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, COMPARITIVE EVALUATION OF PULSE WIDTH MODULATION TECHNNIQUES USING THREE PHASE INVERTER

Prepared & Su !"##ed $%

A.SREE&ANTH'()$EE)))(* &RISHNA TE+A.M(()$EE),)-)

U.der #/e Gu"da.0e 12

Pr12.UMASHAN&AR.S

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CONTENTS
(. INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................9 ,. O$+ECTIVES..................................................................................................................... 9. SINUSOIDAL PWM .........................................................................................................*,1 Metho-olo01 ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2 *,1,1 Mo-ulat3on In-e4 o5 $3nuso3-al P%M,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,6 -. THIRD HARMONIC IN+ECTION PWM..............................................................................: 2,1 PRI"CIP E I"VO VE&,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,6 2,2 MET'O&O OG7,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,8 9. SPACE VECTOR PULSE WIDTH MODULATION...........................................................() *,1 PRI"CIP E,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 10 *,2 IMP EME"TATIO" PROCE&!RE O# A T%O9 EVE $PACE VECTOR P%M,,,,1: *,* CA C! ATIO" O# TIME &!RATIO"$ T1; T2; T0<,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,1= *,2 MO&! ATIO" I"&E> ( I"EAR REGIO")<,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2* *,/ T7PE$ O# &I##ERE"T $C'EME$,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,2/ -. SIMULATION RESULTS..................................................................................................,: 2,1 $I"!$OI&A P%M,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,26 2,2 T'IP%M,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 2: 2,* $VP%M,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, *1 ;. COMPARISON $ETWEEN SPWM, THIPWM, AND SVPWM TECHNIQUES.................99 :. CONCLUSIONS............................................................................................................... 9<. REFERENCES................................................................................................................. 9;

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A$STRACT %3th a-?ances power electron3c -e?3ces an- ?ar3ous pulse w3-th @o-ulat3on techn3Aues ha?e Been -e?elope- 5or se?eral appl3cat3ons, #or e4a@ple; P%M Base- three9phase ?olta0e source 3n?erters (V$I) con?ert &C power to AC power w3th ?ar3aBle ?olta0e @a0n3tu-e an- ?ar3aBle 5reAuenc1, Th3s paper -3scusses the a-?anta0es an- -rawBacCs o5 three -355erent P%M techn3Aues< the s3nuso3-al P%M techn3Aue; the th3r- har@on3c 3nDect3on P%M techn3Aue an- the space ?ector P%M techn3Aue, These three @etho-s are co@pare- B1 -3scuss3n0 the3r @etho- o5 3@ple@entat3on, The @atlaB s3@ulat3on results show that Both the th3r- har@on3c 3nDect3on P%M ans3nuso3-al P%M techn3Aues ha?e lower total har@on3c -3stort3on than the $P%M techn3Aue, The T'IP%M an- $VP%M techn3Aues 3n the un-er9@o-ulat3on re03on can Both 3ncrease the 5un-a@ental output ?olta0e B1 1/,/E o?er the $P%M techn3Aue,

(.

INTRODUCTION
Pulse9w3-th @o-ulat3on (P%M) 3s a techn3Aue where the -ut1 rat3o o5 a pulsat3n0 wa?e9 5or@ 3s controlle- B1 another 3nput wa?e5or@, The 3ntersect3ons Between the re5erence ?olta0e wa?e5or@ an- the carr3er wa?e5or@ 03?e the open3n0 an- clos3n0 t3@es o5 the sw3tches, Pulse w3-th @o-ulat3on (P%M) as 3t appl3es to @otor control 3s a wa1 o5 -el3?er3n0 ener01 throu0h a success3on o5 pulses rather than a cont3nuousl1 ?ar13n0 (analo0) s30nal, +1 3ncreas3n0 or -ecreas3n0 pulse w3-th; the controller re0ulates ener01 5low to the @otor sha5t, The @otorFs own 3n-uctance acts l3Ce a 53lter; stor3n0 ener01 -ur3n0 the on c1cle wh3le releas3n0 3t at a rate correspon-3n0 to the 3nput or re5erence s30nal, There 3s no s3n0le P%M @etho- that 3s the Best su3te- 5or all appl3cat3ons an- w3th a-?ances 3n sol3-9state power electron3c -e?3ces an- @3croprocessors; ?ar3ous pulse w3-th @o-ulat3on techn3Aues ha?e Been -e?elope- 5or 3n-ustr3al appl3cat3ons, #or these reasons; the P%M techn3Aues ha?e Been the suBDect o5 3ntens3?e research s3nce 20 1ears,

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,.

O$+ECTIVES
Co@par3son o5 P%M techn3Aues an- -3scuss3n0 aBout the3r @er3ts an- -e@er3ts, $3@ulat3on o5 the @ent3one- P%M techn3Aues,

9.
9.(

SINUSOIDAL PWM
Me#/1d1718%

In the s3nuso3-al P%M @etho-; a s3nuso3-al control s30nal ?A 3s co@pare- w3th a h30h9 5reAuenc1 tr3an0ular wa?e5or@ ?T to 0enerate the 3n?erter sw3tch 0at3n0 s30nals, The 5reAuenc1 o5 V T estaBl3shes the 3n?erter sw3tch3n0 5reAuenc1 5c, The @a0n3tu-e an- 5reAuenc1 o5 the s3nuso3-al s30nal are controllaBle; But the tr3an0ular s30nal @a0n3tu-e an- 5reAuenc1 are Cept constant, The s3nuso3-al control s30nal VA @o-ulates the sw3tch -ut1 rat3o; an- 3ts 5reAuenc1 5 3s the -es3re- 5un-a@ental 5reAuenc1 o5 the 3n?erter, #or the three9phase 0enerat3on; the sa@e V T 3s co@pare- w3th three s3nuso3-al control ?olta0es VA; V+; an- VC; wh3ch are 120G out o5 phase; w3th respect to each other; to pro-uce a Balance- output,

A s349step 3n?erter 3s co@pose- o5 s34 sw3tches $1 throu0h $6 w3th each phase output connecte- to the @3--le o5 each 3n?erter, %hen the s3nuso3-al wa?e5or@ 3s 0reater than the tr3an0ular wa?e5or@; the upper sw3tch 3s turne- on an- the lower sw3tch 3s turne- o55, $3@3larl1; when the s3nuso3-al wa?e5or@ 3s less than the tr3an0ular wa?e5or@; the upper sw3tch 3s o55 an- the lower sw3tch 3s on, &epen-3n0 on the sw3tch3n0 states; e3ther the pos3t3?e or ne0at3?e hal5 &C Bus ?olta0e 3s appl3e- to each phase$w3tches are controlle- 3n pa3rs ($1; $2); ($2; $/); an- ($*; $6),%hen one sw3tch 3n a pa3r 3s close-; the other sw3tch 3s open, In pract3ce; there has to Be a BlanC3n0 pulse

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Between the chan0es o5 control s30nals 5or the sw3tches 3n a pa3r to ensure that there 3s no short c3rcu3t 3n the 3n?erter, Th3s 3s necessar1; Because pract3cal sw3tches taCe 53n3te t3@e to turn on an- turn o55, The lo03c 5or sw3tch control s30nals 3s H $1 3s O" when VAI VT H $* 3s O" when VB IVT H $/ 3s O" when VCI VT $2 3s O" when VAJ VT $6 3s O" when VB JVT $2 3s O" when VCJ VT,

Three9Phase $3nuso3-al P%M< a), Re5erence Volta0es (a; B; c) an- Tr3an0ular %a?e B), Vao ; c) VBo ; -) Vco e) 3ne9to9 3ne Volta0es The 3n?erter l3ne9to9l3ne ?olta0es are oBta3ne- 5ro@ the pole ?olta0es as< VA+ V+C VCA K Vao L VBo VBo M Vco Vco L Vao ,

K K

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9.(.( M1du7a#"1. I.de= 12 S".u61"da7 PWM


The @o-ulat3on 3n-e4 3s -e53ne- as the rat3o o5 the @a0n3tu-e o5 output ?olta0e 0enerate- B1 $P%M to the 5un-a@ental peaC ?alue o5 the @a43@u@ sAuare wa?e, The #our3er ser3es e4pans3on o5 a s1@@etr3cal sAuare wa?e ?olta0e w3th a peaC @a0n3tu-e o5 V-c .2 has a 5un-a@ental o5 @a0n3tu-e 2V-c .N, The @a43@u@ o5 the output ?olta0e 0enerate- B1 the $P%M @etho- 3s V-c .2, 'ence @o-ulat3on 3n-e4 o5 s3nuso3-al pw@ @etho- 3s

%here VP% M 3s the @a43@u@ output ?olta0e 0enerate- B1 a $P%M an- V@a4Ls34 step 3s the 5un-a@ental peaC ?alue o5 a sAuare wa?e,

-.

THIRD HARMONIC IN+ECTION PWM


Th3s @etho- 3s also calle- as s3ne O *r- har@on3c @etho- s3nce a su3taBle a@ount o5 th3rhar@on3c s30nal 3s a--e- to the s3nuso3-al @o-ulat3n0 s30nal o5 5un-a@ental 5reAuenc1,

,.(

PRINCIPLE INVOLVED
The s3nuso3-al P%M 3s the s3@plest @o-ulat3on sche@e to un-erstan- But 3t 3s unaBle to 5ull1 ut3l3Pe the a?a3laBle &C Bus suppl1 ?olta0e, &ue to th3s proBle@; the th3r-9har@on3c9 3nDect3on pulse9w3-th @o-ulat3on (T'IP%M) techn3Aue was -e?elope- to 3@pro?e the 3n?erter per5or@ance, The $3neO*r- har@on3c P%M techn3Aue 3s a @o-353cat3on o5 the $P%M techn3Aue where3n -el3Beratel1 so@e a@ount o5 th3r- har@on3c ?olta0e 3s 3ntro-uce- 3n the pole ?olta0e wa?e5or@, Accor-3n0l1 a su3taBle a@ount o5 th3r- har@on3c s30nal 3s a--e- to the s3nuso3-al @o-ulat3n0 s30nal o5 5un-a@ental 5reAuenc1, "ow; the resultant wa?e5or@ (@o-353e@o-ulat3n0 s30nal) 3s co@pare- w3th the h30h 5reAuenc1 tr3an0ular carr3er wa?e5or@, The co@parator output 3s use- 5or controll3n0 the 3n?erter sw3tches e4actl1 as 3n $P%M 3n?erter, 'owe?er the th3r- har@on3c co@ponent o5 pole ?olta0e w3ll not appear 3n the loa- phase anl3ne ?olta0es, The a-?anta0e o5 a--3n0 s@all a@ount o5 th3r- har@on3c 3n the @o-ulat3n0 wa?e5or@ 3s that 3t Br3n0s -own the peaC @a0n3tu-e o5 the resultant @o-ulat3n0 wa?e5or@, The @o-353e- @o-ulat3n0 wa?e5or@ appears @ore 5lat toppe- than 3ts 5un-a@ental

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co@ponent, Thus 35 the 5un-a@ental s3nuso3-al @o-ulat3n0 wa?e ha- a peaC @a0n3tu-e eAual to the peaC @a0n3tu-e o5 the tr3an0ular carr3er wa?e the a--3t3on o5 s@all percenta0e o5 *r- har@on3c to the 5un-a@ental wa?e causes the peaC @a0n3tu-e o5 the co@B3nes30nal to Beco@e lower than tr3an0le wa?eFs peaC @a0n3tu-e,

,.,

METHODOLOG>
Cons3-er a wa?e5or@ cons3st3n0 o5 a 5un-a@ental co@ponent w3th the a--3t3on o5 a tr3ple

5reAuenc1 ter@< 1 K s3n Q O A s3n *Q (2,1)

%here Q K Rt an- A 3s a para@eter to Be opt3@3Pe- wh3le Ceep3n0 the @a43@u@ a@pl3tu-e o5 1 (t) un-er un3t1, The @a43@u@ ?alue o5 1 (t) 3s 5oun- B1 sett3n0 3ts -er3?at3?e w3th respect to Q eAual to Pero, 'ence; (2,2) (Scos2Q 3s actuall1 cos2 Q)

The @a43@u@ an- @3n3@u@ o5 the wa?e5or@ there5ore occur at K0 (2,*)

An%h3ch 13el-; respect3?el1; Ans3n Q K 1

(2,2) (2,/)

(2,6) The peaC ?alue o5 1 can Be 5oun- B1 suBst3tut3n0 the ?alues oBta3ne- 5or s3n Q 3n (2,/) an- (2,6) 3nto (2,1) EAuat3on (2,1) Beco@es
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* 1 K (1 O *A) s3n Q L 2A s3n Q $uBst3tut3n0 the ?alues 3n (2,/) an- (2,6); 5or s3nQ 7 K 19A 3,e, we ha?e (2,=)

(2,:)

(2,10) %here 1 peaC ?alue o5 7 The opt3@u@ ?alue 5or A 3s that ?alue wh3ch @3n3@3Pes 1 an- can Be 5oun- B1 -355erent3at3n0 (2,10) 5or 1 w3th respect to A an- eAuat3n0 the result to Pero, Then; EAuat3on (2,10) Beco@es;
T

There5ore A can Be 91.* or O 1.6 #ro@ EAuat3on (2,=); we can see that the ne0at3?e ?alue o5 A @aCes 1 0reater than un3t1, There5ore; the onl1 ?al3- solut3on 5or A 3s 1.6 an- the reAu3re- wa?e5or@ 3s 1 K s3n Q O A s3n *Q #ro@ EAuat3on (2,*); 13el-s Q K N .2,$uBst3tut3n0 the ?alue o5 1.6 5or A 3n (2,2)

03?es cos Q K 1.2; 3,e,; Q K N .*; 2N .*; etc, All tr3ple har@on3cs pass throu0h Pero at these ?alues o5 Q, I5 we suBst3tute the ?alues o5 Q K nN .* 3n (2,1*); then we ha?e a @a43@u@ a@pl3tu-e o5

at these an0les In #30ure 2,2; 3t 3s shown that the a--3t3on o5 a th3r- har@on3c w3th a peaC @a0n3tu-e o5 one s34th to the @o-ulat3on wa?e5or@ has the e55ect o5 re-uc3n0 the peaC ?alue o5 the output wa?e5or@ B1

a 5actor o5

w3thout chan03n0 the a@pl3tu-e o5 the 5un-a@ental, It 3s poss3Ble to 3ncrease the


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a@pl3tu-e o5 the @o-ulat3n0 wa?e5or@ B1 a 5actor U; so that the 5ull output ?olta0e ran0e o5 the 3n?erter 3s a0a3n ut3l3Pe-, I5 the @o-ulat3n0 wa?e5or@ 3s e4presse- as 1 K U (s3n Q O A s3n *Q) 'ence UK It 3@pl3es that the a--3t3on o5 th3s th3r- har@on3c pro-uces a 1/,/E 3ncrease 3n the a@pl3tu-e o5 the 5un-a@ental o5 the phase ?olta0es InDect3n0 a th3r- har@on3c co@ponent to the 5un-a@ental co@ponent 03?es the 5ollow3n0 @o-ulat3n0 wa?e5or@s 5or the three9phase

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Re5erence Volta0es (a; B; c); Tr3an0ular %a?e5or@s (VT); an- Output Volta0e (Vao ; VBo; Vco),

3.
3.1

SPACE VECTOR PULSE WIDTH MODULATION


PRINCIPLE
One more method for increasing the output voltage about that of the SPWM technique i

the space vector PWM technique. Compared to third harmonic injection method, the two methods have similar results but their methods of e ecuting are differ largel!. "n the S#PWM technique, the dut! c!cles are calculated rather than derived through comparison as in sinusoidal method. $he S#PWM technique can increase the fundamental component b! up to %&.'() that of sinusoidal method. $he fundamental voltage can be increased up to a square wave mode where a modulation inde of unit! is reached. S#PWM is accomplished b! rotating a reference vector around the state diagram, which is
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composed of si basic non*+ero vectors forming a he agon. , circle can be inscribed inside it which corresponds to sinusoidal operation. $he area inside the inscribed circle is called the linear modulation region or under*modulation region, and the area between the inside circle and outside circle of the he agon is called the nonlinear modulation region or over*modulation region. $he method of operation of linear and nonlinear modulation regions depend on the modulation inde , which indirectl! reflects on the inverter utili+ation capabilit!.

-nder*modulation and Over*modulation .egions in Space #ector .epresentation , three*phase mathematical s!stem can be represented b! a space vector. /or e ample, given a set of three*phase voltages, a space vector can be defined b!

Where #, 0t1, #b 0t1, and #C 0t1 are three sinusoidal voltages of the same amplitude and frequenc! but with 23%4o phase shifts. ,t an! given time magnitude is constant. ,s time increases, the angle of the space vector increases, causing the vector to rotate with a frequenc! equal to that of the sinusoidal waveforms. "n the space*vector modulation, a three*phase inverter can have eight switching states where the inverter has si active states 03*51 and two +ero states 04 and &1. , t!pical two*level inverter has 5 power switches 0labelled S3 to S5 1 that generate three* phase voltage outputs. $he si switching power devices can be constructed using power 67$s, 8$Os, "86$s, etc. depending on the application. When an upper transistor is switched on, the
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corresponding lower transistor is switched off. $herefore, the O9 and O// states of the upper transistors S3 , S' , S: can be used to determine the current output voltage. $he O9 and O// states of the lower power devices are complementar! to the upper ones. $wo switches on the same leg cannot be closed or opened at the same time. $he basic principle of S#PWM is based on the eight switch combinations of a three* phase inverter. $he switch combinations can be represented as binar! codes that correspond to the top switches S3 , S' , and S: of the inverter.

$he basic principle of S#PWM is based on the eight switch combinations of a three* phase inverter. $he switch combinations can be represented as binar! codes that correspond to the top switches S3 , S' , and S: of the inverter as shown in /ig. ;ach Switching circuit generates three independent pole voltages #ao , #bo , and #co , which are the inverter output voltages with respect to the mid*terminal of the <C source mar=ed as >O? on the same figure. $hese voltages are also called pole voltages.

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#30< E30ht $w3tch3n0 Con530urat3on o5 a Three9Phase In?erter

$he pole voltages that can be produced are either #dc @% or A#dc @%. /or e ample, when switches S3 , S5 , and S% are closed, the corresponding pole voltages are #ao B #dc @%, #bo B A#dc @%, and #co B A#dc @%. $his state is denoted as 03, 4, 41 and, according to ;quation 0'.31, ma! be depicted as the space vector

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CA

# 0t1 B

D#dc e j4 E. .epeating the same procedure, we can find the remaining active

and non*active states. $here are eight possible inverter states that can generate eight space vectors. $hese are given b! the comple vector e pressionsF

$he reference voltage vector

CA

# re f rotates in space at an angular velocit!

G B %H f,where f is the fundamental frequenc! of the inverter output voltage. When the reference voltage vector passes through each sector, different sets of switches in $able '.3 will be turned on or off. ,s a result, when the reference voltage vector rotates through one revolution in space, the

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inverter output varies one electrical c!cle over time. $he inverter output frequenc! coincides with the rotating speed of the reference voltage vector. $he +ero vectors 0 CA # 4 and CA # & 1 and active

CA CA vectors 0 # 3 to # 5 1 do not move in space. $he! are referred to as stationar! vectors. When the upper or lower transistor of a phase is O9, the switching signal of that phase is >3? or >*3?, and when an upper or lower transistor is O//, then the switching signal is >4?. $he eight combinations and the derived output line*to*line and phase voltages in terms of the <C suppl! voltage areF

Choosing the neutral point n and the output phase voltages of the inverter depend on the relationship between the switching variables DS3I S'I S:E hence the <C voltage as followsF

Jence b! solving above equations we get

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$he space vector can be also represented in another reference frame with two orthogonal a es 0K and L1. We assume that K a is is aligned in the hori+ontal direction and that the L a is is vertical. $hen the abc three*phase voltage vector given in above equation can be transformed into a vector with K L coordinates. $he K L vector is used to find the sector of K L plane in which the reference voltage vector lies. $he phase voltages corresponding to the eight combinations of switching patterns can be mapped into K L coordinates.

;quating real and imaginar! parts we get,

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| space vector, and the last $he values of #K and #L are called K and L components of the
column in $able '.' shows the reference space vector. $he voltages #K and #L become the inputs for dwelling time calculations in the space vector PWM and are used to compute the scalar magnitude of the reference voltage CA # .e f

$he magnitude of the reference vector isF $he phase angle is evaluated from

9.,

IMPLEMENTATION PROCEDURE OF A TWO?LEVEL SPACE VECTOR PWM

$he procedure for implementing a two*level space vector PWM can be summari+ed as followsF 3. Calculate the angle M and reference voltage vector components. %. Calculate the modulation inde and determine if it is in the over*modulation region. '. /ind the sector in which based on the sector angle M. O. /ind the time intervals $a and $b and $4 based on $s , and the angle M. 0/or over* modulation, find $a4 , $ 4 and $ 4 is +ero.1 :. <etermine the modulation times for the different switching states. CA # re f l i e s , and the adjacent space vectors of CA # = and CA # =N3 CA # ref b a se d on the input voltage

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/low <iagram for S#PWM "mplementation

9.9

CALCULATION OF TIME DURATIONS T(, T,, T)4


$3 and $% denote the required on*time of the active*state vectors # = and # =N3

during each sample period, and = is the sector number denoting the reference location.$4 is the time interval for +ero vector location.

Space #ectors of $hree*Phase 6ridge "nverter $o B $s*0$3N$%1 #olt*sec along K*a isF #3$3N 0#%cos54o1 $%B#sP$scosK #olt*sec along L*a isF QQ 031

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4N 0#%sin54o1 $% B #sP$ssinK Solving 031 and 0%1 lv3l B lv%lB#dc

QQ 0%1

"n a sector #aries between 54o

$o B $s*0$3N$%1 ,verage valuesF D* E

D$3N$%E

D*$3N$%E

D*$3*$%E

,verage values in sector 3F

D$3N$%E

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Substituting $3, $% values above equation

#6O 0avg1 B #ssin 0K*'41 #CO 0avg1 B *#,O 0avg1 S#PWM using the sampled reference phase amplitude

Sector 3F

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Substituting above equations we get

$3 B $,S*$6S Similarl! $% is given as $% B $6S*$CS #,R-;S O/ $4, $3, $% /O. ,RR S;C$O.SF

S;C$O.

$3

$%

%$s*0$3N$%1

$,S*$6S

$6S*$CS

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%$s*0$3N$%1

$,S*$CS

$6S*$,S

'

%$s*0$3N$%1

$6S*$CS

$CS*$,S

%$s*0$3N$%1

$6S*$,S

$CS*$,S

%$s*0$3N$%1

$CS*$,S

$,S*$6S

%$s*0$3N$%1

$CS*$6S

$,S*$CS

Switching Patterns of Si Sectors

9.-

MODULATION INDE@ 'LINEAR REGION*4

"n the linear region, the rotating reference vector alwa!s remains within the he agon. $he largest output voltage magnitude is the radius of the largest circle that can be inscribed within the he agon. $his means that the linear region ends when the reference voltage is equal to the radius of
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the circle inscribed within the he agon.

/rom /ourier anal!sis we can write

$he ratio between the reference vector

CA

# re f and the fundamental pea= value of the square phase

voltage wave 0%#dc @H1 is called the modulation inde . $herefore in linear region modulation inde can be e pressed as

"n this case the ma imum modulation inde is obtained when inscribed circle. Jence

CA

# re f equals the radius of the

$herefore,

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9.;

T>PES OF DIFFERENT SCHEMES


$here are two modes of operation available for the PWM waveform. $he! are s!mmetric and

as!mmetric pulse width modulation. $he pulse of an as!mmetric edge aligned signal alwa!s has the same side aligned with one end of each pulse width modulation period. On the other hand, the pulse of s!mmetric signals is alwa!s s!mmetric with respect to the centre of each PWM period. $he s!mmetrical PWM signal is often preferred because it has the lowest total harmonic distortion 0$J<1. $here are different schemes in space vector pulse width modulation and the! are based on their repeating dut! distribution. Switching is achieved b! appl!ing a +ero state vector followed b! two adjacent active state vectors in a half switching period. $he ne t half of the switching period is the mirror image of the first half. "n order to reduce the switching loss of the power components of the inverter, it is required that at each time onl! one bridge arm is switched. $he switching sequence for all sectors are shown belowF

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When modulation inde e ceeds (4.&) then the SP#WM falls into over modulated region or nonlinear region.

-.
-.(

SIMULATION RESULTS
SINUSOIDAL PWM
SPWM is ver! popular and eas! to implement using comparators. $he SPWM Simulin= s!stem model is built in /ig. "t has the following bloc=sF 031 Sinusoidal wave generators, 0%1 Jigh*frequenc! triangular wave generator, and 0'1 comparators.

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(c3rcu3t -3a0ra@)

$he SPWM technique treats each modulating voltage as a separate entit! that is compared to the common carrier triangular waveform. , three*phase voltage set 0# ,, #6, and #C1 of variable amplitude is compared in three separate comparators with a common triangular carrier waveform of fi ed amplitude as shown in the same figure. $he output 0#ao, #bo, and #co1 of the comparators form the control signals for the three legs of the inverter composed of the switch pairs 0S3I SO1, 0S'I S51, and 0S:I S%1, respectivel!. /rom these switching signals and the <C bus voltage, PWM phase*to*neutral voltages 0#an, #bn, and #cn1 are obtained.

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-.,

THIPWM
$he $J"PWM Simulin= s!stem model is the same as that of the SPWM s!stem e cept for the modulating waveform voltages, which are generated b! injected the third* harmonic components and line voltages are as followsF 0here the circuit diagram remains same e cept where a third harmonic is added to the input1

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Circuit diagramF

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-.9

SVPWM

(C3rcu3t -3a0ra@)

(Control s30nals)

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($pace ?ectors o5 two phase ?olta0es)

($PACE VECTOR TRA)ECTOR7)


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( 3ne ?olta0es)

;.

COMPARISON $ETWEEN SPWM, THIPWM, AND SVPWM TECHNIQUES


$he simulation studies confirmed that the $J"PWM and S#PWM technique have a better <C bus voltage utili+ation than SPWM. ,s seen in /ig, the smaller circle represents the operating region of the SPWM technique and the larger inscribed circle represents the operating region of the S#PWM technique in the under*modulation region. "n SPWM, the ma imum modulation inde is &S.::), the ma imum output fundamental is 4.: #<C, and the ma imum amplitude of the line*to*line voltage is #<C@%. $he line*to*line voltage of S#PWM is then increased b! aboutF
'

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:.

CONCLUSIONS
$his report has evaluated three different PWM techniques, namel! SPWM, $J"PWM, and S#PWM 0in the linear modulation region1. $he contributions of the report are as followsF $he report has provided a thorough review of the each techniques with a special focus on the operation of S#PWM in the under*modulation. "n this report, Simulin= models for all three techniques have been developed and tested in the M,$R,6@Simulin= environment. ,s seen from the simulation results, S#PWM and $J"PWM have a superior performance compared to SPWM, especiall! in the over*modulation region of S#PWM. $he SPWM technique is ver! popular for industrial converters. "t is the easiest modulation scheme to understand and implement. $his technique can be used in single*phase and three*phase "nverters. $he $J"PWM technique operates b! adding a third harmonic component to the sinusoidal modulating wave. "t is possible to increase the fundamental b! about 3:F:) and, hence, allow a better utili+ation of the <C power suppl!. $he S#PWM technique can onl! be applied to a three*phase inverter and it increases the overall s!stem efficienc!. $he S#PWM is used for controlling the switching of the machine side converter. ,dvantages of this method include a higher modulation inde , lower switching losses, and less harmonic distortion compared to SPWM. S#PWM research has been widespread in recent !ears ma=ing it one of the most popular methods for three*phase

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inverters because it has a higher fundamental voltage output than SPWM for the same <C bus voltage. $he S#PWM is significantl! better than SPWM b! appro imatel! 3:F:). Jowever, the S#PWM technique is comple in implementation, especiall! in the over*modulation region.

<.

REFERENCES
D3E. 6.T. 6ose. Modern Power ;lectrics and ,C <rives. Prentice*Jall, "nc., %44%. D%E. T.#. Tumar, P.,. Michael, 7.P. 7ohn and S.S. Tumar, USimulation and Comparison of SPWM and S#PWM control for $hree Phase "nverter,V ,sian .esearch Publishing 9etwor=, #ol. :, 9o. &, pp. 53*&O, 7ul! %434 D'E. ,nal!sis of pulse width modulation techniques for ac@dc line* side converters Michal T9,PCWXT/ Tr+!s+tof P";YTOWST"/ %445 DOE. T. Whou and <. Wang, U.elationship between Space*#ector Modulation and $hree* Phase Carrier*6ased PWMF , Comprehensive ,nal!sis,V ";;; $ransactions on "ndustrial ;lectronics, #ol. O(, 9o. 3, pp. 3S5*3(5, /ebruar! %44%. D:E. W./. Whang and X.J. Xu, UComparison of $hree S#PWM Strategies,V 7ournal of ;lectronic Science and $echnolog! of China, #ol. :, 9o. ', pp. %S'*%S&, September %44&. D5E. 7.X. Ree, and X.X. Sun, U, 9ew SPWM "nverter with Minimum /ilter .equirement,V "nternational 7ournal of ;lectronics, #ol. 5O, 9o. :, pp. S3:*S%5, 3(SS. D&E. Math Wor=s, %434, Sim Power S!stems, -ser?s 8uide.

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