaney, C., 1959. Norman at Four Months. [Photograph] (Norman Creaney's private collection). da Vinci, L., 1509. Mona Lisa. [Painting] (Louvre, Paris)

where C. Creaney and L. da Vinci are the photographer and artist, respectively.

References with Incomplete Information


The following conventions are used to indicate missing or incomplete date information:

199- indicates that the decade is known to be the 1990s but the year is not konwn 199? indicates that the decade is thought to be the 1990s, but there is some doubt 1993? indicates that the year is thought to be 1993, but there is some doubt

Other missing items of information are indicated as follows:

Anon indicates that the author is not known s.l. indicates that the place of publication is not known

s.n.

indicates that the name of the publisher is not known

The Bibliography
Sometimes you may want to acknowledge that you are aware of a piece of related work. Perhaps you have read it and it has influenced your thinking generally, but not in a specific way that deserves a citation and reference.

These related works, if there are any, should be listed in a bibliography. The bibliography is organised and structured in exactly the same way as the reference list except that there are no corresponding citations.

Standard Harvard Style


The description given in this knol is based on the related British Standards (British Standards Institution 1989, 1990), but in practice there are often minor variations in usage - particularly outside the UK. Most of the more common reference types and formats are listed above, and alternative lists can be found in Anglia Ruskin University (2007), De Montford University (2008) and, of course, British Standards Institution (1989, 1990). You may occasionally find the need to reference a type of work that is not covered by any of the above cases. If you are unable to find an exact match then you may have to improvise. If so, you should be guided by the following advice: 1. Adopt and adapt the best matching case from those above. 2. Ensure that your reference is clear and unambiguous, and that you give sufficient information to enable your reader to find the source. If you are in any doubt about how to reference a particular item, you should follow the conventions of the organisation that you are working in. In a university or college you might ask advice from your lecturer or librarian. Alternatively you might consult any existing reports within your organisation to learn what previous authors have done.

Finally
If you are quoting, paraphrasing or extending someone elses work, it is essential that you acknowledge your sources - failure to do so may leave you vulnerable to accusations of plagiarism. Ultimately your referencing system just needs to be clear, unambiguous, and consistent. The Harvard Referencing System is a, widely used, collection of rules and conventions that will help you to achieve this.

Norman Creaney

References

Anglia Ruskin University, 2007. University Library: guide to Harvard style referencing [Online] (Updated September 2008) Available at: http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm [Accessed 30 January 2009]. British Standards Institution, 1990. BSI 5605: 1990 Recommendations for Citing and Referencing Published Material. BSI. British Standards Institution, 1989. BSI 1629: 1989 Recommendations for Citing references to Published Material. BSI. De Montford University, 2008. The Harvard System of Referencing [Online] Available at: http://www.library.dmu.ac.uk/Images/Selfstudy/Harvard.pdf [Acce ssed 19 May 2009] Wikipedia contributors, 2009. Parenthetical Referencing, [Online] (Updated 16 January 2009) Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Parenthetical_referencin g&oldid=264365321 [Accessed 30 January 2009].

http://education.exeter.ac.uk/dll/studyskills/harvard_referencing.htm

Department of Lifelong Learning: Study Skills Series

Referencing - The Harvard System


(Download pdf version)

Introduction
As a student, it is important that you identify in your assessment when you are using the words or ideas of another author. The most accepted way of acknowledging the work of another author is to use a referencing system. At the Department of Lifelong Learning you are required to use the Harvard referencing system. The following guide tells you why you need to use a referencing system, shows you how to insert references in the text of your assignments, and shows you how to compile a reference list. While there are many variations on the Harvard system, the one presented in this guide is the most simple. It does away with most usages of p and pp to signify page numbers and it replaces some of the commas with colons. Also, this guide is by no means an exhaustive list of all the referencing conventions that you will require in your academic life.

Why you should use a referencing system


As a part of an academic community, it is important that you show the reader where you have used someone elses ideas or words. Failure to properly reference using the Harvard system may make the reader think that you are cheating by claiming someone elses work as your own. In the academic environment, we call this plagiarism and it is seen as a very serious offence. Please remember that plagiarism is not just when you directly copy words from another students or experts work. Plagiarism also occurs when you re-word someone elses ideas in your own work and you do not give credit to the original source. Plagiarism can have disastrous consequences for students. If you are suspected of plagiarism you may find that your assignment receives a grade of zero. In extreme or repeated cases, you may find that your enrolment at the university is reviewed. For further information, please consult section 3 of the student handbook. On a more positive note, referencing is important for reasons other than avoiding plagiarism. When you reference correctly you are demonstrating that you have read widely on a topic. You are also supporting your hypothesis with comments from expert authors. This lends credibility to your own work. Also, by correctly referencing, you allow the marker or reader to follow-up your references and to check the validity of your arguments for themselves. This is an important part of the academic process as it leads to student accountability.

Collecting all the details: Accurate referencing


In order to have an accurate record of what you have researched and therefore an accurate reference, it is important that you write down the details of your sources as you study. When

taking notes, use a separate page for each new book, journal article, or electronic source. At the top of each page, clearly record the following information for future reference. For books, record:

The authors or editors name (or names) The year the book was published The title of the book If it is an edition other than the first The city the book was published in The name of the publisher

For journal articles record:


The authors name or names The year in which the journal was published The title of the article The title of the journal The page number/s of the article in the journal As much other information as you can find about the journal, for example the volume and issue numbers

For electronic resources, try to collect the information on the left if it is available, but also record:

The date you accessed the source The electronic address or email The type of electronic resource (email, discussion forum, WWW page, etc)

In addition to these details, when you are taking notes, if you copy direct quotations or if you put the authors ideas in your own words, write down the page numbers you got the information from.

Writing the assessment: What do I need to reference?


When you are writing your assessment, be sure to type in reference information as you add in the ideas of other authors. This will save you time and will ensure that you reference all sources properly. Whenever you use someone elses ideas or words, you must put in a reference. The only exception to this rule is when the information you have read somewhere is common knowledge or public domain information. For example, you would not need to include a reference if you stated in an assignment that Shakespeare wrote plays and sonnets in Elizabethan times. Always reference:

Direct quotations this is when you copy another authors material wordfor-word. You should show the reader that it is a direct quote by placing the material in inverted commas. Traditionally, double inverted commas have been used () but it is now acceptable, and preferable to use single inverted commas (). Sometimes it is difficult to avoid the direct quotation as the authors words may precisely describe the point you are trying to make. However, do try to avoid the overuse of direct quotations; try to paraphrase the authors work where possible. Please note that when you use direct quotations, you must reproduce the authors words exactly, including all spelling, capitalisation, punctuation, and errors. You may show the reader that you recognise an error and that you are correctly quoting the author by placing the term sic in brackets after the error. Paraphrasing this is when you take another authors ideas and put them into your own words. You are still copying someone elses work, so you must reference it. You do not need to use inverted commas when you paraphrase, but you must clearly show the reader the original source of your information.

Referencing in the text of your assessment


The following section shows you a number of different examples when quoting and paraphrasing in the text of your assessment. In all references, you will need to list the author/editor name/s and the year of publication. The year of publication can be found on the first couple of pages of the book, along with the other bibliographic information. Look for the authors name, a copyright symbol and then a date. This will be the date of publication. In most references you will also need to list the page number/s where you found the specific information. The only type of reference where this is not required is when you paraphrase a summary of an entire piece of work. As a hypothetical example, fictitious author John Phillips might have written a history book in 1999 that examines generational changes. You might summarise and correctly reference the entire gist of his book in the following way. Phillips (1999) suggests that generational change is inevitable and continuous. In all other circumstances, please follow the guidelines below and be sure to include the author, date and page number/s. The formats are similar for each example so please note the use of punctuation, spacing and the order of information. Direct quote from a book or journal article with one author When organising our time, Adair (1988: 51) states that the centrepiece will tend to be goals and objectives. OR When organising our time the centrepiece will tend to be goals and objectives (Adair, 1988: 51).

In these examples, Adair is the author, 1988 is the year of publication and 51 is the page number where the direct quote can be found. Direct quote from a book or journal article with two authors McCarthy and Hatcher (1996: 69-70) insist that with presentations structure must be clear and precise. OR With presentations, structure must be clear and precise (McCarthy and Hatcher, 1996: 69-70). In these examples, the quote went over two pages therefore the page numbers were represented as 69-70, rather than as a single number. Also notice from the examples so far, that when the quote ends the sentence, the full stop comes after the inverted comma. Direct quote from a book or journal article with three authors Fisher, Ury and Patton (1991: 37) suggest that when emotional issues cloud negotiation, some thoughts are best left unsaid. OR Some thoughts are best left unsaid when emotional issues cloud negotiation (Fisher, Ury and Patton, 1991: 37). If hypothetical authors Morris, Ling, Brown, Smith, and Diaz wrote a book published in 2000, a direct quote would look like this. Note that in the next example, et al means and others. Direct quote from a book or journal article with more than three authors Morris et al (2000: 47) state that the debate of these particular issues should be left to representative committees. When you paraphrase, it will look much the same as the direct quotation examples, but without the inverted commas. For example, if we paraphrased an example from the McCarthy and Hatcher book, it would look like this. By improving your posture you can improve how you communicate feelings of power and confidence (McCarthy and Hatcher, 1996: 111).

When paraphrasing, use the same referencing style and conventions as you would for direct quotes, but with the material from the source put into your own words, and the inverted commas omitted. Below is another comparative example of the direct quote versus paraphrasing. Direct quote and paraphrasing from a source with a corporate or government author The DfEE (2001: 8) suggest that each year some have estimated the cost to the country of poor literacy and numeracy skills to be as high as 10 billion. OR - PARAPHRASE The effect of low levels of adult numeracy and literacy skills could be costing Britain around 10 billion each year (DfEE, 2001: 8). You might also like to rearrange the quote so that the reference comes at the end, as you have been shown in previous examples. When you are researching, you may come across a situation where the same author has written two books in the same year. To distinguish one title from another in your referencing, place a lower-case letter after the publication date, with a signalling the first reference, and b signalling the second, and so on. Sometimes the author you are quoting from will quote another author to support his or her argument, much in the same way that you do when writing assignments. Sometimes you want to use the same quote that the author of the source has used. When you do this, use the format below. Eisenberg and Smith (in Bolton, 1986: 85) agree that it is hard to assign general meaning to any isolated nonverbal sign. In the case above, Bolton in his 1996 publication has quoted Eisenbergs and Smiths research to prove a point he was making about non-verbal communication. If the author of a source is anonymous, replace the authors surname with the title of the work in the brackets containing the reference. Consider the following fictitious example. The flora and fauna of Britain has been transported to almost every corner of the globe since colonial times (Plants and Animals of Britain, 1942: 8).

Reference newspaper and magazine articles in the same way you would for other books and journals. However, when the author is anonymous, use the system below (adapted from Lewis, 1999: 26). The Guardian reported that twenty-nine inmates were participating in the programme (Serving time, 1996: 21). When you paraphrase, sometimes you might be rephrasing the words and ideas you have found in more than one book or journal article. If you find that a number of sources say similar things about a topic, an example of the correct referencing style is demonstrated below. Notice in the example below how the listed sources are separated by a semicolon. The semicolon can be used to separate two sections of a compound sentence that have a similar theme (Turabian, 1996: 56; Petelin and Durham, 1992:169). Sometimes you may wish to use material from lectures, discussions, interviews, or distance learning courses to supplement your assignments. Use the following conventions to ensure that your referencing is correct (adapted from Lewis, 1999: 26). Mr Bob Builder, Managing Director of Builders Construction, stated in an interview on 5 September 2000 that customers were increasingly asking for traditional methods and materials to be used in construction projects. Dr Wilma Flintstone stated in her lecture on 5 September 2000 that acid jazz has roots as far back as 1987. Adult learners should learn the art of effective note taking for the simple reason that students are more likely to remember what they have heard or read if they take an active part in their learning (Dhann, 2001:3). OR, IF THE AUTHOR IS UNKNOWN Adult learners should learn the art of effective note taking for the simple reason that students are more likely to remember what they have heard or read if they take an active part in their learning (Department of Lifelong Learning, 2001: 3). Electronic sources such as WWW pages, electronic databases and electronic journals are cited in the text in much the same way as traditional print sources, with the exception of page numbers. The authors name is followed by a publication date, but no page numbers are listed. If no publication date is available, and this might be the case for WWW pages, then where the date should go, insert (n.d.) which stands for no date. If no author is listed for an electronic source, use the title of the publication in the same way as you would for any other anonymous source.

Creating a reference list


All of the sources you refer to in the main body of your assignment need to be listed at the end of the assignment in a reference list. In a reference list, you only need to list those sources from which you have either quoted or paraphrased. For example, you do not have to list books you used for background reading purposes. When creating a reference list, the sources should be listed alphabetically by authors surname, should be left justified, and the references should never be preceded by a bullet-point or number. Where the author is anonymous or unknown for any one source, insert that source in the alphabetical list using the title of the source instead of the authors name. All sources should be listed together; there should not be separate lists for books versus journal articles versus electronic sources. The reference list should be on a separate page from the rest of the assignment and should be simply titled References or Literature Cited and the title should be in the same font and size as the other headings in your assignment. When you use the Harvard System, you are only usually required to produce a reference list. However, some lecturers and tutors may want you to produce a bibliography instead of a reference list. In cases where you are asked to produce a bibliography, you must list all sources you have consulted, regardless of whether you cited from them or not. Also, some lecturers or tutors may ask you to produce an annotated bibliography or reference list. This simply means that after each source listed, you write a couple of sentences that appraise the books usefulness in relation to the topic. The following is a guide to how to list references in a reference list. If you have an example that is not covered by the list below, please check with your tutor or the Student Support Officer regarding the correct technique. Book with one author Adair, J. (1988) Effective time management: How to save time and spend it wisely, London: Pan Books. Book with two authors McCarthy, P. and Hatcher, C. (1996) Speaking persuasively: Making the most of your presentations, Sydney: Allen and Unwin. Book with three or more authors Fisher, R., Ury, W. and Patton, B. (1991) Getting to yes: Negotiating an agreement without giving in, 2nd edition, London: Century Business.

Book second or later edition Barnes, R. (1995) Successful study for degrees, 2nd edition, London: Routledge. Book by same author in the same year Napier, A. (1993a) Fatal storm, Sydney: Allen and Unwin. Napier, A. (1993b) Survival at sea, Sydney: Allen and Unwin. Book with an editor Danaher, P. (ed.) (1998) Beyond the ferris wheel, Rockhampton: CQU Press. If you have used a chapter in a book written by someone other than the editor Byrne, J. (1995) Disabilities in tertiary education, in Rowan, L. and McNamee, J. (ed.) Voices of a Margin, Rockhampton: CQU Press. Books with an anonymous or unknown author The University Encyclopedia (1985) London: Roydon. Unpublished, verbal sources such as interviews and lectures are not reproduced in the reference list. However, you must put any published course materials that you have used in the reference list using the conventions below. Written course material, for example distance learning unit material Dhann, S. (2001) CAE0001LWR Unit 5: Note taking skills from lectures and readings, Exeter: Department of Lifelong Learning. OR, IF THE AUTHOR IS UNKNOWN Department of Lifelong Learning (2001), CAE0001LWR Unit 5: Note taking skills from lectures and readings, Exeter: Author. (NB Author at the end means that the publisher is the same as the author) Government publications Department for Education and Employment (DfEE), (2001) Skills for life: The national strategy for improving adult literacy and numeracy skills, Nottingham:

DfEE Publications. Conference papers Hart, G., Albrecht, M., Bull, R. and Marshall, L. (1992) Peer consultation: A professional development opportunity for nurses employed in rural settings, Infront Outback Conference Proceedings, Australian Rural Health Conference, Toowoomba, pp. 143 148. Newspaper articles Cumming, F. (1999) Tax-free savings push, Sunday Mail, 4 April, p. 1. OR, IF THE AUTHOR IS UNKNOWN Tax-free savings push, Sunday Mail (4 April 1999), p. 3. The conventions for listing journal articles are similar to books, but note the extra information required in the example below and apply this to all journal article listings. Journal article Muller, V. (1994) Trapped in the body: Transsexualism, the law, sexual identity, The Australian Feminist Law Journal, vol. 3, August, pp. 103-107. In this example, Muller has written the journal article Trapped in the bod y: Transsexualism, the law, sexual identity and it has appeared in the journal Australian Feminist Law Journal, in its 3rd volume that was published in August of 1994. The article appears on pages 103 to 107 of the journal. Please note that sometimes, instead of volume there may be an issue number, and instead of a month of publication, there may be a season. Sometimes there will be a volume number and an issue number. In those cases, list both the volume and issue numbers as has been done below. Journal article with both volume and issue number Muller, V. (1994) Trapped in the body: Transsexualism, the law, sexual identity, The Australian Feminist Law Journal, vol. 3, no. 2, August, pp. 103-107. Electronic and web based references can be listed in the following ways.

Journal article from CD-ROM, electronic database, or journal Skargren, E.I. & Oberg, B. (1998) Predictive factors for 1-year outcome of lowback and neck pain in patients treated in primary care: Comparison between the treatment strategies chiropractic and physiotherapy, Pain [Electronic], vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 201-208, Available: Elsevier/ScienceDirect/ O304-3959(98)00101-8, [8 Feb 1999]. In this example, [Electronic] refers to the type of media that you found the source on. If you found the source on a CD-ROM, you would put [CD-ROM] in the square brackets instead of Electronic. As with a normal journal example, the volume number, issue number and page numbers are listed. At the end of this example, note that the name of the database has been listed, along with the identification/access number of the article, and an access date (in square brackets). Examples of other electronic references are listed in the box below. Electronic mail (e-mail) Johnston, R. (2001) Access courses for women, e-mail to NIACE Lifelong Learning Mailing List (lifelong-learning@niace.org.uk), 22 Aug. [24 Aug 2001]. OR Robinson, T. (2001) Re: Information on course structure, e-mail to S. Dhann (s.dhann@exeter.ac.uk), 12 Jul. [13 Jul 2001]. Discussion list Berkowitz, P. (1995) April 3, Sussys gravestone, Mark Twain Forum [Online], 3 Apr, Available e-mail: TWAIN-L@yorkvm2.bitnet [3 Apr 1995]. World Wide Web page Young, C. (2001) English Heritage position statement on the Valletta Convention, [Online], Available: http://www.archaeol.freeuk.com/EHPostionStatement.htm [24 Aug 2001]. In the WWW page example, sometimes the authors details or the date of publication/update might be missing. When the authors name is missing, use the name of the web page to list the reference, as you would with any other anonymous source. If the date of publication or update is missing, omit this information, but be sure to still include in square brackets the date you accessed the information.

Conclusion
It is extremely important that students correctly reference all paraphrasing and direct quotations. While there are many referencing rules and conventions under the Harvard system, in most cases it is generally important in the text of an assignment to show the reader the authors name, date of publication and page numbers of the original source. In the reference list, it is important that the authors name, the year of publication, relevant titles, and other access information is faithfully reproduced. At first, the referencing system may seem time-consuming and fussy but it will soon become second nature to you and will become part of the long list of skills you will have gained as a university student. The author would like to acknowledge that certain citation and reference examples were taken from the following publications and that these publications influenced that way in which the author arranged the document. Central Queensland University ESLS Unit (2001) Referencing: The Harvard referencing system, [Online], Available: http://www.cqu.edu.au/edserv/undegrad/clc/content/resources.htm [14 Aug 2001] Lewis, D. (ed.) (1999) The written assignment, Brisbane: QUT Publications. Wells, D. (2001) Harvard referencing, [Online], Available: http://lisweb.curtin.edu.au/guides/handouts/harvard.html [14 Aug 2001]. (Samantha Dhann, 2001)