+Q Q
Plate area A
Plate separation s
E
As more and more charge
congregates on the plates, the
potential difference V between
the plates increases.
Define capacitance: Q C V = A
Units: C V
1
, or farads, F
The magnitude of the electric field between the plates is
0
Q A
E
c
=
And since
0
Q A
V Es s
c
A = =
Therefore for a parallel plate capacitor
0
A
C
s
c
=
If there is a dielectric (insulating) material between the plates, then
0
A
C K
s
c
=
where K is the dielectric constant
Material Dielectric constant K
Vacuum 1.00000
Air (dry) 1.00059
Silicone oil 2.5
Polystyrene 2.56
Teflon 2.1
Nylon 3.4
Paper 3.7
Pyrex glass 5.6
Water 80
A macroscopic analysis of circuits
M&I
19.10
A microscopic view has been very useful to understand some
fundamental processes, but it is not easily to measure electric
field, surface charge, electron drift speed or mobility.
On the other hand, it is easy to measure conventional current
(rather than electric current), potential difference (rather than
electric field) and resistance (rather than mobility)
so, then, a macroscopic view might be useful
M&I
19.11
Resistance
Conventional current: I q nAv q nAuE = =
Grouping the material properties together: ( ) I q nu AE =
And define ( )
I
J q nu E E
A
o = = =
Where J is the current density (A m
2
)
and is the conductivity (A V
1
m
1
) q nu =
We consider to be a vector pointing in the direction of
the conventional current, which is in the direction of the
electric field
Where is the absolute value of the charge on each carrier
n is the number of charge carriers per m
3
u is the mobility of the charge carriers
q
E
J
+
E
o = J E
Conductivity with two kinds of charge carrier
Apply a potential difference across a solution of NaCl
The flow of Na
+
ions to the right constitutes a conventional
current to the right and the flow of Cl
M&I
19.12
Series resistance
R
1
R
3
R
2
emf
Loop equation:
1 2 3
emf 0 R I R I R I =
1 2 3 equivalent
emf = ( ) R R R I R I + + =
equivalent 1 2 3
= R R R R + +
Assuming that:
V
C
(t)
t
I(t)
t
/R
0.63 /R
t
RC = time constant
t t
RC
e e
R R
t
c c
= =
( )
( )
dQ t
I t
dt
=
( ) ( )
(1 )
C R
t
V V IR
e
t
c c
c
= =
=
( )
R C
t
V V
e
t
c
c
=
=
Discharging a capacitor through resistor
Suppose the capacitor has
charge Q
0
at t = 0.
At some time t > 0, a current I
is established as the charge
drains off the capacitor.
Energy equation for this circuit:
round trip
0
Q
V RI
C
A = + =
or
0
Q dQ Q
RI R
C dt C
= + = +
or
0
( )
t
RC
Q t Q e
=
+Q
Q
C
R
I
Write
1
dQ
dt
Q RC
=
} }
giving
1
lnQ t K
RC
= +
0
ln K Q =
=
Q(t)
t
Q
0
0.63 Q
0
V
R
(t)
Q
0
/C
V
C
(t)
t
Q
0
/C
I(t)
t
Q
0
/RC
e Q
0
/RC
t
RC = time constant
0 0
t t
RC
Q Q
e e
RC RC
t
= =
( )
( )
dQ t
I t
dt
=
0
t
C
Q Q
V e
C C
t
= =
0
0
t
R
t
RQ
V IR e
RC
Q
e
C
t
t
= =
=
Which graph shows current versus time
while discharging?
1 2 3 4 5
The capacitor is initially
charged (left plate negative)
When the circuit is connected and there is a current:
1. Charge on the plates stays constant.
2. Left plate gets less negative.
3. Left plate gets more negative.
1 2 3 4 5
Which graph shows current
versus time while charging?
1 2 3 4 5
The capacitor is initially uncharged.
When the circuit is connected:
1. Electrons jump across the gap between the plates.
2. Electrons pile up on the left plate.
3. Electrons pile up on the right plate.
1 2 3 4 5
Which graph shows magnitude
of charge on the right plate
versus time while charging?
1 2 3 4 5
The capacitors are
initially uncharged.

.

\

c
=
R
s A Q
E
fringe
2
0
After 0.01 s of charging:
1. The fringe field of each capacitor is the same
2. The smaller capacitor (#1) has a larger fringe field
3. The larger capacitor (#2) has a larger fringe field
1 2 3 4 5
The capacitor is initially uncharged.
Which graph shows the magnitude of
the fringe field of the capacitor at
location A while charging?
1 2 3 4 5
The capacitor is initially
uncharged. Which graph shows
the magnitude of the net field at
location A while charging?
1 2 3 4 5
Circuit problems 1
What is the current through each resistor in the circuit below?
Circuit problems 2
What is the current through each resistor in the circuit below?
Circuit problems 2
M&I
Chapter 20
Magnetic Force
Remember the magnetic field of a moving charge ...
BiotSavart law:
0
2
4
q
r
t
=
v r
B
0
2
4
I
r
t
A
A =
l r
B
for a point charge
and for a small current element
... does not change the
speed of the charge, only its
direction, since
M&I
20.1
Magnetic force on a moving charge
Magnetic force on a moving charge:
magnetic
q = F v B
where: q is the charge (including the sign) of the moving charge
is the velocity of the moving charge
is the applied magnetic field (in tesla)
v
B
magnetic
F
v
B out the page
v B
( ) e = F v B
e
magnetic
F B
Magnitude of :
magnetic
sin
d
qvB
dt
u = =
p
F
magnetic
F
for v c
magnetic
q = F v B
A charge follows a circular path
when traveling in a magnetic
field ...
v
B
e = F v B
e +
Recall that for any rotating vector : X
d
dt
e =
X
X
Momentum principle:
The momentum of the particle above is a rotating vector ...
p
sin90
d
p q vB
dt
e = =
p
2 2
1
mv
q vB
v c
e =
2 2
1
q B
v c
m
e =
See helix_in_B.py
Circular motion at low speeds:
q B
m
e ~
if v c <<
... can also get this result starting from the centripetal
acceleration of the particle:
2
v R
2
mv
q vB
R
= Then:
and since :
v
R
e =
q B
m
e =
Time T for one complete circular orbit:
2
T
t
e = since ,
2
m
T
q B
t =
Momentum p:
since
d v
p p q vB
dt R
e = = =
p
... momentum: p q BR = ... valid even for relativistic speeds.
The magnetic force on a charge moving in a magnetic field
For each situation below, decide if the magnetic force on the
charge is zero. If not zero, then indicate the direction of the force.
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
+
v
B
+
v
B

v
B
 into paper v
B
. . . .
The magnetic force on a charge moving in a magnetic field 2

0 = v
B
(e) (f)
(g) (h)

B
+
v
+
v
into paper B
. . . .
. . . .
out of paper B
What is the direction of the magnetic force on the proton?
1. +x
2. x
3. +y
4. y
5. +z
6. z
7. zero magnitude
1 2 3 4 5
An electron is traveling in the y direction.
At its location there is a magnetic field in the z direction.
What is the direction of the magnetic force on the electron?
1. +x
2. x
3. +y
4. y
5. +z
6. z
7. zero magnitude
1 2 3 4 5
Applications: The cyclotron
= 0 in dees
E
E
B out the page in dees
accelerates charged particles across the gap
We need to flip the electric field rapidly in the gap in order to
synchronize the acceleration of the particles.
iThemba LABS
Faure, South Africa
200 MeV separated sector cyclotron
See http://www.tlabs.ac.za
M&I
20.2
Magnetic force on a currentcarrying wire
Consider a bunch of positive
charges contained in a small
volume with length l and cross
sectional area A, moving with drift
velocity .
If there are n moving charges per unit volume, then there are
moving charges in this small volume.
Then the force on this wire due to an external magnetic field
is
magnetic
( ) nA l q = A F v B
( ) qnAv = A l B
magnetic
I = A F l B
nA l A
v
B
B
v
Al
Magnetic force on a currentcarrying wire 2
Consider this situation
magnetic
I = A F l B
magnetic
sin
sin90
I lB
ILB ILB
u = A
= =
F
All the way around the loop,
points outwards.
The resultant force on the side
pieces is zero (although the
bottom wire is stretched!?)
The magnitude of on the bottom wire is
with the direction of downwards.
+
L
out the page
B
h
I
magnetic
F
magnetic
F
magnetic
F
B
I
E
v
Magnetic force on a currentcarrying wire 2
Why does the wire move at
all if the magnetic force
only acts on the drifting
electrons??
The answer relies on the
Hall effect excess charge
builds up on the top and
bottom surfaces on the
wire and an electric field
builds up until
and the resultant force on
the drifting electrons is zero.
E
E vB
=
However also acts on the stationary positive atomic cores
which experience a net downwards force
E
Magnetic force between
two parallel wires
Consider two very long parallel straight wires of length L, a
distance d apart. The upper wire carries conventional current I
1
and
the lower wire conventional current I
2
in the same direction.
No external magnetic fields present.
Magnetic field at bottom wire due to top wire:
0 1
1
2
4
I
B
d
t
~
Then force on lower wire due to B
1
:
0 1
21 2 1 2
2
sin90
4
I
F I LB I L
d
t
 
= =

\ .
in a direction upwards.
Similarly the force on the upper wire due to B
2
from lower wire:
0 1 2
21
2
4
LI I
d
t
= F
in a direction downwards
If I
1
and I
2
were in opposite directions, then the two wires
will repel each other.
L
I
1
I
2
B
1
d F
21
What is the direction of the magnetic force on the wire?
1. +x
2. x
3. +y
4. y
5. +z
6. z
7. zero magnitude
1 2 3 4 5
A proton moving in the +y direction
experiences a magnetic force in the
x direction.
1. +y
2. y
3. I = 0
4. Not enough information
What is the direction of the conventional current in the wire?
1 2 3 4 5
The Lorentz force
If a charge moves in region where there are both electric and
magnetic fields present, then the net force acting on the particle is
given by
resultant electric magnetic
= + F F F
q q = + F E v B Lorentz force
In each of the situations below, what is the direction of the
Lorentz force on a proton at this instant? [and for an electron?]
y
x
z
B
E
0 = v
y
x
z
B
E v
y
x
z
B
E
v
y
x
z
B
E
v
v in z direction
M&I
20.3
What are the directions of the forces on the moving positive charge?
F
elec
F
mag
1 up up
2 down down
3 up down
4 down up
1 2 3 4 5
What are the directions of the forces on the moving negative charge?
F
elec
F
mag
1 up up
2 down down
3 up down
4 down up
1 2 3 4 5
A particle of charge +q travels in a straight line at constant speed.
Which is true?
1. qE = qvB
2. E = B
3. E = q / (vB)
4. qE = qB
1 2 3 4 5
E = 1000 V/m, B = 0.5 T, q = 2 nC
A particle travels in a straight line at constant speed.
What is the speed v of the particle?
1. 2000 m/s
2. 0.5 m/s
3. 500 m/s
4. 1000 m/s
5. 1.0 m/s
1 2 3 4 5
A positively charged particle moves through a hole in a plate into a
region with an electric field and a magnetic field. The two fields and
the velocity of the particle are all mutually perpendicular.
+
v
E
into paper B
1. Draw arrows to indicate the directions of the electric and
magnetic forces acting on the particle.
(Are there any other forces acting on the particle?)
Applications: The velocity selector
The velocity selector 2
2. State in words the conditions that are necessary for the particle
to move straight ahead at a constant velocity.
3. Say now that the particle entered the region travelling at 2v.
What would now be its trajectory between the plates? Explain in
terms of the forces acting on the particle.
4. Say now that the particle entered the region travelling at half
of v. What would now be its trajectory between the plates?
Explain in terms of the forces acting on the particle.
Worked example: the electron and current loop
+Q
3R
I v
If the force on the
moving electron is
zero, then what is the
magnitude and
direction of the
current I?
mag electric
= F F
on electron
( )
2
0
1
4
3
eQ
evB
R
tc
=
2
0
1
4 9
Q
R
B
v
tc
=
The electron and current loop 2
The magnetic field of a loop is
( )
3
2
2
0
2 2
2
=
4
loop
I R
B
R z
t
t
+
At the centre of the 2 loops z = 0
0
2
=
4
loop
I
B
R
t
t
E
I
B
E v
L
d
h
magnetic electric
= F F
sin90 eE evB
=
When this happens:
or E vB
=
(similar to the velocity selector)
The voltmeter will read a value equal to E h vBh
+ = +
(The voltmeter will read zero when B = 0)
The Hall effect 3
The appearance of a sideways or transverse potential difference
across a currentcarrying wire in the presence of a magnetic field is
called the Hall effect.
If we had positive particles moving to the right in our conductor,
instead of electrons moving to the left, then the bottom of the
block would have an excess positive charge with excess negative
charge on the top
... and the voltmeter would read a negative voltage!
therefore by measuring the Hall effect for a particular
metal, we can determine the sign of the moving particles that
make up the current.
The Hall effect 4
In a metal bar of length L, height h and width w, carrying a
conventional current : I q nAv =
Then:
Hall
I
V vBh Bh
A q n
A = =
So can be measured for different materials, and can be
used to confirm that in some metals (e.g. aluminium and zinc)
and ptype semiconductors, it is positive holes in the electron
sea, rather than the electrons themselves that are the dominant
charge carriers.
Hall
V A
Turn it around! if is known for a particular material,
together with I, A, q, n and h (easy), then we can measure an
unknown B ( build an instrument to measure magnetic fields)
a Hall probe
Hall
V A
What is the direction of inside the bar?

E
1. +x
2. x
3. +y
4. y
5. +z
6. z
7. zero magnitude
1 2 3 4 5
If the mobile charges are negative, what is their direction
of motion inside the bar?
1. +x
2. x
3. +y
4. y
5. +z
6. z
7. zero magnitude
1 2 3 4 5
If the mobile charges are negative, then what is the sign of the
voltmeter reading?
(Voltmeter reads positive if the + lead is connected to a higher
potential location)
1. positive
2. negative
3. zero
1 2 3 4 5
If the mobile charges are positive, what is the direction of
the magnetic force?
1. +x
2. x
3. +y
4. y
5. +z
6. z
7. zero magnitude
1 2 3 4 5
If the mobile charges are positive, then what is the sign of the
voltmeter reading?
(Voltmeter reads positive if the + lead is connected to a higher
potential location)
1. positive
2. negative
3. zero
1 2 3 4 5
Motional emf: Currents due to magnetic forces.
M&I
20.5
If we move a wire through a magnetic field,
then can we generate a current?
Consider a metal bar of length
L that is moving through
region of uniform magnetic
field B, into the page ...
B
v
L
The mobile electrons inside the
bar experience a force
magnetic
( ) e = F v B
downward
with the result that the mobile
electron sea shifts downwards
and the bar becomes polarized
electric field E
pol
inside the bar.
B
v
E
pol
+
+
+
+
+ +
B
v
R
A current will run in this circuit, driven by a battery (the moving
metal bar) electrons are driven the wrong way, moving
towards the negative end of the bar.
The surfacecharge
distribution on the circuit
looks something like
B
v
R
+ + + + + + + + + + +
+ + + + +
+ +
+ + + + + + +
r
Proton 1 also contributes a magnetic field at the position of
proton 2 where into the page.
0
1
2
4
ev
B
r
t
=
1
B
Hence there is a magnetic force on proton 2, where
2 2
0
21,
2
4
m
e v
F
r
t
=
upwards
21,m
F
Magnetic forces in moving reference frames ...2
The resultant force on proton 2 due to proton 1 is
21, 21, e m
+ F F
Taking the ratio of these two forces:
2 2
0
2
21, 2
0 0
2
21,
2
0
4
1
4
m
e
e v
F
r
v
e F
r
t
c
tc
= =
But
( ) ( )
12 2 2 7 1
0 0
1 1
8.85 10 C N m 4 10 T m A
c
=
16 2 2 2
8.99 10 m s !!! c = =
2
21,
2
21,
m
e
F
v
F c
=
So as ,
21, 21,
m e
v c F F
Magnetic forces in moving reference frames ...3
Now considering the full Lorentz force of proton 1 on proton 2:
2 2 2
0
21, 21,
2 2
0
1
4 4
e m
e e v
r r
tc t
+ = F F
downward
The resultant force on proton 2 is downward ... and the resultant
Lorentz force on proton 1 due to proton 2 is upward.
The two protons repel each
other and their trajectories are
curving line apart.
v
v
12,resultant
F
21,resultant
F
Read Jack and Jill
and Einstein in M&I .
Relativistic field transformations
M&I
20.7
Consider two frames of reference:
y
x
z
Lab frame y
x
z
Moving frame
v
(moving at speed v
relative to lab frame)
How do electric and magnetic fields transform from one
reference frame to the other? . Need special relativity
'
x x
E E =
'
x x
B B =
( )
'
2 2
1
y z
y
E vB
E
v c
( )
'
2 2
1
z y
z
E vB
E
v c
+
=
2
'
2 2
1
y z
y
v
B E
c
B
v c
 
+

\ .
=
2
'
2 2
1
z y
z
v
B E
c
B
v c
 

\ .
=
4
q
r
r tc
= E
In the lab frame:
0 = B
In the moving reference frame the particle is seen to be moving
with speed v in the x direction
In the moving frame above the particle, E
y
> 0, therefore:
2
2
'
2 2 2 2
1 1
z y
y
z
v
v
B E
E
c
c
B
v c v c
 

\ .
= =
At low speeds, : v c <<
'
2 2 2
0
1
4
z y
v v q
B E
c c r tc
 
= =

\ .
'
2 2 2
0
1
4
z y
v v q
B E
c c r tc
 
= =

\ .
Relativistic field transformations 3
In the moving frame:
y
x
z
v
B
' '
0
x z
B B = =
2
0 0
1
c
c
=
and since :
'
0
2
4
z
qv
B
r
t
=
as predicted by BiotSavart
Similarly, below the particle: ,
'
2
z y
v
B E
c
=
At this position: ,
'
2
y z
v
B E
c
=
' '
0
y x
B B = =
' '
0
y x
B B = =
and on the other side: ,
'
2
y z
v
B E
c
=
' '
0
x z
B B = =
magnetic fields are a relativistic
consequence of electric fields
Above the moving particle ,
Electric field of a rapidly moving charged particle
If the speed of the moving reference frame is very large
(approaching c) then the electric field of the particle is altered
significantly in the moving frame.
'
x x
E E =
( )
'
2 2
1
y
y
E
E
v c
=
( )
'
2 2
1
z
z
E
E
v c
=
If B
z
= 0:
y
x
z
Moving frame
v
+
'
E
and increase as
'
y
E
'
z
E
v c
Moving through a region of uniform magnetic field
Now consider a case where
0
x
B =
z
B B =
0
y
B =
rest frame
y
x
z
B
'
E
y
x
z
v
'
B
moving frame
in a rest frame:
In the moving frame:
( )
'
2 2 2 2
0
( )
1 1
z
y
vB
v B
E
v c v c
= =
vB =
if v << c
Moving through a region of uniform magnetic field 2
If we are in the moving frame
and observe a metal bar which is
at rest in this frame the metal
bar polarizes and a downward
field is produced, until the
net field inside the metal is zero
(there is static equilibrium and
).
'
E
y
x
z
'
B
moving frame
+
+
+
+
+ +
'
pol
E
'
pol
E
y
x
z
B
lab frame
+
+
+
+
+ +
pol
E
v
In the lab frame the bar is
observed moving at v in the
xdirection, and the bar polarizes
due to the magnetic force qvB
acting on the mobile charges
At equilibrium
or
pol
qE qvB =
'
pol
E vB =
pol
E vB =
Moving through a region of uniform magnetic field 3
The amount of charge buildup is the same in either reference
frame, but the explanation that observers in the two frames
give for the cause of the charge buildup is different.
Principle of relativity: There may be different mechanisms
for different observers in different reference frames, but all
observers can correctly predict what will happen in their own
frames, using the same relativistically correct physical laws.
Another example: the velocity selector
Moving through a velocity selector
y
x
z
B
E
v
lab frame
A particle moves with speed v in the
+x direction through a region where
there is an electric field of magnitude E
in the +y direction and a magnetic field
of magnitude B in the +z direction.
If E = vB then the particle passes through with no deflection
because the electric force of magnitude eE is equal and opposite
to the magnetic force of magnitude qvB.
If you move through this region with speed v in the +x direction,
without the charged particle being present, what electric and
magnetic fields would you observe in your (moving) frame?
Moving through a velocity selector 2
( )
'
2 2 2 2 2 2
0
1 1 1
y z
y
E vB
E vB vB vB
E
v c v c v c
= = = =
The only fields that would be observed in the moving frame are:
( )
2 2
2
2 2
'
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1
1 1 1 1
z y
z
v
v v
B E
B E B vB
v c B
c
c c
B
v c v c v c v c
 

\ .
= = = =
A charge at rest is unaffected by the magnetic field and there is
no electric field so there is no force on the particle.
A particle at rest in the moving frame moves with constant
velocity in the rest frame, straight through the velocity selector.
a different explanation for each frame for the same
phenomenon, each of which makes sense in that frame.
Magnetic torque on a magnetic dipole moment
M&I
20.8
Consider a rectangular
currentcarrying loop of
wire in a uniform magnetic
field , free to rotate on an
insulating horizontal axle...
... A force acts on
two sides of the loop,
causing it to rotate such that
its magnetic dipole moment
lines up with the
external magnetic field .
B
I
h
w
F IwB =
B
I in
I out
F IwB =
B
F IwB =
IA Ihw = =
B
Magnetic torque on a magnetic dipole moment ...2
Total torque on the loop =
( )( ) ( )
2 sin 2 sin
2
h
r F F h IwB u u
 
= =

\ .
Since
IA Ihw = =
write torque = sin B u
or = B
(for any shaped loop)
B
I
I
F IwB =
F IwB =
u
u
u
u
sin F IwB u
=
sin F IwB u
=
2 h
2 h
u
Potential energy for a magnetic dipole moment
M&I
20.9
When a magnetic dipole moment rotates freely to align with an
applied magnetic field, the aligned magnetic dipole moment must be
associated with a lower potential energy in the magnetic field.
How much work will be done (by us) to move the magnetic dipole
moment out of alignment?
Work done in rotating a rectangular loop from u
i
to u
f
...
2 sin sin
2
f f f
i i i
r
m
r
h
W U Fdr IwB d IwhB d
u u
u u
u u u u
 
= A = = =

\ .
} } }
( )[cos cos ]
m f i
U IwhB u u A =
write cos
m
U B u = = B
Force on a magnetic dipole moment
S N
2
( ) I R t =
dF
cos(90 ) dF u
u
B
B
B
u
dF
cos(90 ) dF u
Bring one end of a bar magnet
near to a currentcarrying loop
of radius R the magnetic
field due to the bar magnet is
diverging at some angle and
is therefore not uniform.
Each segment of the ring
experiences a magnetic force
d Id = F l B
The horizontal components of the force is cos(90 ) sin dF dF u u =
The vertical components of the forces cancel.
net
(2 sin )
sin (2 )sin
B
F IB dl IB R
R
u
u t u = = =
}
Force on a magnetic dipole moment 2
S N
by us
F
1
B
2
B
mag
F
x A
Take a situation where a magnetic dipole moment is aligned with the
magnetic field from a bar magnet the magnetic exerts a force
to the left and we exert a force which is slightly larger than
and we move the magnetic dipole moment from position 1 to 2.
mag
F
mag
F
by us
F
m
U B = = B
Since
then the work done by us =
( ) ( ) ( )
by us 2 1 2 1 m
F x U B B B B B A = A = = = A
which is greater than zero since
2 1
B B <
(in this case)
Force on a magnetic dipole moment 3
by us
m
U B dB
F
x x dx
A A
= =
A A
a positive value.
(In general, )
x
dU
F
dx
=
Note that there is no force if the field is uniform 0
dB
dx
 
=

\ .
The magnetic field along the axis of a bar magnet:
0 1
1
3
2
4
B
x
t
~
Where is the total magnetic dipole moment of all the
atomic magnetic dipole moments in the magnet
1
0 0 1 1 1
mag 2 2 2
3 4
2 2
3
4 4
dB d
F
dx dx x x
t t
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
The magnetic torque on a currentloop dipole
What is the direction of the torque on each of the loops below?
B
(a) (b) (c) (d)
The magnetic torque on a currentloop dipole 2
What is the direction of the torque on each of the loops below?
Which way would the magnetic torque tend to rotate the loop?
B
I
B
I
I
(a) The plane of the
circular loop is
perpendicular to the
page and the magnetic
field is in the plane of
the paper.
(b) The plane of the
circular loop is
perpendicular to the
page and the magnetic
field is in the plane of
the paper.
(c) The plane of the
circular loop and the
magnetic field are
both perpendicular
to the plane of the
paper.
The magnetic torque on a currentloop dipole 3
What is the direction of the torque on each of the loops below?
Which way would the magnetic torque tend to rotate the loop?
I
B
I
(d) The circular
loop is in the
plane of the paper
and the magnetic
field is into the
paper.
(e) The circular
loop and the
magnetic field
are both in the
plane of the
paper.
(f) The plane of the
circular loop is
perpendicular to the
paper and the
magnetic field is in
the plane of the paper.
I
The electric generator
M&I
20.10
Mechanically rotate a loop of
dimensions w and h at a constant
angular speed (in
radians per second) inside a uniform
magnetic field.
The tangential speed of the left or
right wire is , since the
wire is a distance h/2 from the axle.
B
h
w
d dt e u =
( )
2 v h e =
u
B
v
B
v
The magnetic forces drive a
conventional current clockwise in the
loop
Magnetic force on each current carrier:
sin F qvB u =
The electric generator 2
For the right wire, the magnetic force is uniform throughout
the wire, so the motional emf (nonCoulomb work per unit
charge) is given by
( )
sin
sin
qvB w
vBw
q
u
u =
The left wire contributes the same emf, so the total emf around
the loop is:
( )
2 sin 2 2 sin ( )sin sin vBw h Bw t B hw t BA t u e e e e e e ( = = =
Connect the rotating loop
to an external circuit using
two commutators.
Then the current,
sin BA t
I
R
e e
=
I
I
I
I
R
The electric generator 3
emf sin NBA t e e = For our generator of N loops:
Which produces an alternating current in the external circuit
this is the basis of nearly all commercial electricity generation
In South Africa, frequency of AC is 50 Hz and root mean square
voltage is 220V.
t
NBA e
emf
An external force is required at both ends of
the loop, perpendicular to the loop, to balance the
perpendicular component of the magnetic
force of the loop.
The electric generator 4
What power needed to rotate the loop?
ext
sin F IwB u =
sin F IwB u
=
B
I
I
F IwB =
u
u
sin F IwB u
=
sin F IwB u
=
2 h
ext
F
ext
F
The electric generator 5
( )
2 sin
2
h
W IwB u u A = A
If we rotate the loop through a small angle , we move each
end a small distance and do a small amount of work
( )
2 h u A
u A
Divide by and take the limit as t A 0 t A
( ) ( ) ( )
2 sin sin sin
2
dW h d
IwB I Bwh I BA
dt dt
u
u e u e u = = =
sin BA t
I
R
e e
=
and since
2
Power = ( )
dW
I RI RI
dt
= =
Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.
Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.
Отменить можно в любой момент.