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Girding for War: The North and the South

1861-1865 American Pageant Chapter 20

The Problems of Secession

Lincolns inaugural address firm yet conciliatory
No conflict unless South provoked it

New Controversies:
Share of Federal Debt Share of Federal lands Fugitive Slave issues Delight of European nations

South Carolina attacks Fort Sumter

Federal Fort Sumter in S.C. w/less than 100 men Lincoln notifies South that supplies only would be sent to fort
South view it as aggressive act

April 12, 1861South Carolinians fired on Fort Sumter 34 hoursFort fell to S.C.

South Carolina attacks Fort Sumter

Lincoln calls for 75,000 militiamen
Northerners flock to enlistsome turned away

This aggression leads Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina to secede

Importance of Border States

Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware (later W. Virginia)
Contained more than of white population of Confederacy Would double size of Confederacy manufacturing Supply of its horses Ohio River

Importance of Border States

Lincoln publicly declared Norths war aims were not to free Blacks
Used martial law in Maryland & Union soldiers in W. Virginia & Missouri
If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could do it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that. ~Abraham Lincoln, 1862

Brother against Brother

Civil War divided families
Billy Yank and Johnny Reb Especially in border states300,000 troops went North

Mountain Whites in Southsent 50,000 troops to fight for Union Many volunteers from either side joined the opposite side 5 Civilized Tribessided w/South (some owned slaves) A Cherokee rival faction & Plains Indians-North

Southern Advantages
Defensive war
Only had to fight to a draw

Morale Talented officers

Robert E. Lee
West Point; asked to lead Northern army

Thomas J. Stonewall Jackson

Gifted tactical theorist, speed, & deception

Bred to fight
Rebel Yell Yeeeahhh
There is nothing like it on this side of the infernal region. The peculiar corkscrew sensation that it sends down your backbone can never be told. You have to feel it.

Southern Disadvantages
Scarcity of Factories
Did develop own ironworksweaponry Many shortages still

Fewer railways; railroad tracks cut

One crop economy

9 million whites + 3.5 million slaves Compared with Northern 22 million

Northern Advantages
Farms & factories Wealth3/4 of the nations Railroads3/4 of the nations Control of the sea
Navy & trade with Europe

Population22 million
+more immigrants (800,000 1861-1865) 1/5 Union forces foreign born

Northern Disadvantages
Soldiers less prepared for military life
Became known for discipline & determination

Poor commanders
Lincoln forced to trail & error method
I.E. Tardy George McCellan

Eventually found Ulysses Simpson Grant

North advantages still outweighed South

Cotton is not Enough

South counted on foreign alliances
Supplied more than worlds supply

Europes ruling classessympathetic Working classes (esp. British)against South

Slavery already abolished in England Read Uncle Toms Cabin Restrained British from any official intervention

Cotton is not Enough

Surplus of Cotton in 1861
Prewar bumper crops Lincoln announced emancipation before more cotton was needed

Union sent food to unemployed English & captured cotton from the South King Wheat & King Corn prevail
North had ideal weather during the war years

British-American Diplomatic Issues

British rulers unofficially helped South Trent Affair1861
British mail ship stopped by U.S. w/2 Confederate diplomats heading to Europe London ultimatum--apology & release of prisoners Lincoln agreed to prevent crisis

British-American Diplomatic Issues

Southern Ship building in England
commerce raider built & manned by British

Charles Francis AdamsU.S. Diplomat persuaded British to stop

Still British built ships captured 250 U.S. ships crippling U.S. Merchant Marine

British-American Diplomatic Issues

Laird Rams1863
2 Confederate warships By John Laird & Sonsin Britain Designed to destroy U.S. Navy wooden ships Charles Francis Adams pushed British British buy 2 ships for own Navy

British paid $15.5 million for damages from commerce-raiders

US vs. Canada & France

Irish Americans
1866 & 1870 Hate British--raised several tiny armies Attacked Canada

Fear of U.S. led to Dominion of Canada 1867 Emperor Napoleon III

1863--sent Archduke Maximilian to Mexico Violate Monroe Doctrine 1865William Seward prepares fight Napoleon III backs out; Maximilian killed

Davis v. Lincoln
Jefferson Davis
Humorless, stubborn Able administrator No real personal popularity Struggled with States right vs. need for strong central government during war Devoted to Southbut impossible situation

Abraham Lincoln
Tactful, quiet, able to relax, firm Genius for leading public opinion Patience for colleagues Charity towards South Had prestige & financial stability of long-established country OK HES AWESOME!

Wartime Civil Liberties

Lincoln was not perfect
Suspended habeas corpus Increased size of army w/o Congress Advanced $2 million to private citizens for military purposesagainst Constitution Supervised voting in Border States Suspended some newspapers

But infractions were not, in general, sweeping. Driven by necessity & not intended to continue after the war

Volunteers & Draftees

Union troops
At first all volunteers 1863 Federal conscription law
$300 mencould buy out enlistment Some riotsNY in 1863anti-Irish & anti-Black

90% still volunteerssocial & patriotic pressure bounty brokerspoor from Europe to fight

Confederate troops
At first volunteers but needed draft more quickly Both the craddle & the grave Rich mans war but a poor mans fight

Economic Stresses of War

Fared better than South Excise taxes & 1st income taxes
Morrill Tariff Act 1857 increased tariff

Impoverished Union blockade decreased income from custom duties Confederate bonds--$400 million Increased taxes & levies on farm produce Printed $--1 billion
Runaway inflation 9,000% 1 Confederate $ = 1.6 cents

Treasury issued greenbackspaper $450 million

Inflation 80%

Government bonds
Raised $2,621,916,786

National banking system 1863

Standard bank note currency

Norths Economic Boom

Wartime prosperity
New factories, protective tariffs First millionaire class in U.S. Greed & dishonesty
I.E. cardboard soles of soldiers' shoes

Petroleum discovery Westward migration

Gold rush Homestead Act 1862

Laborsaving machinery
Reaper, sewing machines

Surplus of grain
Made $ abroad

Womens Roles
New job opportunities Clerks, Industrial Some fought (dressed like men) Spies Medical field
Dr. Elizabeth BlackwellU.S. Sanitary Commission Clara Barton & Dorothea Dix superintendent of nursing (made it a respectable occupation) Sally Tompkins(Southern) Ran Richmond infirmary

Raised $--bazaars & fairs

A Crushed Cotton Kingdom

1860South owned 30% of wealth 1870South owned 12% of wealth Transportation collapsed Resourcefulness
i.e. Women sacrifice of fine cloth, etc.