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Stormy Sixties

President Kennedy launches his New Frontier. His domestic program addresses education, health care, and equal employment opportunities. He also calls for a more vigorous space program. His foreign policy has some successes and failures. Lyndon Johnson finishes out JFKs term and wins election in his own right. Johnson launches an ambitious program, the Great Society, designed to address poverty and a multitude of other societal problems. However, Johnson struggles with foreign policy, eventually wearing down from the Vietnam War. The 1960s is a turning point in the civil rights movement (for blacks, women, Native Americans, and gays). Concurrently, people begin to challenge what they view as oppressive cultural, social, and moral norms of American society; some even identify with the counterculture. Seeing the direction the nation is taking as secular and valueless, many turn to Christian fundamentalism.

I. JFKs New Frontier


A.

Camelot Administration
1. 2. Cabinet Fragile Democratic majorities Inflation
a. b. Noninflationary wage agreement (steel industry) Lower taxes

B.

Domestic Agenda
1.

2. 3.

Space Race Civil Rights Struggle


a. b. c. d. e. CORE Freedom Riders, 1961 James Meredith, 1962 Showdown in Birmingham U of Alabama and M. Evers March on WA, 1963

I. JFKs New Frontier (cont.)


C. Challenges New Frontier
1. Europe
1. 2. 3. Berlin Wall, 1961 Trade Expansion Act, 1962 DeGaulle Laos Green Berets (652 to 16,000) Diem failed reforms led to assassination Alliance for ProgressProgress-$20B Bay of Pigs Cuban Missile Crisis

2.

Flexible Response in Indochina


a. b. c.

3.

Latin America
1. 2. 3.

D.

Successes of New Frontier


1. 2. 3. Peace Corps Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 1963 American University Speech: peaceful coexistence

II. Johnsons Domestic Program


A.

Great Society Congress


1. 2. 3. 4. 24th Amendment Civil Rights Act, 1964
a. b. EEOC discrimination in hiring Race and gender discrimination

Immigration Act, 1965 Voting Rights Act, 1965

B.

Great Society President


1. 2. 3. 4. Affirmative Action by Executive Order, 1965 War on Poverty
a. Head Start, HUD, Medicare

Office of Economic Opportunity Nat. Endowment of Arts & Hum

C.

Impact of Great Society


1. 2. 3. Entitlement Programs (Medicare and Medicaid) Welfare state? Election of 1964

II. Johnsons Foreign Policy


A.

Vietnam War
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, 1964 Battle of la Drang Aerial bombing N. Vietnam Ho Chi Minh Trail Tet Offensive, 1968 Senator Fulbright Dominican Republic Six Six-Day War A Long Hot Summer Nixon, a minority President

B.

Other hotspots
1. 2.

C.

1968 Election
1. 2.

III. Transition in Civil Rights


A.

Violent Demonstration
1. 2. 3. Goal: Economic oppression Watts, CA Groups
a. b. Nation of Islam Black Power

4.
B.

Assassination of MLK, 1968 Increase in black vote but division in Demos New migration New focus on economic oppression

Impact of Civil Rights


1. 2. 3.

John Carlos

Tommie Smith

III. Cultural Changes (cont.)


C. Rise of Counterculture
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Impact of Baby Boomers New Left Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) Free Speech Movement
a. a. b. c. d. e. Mario Savio Bob Dylan Woodstock, 1969 Allan Ginsberg James Dean Alfred Kinsey

Voices

3 Ps (population, protest, prosperity)

Thats one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.