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COVER SLIDE The American Pageant Chapter 29: ― Wilsonian Progressivism at Home and Abroad ‖ 1912-1916

The American

Pageant

Chapter 29:

Wilsonian

Progressivism at

Home and Abroad

1912-1916

1912 BUTTONS: ROOSEVELT, TAFT, AND WILSON
1912 BUTTONS: ROOSEVELT, TAFT, AND WILSON
1912 BUTTONS: ROOSEVELT, TAFT, AND WILSON 1912 buttons: Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson Political buttons continued to

1912 buttons: Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson Political buttons continued to be ubiquitous in 1912. Roosevelt and his running mate, Hiram Johnson, the governor of California, are pictured with the Bull Moose that came to symbolize the Progressive Party after Roosevelt exclaimed that he felt as fit

as a bull moose. Taft, the Republican candidate, and Wilson, the Democrat, are

depicted with more traditional symbols of patriotism and party. (Collection of Janice

L. and David J. Frent)

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

CARIBBEAN IMMIGRANTS AT ELLIS ISLAND
CARIBBEAN IMMIGRANTS AT ELLIS ISLAND
CARIBBEAN IMMIGRANTS AT ELLIS ISLAND Caribbean immigrants at Ellis Island The Caribbean as well as Europe

Caribbean immigrants at Ellis Island The Caribbean as well as Europe sent immigrants to the United States. Proud and confident on arrival from their homeland of Guadeloupe, these women perhaps were unprepared for the double disadvantage they faced as both blacks and foreigners. (William Williams

Papers, Manuscripts & Archives

Division, The New York Public Library)

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

ELECTION DAY
ELECTION DAY
ELECTION DAY Election Day Critics of the woman-suffrage movement, including this cartoonist, believed that women's

Election Day Critics of the woman-suffrage movement, including this cartoonist, believed that women's place was in the home, not in the public sphere. (Library of Congress)

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

POSTER IN SIX LANGUAGES TO ENCOURAGE IMMIGRANT EDUCATION
POSTER IN SIX LANGUAGES TO ENCOURAGE IMMIGRANT EDUCATION
POSTER IN SIX LANGUAGES TO ENCOURAGE IMMIGRANT EDUCATION Poster in six languages to encourage immigrant education

Poster in six languages to encourage immigrant education Those who wished to Americanize the immigrants believed that public schools

could provide the best setting for assimilation. This 1917 poster from the Cleveland Board of Education and the Cleveland Americanization Committee

used the languages most common to the

new immigrants--Slovene, Italian, Polish, Hungarian, and Yiddish--as well as English to invite newcomers to free classes where they could learn "the language of America" and "citizenship." (National Park Service Collection, Ellis Island Immigration Museum. Photo:

Chermayeff & Geismar/MetaForm)

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

SAN FRANCISCO CHINESE GROCERY STORE
SAN FRANCISCO CHINESE GROCERY STORE
SAN FRANCISCO CHINESE GROCERY STORE San Francisco Chinese grocery store Though Chinese immigrants struggled, like other

San Francisco Chinese grocery store Though Chinese immigrants struggled, like other immigrants, to succeed in American society, they often faced severe discrimination because of their different lifestyles. As this photo of a

San Francisco grocery shows, the Chinese looked, dressed, and ate differently than did white

Americans. Occasionally, they suffered from racist violence that caused them to fear not only for their personal safety but also for the safety of establishments like this one, which could suffer damage from resentful mobs. (The Bancroft Library, University of California)

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

WILSON AND TAFT
WILSON AND TAFT
WILSON AND TAFT Wilson and Taft Having just squared off in the 1912 election campaign, the

Wilson and Taft Having just squared off in the 1912 election campaign, the two politicians share a light moment before Wilson's inauguration on March 4, 1913. (Library of Congress)

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

AUDIO: ADDRESS TO THE AMERICAN INDIANS
AUDIO: ADDRESS TO THE AMERICAN INDIANS
AUDIO: ADDRESS TO THE AMERICAN INDIANS Click on image to launch audio. Apple QuickTime® required to

Click on image to launch audio.

Apple QuickTime® required to play.

Address to the American Indians

(1913. Great Speeches of the 20 th Century, Rhino Records, Los Angeles, CA, 1991.)

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

BULL MOOSE CAMPAIGN OF 1912

BULL MOOSE CAMPAIGN OF 1912  Democrats nominate (Thomas) Woodrow Wilson – Progressive Idealist  New

Democrats nominate

(Thomas) Woodrow Wilson

Progressive Idealist

New Jersey governor

Past president of Princeton

Born in the South

Believed the President should

play a dynamic role

South  Believed the President should play a dynamic role  Republicans nominate William H. Taft

Republicans nominate

William H. Taft (again) a mild

Progressive

nominate William H. Taft (again) a mild Progressive  Theodore Roosevelt bo l ts t h

Theodore Roosevelt bolts the Republican Party & joins with the Progressive Party AKA ―Bull Moose‖ he is a Progressive

bo l ts t h e Republican Party & joins with the Progressive Party – AKA

1912 ELECTION



Wilson wins the election

with fewer votes than Bryan in any of his 3 attempts 435 EV, 6 million Pop.

Republican Party is split

but combine for 7

Million popular votes

Roosevelt & Taft had

been friends now bitter

enemies

Bull Moose Party =

Roosevelt will win 88 EV

most successful 3 rd Party ever.

friends – now bitter enemies  Bull Moose Party = Roosevelt will win 88 EV most

WILSON THE IDEALIST

WILSON THE IDEALIST  Born in Virginia and raised in Georgia – first Southern president in

Born in Virginia and raised in Georgia first Southern

president in 64 years

Believed south should have had the right to secede

promotes self-determination

Son of Presbyterian minister against evil

Somewhat cold in public he was self-assured and

superior especially toward politicians and journalists

He found compromise difficult

TRIPLE WALL OF PRIVILEGE

TRIPLE WALL OF PRIVILEGE  Tariff  Banks  Trusts  All hurting the public in

Tariff Banks

Trusts

All hurting the public in some way or another and

therefore Wilson’s

program was to solve

them

Banks  Trusts  All hurting the public in some way or another and therefore Wilson’s

WILSON AND THE TARIFF

WILSON AND THE TARIFF  Calls Congress into special session – he delivered his presidential message
WILSON AND THE TARIFF  Calls Congress into special session – he delivered his presidential message

Calls Congress into special session he delivered his presidential message to a

joint session of Congress in

person (had not been done since Adams)

Underwood Tariff Bill 1913-

down to 27%

16 th Amendment = Income tax (over $3,000)

WILSON AND THE BANKS

WILSON AND THE BANKS  Still using the Civil War National Banking Act  House Arsene

Still using the Civil

War National Banking Act

House Arsene Pujo: $$

traced to hidden vaults of US banks & businesses

a temporary

measure at the

time

shortcoming inelasticity of currency

1908 (Senate)

Aldrich investigation

recommendation:

huge bank with

many branches

Louis D. Brandies’ Other

People’s Money and How

the Bankers Use It

Other People’s Money and How the Bankers Use It  1914 book showing that the wealthy

1914 book showing that the wealthy were consolidating funds and

establishing a monopoly

He will testify for Pujo

These illustrations came from Harper’s Weekly ’s Other People’s Money articles by Brandeis.
These illustrations came from Harper’s Weekly ’s Other People’s Money articles by Brandeis.

These illustrations came from Harper’s Weekly’s Other People’s

Money articles by Brandeis.

WILSON AND THE BANKS

WILSON AND THE BANKS Federal Reserve Act 1913  Most important economic legislation between Civil War

Federal Reserve Act 1913

Most important economic

legislation between Civil War and New Deal

Establishes a Federal Reserve

System

Restricted private control of money and banks

12 regional reserve districts and a central bank

Banks are for bankers

Issue Federal Reserve Notes

banks  12 regional reserve districts and a central bank  Banks are for bankers 

LOUIS D. BRANDEIS

LOUIS D. BRANDEIS  Muller v Oregon , 1908:  Brandeis convinced the Supreme Court to

Muller v Oregon, 1908:

Brandeis convinced the Supreme Court to use sociological & statistical evidence upholding an Oregon law that regulated

the working conditions of women (10

hour day)

Significance: first such evidence acknowledged by law in the US

1916 is appointed to the Supreme Court

law in the US  1916 is appointed to the Supreme Court  Wilson nomination 

Wilson nomination

First person of Jewish faith to serve on Supreme Court

WILSON AND THE TRUSTS

WILSON AND THE TRUSTS  Federal Trade Commission of 1914  Crush monopolies by eliminating 1.

Federal Trade Commission

of 1914

Crush monopolies by eliminating

1. Unfair trade practices

2. Unlawful competition

3. False advertising

4. Bribery

5. Has investigative powers

1. Unfair trade practices 2. Unlawful competition 3. False advertising 4. Bribery 5. Has investigative powers

WILSON AND THE TRUSTS

Clayton Anti-Trust Act 1914  Attacks price discrimination and interlocking directorates (same individuals were on
Clayton Anti-Trust Act 1914
 Attacks price
discrimination and
interlocking directorates
(same individuals were on
the boards of competing
firms)
 Labor and agriculture both
exempted from anti-trust
action
 Allowed strikes and
peaceful picketing
 Samuel Gompers called it
the ―Magna Carta of
labor‖

DANBURY HATTER’S CASE 1908

DANBURY HATTER’S CASE 1908  Example of why Clayton Anti-Trust Act needed to exempt labor as

Example of why Clayton Anti-Trust Act needed to exempt labor as a monopoly:

Strike has lasted several months and the hat

company lost $250,000

US Supreme Court assessed the workers 3x the amount of damages

The S.C. invoked the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890 saying that ―conspiracy is restraint of trade

Fined workers lost savings and homes

WILSON PROGRESSIVISM AT HIGH TIDE

WILSON PROGRESSIVISM AT HIGH TIDE  Federal Farm Loan Act, 1916  La Follette Seamen’s Act,

Federal Farm Loan Act,

1916

La Follette Seamen’s Act,

1915

Credit to farmers at low % rates

Warehouse Act 1916

Loans available (to farmers) based on security of staple

(cash) crops

Highway construction & help to agricultural state colleges

Required decent treatment

A living wage

unexpected resultcrippled US Merchant Marine with higher freight costs

Workingmen’s Compensation

Act, 1916

Assistance given to disabled federal employees

WILSON PROGRESSIVISM AT HIGH TIDE

WILSON PROGRESSIVISM AT HIGH TIDE  Keating-Owen, 1916  Child labor Act is passed but ruled

Keating-Owen,

1916

Child labor Act is passed but ruled

Wilson Progressivism stopped short of better treatment for blacks

unconstitutional in

1918 by Hammer v. Dagenhart

Likely due to his southern roots & prejudices

When a delegation of blacks visited him he

Adamson Act,

1916

8 hour work day for RR workers and overtime pay (interstate commerce)

Act, 1916  8 hour work day for RR workers and overtime pay (interstate commerce) ―froze‖

―froze‖ them out of his office

CHILD LABOR IN WEST VIRGINIA COAL MINE

CHILD LABOR IN WEST VIRGINIA COAL MINE
CHILD LABOR IN WEST VIRGINIA COAL MINE

WILSON AND FOREIGN POLICY

WILSON AND FOREIGN POLICY  He hated imperialism and Dollar Diplomacy  Government no longer offer

He hated imperialism and Dollar Diplomacy

Government no longer offer special support to American investors in Latin America and China

Repealed the Panama Tolls Act 1912 (no tolls on US coast-wide shipping)

Philippines gains territorial status promised self-rule

Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan persuades the California legislature to renege on a law that

would not allow Japanese to own

the California legislature to renege on a law that would not allow Japanese to own land

land eases relations with Japan

WILSON AND FOREIGN POLICY

WILSON AND FOREIGN POLICY  Haiti  Revolution (1912-1915)  Forces Wilson to send in troops

Haiti

Revolution (1912-1915)

Forces Wilson to send in troops

Marinesto protect US lives and property Stay 19 years

– to protect US lives and property  Stay 19 years  Dominican Republic (1916) 

Dominican Republic (1916)

Similar to Haitidebt problems

Marines stay 8 years

Virgin Islands (1917)

Purchased from Denmark for $25 Million to stop Germany

WILSON AND MEXICO

WILSON AND MEXICO  US investments =$1 Billion  Revolutions  1913 Porfirio Diaz overthrown 

US investments =$1 Billion

Revolutions

1913 Porfirio Diaz overthrown

General Victoriano Huerta in

power

Wilson sent arms to rivals Venustiano Carranza and Francisco ―Pancho‖ Villa

William Randolph Hearst

Has a Rhode Island sized ranch in Mexico

Begs for US intervention but

Wilson promotes human rights

over property rights

sized ranch in Mexico  Begs for US intervention but Wilson promotes human rights over property

Pancho Villa

WILSON AND MEXICO

WILSON AND MEXICO  Tampico, April 1914 –  US sailors arrested  Mexico releases them

Tampico, April 1914

US sailors arrested

Mexico releases them and apologizes but Wilson demands a 21-gun salute

When Mexico will not grant this Wilson orders the Navy to take Vera Cruz

Mexican leaders, Huerta & Carranza protest

ABC Powers intervene for the US (Argentina, Brazil, Chile)

Harms US-Mexican relations, and then…

General John ―Blackjack‖ Pershing

Sent into Mexico

Pursue Pancho‖ Villa who has killed 16 US engineers in Mexico, and 19 in Columbus, New Mexico

No success: US had conflicts with Mexican troops &

finally withdrew as conflict in Europe threatens

& finally withdrew as conflict in Europe threatens The Brancho-Buster: President Wilson: “I wonder what I

The Brancho-Buster:

President Wilson: “I wonder what I do next?”

THE GREAT WAR

THE GREAT WAR  Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, in Sarajevo  Austria-Hungary allied with Germany,

Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, in Sarajevo

Austria-Hungary allied with Germany, in essence, demands that Serbia become a

possession of Austria-Hungary

Russia- the protector of the Slavic Nations, mobilizes to protect Serbia

Europe at war within weeks

Wilson’s states that the US position is neutral trade with the Allies will pull the US out of a Recession and Wilson is still hoping to keep the US out of war

– trade with the Allies will pull the US out of a Recession and  Wilson
– trade with the Allies will pull the US out of a Recession and  Wilson

THE GREAT WAR

THE GREAT WAR  Central Powers = Germany, Austria-Hungary, later, Turkey & Bulgaria  Allied Powers

Central Powers = Germany,

Austria-Hungary, later, Turkey & Bulgaria

Allied Powers = France, England, Russia, later, Italy & Japan

German U-boat warfare threatens US neutrality (we

really were supporting the

Allied Powers economically)

& Japan  German U-boat warfare threatens US neutrality (we really were supporting the Allied Powers
& Japan  German U-boat warfare threatens US neutrality (we really were supporting the Allied Powers

US NEUTRALITY

US NEUTRALITY  Slowly become more pro- Allies  Wilson is privately pro-British – as are

Slowly become more pro- Allies

Wilson is privately pro-British

as are most Americans also

pro-French

Dislike for German attack on neutral Belgium Hoover fed Belgium with US support

Germans sinister and strange

evil Heinous and militaristic

Kaiser Wilhelm

fed Belgium with US support  Germans sinister and strange – evil Heinous and militaristic –

US NEUTRALITY

US NEUTRALITY  Most Americans thought Germany caused the war  Propaganda-British controlled the information –

Most Americans thought Germany caused the war

Propaganda-British controlled the information transatlantic cable

US sold weapons to the Allies commitment

German Sabotage agent left briefcase with info about

munitions plants on NY Subway

1916 New Jersey munitions plant explodes Germans suspected

with info about munitions plants on NY Subway – 1916 New Jersey munitions plant explodes –

LUSITANIA

LUSITANIA  US wants to be neutral but continues to ship to Allied Powers because England

US wants to be neutral but continues to ship to Allied Powers because England has control of the seas and a tight blockade around Germany

Germany then declares a submarine War Zone around Britain Feb. 1915

Wilson protests saying that Germany will be held to ―strict accountability‖ for

any attacks on US vessels or citizens

On May 7, 1915 the British passenger linger Lusitania is sunk, by a U-boat killing 1,198 (128 Americans)

This nearly leads to war

the British passenger linger Lusitania is sunk, by a U-boat killing 1,198 (128 Americans)  This

SUSSEX PLEDGE

SUSSEX PLEDGE  Arabic sunk killing 2 Americans French Ship the Sussex is sunk  Wilson

Arabic sunk killing 2 Americans French Ship the

Sussex is sunk

Wilson threatened to break diplomatic relations

with Germany- a prelude to war

Germany offers the Sussex Pledge will not

sink passenger and merchant vessels without

giving warning IF the US will try to break the British Blockade

ELECTION OF 1916

ELECTION OF 1916  Democrats :  Wilson  ―He kept us out of war.‖ 
ELECTION OF 1916  Democrats :  Wilson  ―He kept us out of war.‖ 

Democrats:

Wilson

―He kept us out of war.‖

In the election, he sweeps

the Midwest and west

Wins 277 to 254 EV

Republicans:

Charles Evans Hughes NY

Supreme Court Justice

Attacks Wilson for not standing up to the Kaiser, in isolationist areas takes a

softer line flip-flops

Will win the Eastern States