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THE EISENHOWER ERA, 1952 1960

The American Pageant

Chapter 37

E I S E N H O W E R H A P P Y

Eisenhower happy Like a benign grandfather, Dwight D. Eisenhower provided a reassuring presence in the White House in the 1950s. His moderation, balanced judgment, and apparent aloofness from partisanship appealed to as many as did his fondness for bridge and poker, bourbon, fishing and hunting, and golf. (Courtesy Dwight D. Eisenhower Library)
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ELVIS

Elvis In 1954, Elvis Presley's first record was released and within a year a new rock'n'roll star had burst onto the music scene. Elvis's style blended rhythm and blues, country, and gospel into a unique sound that, along with his body language, created an American icon. (Michael Barson Collection/Past Perfect)

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H O S T D I C K C L A R K A N D A M E R I C A N B A N D S T A N D

T E E N A G E R S

O N

Host Dick Clark and teenagers on American Bandstand In the 1950s the teenage culture of the baby boomers became a national phenomenon through such outlets as Dick Clark's American Bandstand, where teens danced in front of a national TV audience. (Library of Congress)
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MAP: THE RISE OF THE THIRD WORLD

The Rise of the Third World Accelerated by the Second World War, decolonization liberated many peoples from imperial rule. New nations emerged in the postwar international system dominated by the Cold War rivalry of the United States and the Soviet Union. Many newly independent states became targets of great power intrigue but chose nonalignment in the Cold War.
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I N D I A N B O Y 1 8 , 1 9 5 8

P R O T E S T I N G ,

A P R I L

Indian boy protesting, April 18, 1958 One of Eisenhower's goals was to reduce federal spending and controls. In line with this policy, he tried to turn Indian affairs over to the states and liquidate federal services and reservations. Between 1954 and 1960, sixty-one tribes were affected. This picture shows a 4year-old Tuscarora boy protesting state and federal policies that attacked Indian rights. (Wide World Photos, Inc.)

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J A C K I E R O B I N S O N B A S E B A L L P R O M O T I O N A L B O O K L E T

Jackie Robinson baseball promotional booklet Jackie Robinson broke the color barrier in major league baseball in 1947, when he joined the Brooklyn Dodgers. After serving as a lieutenant in the army during the war, Robinson, an AllAmerican in football and baseball at UCLA, played with the Kansas City Monarchs of the Negro American Baseball League until he was signed by the Dodgers in 1945. Moved from the minors to the majors in 1947, he earned "Rookie of the Year" honors and later was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame. (Collection of Michael Barson/Past Perfect)

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K E N N E D Y C A M P A I G N I N G

Kennedy campaigning John F. Kennedy is surrounded by supporters and the press as he arrives for the 1960 Democratic National Convention in Los Angeles. Young, handsome, and articulate, Kennedy introduced new vitality, and perhaps superficiality, into political campaigning. On television and in person, Kennedy was a popular politician; when he became president, he became a media star as well. (Wide World Photos, Inc.)
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L I T T L E R O C K - - W H I T E S T U D E N T Y E L L I N G A T E L I Z A B E T H E C K F O R D , S E P T E M B E R 4 , 1 9 5 7

Little Rock--white student yelling at Elizabeth Eckford, September 4, 1957 Elizabeth Eckford, age 15, one of the nine black students to desegregate Central High School, endures abuse on her way to school. Forty years later, the young white woman shouting insults asked for forgiveness. (Wide World)

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M A R T I N L U T H E R K I N G , J R . O U T S I D E C O U R T H O U S E W I T H W I F E , 1 9 5 7

Martin Luther King, Jr. outside courthouse with wife, 1957 When Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. (19291968) and other African Americans, including twenty-three other ministers, provided support and leadership during the Montgomery, Alabama, bus boycott they were indicted by an all-white jury for violating an old law banning boycotts. In late March 1956 King was convicted and fined $500. A crowd of well-wishers cheered a smiling King (here with his wife, Coretta) outside the courthouse, where King proudly declared, "The protest goes on!" King's arrest and conviction made the bus boycott front-page news across America. (Corbis-Bettmann)
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M C C A R T H Y I S M , " I H A V E H E R E I N M Y H A N D . . . "

McCarthyism, "I have here in my hand..." A term invented by cartoonist Herblock, McCarthyism to most liberals and Democrats meant the use of lies, slander, and innuendo to attack and discredit the Democratic party for "twenty years of treason." ("I have here in my hand" from Herblock : A Cartoonist's Life (Macmillian Publishing Company , 1993))

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N I X O N A N D E I S E N H O W E R A T T H E 1 9 5 2 R E P U B L I C A N C O N V E N T I O N

Nixon and Eisenhower at the 1952 Republican Convention In this picture, the triumphant Republican nominees for the White House pose with smiles and wives--Pat Nixon and Mamie Eisenhower. Seen as a statesman and not a politician during the campaign, Eisenhower worked hard to ensure his nomination over Robert Taft, and then chose Richard Nixon to balance the ticket because he was a younger man, a westerner, and a conservative. (UPI Bettmann Archives)
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R O S A P A R K S A N D B U S B O Y C O T T

T H E

M O N T G O M E R Y

Rosa Parks and the Montgomery bus boycott A member of the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP since 1943, and the organization's secretary, Rosa Parks had protested segregation by refusing to drink from fountains labeled "Colored Only" and by climbing stairs rather than using segregated elevators. Her act of protest against bus segregation inspired a whole black community to join her cause and sparked the massive nonviolent civil disobedience phase of the struggle against white supremacy. ((c) Bettmann/Corbis)
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S I T - I N - - J A C K S O N , M A Y 2 8 , 1 9 6 3

M I S S I S S I P P I ,

Sit-in--Jackson, Mississippi, May 28, 1963 The sit-ins of 1960 initiated the student phase of the civil-rights movement. Across the south, young black activists challenged segregation by staging nonviolent demonstrations to demand access to public facilities. Their courage and commitment reinvigorated the movement, leading to still greater grass-roots activism. (World Wide)
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T H E G R E A T K I T C H E N D E B A T E , J U L Y 2 4 , 1 9 5 9

The Great Kitchen Debate, July 24, 1959 At the opening of the American National Exhibit in Moscow, Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev engaged in a "kitchen debate," arguing not about the strength of their rockets or bombs but about the relative merits of American and Soviet washing machines and television sets. (Wide World)
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W E S T I N G H O U S E L A U N D R O M A T A D

Westinghouse Laundromat ad In the "kitchen debate" of September 1959, Vice President Nixon argued with Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev about the types of appliances the average working family in America had in their kitchens. This advertisement showing the range of consumer products made by Westinghouse clearly supports Nixon's claim that American families were affluent enough to furnish their homes with a wide range of products. (Picture Research Consultants)

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AFFLUENCE & ITS ANXIETIES


Post WWII economic growth driven by:

Home construction GI bill (In 1960: 1of 4 homes built in US since 1950s) Science and technology
Civilian and Military Aircraft

IBM International Business Machines typewriters to computers Aerospace industries


Boeing 707- first large passenger jet 1957

White-collar workers v Blue-collar workers Union membership

White-collar workers outnumber blue-collar workers for the first time 1954--35% and then begins a steady decline 1950s TV Ozzie and Harriet & Leave it to Beaver nuclear family

Women back at home cult of domesticity

AFFLUENCE & ITS ANXIETIES


Pink collar workers
clerical and service work 30 of 40 million jobs created Forced dual roles on women as workers & homemakers

Betty Friedan
The Feminine Mystique
Best-seller & classic of feminist protest She was a college grad Later interviewed several former classmates who indicated housewifery was stifling

BETTY FREIDAN
Her book Feminine Mystique was a best-seller and is credited with starting a second wave of

feminism the modern


womens movement

CONSUMERS OF THE 50S


Diners Club first credit card

Religion
Televangelists
Billy Graham, Oral Roberts & Fulton J. Sheen

McDonalds 1955
Disneyland 1955

Sports:
NY Giants move to San Francisco Brooklyn Dodgers to LA

TV by 50s 442 stations


broadcasting -1951 7 million sets sold

CONSUMERS OF THE 50S


Music Elvis Presley The King of rock and roll Marilyn Monroe movie star Authors Portrayal of postwar generation as a pack of conformists David Riesman The Lonely Crowd William H. Wythe Jr.-- The Organization Man And Sloan Wilson The Man in the Grey Flannel Suit John Kenneth Galbraith
Harvard economist
The Affluent Society
Private wealth & public good TV in homes but garbage in the streets

ELVIS THE PELVIS & MARILYN MONROE

EISENHOWER
1952 election:
Democrats:
Nominate Adlai Stevenson governor of Illinois

Election Results:
IKE won 442-89 EV

Tries to end war in Korea


Panmunjom Treaty
July 27, 1953 =Armistice

Republicans:
General Dwight D. Eisenhower Richard M. Nixon as VP
Red-hunter House Un-American Activities Committee Alger Hiss investigation Nixon charged for having a secret slush fund TV appearance saves him as a VP candidate

Checkers Speech

US to defend S. Korea. 54,000 US soldiers killed - 1 to 1.5 million Asians. 38th parallel divides N & S Korea

Containment theory
Contain communism where it was

RED SCARE (AGAIN)


1948 House Un-American Activities Committee
Republicans in charge Movie industry
Hollywood Ten Blacklist Ronald Reagan

Nixon
Whittaker Chambers "pumpkin papers Alger Hiss - Perjury - cast suspicion on an entire generation of liberal Democrats
Made the public believe that communist had infiltrated the government. Somewhat confirmed by a series of setbacks overseas against communist expansion.

"Loyalty Boards"
Used to determine if loyal or disloyal. By 1951 212 federal employees dismissed and 2,000 resigned.

FBI
J Edgar Hoover Investigates and harasses alleged radicals.

RED SCARE (AGAIN)


McCarran Internal Security Act
All Communists register and publish records Could not work in defense plants. Truman vetoes the McCarran Act Congress overrode he veto. Communists Sold atomic bomb plans to the Russians Sentenced to death June 19, 1953 by electric chair. Protests from liberals all over the world Similar to Sacco and Vanzetti

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

MCCARTHYISM
Joseph McCarthy
"McCarthyism
Uses the nation's fear of communists as a means of reelection Accused the Democrats of harboring Communists
200 in the state department Flimsy accusations Finally accuses the military of being communist
General George Marshall
On national TV shows McCarthys ignorance.

Senate finally censors him

DESEGREGATION
1950-2/3 of 15 million blacks make homes in the South Southern de facto segregation kept them powerless politically, economically inferior an separate whites only & colored only drinking fountains, restaurants, theaters etc. 1946 6 black veterans were murdered Emmett Till (Chicago 15year old) was lynched in Mississippi for leering at a white woman

DESEGREGATION
Jack (Jackie) Robinson first major league baseball player played for the Brooklyn Dodgers 1947 Branch Rickey Rosa Parks Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955 Martin Luther King Jr. asked to lead the Boycott also starts SLCL Southern Christian Leadership Conference 1957 Thurgood Marshall black attorney wins rights in south (later a Supreme Court Justice

L E F T: J AC K I E R O B I N S O N A N D B R A N C H R I C K E Y: R I G H T : G E O R G E H AY E S, T H U R G O O D MARSHALL (CENTER), AND JAMES NARBRIT C E L E B R A T I N G B R OW N V. B OA R D

DESEGREGATION
Truman 1948 ends segregation in federal civil
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (Brown v. Board)

service and integrated the


armed forces

Chief Justice Earl Warren


segregation in public school inherently unequal

White South: massive


resistance against courts

ruling

(BROWN V. BOARD)
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas Chief Justice
Earl Warren segregation in public school inherently unequal south to integrate with all deliberate speed White South: massive resistance against courts ruling also, Declaration of Constitutional Principals fight desegregation & white citizens councils to stop integration Integration is slow 2% in Deep South

LITTLE ROCK, ARKANSAS


1957 Little Rock nine 9 black students to integrate an all-white Central High School Orval Faubus Governor of Arkansas after agreeing with IKE to allow integration, blocks the school with national guard A court injunction orders the governor to withdraw troops and a riot breaks out the next day IKE mobilizes the 101st Airborne to escort students to school and to each class for the rest of the year

LITTLE ROCK NINE

DESEGREGATION
Congress will pass the Civil Rights Act 1957

Sit In at lunch counter in Greensboro, North

Set up a Civil Rights


Commission to investigate

Carolina
SNCC Student Non-

violations of Civil Rights and


authorized federal injunctions

violent Coordinating
Committee to give focus

to protect voting rights

to efforts to gain equality

EISENHOWER REPUBLICANISM
Dynamic conservatism with people be liberal but conservative with peoples money, their economy or form of government. Protect the government from creeping socialism IKE will accept some New Deal programs increasing those who may receive Social Security Reduce government by 183,000 Balanced the budget for 3 years Gave off-shore drilling rights to states

EISENHOWER REPUBLICANISM
Encouraged private power companies to compete with the TVA Operation wetback return of 1 million undocumented aliens back to Mexico IKE makes an effort to terminate Indian tribes as legal entities and assimilate native Americans National Interstate Highway Act 1956 27$$billion spent to build 42,000 miles of freeway

FOREIGN POLICY
Condemned containment John Foster Dulles wants to roll back Communism and liberate captive people SAC Strategic Air Command build super bombers and nuclear arsenal Not effective in Hungarian revolt 1955 US could do nothing to help massive retaliation MAD (mutually assured destruction) Brinkmanship go to the brink of war to protect American interests

VIETNAM
Had been under French control Japan controlled the region during the war Ho Chi Minh leader of Vietnam (will turn communist) France demands Vietnam after WIII US will bankroll France March 1954 French troops lose to Viet Minh guerrilla at Dienbienphu US fails to support France Militarily assuming it would draw us into a bigger war Vietnam divided along the 17th parallel South Vietnam is pro-west under the leadership of Ngo Dinh Diem raised Catholic ruled with iron fist

HO CHI MINH 1945 & NGO DINH DIEM

C O L D WA R : E U RO P E & M I D D L E E A S T
Germany allowed to join NATO 1955 Warsaw Pact (Soviet satellite nations) 1955 May 1955 Soviets agreed to end their occupation of Austria 1956 Nikita Khrushchev publically denounced the bloody excess of Stalin But the Soviets brutally put down the Hungarian revolt with tanks The Soviets began to influence Iran In a CIA Coup 1953 that placed the Shaw of Iran (Mohammed Reza Pahlevi) as dictator just because he was pro-western Lingering bitter legacy in Iran Suez Crisis after US John Foster Dulles pulled funds for the Anwar Dam in 1955 President Nasser of Egypt Nationalizes the canal Israel, France, Great Britain invade. United States and Soviet Union join for the first time, condemning the mission and forcing France, G.B. and Israel out

EISENHOWER DOCTRINE 1957


US will assist (military and economic aid) to Middle
Eastern Countries threatened by Communist aggression

not communism but nationalism that drove politics in the


Middle East Nasser is wildly popular OPEC nations 1960 Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, Iran & Venezuela (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) control oil prices

1956 ELECTION
Repeat of 1952 Democrats Adlai Stevenson IKE wins 457 73 EV But Republicans lost the Congress IKE was in flailing health (stomach and heart) Ezra Taft Benson Sec of Agriculture against price supports as they promotes socialism IKE worked on Labor Legislation Labor unions were responsible for fraud, heavy-handed tactics etc. Teamsters Union particularly bad James (Jimmy) Hoffa embezzlement and jury- tampering went to federal prison pardoned by Nixon, and went missing Landrum Griffin Act 1959 more federal control over the actions of Unions prevented secondary boycotts & certain types of picketing

EISENHOWER
Sputnik I October 4, 1957 first artificial satellite sent into space Weight 184 lbs. November Sputnik II 1,200 lbs and a dog Shocks the US- Soviets have ICBMs (Intercontinental ballistic missiles) US Vanguard missile fails 1957 Explorer I by February 1958 Weight 2.5 lbs Rocket fever in US NASA $$$ to missile development called the Space Race Effects US Public education more math and science classes & a more rigorous curriculum NDEA National Defense and Education Act

SPUTNIK I

EXPLORER I

COLD WAR
Nuclear testing Atmospheric very dirty Soviets did several US a few (1958 after several tests the Soviets call for a suspension of testing) Underground testing continued for years Lebanon - Pro-western - Egypt and Communist takeover-US brings in 14,000 troops - order restored w/out loss of life. Berlin Ultimatum - 6 months to get out Ike & Dulles refuse to budge 1959 Summit Conference Camp David Khrushchev announces and indefinite suspension of the Berlin Ultimatum U-2 incident Gary Powers US Pilot shot down over Russia (surveillance mission) Russians are upset and it scuttles the next Summit Conference IKE takes full responsibility (after initial bureaucratic denials)

LATIN AMERICA & CUBA


US CIA directed coup overthrowing a leftist government in Guatemala 1954 but US continued to support bloody dictators that claimed to be fighting communism Cuba Fidel Castro overthrows dictator Fulgencio Batista in power since 1930s (had encouraged US investments) Castro then announces that he was Communist and allies himself with Moscow One million anti-Castro exiles leave Cuba arriving primarily in Miami US embargo on Cuba in 1961/ Helms-Burton Act 1996 strengthens it Monroe Doctrine dead

F I D E L C A S T R O C U B A N R E V O L U T I O N A RY A N D I N NY 1959(RIGHT) BEFORE HE ANNOUNCES HE IS A COMMUNIST

1960 ELECTION
Election of 1960 (R) Richard Nixon national lime-light (Kitchen Debate with Khrushchev -Moscow 1959 hard-line anti-Communist (D) John F. Kennedy wins 303-219 very close popular vote Had to overcome the stigma of being Catholic T.V. debates considered even (those who listened thought Nixon won, those who watched - thought Kennedy won) -South split-voted for Senator Harry F. Byrd New Frontier Kennedy Speech America needs change

IKE
1951 22nd Amendment - two term limit 1959 St. Lawrence Seaway Canals from St. Lawrence to Great Lakes popular 1959 Alaska and Hawaii admitted as states Farwell address: warns against the power of the militaryindustrial complex Critics thought he should have done more for civil rights Ike ends up very respected Eisenhower being reinterpreted by historians, felt was much more effective president than before, worked behind the scenes.

LIFE AND MIND OF POSTWAR US


Ernest Hemingway: The Old Man and the Sea John Steinbeck: Grapes of Wrath, East of Eden Nobel Prize Norman Mailer The Naked and the Dead Catch 22 Joseph Heller Slaughterhouse Five: Kurt Vonnegut Rabbit Run, John Updike Poetry, troubled and macabre Playwrights Tennessee Williams A Streetcar Named Desire, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof Arthur Miller Death of a Salesman, The Crucible Salem Witch Trials compared to McCarthyism Lorraine Hansberry A Raisin in the Sun portrait of African American Native Son Richard Wright Invisible Man Ralph Ellison

LIFE AND MIND OF POSTWAR US


William Faulkner, Southerner, Nobel prize 1950
J.D. Salinger, The Catcher in the Rye

As I lay Dying, The Sound and


the Fury many short stories

Bernard Malamud, about


baseball in, The Natural Goodbye Columbus, Philip Roth wrote comically of New Jerseys suburbanites

All the Kings Men Robert


Warren about Huey Long

Louisiana politician