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SLIDE Trajan- adopted as Nervas co-ruler in 97 CE o Nerva again was an emperor with no heirs Wasnt accepted by the Praetorians

s who had supported Domitian Again Senate and military in conflict- jockeying for greater power to name the emperor Military was at this point extremely important for maintaining stability and authority in the empire o Trajan- powerful military general born in Spain to an Italian family, was serving as governor in Germany First non-Italian emperor, r. 98-117 Conquered new territory- left empire the largest it ever was Was considered one of the best emperors, after Augustus Epithet- Optimus Princeps (best first citizen) Key part of this Golden Age of the empire Lived a modest life-style SLIDE Roman Empire under Trajan- MAP o Trajan conquered territories that expanded Rome to its largest extent o Augustus had created a theoretical eternal expansion of Rome Vergils Aeneid- Jupiter granted the Romans rule without limit Augustus conquered to the Danube and Rhine rivers- created natural boundaries Other military victories by intervening emperors were to quell revolts or protect the boundaries set by Augustus o Trajans significant additions Dacia Domitian had fought there, but settled with a peace treaty that many Romans considered inadequate Trajan conquered them in 106 and made Dacia a part of the empire Built a huge bridge over the Danube o Designed by Apollodorus of Damascus, like the Forum of Trajan o Wooden arches set on piers of concrete and brick o to deploy troops in Dacia, had to go through Roman military camp to cross Granted a triumph for it- Trajans column commemorates this Spoils of this war paid for many of Trajans buildings Mesopotamia and Eastern campaigns Marched on Armenia to remove a Parthian appointed king he didnt approve of (Romans and Parthians had shared Armenia since Nero) Took Mesopotamia and part of Parthia BUT revolts began almost immediately, then a revolt arose in Judea o Trajan attempted to hold the territories Hadrian abandoned Mesopotamia and the Caucasus up to the Caspian Sea as too hard to hold o Kept the Black Sea and eastern coast of Med up to the Euphrates Trajan died on the way back to Rome SLIDE Portraits- depict him as he was when he took power at 45 years old o Follow the traditions of moderation, portraiture with idealism, and victory poses of the Augustan era o BACK TO PREVIOUS for portrait of Trajan as heroic military leader Bust- heroic nude with military cloak (paludamentum) and sword harness idealized Heroic style of depiction, not realistic Characteristic mouth, lines around the mouth, hair swept forward straight over the forehead

o Plotina- wife of Trajan Adopted a more conservative hair style than Flavian women Curls over the forehead look almost like portrait of Livia Wave of hair smoother and less curly than the Flavian women o Cameo- portrait of Trajan and Plotina Artist very expertly used darker layer to highlight the wreath Hair styles and profiles follow other portraiture Now in British Museum- out of context SLIDE Trajan as Imperator (leader of the military) From Ostia, 108-117 Slightly over life size at 6 4 Compare Augustus as Imperator- depth of carving SLIDE comparison- spear is up rather than oratory gesture Cloak wrapped behind the body Caesar has cuirass covered with more figures o Trajan just has the winged victory sacrificing a bull as a symbol of Roman military might SLIDE Trajan performing adlocutio; obverse states optimo princeps SLIDE More numismatic depiction o On the left - Trajanic sestertius. Reverse of Imperial Roman coin depicting Trajan seated on dais presiding over distribution of bounty money to a Roman citizen. Showing his relationship to the people, as with prev. coin showing adlocutio, but also o On the right - Trajanic aureus with Trajan (obverse) and Pietas (reverse); imperial virtues SLIDE Trajans Forum (Rome, dedicated in 112 CE) SLIDE modern remains of the forum in relation to the city o Roughly twice the size of the Augustan forum even excluding the adjacent market o Paid for by the spoils of Dacian campaigns o Architect was Apollodorus of Damascus, Trajans chief military engineer during the Dacian Wars who had constructed a famous bridge across the Danube o Made to emulate the Forum Augustum with semicircular exedras opening to the forum porticos SLIDE plan of the trajanic forum o gate resembled a triumphal arch complete with an attic statuary group of Trajan driving a sixhorse chariot flanked by statues of Dacians chained to trophies but like the equestrian statue and portrait it is lost except for depiction on coins o 1 temple of Trajan Might have been an original part of the forum complex or not Completed after Trajans death and dedicated to the deified Trajan himself Unlike Domitian, the dominus et deus, he would not have erected a temple for his own worship during his lifetime o 2 column of Trajan o 3 libraries two on either side of the column of trajan o 4 Basilica Ulpia Named for Ulpius, Trajans family name Basilica dominating instead of a temple unlike Forum Augustum o 5 - forum o 6 equestrian statue of Trajan Larger than life size gilded-bronze at the center of great court in front of the basilica; depicted Trajan trampling a helpless Dacian foe Resembles the bronze of Domitian/Nerva on horseback Constantine was so struck by statue and forum (according to Ammianus Marcellinus) commissioned a replica but doubted he would ever have a stable for it to roam

SLIDE scale of forum in relationship with other fora SLIDE Basilica Ulpia o Said to be one of the most beautiful buildings in the Roman world o Extensive use of white and colored marbles o Much larger and far more ornate than the basilica at Pompeii o 400 ft without the apses and 200 ft wide o Clerestory a high window above eye level; slits pierced in vertical slabs of stone/windowsdenoted an upper level of Roman basilica Appeared first with Egyptians as early as the Amarna period SLIDE reconstruction of the basilica, unlike book shows possible effect of colored marbles SLIDE Column of Trajan, dedicated in 112 CE o Possibly Apollodorus of Damascus idea SLIDE coins depict it topped w/ a heroic nude of emperor; later replaced with a statue of St. Peter 1588 o Continuous spiral narrative frieze, like a papyrus; 625 feet long, depicting Dacian victories 150 episodes, over 2500 figures; winds around 23 times Bands increase in width to make upper portions easier to read Very low relief to not distort contours of the shaft; painted o 128 feet tall; square pedestal decorated with Dacian arms and spoils; served as Trajans tomb both his and Plotinas ashes okaced inside it in golden urns o Heroism of Dacians epitomized with panel depicted Decebalus, the Dacian kings suicide o Not just battle narrative, also preperations for battle, construction of forts, roads and transportation of men and supplies as well as generic scenes with Trajan himself o Inclusion of topographical details but not a chronological account o Emperors involvement is central to theme and symbolism on the column SLIDE Markets of Trajan on Quirinal Hill overlooked the Trajanic forum (ca. 100-112 CE) o Basic unit was the traditional single-room taberna with a concrete barrel vault o Shops were on several levels o Opened either onto a hemicyclical faccade winding around one of the great exedrae of forum, onto a paved street farther up the hill or onto a great indoor market hall at an even higher level Early example of exposed brick; attractive not just economical though still stucco covered Built into/transformed natural slope only by using concrete SLIDE, SLIDE Groin vaults o Aka a cross; formed by the intersection at right angles of two barrel vaults of equal size o System leaves covered area open permitting light to enter o Form the equivalent of a clerestory of a traditional timber-roofed structure o Fenestrated (with openings or windows) sequence of groin vaults major advantage over wooden clerestories; also relatively fireproof SLIDE great hall of the trajanic markets; light through clerestory, fenestrated construction and groin vaults major innovation and allowed stability SLIDE other trajanic constructions and projects o Also responsible for the restoration of the circus maximus relief depicts this with distorted proportion SLIDE trajanic baths (Rome 109 CE) SLIDE scale and magnitude of this construction as with all other Trajanic constructions o Caladarium, tepidarium, fridarium, natation, palestrae (twin exercise yards) o Concrete groin vaults o Built on grounds of Neros Domus Aurea o Titus had built baths three decades earlier next to the neronian palace but it still might have been an imperial space, not a public one Trajan appropriated this icon of extravagance for the public Completed the eradication of Neros villa that Vespasian had begun

o Also innovative because it included gardens, lecture halls and social spaces SLIDE Aqua Traiana (109 CE), same year as construction of Via Traiana, same year as baths SLIDE fountains at Ephesus consecrated for him influence spanned the empire (102-104 CE) SLIDE several years later after the bath complex, the via and aqua, built the arch of Trajan Benevento (ca. 114-118) o Almost identical to the arch of Titus on Via Sacra in Rome; arch as billboard o Relief panels separated by bull-slaying Victories o Not a triumphal arch but an arch celebrating all of Trajans accomplishments o Putti, or cupid-like cherubs/young boys depicting the four seasons/personifications o Spandrels celebrated the judaean victory Rome is victorious in every corner of the world and at every season of the year o Inauguration of Via Traiana, sacrifice, Trajans innovative alimentary program o Distributes funds to personifications of Italian cities wearing turreted crowns o First known instance of the representation of the lower classes on an official roman monument o Attic reliefs make precise dating difficult o Jupiter awaits Trajans entrance to the city o Adventus relief and country attic as well, Hadrian is depicted doesnt appear on any other coin or relief from Trajans reign; bearded man (though Hadrian not formally adopted until Trajans death) Therefore, most believe that arch was begun in 114, not finished and next emperor took advantage of incomplete monument SLIDE intricacy of vaulting, capstone decorative not just practical or construction neccesity SLIDE Great Trajanic Frize (ca. 117-120 CE) o Several of the slabs reused in the early fourth century on the Arch of Constantine but original provenance is unknown perhaps a decoration in Trajanic forum o Subject is same as spiral frieze of column the dacians wars, but the style and composition are very different even though some of the same motifs are repeated in forum SLIDE in conclusion, he built some of largest markers and icons on Roman urban landscape, implemented new and latest concrete technology in construction and developed new forms of commemorative sculpture SLIDE SLIDE SLIDE SLIDE