Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 6

Unit 8 8.1.1 State that oxidation is loss of electrons from element and loss of hydrogen/gain of oxygen.

Reduction is gain of electrons from element and gain of hydrogen/loss of oxygen.

8.1.2 Outline the process of glycolysis, including phosphorylation, lysis, oxidation and ATP formation. 1. Glycolysis occurs in cytoplasm where hexose sugar is converted to two pyruvate compounds with net gain of 2 ATP and 2 NADH and H+ 2. Glycolysis begins when hexose is phosphorylated, using the energy from ATP, to form hexose phosphate. 3. Hexose phosphate is then split (lysis) to form two triose molecules. 4. Each triose phosphate molecule is oxidised to form glycerate-3-phosphate. Oxidation occurs, electrons are lost and hydrogen H+ is removed from each of the triose phosphate molecules and accepted by NAD+, forming NADH and H+ 5. Glycerate-3-phosphate is then further phosphorylated, whereby phosphate groups are transferred to ADP to form 2 ATP and 2 pyruvate molecules. 8.1.4 Explain aerobic respiration, including the link reaction, the Krebs cycle, the role of NADH + H+, the electron transport chain and the role of oxygen.

Aerobic respiration occurs in the matrix of the mitochondrion in eukaryotes in a process termed decarboxylation, in which hydrogen is removed fro

Krebs cycle:[3 max] occurs in matrix of mitochondrion in eukaryotes; decarboxylation; oxidation / removal of hydrogen by NAD and FAD; substrate level phosphorylation; Electron transport chain:[5 max] transfer of hydrogen to inner membrane carriers; hydrogen ion pumped across inner membrane; creating concentration gradient; electron transferred between carriers; chemiosmosis; hydrogen ion passes down concentration gradient; through ATPase

complex; oxygen is final acceptor forming water;

pyruvate produced by glycolysis; pyruvate enters mitochondrion/mitochondria; pyruvate loses CO2 in link reaction; and NADH + H+; with formation of acetyl CoA; to take part in Krebs cycle; where two CO2 are produced per molecule of pyruvate; one ATP from ADP + Pi; along with three NADH + H+ and one FADH2; NADH + H+ provide electrons circulating in the electron transport chain on the inner mitochondrial membrane; allowing H+ to accumulate in the intermembrane space; and come back to the matrix through ATP synthase/synthetase to produce ATP by chemiosmosis; presence of O2 required as the final electron acceptor for the electron transport chain; producing water with H+;

8.1.5 Explain oxidative phosphorylation in terms of chemiosmosis.

ATP synthase enzyme catalyses phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP, using energy from the electron transport chain and redox reactions NADH is oxidised to NAD 8.1.6 Explain the relationship between structure of mitochondrion and its function Cristae forming a large surface area for electron transport chain Small space between inner and outer membranes for accumulation of protons Fluid matrix - contains enzymes of Krebs cycle 8.2.3 Explain light-dependent reactions (including photoactivation of photosystem II, photolysis of water, electron transport, cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation, photoactivation of photosystem I, and reduction of NADP+)

Chlorophylls within Photosystem II absorb light energy and pass it to two chlorophyll molecules, This light absorption (photoactivation) causes an electron in one of the chlorophylls to jump to a high energy level. Excited electron passes along chain of

electron carriers, at the end of which electrons are passed on to ferredoxin, causing NADP+ to be reduced to NADPH + H+. Absorption of light in photosystem II provides electron for photosystem I Photolysis of water produces H+ and O2, termed non-cyclic photophosphorylation. In cyclic photophosphorylation, electron returns to chlorophyll, producing ATP by H+ pumped across thylakoid membrane by chemiosmosis. 8.2.4 Explain photophosphorylation in terms of chemiosmosis As the electrons (released from chlorophyll) cycle through the electron transport chains located on the thylakoid membrane, they lose energy This free energy is used to pump H+ ions from the stroma into the thylakoid The build up of protons inside the thylakoid creates an electrochemical gradient (or proton motive force) The H+ ions return to the stroma via the transmembrane enzyme ATP synthase, which uses the potential energy from the proton motive force to convert ADP and an inorganic phosphate (Pi) into ATP This process is called chemiosmosis

8.2.5 Explain the light independent reaction The light independent reaction occurs in the stroma and uses the ATP and NADPH + H+ produced by the light dependent reaction (non-cyclic) The light independent reaction is also known as the Calvin cycle and occurs via three main steps:

1. Carbon Fixation The enzyme rubisco (RuBP carboxylase) catalyses the attachment of CO2 to the 5C compound ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) The unstable 6C compound that is formed immediately breaks down into two 3C molecules called glycerate-3-phosphate (GP)

2. Reduction Each GP molecule is then phosphorylated by ATP and reduced by NADPH + H+

This converts each GP molecule into a triose phosphate (TP) called glyceraldehyde phosphate

3. Regeneration of RuBP For every six molecules of TP produced, only one may be used to form half a sugar molecule (need two cycles to form a complete glucose) The remaining TP molecules are reorganised to regenerate stocks of RuBP in a reaction that involves ATP With RuBP regenerated, this cycle will repeat many times and be used to construct chains of sugars (e.g. sucrose) for use by the plant 8.2.6 Explain the relationship between the structure of the chloroplast and its function Thylakoids: Small lumen means small changes in proton concentration have a large effect on the proton motive force Grana: Thylakoids arranged in stacks to greatly increase surface area available for light absorption (chlorophyll located in thylakoid membrane) Stroma: Contains appropriate enzymes and suitable pH for the light independent reaction to occur

8.2.7 Explain the relationship between the action spectrum and absorption spectrum of photosynthetic pigments in green plants Pigments absorb light as a source of energy for photosynthesis The absorption spectrum indicates the wavelengths (frequency) of light absorbed by each pigment The action spectrum indicates the rate of photosynthesis for each wavelength / frequency There is a strong correlation between the cumulative absorption spectrum of all photosynthetic pigments and the action spectrum Both display two main peaks - a larger peak at ~450 nm (blue) and a smaller peak at ~670 nm (red) with a decrease in between (green) 8.2.8 Explain the concept of limiting factors in photosynthesis, with reference to

light intensity, temperature and concentration of carbon dioxide 6. The law of limiting factors states that when a chemical process depends on more than one essential condition being favourable, its rate will be limited by the factor that is nearest its minimum value 7. Photosynthesis is dependent on a number of favourable conditions, including:

Light Intensity Light is required for the light dependent reactions (photoactivation of chlorophyll and photolysis of water molecules) Low light intensities results in insufficient production of ATP and NADPH + H+ (both needed for the light independent reaction)

Temperature Primarily affects the light independent reaction (and to a lesser extent the light dependent reactions) High temperatures will denature essential enzymes (e.g. rubisco), whereas insufficient thermal energy will prohibit reactions from occurring

Concentration of Carbon Dioxide Carbon dioxide is required for the light independent reaction to occur (carbon fixation of RuBP by rubisco) At low levels, carbon fixation will occur very slowly, whereas at higher levels the rate will peak as all rubsico are being used

Factors Affecting the Rate of Photosynthesis