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The Cold War Begins

American Pageant Chapter 36 1945-1952

Postwar Economic Anxieties


Americans feared end of war would return country back to depression
1946-1947:
33% inflation (war price controls lifted) GNP slumped 4.6 million strikers Taft Hartley Act:
Outlawed closed shops Unions liable for damages Union leaders required to take noncommunist oath

Efforts to unionize in South & West-unsuccessful

Postwar Economic Anxieties


Government economic intervention:
Employment Act (1946)
Promote maximum employment, production, and purchasing power Council of Economic Advisors
Provide president with data & recommendations

Servicemens Readjustment Act (1944)


Also known as GI Bill of Rights or GI Bill
Worried about 15 million veterans wanting jobs Government aid to veterans for higher education $14.5 billion; 8 million helped

Also gave $16 billion in loans for housing & businesses

Economic Boom 1950-1970


National income doubled in 1950s & again in 1960s
U.S. is 6% of world population but controls 40% of the wealth Increased social mobility New welfare programs, i.e. Medicare New world leadership Size of middle class doubled from predepression days & included 60% of population
90% own TVs; 60% own homes

Women benefitted the most

The Roots of Postwar Prosperity


1. War Crisisreopening factories 2. Colossal military budgets
a) Defense spending 10% of GNP b) Technological industries& scientific research

3. Cheap energy
a) double oil consumption b) Increase 6x the electricitygenerating capacity

The Roots of Postwar Prosperity


4. Increased productivity
a) Rising educational level b) Could produce 2x as much in 1 hour in 1970 than in 1950 c) Doubled average of U.S. standard of living d) Agriculture: Machines, fertilizer, agribusiness, price supports & subsidies 2% of population provided agriculture for U.S. & much of the world

Population redistribution
30 million people moved/year Changed family dynamics
i.e. Dr. Benjamin Spocks The Common Sense Book of Baby & Child Careadvice usually passed on from grandmothers, etc.

Sunbelt: 15 states from VA to CA


Population doubled; CA 1/5 of U.S. population growth; largest state by 1963 (1 of every 8 Americans) North no longer had hold over U.S. politics

The Rush to the Suburbs

The Postwar Baby Boom


1945-1960: Huge leap in birthrate; peaked 1957
Postwar: increased # of marriages 50 million babies by end of 1950s Distorted certain areas of life, i.e.:
Increase elementary school enrollments followed by school closures as that generation moved through Basis of youth culture of 60s 1980s job markets & social mobility 1990s secondary boom of children Future: Huge strain on social security system
By 1973 fertility rates dropped below the point necessary to maintain existing population figures. If the downward trend persisted, only further immigration would lift the U.S. population above its 1996 level of 264 million. (859)

Harry S. Truman
VP to FDR when he died No college education Honest, hardworking, folksy, stubborn, fiery The average mans average man. Scrappy little cus if he was sometimes small in the small things, he was often big in the big things (863).

Yalta: Bargain or Betrayal?


February, 1945: Big three met at Yalta to discuss postwar plans:
Occupation zones in Germany Stalin agreed that Poland, Bulgaria, & Romania would have free elections (broke promise) Stalin would help fight Japan after Germany conquered
In return: USSR received some land in Manchuria Leads way to overthrow of Chiang Kai-Shek (Jiang Jieshi)

Conference not intended to be solidified deal, but to test countries reactions

The United States & the Soviet Union


End of war leads to end of collaboration:
Ideological beliefs too different (both believed in universal applicability) Suspicion & rivalry Stalins spheres of influence
Soviet Union wants to have friendly nations on its borders (after invasions of WWI & WWII) U.S. views that as desire for ill-gained empire

U.S. stops vital lend-lease program to USSR in 1945


Also refuses a $6 billion loan for reconstruction While giving British $3.75 billion)

Shaping the Postwar World


Bretton Woods Conference:
Western Allies met at in New Hampshire (1944) International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Encourage world trade

International Bank for Reconstruction & Development (World Bank)


Economic growth in war torn & underdeveloped areas

Shaping the Postwar World


United Nations Conference, April 25, 1945
San Francisco (later in NY); FDR died 13 days prior Security Council: Big 5 (U.S., Great Britain, France, China, & USSR) have veto power Assembly: Smaller countries Humanitarian efforts:
UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, & Cultural Organization) FAO (Food & Agricultural Organization) WHO (World Health Organization)

Easily ratified by senate (unlike L of N)

The Problem of Germany


Nuremberg Trials (19451946)
Trials for top Nazi leaders (12 hanged; 7 long term prison)

Germanyfour military occupation zones:


U.S., French, England, & USSR
US, French, & British: want to unify Germany; USSR just tightens control

The Problem of Germany


Berlin airlift
Berlin also divided (in USSR zone);
1948 USSR cuts off west Berlin from supplies (starve out Allies) Gigantic airlift: U.S. send thousands of supplies a day for nearly a year Symbolic fight. U.S. wins.

Beginning of the Cold War


Iran, 1946
Stalinseeking for oil
Broke an agreement to remove his troops from northern Iran Aided Iranian rebels (against U.S. & British oil interests) Truman sent a stinging rebuke
Soviets back down

Germany, East Europe, Middle East


Soviet hard line policy
Psychological Pearl Harbor to U.S.

Beginning of the Cold War


Containment Truman Doctrine (1947)
George F. Kennan Report
Russia had always been relentlessly expansionary Need vigilant containment of USSR

Truman announces doctrine to Congress March12,1947


Asks for $400 million to bolster Greece &Turkey; and it must be the policy of the U.S. to support the free people who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures Some critics say Truman was worried about revived isolationism so he exaggerated the threat

Beginning of the Cold War


Good v. Evil
U.S. religious leaders saw Cold War as battle between good & evil
I.E. Reinhold Nieburh

Western Europe
France, Italy, & Germany
Postwar economic chaos & hunger Threat of internal Communist parties

Beginning of the Cold War


Marshal Plan, July 1947
Secretary of State George C. Marshall U.S give substantial aid to European countries if:
European created a joint plan for economic recovery Led to creation of European Community (EC) Same aid offered to USSRbut refused $12.5 billion given over 4 years to 16 countries
U.S. already giving $2 billion/year to U.N. relief organization Soviet coup in Czechoslovakia convinced Congress to give $

Israel, 1948
Despite Arab threats & oil worried U.S. official recognized state of Israel

Threat of Soviets: Rearming the U.S.


Unification of armed forces National Security Act (1947):
Created Department of Defense housed in the Pentagon:
Secretary of Defense
New cabinet position Civilian secretaries of each branch served under

Joint Chiefs of Staff


Uniformed heads of each branch

National Security Council (NSC):


Created CIA

Threat of Soviets: Rearming the U.S.

Threat of Soviets: Rearming the U.S.


Voice of America
Broadcast American radio behind iron curtain

Selective Service System (1948):


Draft of some 19-25 year olds

North Atlantic Treaty Organization


Britain, France, Belgium, Netherlands, & Luxembourg signed treaty of defense in 1948 U.S. joined NATO, April 4, 1949 Historic moment for U.S.:
Peace-time entangling alliance

Greece, Turkey, and West German joined in the 50s

Reconstruction & Revolution in Asia


Japan
General Douglas McArthur led rebuilding
Japanese cooperated to a surprising degree Dictated democratic constitution, 1946
Renounced militarism & included womens rights

Stunning success & economic recovery

Reconstruction & Revolution in Asia


China:
Generalissimo Jiang Jieshi
Struggled against communists led by Mao Zedong Jiang Jieshi lost confidence of people due to corruption
Had to flee to Formosa (Taiwan) in 1949

Fall of China
of worlds population (500 million) controlled by communism Big blow to U.S.s Containment doctrine
Truman said we didnt lose China even Jiang Jieshi never controlled all of China to begin with
Mao Zedong

Nuclear Build Up & Competition


September 1949
Soviets exploded a test atomic bomb

H-Bomb (hydrogen):
1000x more powerful than atomic bomb 1952: US explode one on a South Pacific atoll 1953: Soviets explode one

Nuclear competition: Peace through mutual terror

Red Scare 1940s-1950s


Trumans Loyalty Program, 1947
Attorney General
Identified 90 disloyal organizations
Never able to prove false

Loyalty Review Board


Investigated 3 million federal employees
3000 resigned or dismissed

Loyalty Oaths

Red Scare 1940s-1950s


Smith Act of 1940
1st peace time antisedition since 1798 NY, 1949:
11Communists found guilty For advocating overthrow of U.S. government by force

Dennis v. United States 1953


Supreme Court upheld their conviction

Red Scare 1940s-1950s


House Un-American American Activities Committee
A.k.a. HUAC Congress established in 1938 Richard Nixon, 1948
Committee member & red chaser Alger Hiss
Accused of being communist agent in 30s Demanded right to defend himself Caught committing perjury Prison5 years

Red Scare 1940s-1950s

Red Scare 1940s-1950s


McCarran International Security Bill, 1950
If there was an internal security emergency
Bill authorized president to arrest & detain suspicious people

Truman vetoed the bill


Worried that scare was turning into a witch hunt

Congress overrode the veto

Red Scare 1940s-1950s


Julius & Ethel Rosenberg
Allegedly leaked atomic data to Moscow Convicted of espionage, 1951 Went to electric chair, 1953
Sensationalism of trial & concern over their orphan children soured many Americans on red-hunt

1948 Presidential Election


Republicans
Criticized high tax Harry Gained control of Congress in 1946 Nominated Thomas Dewey NY Governor Loses 189 EV to Trumans 303 EV (& 3rd party 39 EV)

1948 Presidential Election


Democrats
Wanted to dump Truman
Were just mild about Harry

Trumans nomination splits the party Henry Wallace (ex-VP) also ran Dixiecrats
Nominated Strom Thurmond
States rights party

Truman had little $ or active supporters


Traveled the country giving speeches: Give them hell, Harry! Victory came from farmers, African Americans, and workers

Trumans Programs
International:
Point Four
Trumans bold new program Lend $ and aid to underdeveloped lands to teach them to be self-sufficient Helped Latin America, Africa, & areas in Asia

Domestic
Fair Deal
Improved housing, employment, minimum wage, farm price supports, TVAs, and Social Security Most goals did not succeed
Opposition from Republican congressmen

Successes: minimum wage increase; Housing Act of 1949 (public housing), and extension of Social Security benefits

Korean War
38th Parallel
Post WWII division of Korea w/2 hostile regimes

Dean Acheson, Secretary of State, 1950 speech


Korea outside U.S. defense perimeter

June 25, 1950


North Korea attacked South Korea Used Soviet tanks Sparked containment doctrine

NSC-68
National Security Council Memorandum #68
Increase defense spending by 4x Used Korean crisis as an excuse
3.5 million armed forces $50 billion/year or 13% of GNP

Showed belief that U.S. could handle spending economically

Korean War
UN Police Action
UN Security Council unanimously condemned action
Soviets were absent U.N. asked countries to render every assistance

Truman ordered U.S. air & naval support to S. Korea


W/o consulting Congress U.S. made up bulk of UN police action

General Douglas Mac Arthur


UN commander of entire operation

Korean War

Korean War
Inchon Invasion
September 15, 1950 Amphibious attack Success
W/in 2 weeks N. Korea was pushed back behind 38th parallel

UN authorized pushing farther north

Korean War
Stalemate: November 1950 to 1953
Tens of thousands Chinese volunteers aided North Korea U.S. forces pushed back to Peninsula Fighting continued along 38th parallel

Korean War
Douglas Mac Arthur
Humiliated, wanted massive retaliation Hated limited war
Wanted to attack China
Joint Chiefs of Staff: The wrong war, at the wrong place, at the wrong time, and with the wrong enemy.

Publically criticized the Presidents policies


Fired for insubordination, April 1951 Returned to huge welcome from the U.S.