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Annotated Bibliography Sarah M. Coyne, PhD, Laura A. Stockdale, MSc, David A. Nelson, PhD, Ashley Fraser, BSc.

Profanity in Media Associated With Attitudes and Behavior Regarding Profanity Use and Aggression. Official Journal Of the American Acadamy of Pediatrics. The authors in the article seek to examine the direct relationship between profanity observed in the media, and aggressive behavior. With a constructed experiment consisting of 223 students a series of questions were formed to test the hypothesis. After conducting the experiment it was confirmed that there is a positive correlation between profanity in the media and similarly reflective behavior. Basically, the exposure to profanity can potentially increase the possibility of it being used in context of social events. There is a minimal acceptance of this type of behavior amongst professional or even social encounters, making this scenario a negative thing for the community. Profanity plays a very prevalent role in the television series Dexter. One of the main characters, Debra, does not seem to be able to form a sentence with the lack of a swear word. The profanity continuously feeds into the aggressive nature of the show. Even in the show it is obvious that the engagement of profanity in conversation is unacceptable. Eric G. Roberts. Are Sociopaths and Psychopaths one in the same?. The Psychology Journal. As mentioned in the article certain shows seen on television such as Dexter have begun to almost glamorize disorders such as psychopathy and sociopathy. According to Roberts these shows make the disorders appear to make the diagnosed character more intelligent and superior to those around them. The dying out terms have been brought back into the light thanks to the media. The article expresses that psychopathy is when an individual does not have a sense of empathy or morality. Sociopathiy however, does show a sense of morality along with the presence of a conscience. Though sociopaths do have those traits they lack in obtaining the sense of what is right and wrong. Would these conditions exist without their presence in the media? My personal opinion is that they would exit, however they would not be at all as prevalent. All in all the effect of the positive portrayal of these disorders in the media has expanded their presence in the communities of which they have been viewed. Brad J. Bushman, L. Rowell Huesmann. Effects of Televised Violence on Agression. Handbook of Children and the Media. 223-245. The basis of this chapter of the Effects of Televised Violence on Aggression focuses on the fact that violence does not have one direct source, however the portrayal of violence and aggression in the media could be a strong factor. Children especially can be affected by viewing violence in the media seeing as how at a young age one is most impressionable. In this chart form the book you can see how the fad

of television skyrocketed from the 1950s into the 2000s. What is the most misleading

about reality-based television shows is the crime rate that occurs in the United State. TV tends to overemphasize or exaggerate murder rates especially. The chapter claims that .2% of crimes reported by the FBI are murders. Shockingly 50% of the crimes committed on reality-based TV shows are murders. These statistics do not appear to reflect real crime rates at all. This is when we should wonder; do we have a fascination with violence? If we dont then why do we put such an emphasis into the media? Showtimes Dexer revolves around murder and death in Miami, however the number of murders and crime scenes that they attend in the show seems to be in a much larger quantity rather then it would be in reality. Dexter is supposedly the good guy in the show although he is a serial killer. The chapter claims that the characters that are good commit 40% of all violent crimes in TV. In short TV seems to put an emphasis on aggression and violence, yet many continue to view it, let alone allow their children to view it.

Battin, Richard. "Why Are We so Fascinated with Murder and Serial Killers?"Examiner.com. Examiner, 4 July 2009. Homicide examiner Richard Battin addresses the question of why are we so fascinated with murders and serial killers? with the we focusing on Americans. He theorizes that one that has seen a murder or witnessed a body would not find any fascination in murder. Americans are so interested in murder that we have several murder-oriented shows. A couple shows that Battin mentioned include Murder She

Wrote and Monk. One example that he mentions of Americans showing exceedingly demented fascination, is of the collecting of cereal killer memorabilia. Personally, most of what is considered entertaining on television now a day contains violence and aggression in vast quantities. It is a curious matter that we tend to find something so discerning to have amusement in it. The quizzical matter on hand is; what aspect of shows containing murder and violence makes them riveting. Many people admit to being afraid of death. Battin mentions that maybe people are just sympathizing for the fictional victim, or just rejoicing in the fact that it is not them. Donovan, Patricia. Americas Facination with Murder. UB Reporter, 6 Septermber 2007. Reflecting back to 17th century America, the author cites David F. Schmids research in the fact that the fascination with murder has been prevalent for a long time. His interpretation of Americas favorite occupations includes consumerism, violence, and celebrity buzz, or gossip. What is the reasoning for such fascination? Could it be that Americans are too board with their own lives, resulting in the need for alternate forms of entertainment? According to Schmid, murder holds a certain thrill to some. The author expands on the sources that one would view or hear about murder. This includes television shows, video games, literature, and newspapers. Some videogames are made so that the gamer, himself or herself can be the killer, automatically immersing one in the hypothetical shoes of a murderer. The author again quotes Schmids when he elaborates on the idea that Americans use violence as an exciting outlet to a mundane life. When society pushes an idea into the media, it tends to catch on like wildfire. What may not have been aired on television as l ittle as ten years ago, is now present at almost every flip of a channel. Donnelly, Ashley M. The New American Hero: Dexter, Serial Killer for the Masses. The journal of Popular Culture. February 2012. Dexter Morgan is a character in the television series Dexter. In the show he is portrayed as a normal guy to surrounding citizens and his peers, however he is also a brutal serial killer. The author expands upon the fact that to viewers the character of Dexter is glorified. The show makes him seem like a good guy because his victims are typically bad people or murderers themselves. Donnelly finds it to be disturbing that its viewers do not only accept this sort of behavior, but they have made it is a part of the consumer world. Blood-spattered pillows, and coaster sets are among the many odd things that the author mentions fans of the show purchasing. What is even more disturbing is the body bag toss game the author mentioned that is online. This game is supposed to replicate Dexter throwing his victims remains into the ocean. How is it that we begin to idolize a murderer, even when we understand that the crimes they commit are wrong? The idea that a serial killer can be someones hero is an ironic thing about televised violence. The false sense of reality can alter ones perception about something in the real world.

Schmid, David. Natural Born Celebrities: Serial Killers in America. 2005. Schmid analyzes the interest in Americans buying and selling of murderabilia. Murderablilia, according to the author is an object that is in relation to, or from a serial killer or a crime scene. Examples of a murderer keepsake can include nail clippings, a lock of hair, or in one case a brick from Jeffrey Dahmers old apartment. These items are being sold at a pretty penny from about 300 to 900 dollars. The mass sell of these items began on Ebay until the site decided to ban the sale of murderabilia. The author goes on to question what has made the serial killer a so-called celebrity. How can one extract fame from something so brutally inhumane? The author quotes one of the sellers of murderabillia who claims the people purchasing the items are your typical, normal type of person. The stereotype of people who would typically purchase these items are seen in the Gothic community. What is interesting about this book is the ironic question of how can someone who is a criminal become famous and almost idolized for their actions? Also, Americans seem to be confusing fame with infamy in their immense fascination. Bond, Paul. "Study: TV's Newest Obsession Is Serial Killers." The Hollywood Reporter. N.p., 28 June 2013. Web. 26 Feb. 2014. The article analyses the seven new television shows containing serial killers in 2013. The author first mentions the television show Dexter. He claims that Dexter is a wrongfully glorified serial killer who kills other murderers. He also says that this show has withstood much scrutiny. According to the article there have been several instances where people have been mimicking televised murders in real life. From the show Dexter there have been three mock murders and one attempted murder. One women even publically admitted to her attempt to recreate the a murder that the character Dexter had made look so easy. Something interesting about the article is that it points out that the executives of these shows claim the violence portrayed on the television simply reflect the violence in society. They also claim that they do not encourage it. The odd thing about the claim that they do not encourage violence is that the characters committing majority of the crimes are glorified or made heroic in the show. Ironically, the author analysis that Hollywood was thrilled that there were shows that promoted gay marriage, however when something negative such as violence comes about, Hollywood does not take credit for any sort of real-life affects. One of the former cast members of Criminal Minds was quoted saying that she thought the show had too much of an excess of violence and she was ashamed to be a part of it. This show has overemphasized the amount of serial killers in the United States. The author states that the show showed over 100 serial killers throughout seven seasons whereas the FBI has only estimated there to be 40 actual serial killers in real-life US.

Jarvis, Brian. "Monsters INC.: Serial Killers and Consumer Culture."Sagepublications.com. N.p., 7 Nov. 2012. Web. 25 Feb. 2014. Serial killing has become a part of the consumer culture throughout literature, video games, and television. Serial killers have been mass produced through films that make them seem like more of a real-life street dweller then in reality. Murderabilia, a token from a serial killer or their crime scene have made a huge boom in consumer culture. Also, t-shirts, trading cards, board games and more have made a huge hit in relation to serial killers. The question the author asks is in regard to how serial killers receive their fame. Several possible reasons that he states includes sexual derives, curiosity, and admiration for/of the killer. Statistics have shown that the majority of the people buying murderabilia are women whereas the killers are typically men. Would serial killers become so famous if we did not make such a fuss over the details of what they did? A bit later in the author mentions that in the real-world violence is rarely seen and when it is actually visible it does not influence consumerism. Going deeper into analyzing consumer culture and the exchange of murderabilia, the author brings up that consumers of these items may be envious of the killer. It is possible that people are buying serial killer memorabilia because they with they were the killer themselves. The idea that people idolize these killers is disturbing. Smith, Victor L. "Our Serial Killers, Our Superheros, and Ourselves: Showtime's Dexter." Taylor & Frances Online. N.p., 15 Sept. 2011. Web. 25 Feb. 2014. The beginning of the article sarcastically states that America has chosen a serial killer for its next superhero and protector. The article first explain how the shows main character, Dexter is a serial killer who believes that he is doing a good thing by killing other serial killers. In the show Dexter is portrayed as the silent hero that takes care of all the bay guys, however when have we every herd of a serial killer superhero? The author then explains that in the show Dexters character has a fascination with blood, cut open bodies and corpses, all very odd interests. One of the explanations she gives for Americans fascination of serials is the need for a representation of death and also the need for celebrities. Gossip and media are Americas crutch for entertainment. Something as juicy as a serial killer will defiantly get people talking. It seems to the author that a serial killer would create lots of buzz because of the violence that Americans find so compelling.