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Table of Contents
Lets Celebrate! A Brief History of Some Popular Holidays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3D Paper Ornaments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Community Patchwork Mural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 The Special Celebration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Peruvian Winter Solstice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Pumpkins Have Feelings Too! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 They Say Its Your Birthday . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Ceramic Celebration Picture Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Invent a Color Holiday Illustration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 PysankyUkrainian Egg Dying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Dia de Los MuertosDay of The Dead Figurines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 Black History MonthAfrican Batiks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Golden WeekCelebrating Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 Valentines: Playing with Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 Valentines Day Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85 Yom Kippur and the Art Candlemaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 American Indian Heritage: Hide Painting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95 Celebrate the Seasons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Six Pointed Spiral Stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Decorating the TreeTaking Back the Holiday Season from the Industry . . . . . . . 105 An Earth Day Artwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Other Holiday Ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

Fireworks image from http://www.jeb.be/images/fireworks/ New Years Eve in NYC http://www.1vacation.com/newyrtimesq.html Photo of Dr. Carter G. Woodson from http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/NEWS/ thisweek/2006/020106/blkhistmo.html Black History Month Poster www.nrcs.usda.gov/NEWS/thisweek/2006/020106/blkhistmo.html Avard Fairbanks, Lincoln the Railsplitter, Collection, The Springville Museum of Art Cyrus E. Dallin, Massasoit http://collaboratory.nunet.net/nssd112/activities/dinner.html Participant in Earth Day, 1970. Photo: EPA History Office http://www.epa.gov/history/publications/print/formative.htm Earth Day Stamp http://www.earthsite.org/stamp.jpg The Birth of Old Glory / from painting by Percy Moran http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jun14.html Nasty Pumpkin, Work by Students of Joseph Germaine Maynard Dixon, The Derrick Workers byu.edu Chinese New Year photo by Jeffrey Goh http://myrp2.myrp.edu.sg/sites/cca/scexco/Poster%20Potential/Forms/AllItems.aspx Golden Week, Carp Streamers http://www.u-blog.net/ohisama/img/subaru.jpg Day of the Dead photo by Ricardo Mata http://www.mayadiscovery.com/ing/life/default.htm Cinco de Mayo Parade in San Jose photo by Andreas Dieberger http://homepage.mac.com/juggle5/photo/CincoDeMayo2001/INDEX.HTM

Lets Celebrate!
A Brief History of Some Popular Holidays
ANCIENT NEW YEARS New Years Day and the celebration of the New Year is the oldest holiday on our calendar today. The earliest record of a New Year celebration was in 2000 b.c., but it is very likely that new year celebrations existed before that time. Some New Year traditions are associated with ancient peoples (e.g. the Babylonians), who celebrated the New Year with the vernal or autumnal equinox. During the Middle Ages, Christians usually celebrated the new year on March 25. However, after the Gregorian calendar was implemented in 1528, the beginning of the new year became January 1. Although most of the world celebrates January 1 as the beginning of the new year, there are several other national and religious calendars which still exist. For example, in Iran and Afghanistan, the Persian calendar begins with the spring equinox (March 20 or 21 in the Gregorian calendar). Similarly, the Hindu calendar begins one day following the first new moon, on or after the spring equinox. The Jewish New Year, or Rosh Hashanah, can occur anytime between September 6 to October 5. The Islamic (Hijiri) calendar changes from the Gregorian calendar each year, for this calendar is based on 12 lunar months consisting of 29 or 30 days. The Russian Old New Year, which falls in mid-January and is based on the Julian calendar, which was in use before 1917. The Chinese New Year begins in late January or early February, on the sunset of the first new moon in the sign Aquarius. www.britannica.com BLACK HISTORY MONTH The month of February is known as Black History Month. Much of the organization of this month is due to the Harvard scholar, Dr. Carter G. Woodson. Feeling that the black people needed to be recognized for their contributions to society, Woodson dedicated his life to bringing about this recognition.

Black History Month originally began as only a weeklong celebration in 1926. This week was called Negro History Week, and was celebrated during the second week of February. President Woodrow Wilson specifically chose this week because of the birthdays of two individuals who had contributed much to the black peoples history: Abraham Lincoln and Frederick Douglass. Over time, however, Negro History Week evolved into a month long celebration of the black peoples contributions to society, and is now Black History Month. http://www.history. com/minisite. do?content_ type=mini_ home&mini_id=1071 PRESIDENTS DAY This holiday originally began in on February 22, 1796 to commemorate of George Washingtons birthday, during the last full year of his presidency. However, the Monday Holiday Law of 1968 changed this date to always be the third Monday of the month of February, in order to give federal employees a three-day weekend. This day is now known as Presidents Day, and also commemorates Abraham Lincolns birthday, which occurs on February 12. In a more general sense, this holiday is designed to celebrate all men who have served the United States as president. http://www.patriotism.org/presidents_day/ www.britannica.com THANKSGIVING

This holiday began in the fall of 1621, when Plymouth governor William Bradford invited the neighboring Indians to a harvest feast. This celebration was to commemorate the colonists bounteous harvest that season, which partly was realized due to the help of the Indians. Unlike the Thanksgiving holiday today, which is held on the last Thursday in November, the first Thanksgiving feast was a threeday long celebration. In addition, the traditional Thanksgiving turkey, cranberry sauce, and pumpkin pie that is enjoyed today on Thanksgiving is not a true reflection of the original event. Thanksgiving was proclaimed a national holiday in 1863, and Canada adopted Thanksgiving as a national holiday in 1879. www.britannica.com

EARTH DAY With more than 20 million participants across America, Earth Day officially began on April 22, 1970. Earth Day was organized and founded by Senator Gaylord Nelson of Wisconsin. The inception of Earth Day actually began back in 1962, when Nelson approached President Kennedy about going on a national conservation tour. Although Kennedys five-day, eleven-state tour in 1963 did not bring about political awareness of conservation, this basic idea eventually developed into Earth Day. Inspired by the anti-Vietnam demonstrations, which pervaded college campuses at the time, Nelson decided to organize a grassroots protest to bring awareness to the state of the environment. In September 1969, Nelson announced at a conference in Seattle that such a demonstration would take place in the spring of 1970, and invited all to participate. Nelson fondly remembers the excitement caused by his announcement, saying, The wire services carried the story from coast to coast. The response was electric...Telegrams, letters, and telephone inquiries poured in from all across the country. The American people finally had a forum to express its concern about what was happening to the land, rivers, lakes, and air - and they did so with spectacular exuberance . . . Earth Day worked because of the spontaneous response at the grassroots level. We had neither the time nor resources to organize 20 million demonstrators and the thousands of schools and local communities that participated. That was the remarkable thing about Earth Day. It organized itself. Although the success of the first Earth Day was not continued, The day was eventually revived and is now celebrated annually on each April 22. The holiday has now extended to a global level, allowing millions of people the opportunity to actively help the environment. http://earthday.wilderness.org/history/ http://www. earthday.net/resources/history.aspx FLAG DAY

On June 14, 1777, Continental Congress adopted the Stars and Stripes as the national flag for the United States. At that time, there were 13 stars on the flag, representing the 13 new states. One hundred years later, on June 14, 1877, Congress asked that all public buildings fly the flag in order to commemorate its anniversary. Many people were anxious to show their patriotism and support by flying the flag. One early enthusiast, schoolteacher B. J. Cigrand, arranged for students to officially observe Flag Birthday on June 14. Although many individuals and organizations held private observations of the flag on June 14, Flag Day was not proclaimed a day of national celebration until 1916 by President Woodrow

Wilson. The day officially became a holiday in 1949, when President Harry Truman signed the National Flag Day Bill. Since this time, the President has always commemorated the day, and Americans are encouraged to fly or display Old Glory at their homes, businesses, and other suitable places. http://www3.kumc. edu/diversity/national/ flagday.html http://www. usflag.org/history/ flagday.html HALLOWEEN The origins of Halloween stem from the pagan Celtic festival of Samhain. The ancient Celts held this festival on October 31 to celebrate their new year, which began on November 1. On the eve of Samhain, the Celts believed that the ghosts of the dead came back and visited their old homes. To celebrate this event, huge sacred bonfires were built, and sacrifices of crops and animals were made to the Celtic deities. The Celts would dress in costumes made of animal heads and skins, and engage in fortune telling and divination. The night was considered to be an optimal time for telling fortunes, especially regarding events such as marriage, death, luck and health. The Celtic lands were subject to the influences of other countries, due to the Roman invasion in 43 A.D., and later, the spread of Christianity. In the seventh century, Pope Boniface IV indicated November 1 to be All Saints Day, and it is assumed that he was trying to substitute this holiday in place of the pagan Celtic festival. All Saints Day was reserved as a time to honor saints and religious martyrs, and was also known as Allhallowmas (derived from the Middle English Alholowmesse which means All Saints Day). The night before this day, the night of Samhain, was subsequently called, Allhallows Eve, which eventually turned into Halloween. Later, around 1000 A.D., the Catholic church added another holiday, November 2, as All

Souls Day. This day was set aside as a day to honor the dead, and was celebrated in a similar manner as the ancient Samhain, with people dressing in costumes, making bonfires, and staging parades. These three consecutive holidays, the eve of All Saints Day, All Saints Day, and All Souls Day, were collectively known as Hallowmas. http://www.historychannel.com/exhibits/halloween/?page=origins http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article-9366492

LABOR DAY Labor Day is a holiday which is dedicated to the American workers. This day celebrates all of the social and economic contributions the American working class has made in society. The first Labor Day was celebrated on September 5, 1882, in New York City, in conjunction with the Central Labor Union. Over the following years, other states began to follow New Yorks example and annually celebrate Labor Day on a state level. By 1894, Congress officially approved Labor Day as a nationally recognized holiday, setting aside the first Monday every September. http://www.dol.gov/opa/aboutdol/laborday. htm

APRIL FOOLS DAY April Fools Day, or All Fools Day, is celebrated on April 1. The actual origin of this holiday is traced back to France in the year 1582. At this time, King Charles IX decided to introduce the Gregorian calendar to his society, which changed the New Year to begin on January 1 instead of March 25. Before this time, the New Year was always celebrated with an eight-day celebration, which culminated on April 1. However, after the new calendar was introduced, many people forgot about the switch of the New Years date. Other people obstinately refused to acknowledge the new calendar. These people were known by the general populace as fools, and they received foolish gifts and invitations to fictitious parties. The people who received fools gifts were then known as poisson davril or April fish. Despite the French origin, the British are actually credited with bringing this holiday to America. In contemporary times, Aprils Fools Day is a day to play silly pranks on each other. http://www3.kumc.edu/diversity/other/aprlfool.html

Chinese CHINESE NEW YEAR The Chinese New Year begins on the first new moon of the new year and lasts until the full moon, 15 days later. The Chinese calendar is based on lunar and solar movements, so the exact date varies each year from the solar calendar. New Years Eve and New Years Day are family-oriented holidays, and are seen as a time of reunion. On New Years Eve, the presence of the familys ancestors is recognized and a place for them is set at the familys banquet table. During a communal feast, the spirits of the dead ancestors celebrate the beginning of the new year together with the living. At the stroke of midnight on New Years Eve, firecrackers are set off to welcome in the new year. Traditionally, all doors and window in the home need to be open at the stroke of midnight, in order for the old year to exit. On New Years Day, red is a popular color to wear, for the bright color symbolizes a bright future for the individual. Children, unmarried friends, and close friends are given small red envelopes which contain money, a symbol of good fortune. The end of the New Year celebration is highlighted by the Festival of Lanterns, which includes singing, dancing, and lantern shows. http://www.educ.uvic.ca/faculty/mroth/438/CHINA/chinese_new_year.html Japanese GOLDEN WEEK Golden Week is a week in Japan when four different national holidays are celebrated within seven days. These holidays are on April 29, May 3, May 4, and May 5. April 29 Showa Day: This day celebrates the birthday of the former Emporer Showa, a great leader in Japan who died in 1989. Until the year 2006, this day was known as Greenery Day, to remember the Emporers love for the environment. Greenery Day was moved to May 4. May 3 Constitution Day: On this day in 1947, the postwar constitution was signed. This is a day


for the Japanese people to remember the postwar constitution, and reflect upon the anticipated growth of Japan. May 4 Greenery Day (or Green Day): Until 2006, this day was originally on April 29, as a day to remember the great Emperor Showa and his love for plants and the environment. This day is especially dedicated to nature and the environment. Before 2006, May 4 was referred to as The Peoples Holiday, and its sole purpose was to give the Japanese people three consecutive holidays. A law in Japan declares that if a day falls between two national holidays, then that day will become a holiday as well. May 5 Childrens Day: On this day, the Boys Festival is celebrated every year. In honor of sons, carp kites and samurai dolls are displayed in front of houses. The kites and dolls symbolize power and success. These displays are a way that the families can pray for the future success and wellbeing of their sons, as well as for happiness for all of their children. Traditionally, the oldest boy in the family has the largest kite. These kites are placed to face the wind, which symbolizes the determination and strength of the fish when they swim against the current. http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2282.html MACROBUTTON HtmlResAnchor http:// www.2camels.com/destination105.php3 http://www.csupomona.edu/~tassi/children.htm Mexican DAY OF THE DEAD The Day of the Dead, or Da de los Muertos, originally stemmed from a ritual that was practiced in ancient Mexico at least 3,000 years ago. When Spanish Conquistadors arrived in the Spanish colony known today as Mexico, they observed the native Aztec people participating in this ritual, which seemed to mock death. This ancient practice has since been infused with Catholic theology and is celebrated in Mexico, Ecuador, Guatemala, and parts of Central and South America that have a Latino culture. In the United States, some areas celebrate the Day of the Dead. Anciently, Da de los Muertos included the display of skulls, which were used to celebrate death and rebirth. These skulls were regarded as trophies by the Aztecs and other Meso-American cultures. Skulls were seen as a way of celebrating the continuation of life. Today, people make sugar skulls, wear wooden skull mask,s and dance to honor their deceased ancestors. In more rural areas of Central and Southern America, this holiday is considered to be of extreme religious and cultural importance, and can involve actual worship of the dead. In more urbanized areas of Mexico, the holiday often consists of special foods and candy. November 2 is recognized as the official Day of the Dead, but the holiday is celebrated between October 31 and November 2. The influence of the Catholic church can be seen in this celebration, for these dates correspond

with the Catholic All Hallows Eve (Halloween) on the 31st, All Saints Day on the 1st, and All Souls Day on the 2nd. People celebrate this festival either in their homes or in the cemeteries. During this time, the dead spirits of family members are believed to come back and visit their relatives. Food, drinks, and gifts are laid out for the spirits to enjoy. These spirits are not necessarily seen, but their presence is felt. http://www.azcentral.com/ent/dead/history/ http://teacherlink.ed.usu.edu/tlresources/units/Byrnes-celebrations/Day.html -- This link includes a lesson plan for 4th and 5th graders CINCO DE MAYO Contrary to popular belief, the 5th of May is not actually Mexican Independence Day. Mexican Independence was declared on September 15, 1810. Instead, Cinco de Mayo is a special day which commemorates a time when only 5,000 Mexican soldiers defeated French invaders at the Battle of Puebla on May 5, 1862. At this time, under Napoleon III, the French were trying to expand their empire by conquering Mexico. Although this specific battle did not ultimately force the French out of Mexico, it was a significant win for the Mexican army. This day celebrates the courage and determination of the Mexican people in defending their land. Cinco de Mayo is celebrated within the Mexican and Chicano cultures. Some have speculated that Cinco de Mayo is celebrated more by Chicanos than Mexicans; it appears to be celebrated on a much larger scale here in the United States than anywhere else. In the United States, Cinco de Mayo is celebrated with parades, music, and dancing. http://clnet.ucla.edu/cinco.html http://www3.kumc.edu/diversity/ethnic_relig/cinco.html


Muslim RAMADAN In the Islamic faith, Ramadan is the most sacred and holy event of the year. Ramadan is the holy month of fasting. It occurs during the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and it a time for introspection, charitable acts, and prayer. This month also gives Muslims the opportunity to participate in fasting, which is the third pillar, or religious responsibility, of Islam. The month of Ramadan is also significant to Muslims because it is the month that Mohammad revealed the Quran. Ramadan begins in the ninth month in the Islamic calendar, when a credible witness attests that a new moon has been seen. During this time, the Muslims must abstain from food, drink, and sexual intercourse from the time the sun rises until it sets. The month of Ramadan ends with the Festival of Fast Breaking celebration, when a special gift of charity is given. http://www3.kumc.edu/diversity/ethnic_relig/ramadan.html Christian Christmas Before the birth of Christ, early European peoples held traditional celebrations during the winter solstice to celebrate light and the coming of longer sunlight hours. One such celebration was Yule, which was celebrated by the Scandinavians from December 21 into January. A large yule log would be brought home and placed on the fire, and the people would feast until the log burned out, which could take up to almost two weeks. During the early years of Christianity, Christs birth was not celebrated. Rather, Easter was considered to be the main holiday. However, in the fourth century, Catholic officials decided to begin celebrating Christs birth. Since the date of Jesus birth is not recorded in the Bible, Pope Julius I decided on the date December 25 (possibly to replace the Roman pagan festival, Saturnalia, which occurred that same time). By


the end of the eighth century, the celebration of Christmas had spread to Egypt, England, and all the way to Scandinavia. During the Middle Ages, Christmas was a very loud, raucous occasion which involved lots of drinking and mischief. Believers would attend church first, and then participate in the revelry. It wasnt until the 19th century that Christmas began to be embraced and redefined by the Americans. After this time, the carnival-like holiday of Christmas began to be a time of peace, a time to gather with family members. Charles Dickens wrote his holiday classic A Christmas Carol at this time, and the focus on charity and goodwill began to spread throughout American and Victorian celebrations of Christmas. Over the next century, Americans began to define and assume other European traditions and customs associated with Christmas, which include decorating trees and giving gifts. http://www.history.com/minisite.do?content_type=mini_home&mini_id=1290 The Legend of St. Nicholas

The legend of Santa Claus can be actually linked to an actual human being, a monk named St. Nicholas who lived hundreds of years ago. It is assumed that Nicholas was born near modern-day Turkey around 280 A.D. Many legends have been created about Nicholas, and it is said that he gave away all of his inherited wealth and traveled extensively, helping the sick and needy. Later known as the protector of children and sailors, Nicholas remained popular in European thought even after the veneration of saints was discouraged during the Reformation. His feast day is celebrated on December 6, the anniversary of his death. In the 18th century, a New York newspaper reported that Dutch immigrants had gathered to celebrate Nicholas death, and the gradual evolution of Santa Claus began to take place in American culture. During the early 19th centuries in New York, St. Nicholas began to appear in woodcuts, literature, and eventually, newspapers. Sinter Klaas, the Nicholas Dutch name, eventually was anglicized into Santa Claus. The popularity of Santa Claus grew, and in 1841, thousands of children gathered in Philadelphia to see a life-size model of Santa Claus. Soon, children and their parents began to be attracted to stores, which offered the chance to look at a live Santa Claus.

Similar Christmas gift-givers can be found all over the world, not just in America. Pere Noel fills French childrens shoes with gifts. Father Christmas fills the stockings of each English child. Kris Kringle brings presents to Swiss and German children. In Italy, a kind witch named La Befana rides on her broomstick to bring toys to children. The legendary Babouschka from Russia leaves gifts at the bedside of children on January 5, in hopes that she will be forgiven for purposely giving the three wise men the wrong directions to Bethlehem. http://www.history.com/minisite.do?content_type=Minisite_Generic&content_type_ id=1276&display_order=3&mini_id=1290 http://www.theholidayspot.com/christmas/history/ (see for the history of Christmas symbols) ST. PATRICKS DAY In honor of Irelands patron saint, St. Patricks Day is celebrated on March 17. This day is a religious holiday for the Irish people, and it commemorates the day of Patricks death in the fifth century. Patrick was born in Britain around 380 C.E., and was sold into slavery when he was 16 years old. A slave in Ireland for six years, Patrick began to have visions over the course of his captivity. One vision informed Patrick of a rescue ship, and he was able to escape to France. Later, Patrick returned to Ireland as a missionary. He is attributed with converting the Irish to Christianity, and is said to have used the shamrock as a method of teaching the concept of the Trinity. On Saint Patricks Day, the Irish usually attend church in the morning and celebrate in the afternoon with a traditional meal of Irish bacon and cabbage. The secular aspect of Saint Patricks Day is actually an American convention which began in the 1700s. Americans have found Saint Patricks Day to be a way for Irish Americans to connect with their heritage. In America, the day is generally celebrated with the wearing of green clothing, parades, and the drinking of green beer. MACROBUTTON HtmlResAnchor http://www. historychannel.com/exhibits/stpatricksday/?page=history http://www3.kumc.edu/diversity/ethnic_relig/stpats.html EASTER Easter is a Christian holiday that celebrates Christs resurrection. The date for Easter is always celebrated on a Sunday sometime between March 25 and April 25. Since the date of Easter always changes, it is rightly called a moveable feast. After the Council of Nicaea in 325, Easter was decided to be held on the first Sunday after the full moon of the vernal equinox. However, changes in the use of different calendars over time have continued to leave the date of Easter in

constant flux. Even today, the Western and Eastern churches usually celebrate Easter on different Sundays. Although Easter is a Christian holiday, many of the celebratory traditions associated with Easter are pre-Christian. There are many stories and traditions from ancient cultures which correspond with part of the Easter tradition. It is generally agreed that Easter is has been influenced by several traditions and cultures. Many scholars agree that the word Easter is Jewish in origin; Easter is related to the word Passover, or Peasach, which is close to the word Pasch, or Easter. However, one 8th century scholar, St. Bede, has proposed that the actual word Easter probably came from the name Eastre, which is the Anglo-Saxon name for a Teutonic spring goddess. During the vernal equinox, a festival was celebrated to honor Eastre. The rabbit was traditionally a popular symbol of fertility at this time, which provides an origin for todays Easter Bunny. In addition, eggs were dyed and brightly colored at the Eastre festival, which represented the sunlight of spring. These eggs were given as gifts, or used in egg rolling contests. Today, similar traditions can still be found around the world. http://www.history.com/encyclopedia.do?articleId=208132 OTHER SIGNIFICANT DAYS, HOLIDAYS, AND BIRTHDAYS January Creativity Month January 12 John Singer Sargents birthday, 1840 January 13 Make Your Dreams Come True Day January 19 Paul Cezannes birthday, 1939 January 23 Edouard Manets birthday, 1832 January 28 Jackson Pollocks birthday, 1912 February American Heart Month, Friendship Month February 3 Norman Rockwells birthday, 1894 February 5 Weatherman/Weatherwomans Day February 20 Ansel Adams birthday, 1902 February 25 Pierre Auguste Renoirs birthday, 1841 March Youth Art Month March 2 Dr. Seuss birthday March 6 Michelangelos birthday, 1475 March 18 Grandparents and Grandchildren Day March 20-21 First Day of Spring March 30 Vincent van Goghs birthday, 1853 April Keep America Beautiful Month

April 6 Raphaels birthday, 1483 April 15 Leonardo da Vincis birthday, 1452 April 26 Naturalist John J. Audubons birthday, 1785 May Egg Month, Flower Month, Photo Month May 1 Hawaiian Lei Day May 7 - Tchaikovskys birthday, 1840 May 11 Salvador Dalis birthday, 1904 May 15 Chocolate Chip Day May 19 Circus Day Second Sunday in May Mothers Day June National Rose Month June 19 Statue of Liberty Arrived in the United States, 1885 June 20-21 First Day of Summer June 28 Peter Paul Rubens birthday, 1577 Third Sunday in June Fathers Day July National Picnic Month July 7 Macaroni Day July 5 Family Day July 15 Rembrandt van Rijns birthday (1606) July 19 Edgar Degas birthday, 1834 July 31 Author J.K. Rowlings birthday, 1966 August American Artist Appreciation Month August 6 Andy Warhols birthday, 1931 August 13 Left-handed People Day (Left-handed artists include: Albrecht Drer, Hans Holbein, Paul Klee, Michelangelo, Raphael, and Leonardo da Vinci (his right-hand possibly was paralyzed)) August 17 Archaeology Day August 30 Jacques Louis Davids birthday, 1748 First week of August Clown Week September Classical Music Month, Rice Month, Sewing Month September 7 Grandma Moses birthday, 1860 September 13 Author Roald Dahls birthday, 1916 September 16 Mexicos Independence Day September 22-23 First Day of Fall September 25 Mark Rothkos birthday, 1903 September 26 Johnny Appleseeds birthday October Stamp Collecting Month, Apple Month, Clock Month October 1 Homemade Cookies Day October 2 Peanuts first comic strip published in 1950 October 10 Alberto Giacomettis birthday, 1901 October 12 Farmers Day October 25 Pablo Picassos birthday, 1881 November Drum Month, Good Nutrition Month

November 7 Hug a Bear Day November 9 Parade Day November 14Claude Monets birthday, 1840 November 29 King Tuts tomb was opened on this day in 1922 First week of November Childrens Book Week December Hello Neighbor Month, Read a New Book Month December 1 Eat a Red Apple Day December 12 Poinsettia Day December 21-22 First Day of Winter December 27 Visit the Zoo Day December 31 Henri Matisses birthday, 1869 For a more comprehensive list of other special dates: http://www.kinderart.com/seasons/index. html http://www.arts.ufl.edu/ART/RT_ROOM/artist_birthdays/birthday.html


GRADE LEVELElementary Objective: Students will demonstrate an understanding of positive and negative shapes and space and of complementary color relationships by making a Holiday inspired greeting card which is decorated with a positive/negative paper cut using complementary colors and some attempt to coordinate with the nuance of a specific Holiday celebration. STATE CORE: Making and Expressing Meaning in Art Materials: Construction paper, colored copy paper, scissors, glue sticks and writing tools. Process: Demonstrate to students how to fold a piece of paper in half and cut a shape out of the folded side. When unfolded, you will have a positive shape and a negative shape that fit inside each other. Have students practice with newsprint. Each 81/2 x 11 sheet of newsprint will make four small 4-1/4 x 5- 1/2 sheets to practice. Very young students will need to practice before they work with the colored copy paper. Inexpensive colored copy paper and colored construction paper is readily available from the District Warehouse in all school districts and buying the paper from the Warehouse is probably cheaper than buying it retail. There is also a plethora of color options and interesting paper options to choose from. When students have mastered the newsprint, let them choose a pre-cut piece of colored copy paper about 4-1/4 x 5-1/2 and a 6 x 4-1/2 sheet of colored construction paper (half sheet). Have students choose their color scheme ahead of time. Feel free to expand this lesson into other color scheme options like ANALOGOUS or MONOCHROMATIC color schemes. My experience is that COMPLEMENTARY color theory is the best place to start with very young students. Holiday Colors are another way to go. Most holidays have a traditional color or color combination. Some are more obvious than others but children should be free to experiment and free associate to develop their own color symbols for the holiday that the greeting cards are being made for. Christmas is the obvious greeting card holiday but dont overlook Mothers Day, Fathers Day, Grandparents Day, famous Birthdays, May Day, Valentines Day and in fact any special day can be celebrated with a greeting card. Try making Fall-, Spring-, Winter-, or Summer-themed cards using shapes appropriate to the seasons. Dont overlook the idea that the shapes cut out can be specific to a Holiday. Trees, bells, and angels for Christmas, pumpkins, witches, and ghosts for Halloween, hearts for Valentines Day and so on and on and on. Dont be afraid to reinvent the symbols or use abstracts shapes that convey personal emotion.

When students have effectively cut out their negative shape from the colored copy paper, have them fold the larger half sheet of construction paper. Young students may need some help in figuring out right from left so the card opens from the right side like a book. Have students glue the colored cut out piece (positive outline) on the cover of the card and glue the smaller piece that was cut out to reveal the negative hole on the right facing page of the inside of the card. Orient the pieces so that when you open and close the card the negative hole in the cover piece is aligned with the cutout of the negative piece that has been glued inside.

Outside of Card This orientation becomes a very good visual aid to demonstrate the wandering ambiance of positive and negative shapes. Remember that these terms are not static, but relative to what one is looking at. For example, if you Inside of Card consider the face to be the positive shape, then the eyes are a negative shape in the face as is the space around the face. If the eye is the positive shape, then the iris is a negative shape, and the face surrounding the eye shape is also a negative shape. After the card is glued together, let students use ballpoint pens to add decoration and write messages. This is a great place to include some literacy lessons on simple poetry. Related Projects: Many variations are available for this greeting card project. Use Kirigami (snowflake) paper cutting for decoration. Add more paper cuts around the edges and inside. Punch out little dots with a paper punch or use some symbol shaped punch to make a lot of little decorative shapes. Use more exotic paper like wrapping paper or wallpaper. http://highhopes.com/snowflakes.html making paper snowflakes http://www.myjanee.com/tuts/snow/snow.htm tutorial for making snowflakes on computer


Three Dimensional Paper Ornaments: Art and Geometry Objective: Students will demonstrate an understanding of creating three dimensionality from two dimensional shapes by cutting and folding and gluing a piece of cardstock into a geometric three-dimensional form ideal for hanging by string as an celebratory ornament Materials: cardstock scissors or x-acto knife good glue geometric shape patterns Process: The nature and structure of geometric solids has long fascinated mathematicians, scientists, and philosophers. The Greek philosopher Plato, after whom the platonic solids are named, and the German astronomer Johannes Kepler both made important contributions to the understanding of these forms. Artists and designers have found a source of inspiration in the intrinsic beauty and sense of order of geometric solids. Spend some time with the students discussing a variety of three-dimensional geometric objects. We will focus on several in this lesson but the availability is immense. Some forms to discuss might be Tetrahedron, Octahedron, Cube, Trapezohedron, Dodecahedron, Pyramid, Cone, Cylinder, Icosahedron and many others. (see wikipedia.org for good illustrations) Introducing children to the vocabulary of solid geometry at a young age will help reduce their anxiety about higher math later on in their education. Mathematics is not about numbersit is a quantitative vocabulary that describes most everything, while Art is a visual qualitative vocabulary that describes most everything. Use the flattened schematics pictured here. If they are not the size you want, use a photocopier to enlarge or reduce. There is an exactness required for this project. If the flat form is off by just a little, the edges and corners wont line up and cant be glued together. Give children access to a cardstock template of the flattened form. Let them trace around the card stock template. They must be very careful because close in this project means missed it. The interior folding lines are important also. Use a straight edge to draw and fold. Use good scissors to cut out the forms. The edge of the scissors handles can be used to create crisp folds.

I have noticed that there is a long-standing tradition in Elementary Art instruction to give the students very primitive and poor--quality (CHEAP) art supplies. This, of course, is exactly backwards. No wonder so many students figure out by the fourth grade that they cant do art. Use good scissors and good paper and good glue and good straight edges. After the cardstock template is cut out, have students decorate the outside of the shape. Marker pens work very well. Try watercolor, glued paper, glue and glitter, and use your imagination to decorate the ornament for the specific holiday celebration you are focusing on. You can easily incorporate Color theory at this point, and have the students use particular color schemes to decorate the ornaments. When the students have cut out their template, demonstrate a good way to fold. Use a folding bone to press down and permanently fold the card stock. (If you dont have folding bones, use some smooth-sided objectthe side of the scissors handle, for instance.) This process is difficult but can be done. Dont forget that the only way to learn a new skill is to fail at it. One cannot learn to walk without falling down . . . A LOT!

Decorating a Tetrahedon

Now it is time to glue the pieces. Use a good-quality paper glue that is relatively quick drying. This comes in tube form, rubber applicator form, and most often, as a glue stick. Be careful because not all glue sticks are the same. Watch out for the cheapest ones. If your students cant hold the piece in place long enough to let the glue dry, use rubber bands. Exhibition and Related Projects: We use the Christmas Tree idea for nearly every holiday. We usually have an artificial tree that is low maintenance and storable. Sometimes we make the tree out of wood or metal or found objects. These dont always look like a traditional Christmas Tree because they arent. Try a Halloween or Valentines Day Tree. Find a place in the Library, Front Lobby, Faculty Room, or Front Office to display this work. It is possible that the Custodian, or Librarian, or even Principal wont be able to see it if it does not resemble something they are already familiar with. This is true of most people, but not artists. Art is always looking for the new, the novel, the unusual, and the personal. Use your excellent recruiting and teaching skills. The little guys are not your only students. Everyone in your school is your aesthetic student.

Gluing the Tetrahedon

We celebrate our book fair with a Book Tree, with little homemade books written and bound by students and then hung on our book tree so they can be read by others. We display this with a sign that says, TOUCH CAREFULLY. For Dance Festival, we do a tree with aluminum foil gesture figures dancing around, hanging from the tree. And so on, with most of the Holidays you are familiar with, some obscure ones, and some we just make up and invent for ourselves.

Schema Template for a Tetrahedron. Using a photocopier, you can make this any size you need. For this ornament project, I suggest about 2-1/2 to 3 inches per side of small triangle shapes.


Steps for assembling the TETRAHEDRON: 1) Apply glue to tab A and attach the opposing plane. 2) Apply glue to tabs B and C and press down the closing plane. Some Construction Hints: The recommended tools for construction the geometric solid are as follows: 1. an X-ACTO knife, for young students, use scissors 2. Water-soluble white glue, such as Elmers or Sobo 3. a scoring tool 4. a straight edge for scoring 5. a burnishing tool for applying pressure to glued joints Study the Schematics and Assembly diagrams to get the big picture of how it all works and the final product. Students should cut accurately. Close in art is called missed. Assemble before gluing. Glue should be put only on the tabs, not on the receiving surface. For neater and more accurate results, score along all fold lines before folding. Start with the simplest form, the TETRAHEDRON.



Schematic Template for OCTAHEDRON and Assembling Instructions:

1. Apply glue to tab A and attach the opposing plane. 2. Repeat Step 1 with tabs B and C. 3. Apply glue to tabs D and E and press down the closing plane. Insert hanging string.

Schematic Template for CUBE and Assembly Instructions:

1. Apply glue to tabs A and B and attach the opposing plane. 2. Repeat Step 1 with tabs C and D. 3. Apply glue to tabs E, F and G and bring down the closing plane.



Grade LevelElementary Objective: Students will demonstrate an understanding of a community cooperative art project and an understanding of personal symbols by designing a ceramic tile with a personal symbol, glazing it and hanging it up as part of a permanent installation on the wall of the school, celebrating how THE WHOLE IS MADE UP OF INDIVIDUALS. Materials: Pencil and paper, bisque-fired ceramic tiles, glazes, and a donated professional tile setter to hang it on the wall. Process: The first step in any art project is to develop an idea. In this project each student will develop and render a personal symbol. Start by drawing four personal symbols. They are Monogram, Geometric Design, Symbolic Icon, and Self-Portrait. One is chosen and the color scheme is applied with colored pencil. The Personal Symbol is then drawn on a commercial bisque-fired ceramic tile and glazed with an appropriate color scheme. We organized our latest mural by using the sequence on the color wheel for the background colors and complements for the decorative color and extra colors were analogous to the complement. After the tiles were

Making the tiles

glazed, they were fired and exhibited in the hall to promote more interest. We recruited as many students, friends, and neighbors to this project as we could. The mural was organized by background color going from violet on the extreme left, to red, to orange, to yellow, to green, to blue on the far right. Some care must be taken to organize the tiles into some kind of working composition of interest. See Evening For Educator Packets for lessons on composition. Arranging the tiles

Related Projects: This mural project can be altered by making it smaller, or by using different-sized tiles. Four to twelve inch are easily available. You can try different shaped tiles, as well. You can change this project drastically by having the students make the tiles as bas reliefs. If you are adventurous, try making a large relief mural as a large clay relief and then cutting the relief into tile pieces for ease in firing and hanging. Try using other surface coloring mediums instead of glaze. Try paint, watercolor, spray paint, color slip, or gluing textural materials to the fired clay. Mural Close up Simple Version: The mural project can also be done in paper with pencil or watercolor or marker pen and taped up on the wall. Much of the same learning opportunities are available with paper, but the outcome is much less dramatic. We always do both at the same time. This gives everyone a chance to exhibit his or her personal symbols and then select an appropriate one for the tile mural. The Finished Mural

Obviously, this is an abbreviated version of this lesson, but it should suffice. If you have any technical questions about this project, talk to Bob or Louise Nickelson at the Springville Museum of Art or Joseph Germaine at Shelley Elementary in American Fork.

Personal Symbols: Monograms (design made from the letters in your name or initials.

Monogram by Clay, second grade


Monogram by Kate, sixth grade

These are examples of Personal Symbols by using Geometric Shapes.

Overlapping Shapes, by Clair, fifth grade This is my personal symbol because I love how colors look when they overlap.

Personal Icons are self-invented symbols which represent ones self. To help students think about this idea we suggest animal, plant, nature, astronomy, and common household objects. Also, personal colors should be considered. Pretty Fish by Tori, fifth grade This is my personal symbol because this fish is very cute and so am I.

Tapa Cloth by Veilamoni, first grade, this is my personal symbol because it looks like Tapa, I love it.

The Big Eye by Justin, second grade This is my personal symbol because I can see thing really really good.

Marriage by Nancy, the computer lady, This is my personal symbol because I am getting married this summer and with Mr. Germaines help we designed this traditional Celtic knot representing two becoming one.


The Tall Tree by Cody, second grade, This is my personal symbol because when I grow up I will be big and tall like a big and tall tree.

Self-Portrait Tiles

Self-Portrait, Second Grader

Self-Portrait, Second Grader

Self-Portrait, Third Grader

Self-Portraits, Mom and First Grader

Self-Portrait, Kindergartener

Self-Portrait, Third Grader


Traditionally the work of aesthetically organizing and decorating holidays (holy days) rituals, celebrations, rites of passage, auspices, alignments, and time-marking days (birthdays and anniversaries) is the work of artisans and craftsmen and in ancient times usually under the direction of a religious leader. In ancient Hawaii, the Kahuna or Priest class were in charge of all aesthetic ritual and the making of artifacts for the rituals. The same is true in ancient Egypt and other great civilizations. Leonardo da Vinci rose to fame and fortune by organizing great visual performance celebrations and pageants for wealthy aristocratic benefactors. Michalanglo and Raphael and Bernini and nearly all other Renaissance artists and craftsmen worked for the church to promote its celebrations, traditions, and Holy Days. In modern times, the connection is not as obvious. Think of all the hoopla surrounding the Salt Lake City Olympics. Remember they fired the one head honcho and hired Mit Romney to be in charge of the visual, musical, dramatic, and dance performances and all the other logistical issues of the Olympics. Im not making a pitch that Romney was or is an artist, but it was the artist community he relied upon to pull it off. In the end, if you can see it, hear, dance with it, or observe the dramatic story of it . . . then it is Annual Report of American Ethnology 1912 ART. We use art every day for small celebrations legendaryhawaii.com/research/res00.htm and rituals and stack it up deeply for the Big Days. Do you ever pay any attention to your appropriate costume? Does it change from work to play; from weekdays to weekends and is it strictly utilitarian or is there an aesthetic, decorative tradition and perception at work? Objective: Students will demonstrate an understanding of what a holiday celebration is and how to mobilize a community to work together aesthetically by developing the idea of a special celebration or holiday and organizing and creating the visual decorations and appropriate activities. Process: This is a little different than our traditional measurable behavioral objective based lesson formats. We do use a lesson title, INVENT A HOLIDAY in which we look at a lot of unusual holidays from around the world and from other times. We then figure out as a class project what kind of holiday we are going to celebrate, how, when, and why. We use a process of brainstorming and learn how to achieve community consensus so that everyone gets some of their

needs and agenda met and some of their ideas used. This is a pretty important lesson to learn along the way toward becoming a contributing member of society. After we have decided generally on a new holiday celebration, we develop ways to celebrate. This demands a vision of the nature of the celebration. We decide on symbols, flags, color schemes, songs, visual images, dances, and some kind of dramatic public display. As artists, we want to help organize the ritual. So let me describe our latest project. THE SHELLEY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 40TH ANNIVERSARY CELEBRATION: In anticipation of our schools 40th anniversary, last year we started on a celebration project that was developed in our before-an-after-school ART EXPLORATIONS class. The first thing we did was organize. We set up a council and committees of Kindergarten thru sixth-grade students. How you organize is less important than that you do organize to clarify the larger picture, goals, and responsibilities. After a week of meeting last fall with a before school class of K-6 students and after school class of K-6 students (we are an extended day school with split sessions), we had discussed some ideas and decided what we wanted to do; and we had chosen a recording secretary, a discussion leader, and committees and committee leaders. The outcome of our planning was the decision to do a large ceramic tile mural to be permanently set on the wall of our main hall with everyone in the school invited to participate. We also decided to do a few other art things for our anniversary celebration like make posters, develop a logo, help the PTA organize and set up an anniversary carnival, to have our own ART BOOTH, set up a special art exhibition about our school and its history, plant some memorial trees, write a special birthday song for our school and bring in a musical group for a concert the night of our carnival. We also thought that some publicity in our town would be good. Every one of these ideas was generated by the students. Some of the seventh graders came back from the Jr. High to help, and we had a lot of cooperation from parents and other teachers. We had our Anniversary Carnival on Friday, September 15 after most of a year in planning. We achieved all the things we were planning to dosome more effectively and some less. We made posters to advertise the Carnival. We worked together to develop a visual logo. We are the Shelley Explorers so we made a compass design for the school symbol and had it installed in the tile floor of our main hall over the summer. Because we had financial backing, we also put in a color wheel in front of the Art Room and overlapping primary colored shapes in front of the Kindergarten room. We made handouts for the PTA to send home advertising and inviting all the families to attend the celebration. We made a variety of large oak tag posters to advertise and celebrate and two twenty-foot long butcher paper and

marker pen banners to hang outside. We set up and manned a Face Painting booth in which five of our own students did the painting after many months of practice painting some designs and letters. Some of the PTA Moms were a little nervous. It is sometimes difficult to convince the parents that school is for students to learn rather than for parents to control. We also sold student-generated artwork at our booth, which we do every year to generate funds for art supplies. Most of the artwork was bought by parents and grandparents. If an adult really values something in our society and culture, they will probably pay for it somewhere along the way. You cant fool the kids with a lot of kind and sappy rhetoric. The children know that we are more than ready to pay for the things we really value. The other side of that is that we tend to value that which we are forced to pay for. We also mounted a terrific ART SHOW in the main hall of our school, which we now call the GALLERY. The theme of our show was Why We Go To School. We also displayed all the old t-shirts and silkscreens we have used as school spirit-day shirts. We have been making all of the schools shirts for the past 18 years. Along with the shirts, we found at least one class or faculty picture for each of the past 40 years. We had a special tree-planting day earlier in the week. We planted 4 large red maples donated by Cook Farms Greenhouse. These trees will grow quite large and stand out in the neighborhood. We got the American Fork Citizen, The Provo Daily Herald and The Deseret News to do some publicity about our school, our celebration, our mural, and our arts program. Publicity is a kind of art project in itself. Dont be afraid to publicize your arts programs. It is an educational outreach. It brings money into your program, fellow teachers support and certainly school and district administration support. District administrators appreciate and support positive publicity even if you cant publish test scores. I know that as teachers we pretty much want to stay under the radar. It seems safer and draws less criticism, but it is much less fun.

We also wrote several songs. One was a birthday song: Have a birthday have a happy birthday have a happy birthday have a birthday have a happy birthday Have a happy happy birthday happy birthday to you. oo! oo! I said have a happy birthday have a have a, have a have a have a have a, have a have a have a have a, have a have a have a have a, have a have a BIRTHDAY!

We also wrote a song about our school and how much we like to learn. We go to school every day. We do our homework and then its time to play. When its 3:00 its time to go home. We walk with all our friends. Were never alone. We go to recess when the teachers say, swinging on the monkey bars our troubles away and if it starts to rain we run and hide but if it rains a lot then we go inside.

Chorus: When were outside we yell, jump and run. When were inside, its another kind of fun. We love to paint. We love to draw. We love to work with clay all day long. We go to bed when it gets dark. We dream all night about making art. Arts a kind of thinking, we do it with our minds. Pictures I can think of are my favorite kind.

We write a lot of songs in our visual arts program. The students and the teacher work together on the songs. Teachers be careful about stealing the creative juice and ownership away from the students. Let the students generate the ideas and words. It may take a little tuning up to get the rhythm and rhyme to work. It is O.K. if it sounds like second grade children wrote it. The last thing we did for our school celebration was to bring an a capella singing group in for a concert. The groups name is, T Minus 5. The group did a free performance for all the students and their families and the community at large. It was a resounding success. Related Projects: Our previous celebration day was Fix It Up For Beauty Day in which we spent a month photographing our school to find areas that needed fixing up and documenting it with good photographs and then getting help from the community to fix it up and then photographing the results afterward. We got incredible support from our families, businesses, and landlords in the area. We then mounted a photography show at the American Fork Childrens library of the Before and After: Caring About School photographs.

We have also created celebrations about Utah Statehood, Multicultural Day, Famous Artist Day, and Cinco de Mayo. We organized rituals and celebrations for The Fall Equinox, Winter Solstice, and Spring Equinox, and most years we celebrate May 1 as Aloha Day or Lei Day in which the students wear aloha shirts and or leis we have made to celebrate the Spirit of Aloha, which is the spirit of INCLUSION. We always mount art exhibitions following the themes of our celebration. Our most successful holiday celebration was twenty years ago when as a new Elementary art teacher, I went to a workshop run by Doris Trujillo about dance in the Elementary Art Curriculum. Dance terrified me, so I decided to recruit the whole school to the Dance Agenda. It became our Shelley Elementary Dance Festival that we hold the last week of school every year, and every class performs an all-inclusive grade level dance in front of a family and community audience of about 2000 spectators. We have been on TV news a couple of times and always in the newspaper. Every student and teacher dances. This year will be our 21st year at it.

For current examples of work by Joseph Germaines elementary classes, go to: http://shelley.alpinedistrict.org/Art.html Pictured below are examples of 3d clay ornaments made by joining 2 pinch pots and then texturing the surface with a design.



Peruvian Winter Solstice

Grade LevelElementary Objective: Students will demonstrate an understanding that 1. different cultures celebrate different holidays in different ways, 2. artists contribute to the way people celebrate their holidays by decorating and building ritual art. 3. art can celebrate the natural world . . . by studying about the Peruvian Inca Holiday Inti Raymi, which is a celebration of the sun and the winter solstice and by making art about the sun. Process: Since Americans are notoriously xenophobic and non-international in their world view, we want to expand our awareness by looking at one of the oldest and most highly developed cultures in world history and one of the most pervasive holiday celebratory ritual icons in human culture . . . the SUN. The sun has been the focus of art and religion and science and human celebration in nearly all cultures at all times. If you dont think this is part of the contemporary American tradition, just come with me to Hawaii and see what visitors do to express their thankfulness to the sun for the nice climate they sacrifice themselves on the sandy alter of melanoma. This is a human sacrifice ritual that by sheer quantity out does any of the MesoPhoto by European Space Agency-NASA.) American or Polynesian or Egyptian or Japanese http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2005/ human sacrifice and self-immolation rituals, s2372.htm and it kills more people annually than any other culture dreamed of. I suppose the same could be said for fire rituals such as intentionally breathing in toxic smoke. O.K.back to the story. In ancient Incan culture the two most important holiday celebrations were Ano Nuevo ( Spanish), which is New Years and Inti Raymi (Incan), which is what we would call the Winter Solstice. This is the Southern Hemisphere version of our Winter Solstice celebration that we have co-opted as our Christmas Holiday. Winter, of course, comes to Peru and the Andes in June and July. The Winter Solstice Celebration in Peru is held on June 24. Here is a good opportunity to explain a little astronomy and earth science by explaining what solstice and equinox are and how and why the sun seems to move not only across the sky each day but north and south on the eastern and western horizons.

Background Information About Inti Raymi: In 1572, Viceroy Toledo banned Inti Raymi celebrations as pagan and contrary to the Catholic faith. Following the edict, the ceremonies went underground. Today, its the second-largest festival in South America. Hundreds of thousands of people converge on Cuzco (the ancient capital of the Inca) from other parts of Peru, South America, and the world for a week-long celebration marking the beginning of a New Year, the Inti Raymi, the Festival of the Sun. Every day has its events, from daytime expositions, street fairs, and people milling and dancing in the streets. In the evenings, live music from the best of Peruvian musical groups draws the crowds to the Plaza de Armas for free concerts. During the preceding year, in preparation for Inti Raymi, hundreds of actors are chosen to represent historical figures. Being selected to portray the Sapa Inca or his wife, Mama Occla, is a great honor. The centerpiece of the festival is the all-day celebrations on June 24, the actual day of Inti Raymi. On this day, the ceremonial events begin with an invocation by the Sapa inca in the plaza in front of the Santo Domingo church, built over the ancient Temple of the Sun. Here, the Sapa Inca calls on the blessings from the sun. Then there is a ceremonial procession to the ancient fortress (Sacsayhuaman) up in the hills above Cuzco. The officials are dressed in ceremonial robes decorated with gold and silver and precious stones. They walk along flower-bedecked streets, to music, dancing, and prayers. Women sweep the streets to clear them of evil spirits. Some participants are costumed as representatives of, The Snake for the world below; The Puma for life on earth: and The Condor for the upper world of the gods. As the sun begins to set, stacks of straws are set on fire and the celebrants dance around them to honor Tawantinsuty or


the Empire of the Four Wind Directions. In ancient times, no fire was allowed that day until the evening fires. The fires are to chase away the cold and dark of night and to lengthen the day. Amazingly, every year they build this huge ceremonial fire and the very next day the sun starts to set a little later and rise a little earlier and this progresses until the days are long and hot and another ceremony has to be performed to lengthen the nights and cool the days down and bring the rains. The ceremony of Inti Raymi ends with a procession back to Cuzco. Sapa Inca and Mama Occla are carried on thrones, and the representatives of the Supas pronounce blessings on the people. Once again, a New Year has begun. There are several art responses to this ancient celebration and we shall peruse a couple. One is very accessible to all ages and that is to render a stylized symbol of the sun, which not only reminds us of what the sun looks like but also what the sun does, feels like, means and reminds us of. These three issues are three of the nine major aesthetic responses. After all, the Sun is necessary for all Life.

The Sun Kitten first grade crayon

The Sun Has Lots of Eyes Kindergarten, Playdough

This lesson does not need to be about Peru or Incas or the Sun. In my school we have a Peruvian family and one of my third-grade students is adamant about her non-Mexican heritage. Find a similar celebration and its artifacts from any time or place that you as the teacher are familiar with or that students or families can help with from their own ethnic tradition. Any recruitment of school families is a plus.

The examples in this lesson are done at home for the most part and the learning window is about art history and choice of medium. After discussing the sun both culturally and scientifically, have students discuss ways of rendering the sun and symbols of the sun.

Blackeyed Sun fourth grade marker pen

The Cool Man In The Sun second grade pen & ink

If you need images of sun symbols I recommend going to the image mode on metacrawler or any other search engine that will bring up images to your search. Here is a short bibliography of books that focus on the Sun and its images. The Book of the Sun, by Tom Folley and Iain Zaczek; Sun Images,(photography), by Michael George; Ghost Images, (Sun and Moon), by Herve Guibert, The Sun, by Seymour Simon; The Sun, Steele Hill and Michael Carlowicz; The Sun In Art, by Walter Herdeg; Symbols in Art and Religion, by Karel Werner; Everyday Sun Magic, by Dorothy Morrison. Some of these books are old and hard to find. There are even more images on line that you can download or print for free. Try some of William Blakes poems and illustrations about the sun. Related Projects: There are a lot of other projects in art that we can do to celebrate our own Winter Solstice or other cultural ways of celebrating. One of the obvious ways to deal with these ideas are SUNDIALS. Sundials can be constructed out of cardstock, card board, metal or ceramic clay. They can be small, hand held or very large installations of stone and metal. Here is one that we do every year: THE HUMAN SUNDIAL: Children can watch the passage of the sun during the day by becoming human sundials. On a sidewalk or other easily marked location, mark a center dot and a large circle. At different times of the day (on the hour would be easiest), have a child stand on the dot and mark with chalk where their shadow falls! As the day progresses, children will see that the shadow moves. Use this as an opportunity to show how the sun moves across the sky from morning to night, affecting how our shadows fall. Talk a little about early clocks and traditional time telling. Ask why is telling time important and when did average normal people start needing to tell time and why. Believe it or not it was not necessary to have a clock until about the turn of the 19th Century. Before that clock were located in public towers and the bell rang so one did not have to be able to tell time. Later, very loud steam whistles would blow to

tell time because during the Industrial Revolution the only two time one needed to know was starting time for work and quitting time. Our modern fixation on time is a residual affect of that revolution. SOMEONE SHOULD WRITE A LESSON ON HOW TO MAKE A SUNDIAL!

More Winter Solstice: Mask making is an obvious way to celebrate Holidays and special ocassions. It is a very old and traditional way to celebrate. Here are some Ceramic Sun Masks made as part of a Winter Solstice project which we call Spirit Masks. See the previous Evening for Educators packets for specific lessons on ceramic clay spirit masks. This work is created by second graders.


Photo credits: Peruvian Sun God Mask http://www.houseofperu.org/images/god.jpg Photos of Male Dancers and Overview of Inti Raymi Ceremony from http://www.askadavid.org/photos/photos49/ photos49.htm Photo of Sapa Inca being carried on his throne from http://fholson.cohousing.org/peru05. htm Artwork by Joseph Germaines Second Grade Art Class


Pumpkins Have Feelings Too

Grade LevelElementary Objective: Students will demonstrate their ability to express feelings in an art image by creating a pumpkin with an expression that communicates a chosen feeling. Materials Large sheets of drawing paper Black construction paper Green construction paper Scissors Glue Coloring medium such as paint or crayons A great way to talk about feelings and to help students learn to create images that express feelings is to have students use a simple image such as a pumpkin. Here are some examples of computer-generated pumpkins with expressions. Students each choose a feeling their pumpkin will express, and make drawings of pumpkin faces (at least 4 drawings) that express the chosen feeling. When students have refined their drawing, they cut the pumpkin shape from a large sheet of paper and color it. Then have students draw the expressions on black construction paper and cut them out. Encourage them to draw large enough to fill the pumpkin shape. Remind the students of the feeling they are working on by asking them to tell you what it is and how they are going to do it. When the facial elements are all cut out, have students arrange the elements around on the pumpkin shape until it looks right to them. They need to decide on an arrangement before they start gluing. Use white glue or glue sticks to glue down the face. Some green construction paper can be used for the stem and leaves. Related Projects: This project can be done with other mediums. Clay is a natural for this. It can be done as three-dimensional pumpkin sculptures that become nice candleholders or a flat

relief sculptural wall hanging. Watercolor or acrylic paint works very well. Other motifs beside Halloween pumpkins can be used, such as faces on Valentines hearts, or faces on St. Patricks Day shamrock shapes, or faces on the Man/Woman in the Moon or the Man/Woman in the Sun, or expressive faces on Easter Eggs. Use your imagination and let the students use theirs. Remember that teaching is an important art form and as such should use all the elements and creative principles of art and should be broad based, including history, aesthetics, criticism, and production. Teaching should also make use of all the artistic idioms such a Drama, Music, Dance and of course, the Visual Arts. Here are some finished projects made by Kindergartners. Students first chose the feeling and then tried to make the facial features match the feeling. The first step in any successful art project is a good idea.

A bunch of interesting pumpkins

the SAD pumpkin

Tanners ANGRY Pumpkin


Hes trying to be HAPPY

PUMPKINS HAVE FEELING TOO: Here are some more images of Kindergarten projects.

the FRIENDLY pumpkin

the SCARED pumpkin

RELATED PROJECT: This project can be done in ceramic clay as a wall hanging mask. This needs to be done on flat slabs of clay, and the mask is to hang on the wall not to wear. The patina color is done with watercolor, not glaze, and then sprayed down with clear sealer.

the NASTY pumpkin, by Noah, second grade


PUMPKINS HAVE FEELINGS TOO: Let me share with you some photos of this project done in a Kindergarten class using some second grade helpers.

Kindergarten: In the pit

Kindergarten: cutting

Kindergarten: gluing

Kindergarten: taking a break



Objective: Students will demonstrate an understanding of facial proportions and portrait rendering by drawing and watercoloring a self-portrait and then a portrait of themselves when they get old. Materials: paper pencil watercolor colored construction paper Process: This lesson assumes that students have had some experience with human facial proportions and the rendering of self-portraits. This is a kind of birthday celebration because we are anticipating many future birthdays and the joy of aging. Have students do a careful pencil drawing of themselves now and another one of when they are old. Have them use light watercolor techniques to color the work. When the picture are finished and dry, mount the two portraits on colored paper backgrounds. This work is a real eye catcher when exhibited in the hall. The two pictures side by side should still look like the same person only one is older. Most young students never think about getting old and cannot anticipate what they will look like. Talk to them about genetics and have them think about their parents and grandparents. Ask some directed questions like, Did Grandpa lose his hair? What color is Grandmas hair? Where do you think you will get wrinkles? Will your skin get splotchy and change its color? What kind of smile will you have when you are wearing dentures or glasses? To help this problem solving, have illustrations of elderly people available. Look at old issues of National Geographic. They are full of great close ups of aged people. It is a good idea to use yourself or another teacher, or a students grandparent to model aging. This lesson is a celebration of aging and birthdays. In our culture we loath the aging process and imagine we can keep it from happening. We cant and rather than self-loathing we should see the signs and facial characteristics of aging as a hard-won reward for survival. Remember how boring a young face is to draw. There is nothing to look at, no drama, no visual dynamics, and no corners to hold on to. The beauty of aging is something to celebrate and reverence. What is it about our culture that thinks wisdom and experience is unattractive? Here are some fourth grade examples. Most of these students have been working on facial proportions and watercolor techniques and self-portraits since Kindergarten.

Images in header of previous page by Chandler, fourth grade.

by Mckensy, fifth grade

by Whitney, fourth grade

by Sam, fourth grade

This project was created in Mrs. Millers fourth grade Music and Art class at Shelley Elementary School, American Fork.


Ceramic Celebration Picture Frames

GRADE LEVELLower Elementary OBJECTIVE: Students will demonstrate an understanding of three-dimensional texture, positive and negative shapes and spaces, and the value and the impact of borders and frames around exhibited artwork by constructing and decorating a ceramic picture frame. STATE CORE OBJECTIVES: Intended Learning Outcomes K2nd Grade 1. Demonstrate a positive learning attitude. c. Demonstrate persistence in completing tasks. 3. Demonstrate responsible emotional and cognitive behaviors. b. Express self in positive ways. c. Demonstrate aesthetic awareness. Standard 1: Students will develop a sense of self. Objective 2: Develop and demonstrate skills in gross and fine motor movement. c. Develop manipulative skills (e.g., cut, glue, throw, catch, kick, strike). 6. Communicate clearly in oral, artistic, written, and nonverbal form. a. Share ideas using communication skills. f. Use visual art, dance, drama, and music to communicate. Third Grade Fifth Grade Making and Expressing Meaning in Art MATERIALS: Ceramic clay, clay tools, kiln, glazes or surface patinas (paint). See SOURCES PROCESS: Using cardstock, cut out a variety of shapes of two different-size groupings. Make sure that the smaller shapes can fit into the larger shapes with at least a half inch on all sides to spare. If the width of the frame borders are too thin or has exaggerated thick and thin spots in its width, the thinner parts are very prone to cracking. Have students look at a variety of shape combinations like circles inside of squares or squares inside of circles or triangles inside of ovals or squares inside triangles. Each of these possible combinations (and many more) have their own visual impact and symbolic nuance. Let students experiment and decide which they want to use

for the specific frame project that the teacher has designed. For example: Mothers Day frames with self-portraits or group portraits in the frame; Christmas frames with Christmas shapes and Christmas themes in the pictures; or Halloween decorative frames with spooky motifs drawn, painted or colored inside. The size of the frame is up to you. I recommend the outside shape be about 5 x 9 with the inside shape leaving at least an inch of frame. After the cardstock shape combinations have been decided on, students will draw the outline of the shapes on a thin slab of ceramic clay. [Roll out slabs of clay about 1/4 to 3/8 thick. Students can make their own slabs, but it is very difficult for young children to make an even thickness and that will impact the strength of the finished product. Use a rolling pin and a piece of cloth or canvas under the clay to prevent it sticking to the table or work surface. Turn the slab over several times during rolling. The leftover scraps can be wedged (kneaded) and used again.] The smaller shape will be inserted into the larger shape to create the window in which the students drawing or painting will be seen. Thus we have a larger positive shape and a smaller negative shape inside. After drawing the shapes lightly on the soft clay, students should cut the shapes out . BBQ skewers make good drawing tools. So do pencils. Old butter knives also work well for cutting clay. So do plastic picnic knives. Fettling knives are the traditional tool for this process, but they will cost a couple of dollars each. When the picture frame shapes have been cut out and rough edges lightly smoothed down with the thumb, it is time to decorate the surface of the frame with designs and textures. I usually have students do a TEXTURE TOOL HUNT. This means that they look around their house and yard for interesting small objects that leave an interesting textural impression in the clay. These are usually plastic toys or household utensils. If the students bring their own texture tools, the project becomes more about the students and less about the teacher. Have a piece of clay available so the students can test out their tools. Now it is time to decorate the soft clay with lines, shapes, and textures. CAUTION: Dont stamp or incise


too deeply. The lines and edges create a place that wants to crack through. The lines and texture should be deep enough to see but shallow enough to not promote cracking during drying and firing. Remember that MORE IS LESS. Too much decoration is the same as no decoration because you cannot see the design if it is too busy. Keep it simple. DESIGNS AND TEXTURES IN CLAY: One of the most interesting qualities of ceramic clay is its ability to accept and retain stamped or applied textures. The source of the texture can be from a drawing tool similar to drawing a texture on paper with a pen or pencil or the texture can be stamped or rolled on with a texture tool (anything that leaves an interesting texture) or the clay can be applied to a larger source of texture like a wall or carpet or floor that will leave a texture or pattern in the clay. Damp clay can be decorated in three ways: 1. You can add decorative shapes of clay to the clay (be sure to score and slip whenever trying to stick to pieces of clay together). This is called appliqu. 2. You can subtract shapes and pieces of clay by relief carving and cutting out whole shapes of clay, revealing negative spaces. 3. You can decorate clay by drawing and stamping into the soft malleable clay with a texture tool. This is called incising. In this project we will use the stamping and drawing techniques to texture the picture frame with a decorative design texture. When the frames are decorated, set them aside to dry. Place the damp frames on a flat surface covered with newspaper. Dry them slowly by placing some paper towel or newspaper over them. Quick drying will crack the edges of the frame, depending on the clay you use. Dont let the project be over 3/8 of an inch think. When the frames are bone dry, load them gently into a kiln and fire to bisque temperature (cone 06 or about 1830 degrees F). When the pieces are fired, it is time to glaze them. Use low fire (cone 06) glazes and be very careful about toxicity. There are warnings and cautions on the label. Dont take any chances. There are many wonderful glazes that are totally safeuse them. Follow the directions on the glaze container (usually three flowing coats). After the pieces are glazed, they need to be fired. Even if you use cone 10 high-fire clay, do the bisque firing at 06-04 and the glaze firing to cone 06. The temperature for the glaze is written on the bottle.

Decorated frame, bisque fired

When the picture frame is finished, it is time to put something in it. Depending on the Holiday or Celebration that you are celebrating, make the artwork appropriate. I use this project for kindergarten and first grade in the spring, and we make Mothers Day pictures. Usually a self-portrait or a portrait of the child and the childs mother together. A nice way to get exhibition quality out of very young children is to have them draw a picture with a black ballpoint pen and then use a light water color wash to paint it. Related Projects: Other Holidays are workable too, and other art forms can go into the frame. Paint can be used instead of glaze. If you want the watercolor to be shiney on the clay, use white clay and then spray Glazed frame with pen down the dry looking watercolor with a and ink drawing glossy clear spray acrylic. Photographs

are also a nice thing to put in the frames. Use your creative imagination and come up with your own variations. SOURCES: I recommend a stoneware clay instead of an earthenware. Since earthenware is a low-fire clay and this is a low-fire project, it seems logical that earthenware clay is the best material. However, low-fire clay has very little tensile strength, wont stand up with out sluffing, and dries and tears too easily for young students. I suggest stoneware like Rods Bod for white, Rio Red for red clay, and Long Beach for pink clay. (You can purchase these clays from Interstate Ceramics, 560 N. State, Orem, or at other ceramic supply stores.) Sources

Glazed frame with photograph


Grade LevelElementary Objective: Students will demonstrate an understanding of color mixing and color relationships by inventing and naming their own mixed colors and then applying those colors to a thematic rendering of their favorite holiday or celebration day. Materials: crayons colored pencils black ball-point pens paper Process: Students should first be exposed to some of the grade-appropriate curriculum about color theory such as, Primary, Secondary, Intermediate, and Neutral colors. Also show them the relationships on the color wheel and a little about Complementary, Analogous, and Monochromatic color schemes. This is part of the curriculum, and it really helps the students thinking. Using some kind of round template (I use a small peanut can) have students draw four circles with black ball point on their paper. Inexpensive copy paper will work just fine for the first part of this project. In the top two circles, students should mix two or three crayons together to create a new, novel, and personal color. The new color should be one color, not a mix of different colored scribbly spaghetti lines. Caution them about using too many colors because they will end up with a muddy neutral grayish brown.


SECOND GRADE INVENTION Grape, Rainbow, Hot Fire Hot, Sunset

They should then name the color with a new and interesting name and write the name under the circle. Younger students may need to write down the recipe. Repeat the process in the bottom two circles, but use colored pencils; and again, give the new colors a name. When students have developed four new and personal colors, have them turn the paper over, and using a very large circle template (as big as the paper), have students try to repeat one of their colors. If you feel the students have gained some competence in this mixing project, have them try watercolors. Blending watercolors is a very tricky process even for accomplished artists. The point here is to

try it and give it a good shot. A sincere attempt is the greatest success possible. Success is not the thing you do but how you feel about the thing you do. Here are some hints and cues to give very young students to help them avoid the scribbly, colored spaghetti look when what we really want is a smooth, flat, uniform color with all the contributing colors softly amalgamated into one new color: 1. Start LightGo Darker 2. Use Short Strokes 3. Make All Strokes Go in the Same Direction(obviously one can cross hatch but the smooth even application is more difficult and takes more time and is thus less practiced and usually a glaring deficit with young artists) 4. Build Up the Colors Slowly and Carefully, Alternating Between the Colors 5. Cover the Whole Space, Leaving No White Paper Showing Between the Strokes 6. Do Not Rub Your Hand Over the Place That You Just Colored or Shaded When all the students have had a chance to invent their own colors, they need a chance to use their color to create a personal artwork. This step is very important! Getting students to have a sense of personal ownership is probably the most important issue in educating young artists. There are many kinds of assignments that students could use their NEW colors on, but this one has fairly universal appeal: Discuss with students the idea of holidays and celebrations and what kinds of symbols and colors we use to celebrate them. Remember that with young students the old clichs are new and exciting. Eggs for Easter . . . Trees for Christmas . . . Turkeys for Thanksgiving . . . Goblins for Halloween. Even though there is nothing wrong with these symbols, try to push the learning edge a little further and come up with a broader sense of Holidays (like The Spring Equinox) and encourage the use of less obvious symbols (like a Fish for Christmas).

SECOND GRADE: 4TH OF JULY Sparkle, Twirly, Smooth grass, Evening


SECOND GRADE: EASTER BASKET COLORS: Pretty Pink, Banana, Grass and Hot Red Hot

Related Projects: Other ways to learn about mixing colors can start with watercolor and move on to tempera paint. Acrylics and oils are wonderful for young children since they are seldom exposed to these more sophisticated media until they are much older. Using them is probably a money issue, but the media are well worth the investment. Other ways to learn about color creation is to mix marker pens. Markers do not mix, so use a pointillism method of adjacent colored dots to create the illusion of a new color. The mind will mix the adjacent color dots into a new color for you. You can also do this with little paper hole punch colored dots. Glue the paper dots adjacent to each other to create new and novel colors. Try making color value scales with all of these techniques. That is, make the color darker or lighter by adding black or white and build a graduated scale. Exhibition: When the students are finished, exhibit this work with their color-mixing studies and a sentence or two about their personal thinking process.


* SECOND GRADE: HERE COMES SANTA Strawberry Red, Gooey Green, Mud, Evening

SECOND GRADE: EASTER EGG COLORS: Rainy Blue, Slippery Green, Purple Plum Popsicle and Rotten Red


Ukrainian Legend & Tradition The Art of Dying Eggs


GRADE LEVELMiddle School OBJECTIVES: Students will understand and apply the process of Ukrainian egg dying Students will learn terms and vocabulary related to Ukrainian eggs Students will understand the history of Ukrainian eggs Students will design and create their own eggs STATE CORE LINKS: Standard 1 MakingStudents will assemble and create works of art by experiencing a variety of art media and by learning the art elements and principles. Objective 1 Explore a variety of art media, techniques, and processes. Standard 2 PerceivingStudents will find meaning by analyzing, criticizing, and evaluating works of art. Objective 2 Evaluate works of art. Standard 3 ExpressingStudents will create meaning in art. Objective 1 Create content in works of art. Standard 4 ContextualizingStudents will find meaning in works of art through settings and other modes of learning. Objective 1 Align works of art according to history, geography, and personal experience. MATERIALS: Eggs, egg dye, beeswax, candle, kistka or q-tips, hair dryer (optional), syringe (optional), spray varnish (optional) ACTIVITY: 1. Motivation: Ask students to imagine they have had a very long day on the farm, and they have just been asked to gather the eggs from the chickens. The chickens have a tendency to peck, so its not very fun to gather the eggs. When students reach slowly into the nests they pull out something very unusual not the ordinary brown speckled eggs, but a brightly colored Ukrainian Egg. 2. Discuss: Aesthetics Show images of Ukrainian Eggs (found on internet). How are these eggs different than the eggs in your refrigerator at home? What are the similarities? Can these eggs be considered art? What do these eggs have in common with items found in an art museum? Are these eggs more beautiful that what you would usually find in a nest on a farm? Why/Why not? Is art generally

more beautiful that what we find in the natural world? Can a chicken create an artwork just by laying an egg? What is the difference between the chicken as an artist and the Ukrainian people as artists? 3. Explain and Discuss: Art History/ Visual Culture/ Criticism Ukrainian Eggs are different because they have been written on. The art of writing on eggs is called Pysanky. Ask students to recall a time when they have written on an egg. Show examples of traditional American Easter eggs. Divide students into groups and ask them to complete a list of similarities and differences between the eggs. Would one set of eggs rank higher on the fine art scale than the other? Which eggs might be more valuable? What are the similarities/differences between their eggs and the pysanky eggs shown? For what purpose were each of the eggs created? Have students read the handout called Ukrainian Legend and Tradition in order to more fully understand the origins of pysanky. Assess student knowledge by having them complete the accompanying worksheet. 4. Explain: Studio/Production Invite students to begin designing their own Ukrainian egg by completing the Egg drawing worksheet provided. Give them the Egg Symbols handout available on www.learnpysanky. com to assist their brainstorming process. Remind students to consider who will receive the egg, and what messages they plan to portray. Encourage students to include contemporary symbols or messages as well. 5. Explain: Studio/Production Show the step-by-step process of pysanky. Use the directions on www.learnpysanky.com to help you (the website includes step-by-step instructions for a wide variety of designs). a. Step one: Draw your design with pencil on the egg. Fill the kistka with a small piece of beeswax and wave it a few times through the flame of a candle until the wax becomes liquid. Draw with wax over the places that should remain white. b. Step two: Gently lower your egg into your first color. (lightest first, usually yellow) Allow it to soak until it reaches the desired shade. Dry the egg, and then wax over the areas that should remain your first color. In other words, repeat step one, but think about any areas that should remain yellow. c. Step three: Continue dipping and covering with wax. Be sure to dye your egg in the proper color order. (for example, white, then yellow, then green, then orange, then red, then black) d. Step four: Melt off the wax. Hold the egg low and close to the flame of a candle. Absorb the melted wax with a tissue and wipe clean. You may also choose to melt the wax by using a hot hair dryer to melt the wax, then wipe with a clean paper towel. e. Step Five: Carefully pierce both ends of the egg with a push pin or a sharp object. Poke a needle tool or a paper clip inside the egg in order to break up the yolk. Blow through the egg and empty the contents into the sink or trash can. You may also choose to use a syringe to blow air into the egg in order to empty the contents more quickly. f. Step Six: Coat the egg with a glossy spray varnish and display using a candle holder, napkin ring, or miniature basket.

6. Assessment: Student work should be assessed according to the following criteria: a. Student completed the Art History reading and worksheet b. Student completed the preliminary drawing worksheet c. Student followed directions when applying wax d. Student included symbols and considered the recipient when designing egg e. Project exhibits quality work and effort f. Students used time wisely g. Project is complete/ on time h. Student respected materials and left area clean

Sources: Internet: www.learnpysanky.com This is web site has step-by-step directions, design ideas, meaning of symbols and colors as well as links to other useful sites. http://www.princetonol.com/groups/iad/lessons/high/Sue-Pysanky.htm This web site has a lesson for high school and middle school with elementary version Includes history, directions, assessment rubrics, and links to other web sites

There are also many other helpful web sites that show examples and demonstrations of eggs. These can be found by typing Ukrainian Eggs or Pysanky into any search engine. Book: Decorating Eggs: Exquisite Designs with Wax and Dye, By Jane Pollak, ISBN 0-8069-9413-4 Variations: If the teacher does not wish to buy specialized tools, such as kistka, you may achieve a similar technique by dipping Q-tips in wax and dying in a similar manner. Details will not be as small, but the techniques can still be experienced.



Complete a preliminary drawing of two different eggs. Remember to plan what colors and patterns you plan to use in advance. What messages or symbols are you trying to portray? Who or what will be the recipient of your egg? Drawings should be detailed and completed in color.

Egg #1 Front View

Egg #1 Back View

Egg #2 Front View


Egg #2 Back View


Day of the Dead Figurines

GRADE LEVELUpper ElementaryMiddle OBJECTIVES: Students will be able to: 1. Learn the background history and vocabulary of this holiday 2. Compare cultural differences between this Mexican holiday and the American celebrations of Memorial Day and Halloween 3. Create a skeleton figure to memorialize an influential figure 4. Debate opinions as to whether these skeleton figures can be associated with more than just the scariness and gore of Halloween and can actually be seen as beautiful works of art STATE CORE LINKS: Making, Conceptualizing, Expressing, Perceiving MATERIALS: butcher paper tempera or acrylic paints Day of small brushes clay Dead 3 x 5 notecards clay tools figure from BACKGROUND OF DIA DE LOS MUERTOS: Da de los Muertos is on November 2nd, with celebrations beginning on November 1, Da de Muertos Chiquitos--The Day of the Little Dead also All Souls Day, and continuing on November 2, All Saints Day. It is a joyous occasion when the memory of ancestors and the continuity of life is celebrated. It is believed that at this time the souls of the departed return to visit the living. It is not a time of mourning since the path back to the living world must not be made slippery by tears. Its roots are in ancient Mexico but it is celebrated in many North, Central, and South American countries. It is a mixture of indigenous and Catholic traditions and includes gathering at cemeteries for the cleaning and decoration of the grave sites and socializing. The manner of celebration varies regionally with folkloric traditions being particularly strong in Oaxaca where there is a substantial indigenous population. El Da de Los Muertos originated in Mexico, before the Spanish conquest. The exact date is unknown, but it has been speculated that the idea originated with the Olmecs, possibly as long as 3000 years ago. This concept was passed to other cultures such as the Toltecs, Maya, Zapotec, Mixtec and Aztecs. Zapotec and Mixtec influence are strong is Oaxaca, see Linguistic map. The Aztec celebration was held during the Aztec month of Miccailhuitontli, presided over by the goddess Mictecacihuatl Lady of the Dead, and dedicated to children and the dead. Following the Spanish conquest of Mexico during the 16th century, there was a strong effort to

Dia de Los Muertos

convert the native population to Catholicism. There was a good deal of reluctance on the part of the indigenous people which resulted in a blending of old customs with the new religion. All Saints Day and All Hallows Eve (Halloween) roughly coincided with the preexisting Da de Los Muertos, resulting in the present-day event which draws from both. This compromise was necessary both to preserve church membership and to satisfy church authorities that progress was being made in converting the indigenous to Catholicism. Although the skeleton is a strong symbol for both Halloween and los Das de Los Muertos, the meaning is very different. For Das de Los Muertos the skeleton represents the dead playfully mimicking the living and is not a macabre symbol at all.s not a macabre symbol at Preparation begins weeks in advance when statues, candies, breads and other items to please the departed are sold in markets. A sweet bread, pan de muerto, with decorations representing bones of the deceased is very popular as are sugar skulls. All sorts of art objects and toys which symbolically represen,t death in some way are created and marketed. This gives the economy a boost in much the same way as our Christmas season does. Alters of recetas are set up in the home with offerings of sweets and the favorite foods and beverages of the deceased. These offerings may later be given away or consumed by the living after their essence has been enjoyed by the dead. Marigolds are the traditional decorative flower and copal is the traditional incense made from the resin of the copal tree.

The particulars of the celebration vary widely by region in Mexico. On November 1, Da de Muertos Chiquitos, the departed children are remembered. The evening is sometimes called la Noche de Duelo, The Night of Mourning, marked by a candlelight procession to the cemetery. On November 2, Da de los Muertos, the spirits of the dead return. Entire families visit the graves of their ancestors, bringing favorite foods and alcoholic beverages as offerings to the deceased as well as a picnic lunch for themselves. They spend the day cleaning and decorating the grave sites and visiting with each other and other families. Traditionally there is a feast in the early morning hours of November 2nd although many now celebrate with an evening meal. There are sugar skulls and toys for the children, emphasizing early on that death is a positive part of the life cycle. It is a happy occasion for remembering pleasant times with departed family members. (This text and the vocabulary below is taken directly from http://www.tomzap.com/muertos. html) VOCABULARY: los angelito Young children who have died too soon to have sinned and go straight to heaven calaca the Grim Reaper, a skeletal figure representing death calavera - the skull or skeleton, which symbolically represents the dead playfully mimicking the living on the Day of the Dead. Sugar skulls are sold in great numbers during the celebration, often personalized with a name. It is believed that the dead like sweets. Dia de los Muertos = Day of the Dead (November 2nd)

Da de Muertos Chiquitos - The Day of the Little Dead, occurring on November 1, All Souls Day El Da de Difuntos - also means Dia de los Muertos hojaldra - a sweet bread made for los Das de los Muertos la Noche de Duelo - The Night of Mourning. Begins El Da de los Muertos with a candlelight procession to the cemetery ofrenda - an alter in the home with offerings of food, etc. set out for the returning souls. The dead partake of these gifts and the living consume them afterwards. pan de muerto - the bread of the dead, a sweet bread baked expressly for the Days of the Dead holiday; decorations on top of the bread resemble the bones of the dead. rosquete - a sweet bread made for los Das de los Muertos.

ACTIVITY: 1. Motivational activity: Pass out large sections of butcher paper to groups of students. Ask them to draw a line down the middle, and then on one side write Memorial Day and on the other Halloween. Ask students to brainstorm words, traditions, feelings, colors, activities, histories, and anything else they associate with those two holidays in each space. After a few minutes of brainstorming, allow students to share their answers with the class. Then, ask students what they know about the Dia de los Muertos or Day of the Deadmake a list on the board of their answers. 2. Art History: Explain that the Day of the Dead is kind of a combination between Memorial Day and Halloween. Go over the history of the Day of the Dead with the students (see the section at the end of this lesson), showing the students pictures of the breads (pan de muerto), candy, decorated graves, altars, and skeleton figures. Incorporating the vocabulary will make this especially authentic and fun for the students. This would be a good opportunity to have a guest speaker, like a parent of one of the students, to come in and speakencourage them to bring pictures, objects, and if possible, samples of the breads and candies to share with the class. 3. Art Criticism: Show the students the Day of the Dead skeleton figure from the Utah Museum of Fine Art collection and any other images of these you can find on the internet (see Sources for help as to how to locate these images). Ask the students what feeling the figure hasIs it scary? Is it silly? What makes it feel this way (colors, designs, etc.) Does this look like the decorations we usually see for Halloween? How is it different? Why do you think someone would create this figure? What can we tell about the person depicted in this sculpture? Lead the students to see how these Day of the Dead figures are not meant to scare or show the gore or horror of death as many of our American Halloween decorations do. These figures are meant to memorialize the dead, to remember good friends and family members and to celebrate the cycle of life. That is why many of these figures are even humorousdepicting the deceased as skeletons dressed as or acting as they did when they were alive, as dancers, waiters, drummers, mechanics, in mariachi bands, or even as brides and grooms.

4. Art Production: Have students write down three people who have been influential in their lives but are now deceased. These could include people they personally knew, such as family members or friends (or even pets!), or could extend to people they have never even met but that also had an impact on them, such as religious leaders, historical figures, movie stars, or sports heroes. For each individual, have them also list three characteristics of that person. These could include personality characteristics, but should also include distinctive physical characteristicswhat was their occupation, did they always wear a certain type of outfit, did they carry a purse or wear a hat, etc. After the students have made their lists, ask them to choose one that will be the inspiration for their skeleton figure. Before beginning with the clay, ask students to sketch out their designs for this figure. After the teacher approves a students design, he or she can start working with the clay. (Depending on the age and experience of the students, this may necessitate some basic instruction as to how to handle, join, and sculpt the clay.) Dry and fire the figures, then allow the students to paint them. Show the images of the skeleton figures again to remind the students how these are usually painted with bright, vivid color to emphasize the celebration of this holiday. 5. Aesthetics: At the conclusion of the activity, address the aesthetic issue of What is Beauty? by asking the students if they see the figures they created as beautiful. Was it hard for them to get past thinking of skeletons and death as gruesome and scary? Do they consider the figure they created as beautiful because of what it reminds them of and who it represents? These questions would be very interesting to bring up because of the different cultural associations the students have surrounding Halloween and the horrifying, American-ized idea of people coming back from the dead. ASSESSMENT: -At the conclusion of the production activity, pass out one notecard to each student. Have them write who they were memorializing, and why they chose to design the figure the way they did. Use a checklist to grade this project. Checklist: ___ Student participated in the brainstorming activity ___ Student generated a list of three people ___ Student wrote specific characteristics for each individual listed ___ Student approved design of skeleton figure with teacher ___ Student created a clay skeleton figure ___ Student painted the figure with appropriate colors ___ Student completed the notecard assignment

The student who made the figure on the left wrote: This is supposed to be my grandma. She would always tell me stories about how she loved to dance, so I made a figure of her in a dance pose. skulls, or day of the dead altars VARIATIONS: This lesson can be adapted to most grade levels, but is recommended for 3rd-8th grade. Older students can be encouraged to create more complicated figures, whereas teachers of younger students may find it easier (and cleaner) to work with self-hardening clay. EXTENSIONS: This lesson could be extended to include other activities relating to this holiday, such as the baking of breads, creation of altars, or even organizing a parade around the school. With the older grades, this would also be a great opportunity to expand on the history of the holiday, and how the influence of Catholicism created a blending between cultural traditions. SOURCES: background information on Dia de Los Muertos and vocabulary directly taken from: http://www.tomzap.com /muertos.html UMFA Day of the Dead figure: http://www.umfa.utah.edu/index. php?id=NTY5 Other skeleton figures: taken from Lisa Jensens Visual Arts Education students at BYU **If you use google images for day of the dead or dia de los muertos a lot of images will come up with other examples of skeleton figuressuch as musicians, golfers, drummers, ballerinas, brides and grooms, mariachi bands, mechanics, waiters, etc. The more you can show the students, the more they will understand the light-hearted nature of many of these figures. For other images associated with this holiday, use google images pan de muerto, sugar


More student examples

I chose to honor my grandmother. With this sculpture I celebrate her love for nature in the flowers and her talent in cooking symbolized by the apron.

This is Cleo, my familys pet goldfish for more than 5 years. He was our only pet, so he was special.

I wanted to honor my grandma Cardyn, who died when my mom was little. I have been told she was a very happy, spiritual woman.

Black History Month African Batiks

GRADE LEVELElementary and up Objectives: Students will research different cultures in Africa and create an African Batik that reflects the specific chosen culture. Students will write a poem that illustrates his/her own personal heritage. CORE Concepts: Students intentionally take advantage of the qualities and characteristics of art media, techniques, and processes to enhance communication of their experiences and ideas Students use subjects, themes, and symbols that demonstrate knowledge of contexts, values, and aesthetics that communicate intended meaning in artworks Students know and compare the characteristics of artworks in various eras and cultures Materials: Black India Ink Watercolor brushes Paraffin wax or beeswax Pencil 4 or 5 gallon plastic buckets Rubber gloves Pushpins Dye powder Running water Sticks (to stir dye and remove fabric) No. 5, 7, 12 soft natural hair brushes Drying surface Iron and ironing board Crock-Pot Newsprint Sulfite paper White cotton sheets (used) Stretcher frame Spray starch and masking tape White vinegar and table salt Vocabulary: Batik a method of hand-printing a fabric by covering with removable wax the parts that will not be dyed.



Process: The teacher will do an introduction to African Cultures and discuss how several African artworks have several meanings. The teacher will bring in samples of African artwork (or images, see previous page). Most African tribes have clothing and symbols with significant meaning. The students will research an African culture. The teacher will explain to the class that they will be creating batiks. The students must include one or more of the chosen cultures designs/shapes in their batiks. For example, the symbols below are Adinkra, from Western Africa:

ADINKRAHENE chief of adinkra symbols greatness, charisma, leadership

DENKYEM crocodile adaptability

AYA fern endurance, resourcefulness

MPATAPO knot of reconciliation peacemaking, reconciliation

OSRAM NE NSOROMMA the moon and the star love, faithfulness, harmony

Symbols from http://www.welltempered.net/ adinkra/htmls/list.htm

The students will make sketches of their design for the batik, using the form included in the lesson. The cotton sheet will be cut into square sections for the students. The sheets will be stretched on a wooden frame or board and the final sketch will be redrawn on the sheet. The teacher will melt the wax in the Crock-Pot. (Wax must be about 100 degrees in order to penetrate fabric.) Mix dye, cup table salt, 3 Tbsp detergent in 3 gallons of warm water. Use the paintbrushes to paint the wax on the sheets where the design has been drawn. This means the design will be white and the background will be the color of the dye. The wax must go through the fabric. Use the gloves to dip the fabric in the dye. The longer the fabric is in the dye, the darker the color. When taken out of the dye, the fabric must be rinsed in cool running water. To set the color, soak the fabric in a mixture of 3 cups white vinegar to 3 gallons of water.

When the fabric is dry, remove excess wax. Then put newsprint on either side of fabric and iron (not too hot) to melt the wax off. Handwash the fabric in mild detergent and then allow to dry. The class will have a discussion comparing and contrasting a variety of artworks such as Nnamdi Okonkwos Repentant Magdalene (1995), Marilee Beard Campbells Black African (1938), and Trevor Jack Thomas Southeys African Kraal, Rhodesia (1968). They will discuss the cultures and traditions portrayed in each artwork. After the students create their batik and have the criticism discussion, the students will research a poem that reflects a certain culture (i.e. the famous poem by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. or a poem by Maya Angelou). Then the students will write a poem about their own culture mirroring the style of the poem they researched.


Found out minimal information about the culture and didnt find out a cultures symbols and meanings. Didnt follow studio instructions. There are no crisp lines between the symbols and the dye. Very simplified shapes, and do not represent the researched culture.

Found a cultures symbol, but not the meaning of the symbol.

Found the cultures symbol and its meaning.

Research on African Culture


Either the dye color is not right, or there are no crisp lines between the symbols and the dye. Design represents the symbol from the researched culture.

There is a deep, rich color in the dye. The symbols are clearly visible and distinct.

Creative Design

Design represents the researched culture and presented in a thought out arrangement. The poem is about the students culture, follows the specific format and is well thought out.

Personal Culture Poem

The poem is about his/her culture; no specific format is followed.

The poem reflects the students culture, follows the format of researched poem but does not show thought.


Name _________________________________________________

Date __________________

1. The name of the tribe you have chosen ___________________________________________ . 2. What part of Africa theyre from ___________________________________________________ . 3. Draw the three symbols you have chosen to use, and label each one with its meaning.

4. Draw 3 different combinations of the symbols. Put a star by the one you will use.


Variations (for Elementary or just simplified version of the lesson):

The students will create a batik-like fabric by using bleach instead of wax. The student will be given a small plastic cup with a little amount of bleach in it, a Q-tip, and a piece of plain colored fabric. The students will sketch a design on the fabric and then trace over the design will the bleach-dipped Q-tip. The bleached areas will allow the design to come out of the fabric. Extensions: When creating the batik, students can experiment with using different dyes in certain areas of their design (for an area to not acquire a certain dye, that area is blocked out by the wax). Sources: http://www.historychannel.com/exhibits/ holidays/kwanzaa/hist.html Scholastic Art, Making Adire Patterns February 2005 African batiks http://fabricindulgenceandartsu pply.com/HTML_files/Fabrics/african.html

Bushmen art from the Kalahari http://www.theartofafrica.co.za/africa/ index.jsp All artworks from this site are used by permission Tuoi Stefaans Samcuia, About to Eat http://www.pem.org/collections/african. php http://www.twigagallery.com/ jewelry/2005/15.html http://gallery.sjsu.edu/exhibits/african/ africaexhibit

Saw it on the Rock by Joao Dikuanga

Golden Week
Celebrating Children
GRADE LEVELElementary Objective: Students will increase their understanding of the Japanese culture by learning about Childrens Day in Japan and by making their own carp streamer. Students will improve their design skills by using a natural object as the basis for a simple design and will practice construction skills in making the carp streamer. Materials: Butcher paper (black, red, white) or white cloth, tissue or newspaper, your choice of either paints or markers, or construction paper crayons (if available and you use black paper), two different colored crepe paper streamers, a half sheet of white paper for each student, string, scissors, glue, hole punch, a 2-foot-long stick (plastic balloon stick or wooden dowel), a picture of Carp ( Goldfish), a book about a Japanese child. Teacher Preparation: Make an 18-inch drawing of a Carp on two pieces of black butcher paper, cut out and glue edges together leaving open at the mouth. Color both sides with construction paper crayons or if on white paper or cloth and color the details with black paint or markers. This will represent the principal (the father). Make a 14-inch Carp drawing using red paper or white paper or cloth, and using red paint or markers for the details. (This carp represents you or the mother) Construct the streamer the same way as the first one. Stuff lightly with tissue paper or newspaper to make the shape three dimensional. Punch two holes near the mouth. (one above and one below. Cut the 1/2 sheet of paper in half lengthwise and roll it up with a piece of string (about a foot long) going through the middle. Tie the Carp to the string. Make some streamers with the crepe paper. Attach these to a stick or dowel with the streamers on top, and then attach the black Carp, then the red Carp. (The paper tube should help keep the fishes mouths to stay open and flat.) Lesson: Share the historical information in this lesson (on next page), or whatever is available in your textbooks. Read a story about a child or children in Japan. Discuss what the story tells about Japanese culture and/or Japanese children. Discuss the following topics: The celebration of holidays What a holiday is How holidays came to be What students like about holidays What they think grownups like and think about holidays, etc.

Some Historical Background of Kodomo no ni (Childrens Day) and Orgata renkyu (Golden Week) in Japan
Many Japanese gardens contain pools of large carp, called Koi. To the Japanese people these fish are a symbol of the courage, strength, and patience needed to accomplish large goals. On May 5th, the 5th day of the 5th month, known as Childrens Day (Kodomo no hi). Traditionally, families with boys fly Carp Streamers. Today they represent all children. This streamer is a symbol of success in life. The streamers are hung in this order: 1. A top streamer is a pennant. 2. The next streamer is a black carp, which represents the father 3. Under this streamer is a red carp, representing the mother 4. Below her streamer are smaller carp streamers, one for each child in the family. On Childrens Day, the children go the shrine, the priest blesses them and wishes them health and happiness for the next year. This has been a day of celebration in Japan since the 12th century, but became an official national holiday in 1948. Childrens Day is part of a group of Japanese holidays know as Golden Week (Ogata renkyu). The following are the holidays associated with Golden Week: April 29th - Greenery Day or Nature Day (Midori no hi) - this holiday was started in honor of Emperor Hirohito, who was born on April 29th, 1901. Emperor Hirohito is a revered leader in Japan; considered one of their all time great leaders. He ended the idea that emperors were divine, becoming the first human emperor in Japan, his decision to surrender in World War II saved many thousands of lives and possible saved Japan from annihilation. He worked diligently to bring about true peace and a new prosperity. He was also an expert biologist and wrote 14 biology books. The holiday was named Greenery Day in honor of his interest in plants and the environment. *In 2007 Greenery Day will be moved to May 4th. April 29th will be known as Emperor Showa Day (Showa is the posthumous name given to Emperor Hirohito as is the custom in Japan. It means Era of Enlightened Peace.) May 1st (May day) (Rodo sui) - also known as Labor Day is not an official holiday, but many companies give employees that day off. May 3rd (Constitution Memorial Day) (Kempo kinenbe) - honors the MacArthur Constitution that was formulated after World War II. May 4th (Greenery Day starting in 2007) (Midori no hi) - currently it is between day, recognized as a holiday again because it is a day between two holidays. May 5th (Childrens Day) (Kodomo no hi) Other activities associated with May 5th are:

The display of samurai armor -worth a small fortune today The display of warrior dolls -boys in armor on white horses The eating of special rice cakes filled with azuki bean paste and wrapped in Oak leaves Putting Iris petals in the childrens bath water to protect them from evil spirits during the coming year *Information obtained from Google - Golden Week, Japan Activity: Show the class your Carp streamers. Discuss what they represent. Have them tell you what is missing. Let them give you feedback about the Japanese Childrens Day celebration. Review the symbolism of the Carp so they understand why the Japanese make the Carp streamers Show a picture or pictures of Carp. Have the students make a 1-foot long drawing on a piece of butcher paper or fabric. Have them cut it out and trace around the edge on another paper to make a duplicate. Show students how to construct their carp streamers. They may color their drawing using a variety of colors, but should not make them all black or all red. Explain that your streamers are going to represent the principal as the head of the school and you as the head of the classroom. Have students attach their Carp streamers to their own sticks. Display the streamers in your classroom or in the hall the first week of May. The stick with the streamers and the black and red Carp should be higher than the others. Alternative Activity: Have the students make smaller streamers to represent their individual families. Attach them on the poles in the traditional order. Enrichment: On May 5th show pictures of Samurai armor, Iris, and Japanese warrior dolls, and discuss what the Japanese people will be doing with these. Serve rice cakes with bean paste. Assessments: Have students tell the class about their Carp streamer and their family. Where would their Carp be on the pole? Why did they use the colors they chose? Students will discuss their feelings about the Japanese celebration of Childrens Day. (How they think a Japanese child feels about a special holiday to celebrate them.) Discuss the symbolism of the Carp, and what symbols we have in our culture that are similar. Discuss how their making a Carp Streamer as an art project might be different from the Carp Streamers the people in Japan use. Discuss some images, decorations, or symbols we display on our holidays and have the students suggest what art project a Japanese student, learning about America, could do to represent one of our holidays.


Have them give suggestions about other ways a Carp Streamer could be made. Sources: http://www.math.tohoku.ac.jp/~yukie/fujisan/fuji.html carp w/ mount fiji http://www.a-koi.at/images/content/05-Koi-Import-ggg.jpg great image of koi http://www.hil-koi.nl/ single koi http://www.koi-info.nl/koi_fotos.htm koi photo 2 The Way We Do It in Japan by Geneva Cobb Iijima (Author), Paige Billin-Frye (Illustrator) The Magic Listening Cap: More Folk Tales from Japan (Paperback) by Yoshiko Uchida (Author) A Carp for Kimiko by Virginia Kroll Out off the closet Carp hoisted high, black and scarletWaft of mothballs. .....Takashi Below is one possible pattern for cartp streamers. You can enlarge it freehand or on a copier. You may also choose to make your streamers longer and more slender.


Valentines: Playing with Shapes

OBJECTIVES Students will explore the use of repeated shapes through layering, the use of positive and negative space, or will create 3-D objects from 2-D materials. Students will write an appropriate phrase or short text. UTAH STATE VISUAL ARTS CORE Making, Evaluating, and Contextualizing Introduction Valentines Day is a holiday many people celebrate, and making even simple valentines can be a fun exploration of shapes, colors, and design. This lesson gives three ways of creating valentines with additional variations included at the end. Depending on your students ages and skills, you may want to choose only one of the variations. The most important part of this art lesson is to give students the opportunity to make something they design. MATERIALS Colored paper can just be construction paper, but for students with good cutting skills, you could include other paper, such as tissue paper. White paper Scissors or craft knives Markers, pens, colored pencils, or crayons Glue, tape, staples LESSON If your students do not know how to make heart shapes, show them and show them the ways to vary the shape, a short fat heart to a tall thin one. Also show them that the cutout heart leaves a

negative heart shape behind. You may want to remind students to plan their use of the paper, so they arent just cutting one small shape out of the middle of a large sheet of paper. (You can also help eliminate this problem by giving the students small pieces of paper as opposed to full sheets. You can even use scraps saved from other projects.) Other techniques you may want to demonstrate or explain: How to trace or cut around one heart to make more the same size How to make progressively smaller or larger hearts How to turn the paper so you can cut as many hearts as possible from one piece of paper The next three sections explain 3 different ideas for how to use the heart shapes. 1. Layering Students can cut hearts of different shapes, colors, sizes, and papers and then layer these in an interesting design. Have students try different arrangements before they glue any of the shapes down. Students should choose what they want to write on their valentine and include a space for the text on the background or on one or more of the shapes. When they have a design they like, students can glue the hearts to the background and write the text. Young students could copy simple text you write on the board. (see TEXT section for ways to make the text interesting.) 2. Positive and negative shapes After showing the students how to cut heart shapes (positive shape) and how the heart cutout leaves a heart shape behind (negative shape), show the students how they can cut out a heart shape around the negative shape and have a shape that has both a positive and a negative shape (see example). Give the students some inexpensive paper and let them play with the idea of positive and negative shapes. Show them that how they position shapes next to each other can also make interesting shapes (see example). Depending on your students ages and skills, you may also want to show them how to make heart shapes without a crease by tracing around a heart shape and cutting out the heart on the lines. Let students choose pieces of colored paper and create an interesting arrangement of shapes, paying attention to positive and negative shapes. Students should include space for the text they want to include. When students are happy with


their arrangement, they can glue the shapes to a background. Have students add the text. They may do better with the text if they write it out on a piece of scratch paper first, to see how much space they need and to make sure they know what they want the words to say. 3. Three-D Valentines There are several ways to make Valentines 3-D: 1. Make hearts and layer them, attaching them only down the centerline and then folding them sharply, so they stand up. Or, attach only the edges, so they make a pocket shape. 2. Use strips of paper and make heart shapes by taping, gluing, or stapling the pieces together. 3. Make Heart shapes that are glued to step pop-ups. 4. Make origami hearts 5. Make hearts and cut them into spirals, attaching the ends to different parts of the cards. Origami hearts http://www.origami-fun. com/origami-heart.html Origami Hearts (very 3-D) http://www.chubbyhobby. com/make-and-create/ origami-heart-earringstutorial/

You can make 1 or several steps to glue heart shapes to.


Origami Hearts

Using the Text 1. For the youngest students, even copying letters to make simple words like Be Mine is good practice. Recent research has shown that introducing an element of play even helps students read and write betterso include writing in art lessons to give students a fun reason to practice letters. 2. Have students create a rhyming phrase. 3. Slightly older students can be encouraged to think of their own saying to put on the Valentine. 4. Have the students choose someone the Valentine is for and choose something personal to say about why that person is important to the student. 5. Have the students choose a character from history and write something about why they admire that person. 6. Students can choose someone from a book and tell the character something important. 7. Or, have the students choose someone who needs a little extra kindness and write something to that person. 8. You get the idea. . . VARIATIONS Have students make valentines in the style of an artist, artwork, or in response to a piece of music. Make really large Valentines or really tiny Valentines. Make Valentines for people at a care center. Make Valentines to themselves.


Spiral Pattern

To make pop-up: Cut out pop-up shape and fold on dotted lines. Fold a piece of paper in half, align the point of the center fold on the heart with the center fold of the paper, with the top center of the heart tipped to the left. Glue the right tab (small heart). Tip the heart to the right an equal amount and glue the left tab in place.



Valentines Day Art

The Hidden Valentine Grade Level Middle School Objectives: Students will apply the history of Valentines Day to their creation of a modern multimedia valentine. Students will integrate the ideas of Artist Intent and Viewer Interpretation in their valentines. CORE Concepts: Students will create works of art by experiencing a variety of art media, techniques and processes. Students will integrate visual, spatial, and temporal concepts with content to communicate intended meaning in their artworks. Students will know and compare the characteristics of artworks in various eras and cultures. Materials: Paper and cardstock Drawing utensils Collage materials 2-3 rimmed griddle Wax Old paint brushes Image of Sun, Snow, and Ice(1981) by Valoy Eaton Vocabulary: Collage a picture made by placing objects onto a surface Encaustic fusing wax to a surface through heat History of Valentines Day There are a few legends about where Valentines Day began. One legend contends that Valentine was a priest who served during the third century in Rome. When Emperor Claudius II decided that single men made better soldiers than those with wives and families, he outlawed marriage for young men -- his crop of potential soldiers. Valentine, realizing the injustice of the

decree, defied Claudius and continued to perform marriages for young lovers in secret. When Valentines actions were discovered, Claudius ordered that he be put to death. According to one legend, Valentine actually sent the first valentine greeting himself. While in prison, it is believed that Valentine fell in love with a young girlwho may have been his jailors daughterwho visited him during his confinement. Before his death, it is alleged that he wrote her a letter, which he signed From your Valentine, an expression that is still in use today. While some believe that Valentines Day is celebrated in the middle of February to commemorate the anniversary of Valentines death or burialwhich probably occurred around 270 A.Dothers claim that the Christian church may have decided to celebrate Valentines feast day in the middle of February in an effort to christianize celebrations of the pagan Lupercalia festival.* The ancient Celts had a tradition of casting a love stone that has become linked with Valentines Day. The tradition dates from a time when many village people kept a colored stone that had their family name or symbol carved into it. People kept their stones with them wherever they went, and when they died, their stone was thrown into the ocean, to identify them forever. This tradition is part of the legend of Tristan and Isolde, who were from warring villages, and thus, forbidden to see each other. But the young couple was in love, and so they met secretly at night, to talk and give each other presents. However, one night, they were discovered, and told they would be put to death if they ever saw each other again. Unwilling to be kept apart, the two fled to a forest above the sea. They threw away their citizen stones and made a new one with both their names inscribed on it as a symbol of their love. Tristan and Isolde climbed to the top of a cliff and cast their love stone into the sea below. As the stone fell, they spoke: May the names inscribed here be forever united in love so long as this stone hides in the deep waters. May those who seek to separate us find us not, just as they can never find this stone. The stone sank to the bottom of the ocean and was never seen again and neither were the lovers. Valentine Traditions: Hundreds of years ago in England, many children dressed up as adults on Valentines Day. They went singing from home to home. One verse they sang was: Good morning to you, valentine; Curl your locks as I do mine--Two before and three behind. Good morning to you, valentine. In Wales, wooden love spoons were carved and given as gifts on February 14th. Hearts, keys, and keyholes were favorite decorations on the spoons. The decoration meant, You unlock my heart! In the Middle Ages, young men and women drew names from a bowl to see whom their valentines would be. They would wear these names on their sleeves for one week. To wear your

heart on your sleeve now means that it is easy for other people to know how you are feeling. In some countries, a young woman may receive a gift of clothing from a young man. If she keeps the gift, it means she will marry him. Some people used to believe that if a woman saw a robin flying overhead on Valentines Day, it meant she would marry a sailor. If she saw a sparrow, she would marry a poor man and be very happy. If she saw a goldfinch, she would marry a millionaire.* Process: The teacher will share the history and traditions of Valentines Day so the students will know where the holiday came from. The students will be introduced to the studio project, which is to create an encaustic/collaged valentine. Valentines today are very obvious and almost clichd. The first valentine made by Valentine himself was hidden and forbidden. For this reason, the students will create a valentine and/or poem of some sort that is hidden and not obvious. They will create an envelope to hold their valentine. Somewhere on the valentine the student must include part of a valentine tradition shared in class or researched by the student. The students will learn about Artist Intent/Viewer Interpretation. The painting Sun, Snow, and Ice (1981, Valoy Eaton) will be shown to the class. The students will be asked what they believe the artists intent was for the landscape. The intent seems obvious, especially from the title. The artist actually remarked that He paints from his own experience, and the quiet beauty of his paintings is an expression of the inner man--humble, familyoriented, honest, and calm. * The class will discuss whether it is important for the viewer to know the artists intent. Also, is it important to know the meaning of a valentine? The students will create their own intent about their valentine. The students envelope will be made of thick paper such as cardstock. They will make a collage from several items such as paper, buttons, pictures, etc. The first commercial Valentine's Day greeting cards produced in the U.S. were created in the 1840s by Esther A. Howland. Howland, known as the Mother of the Valentine, made elaborate creations with real lace, ribbons and colorful pictures known as scrap.* The envelope will reflect the students feelings Valoy Eaton, Sun, Snow, and Ice about Valentines Day or towards a Valentine. The

envelope will include a hidden flap that will contain their written interpretation about their artwork. The students will use the encaustic method to seal up their forbidden valentine. The wax will be placed in the griddle to melt. The students will take the paintbrushes and paint the wax over their entire collaged envelope. They will be careful to not seal their hidden interpretation shut. Safety Note: The students must be attended at all times while by the hot wax. They may burn themselves on the griddle or from the hot wax. Assist the students if needed. Museum Day After the Valentines are completed, the students will display their artworks on their tables. The class will be split in half. Half of the class will be the artists and the other half will be the viewer. The artists will remain at their desks while the viewers roam the gallery to see if they can tell the artists intent. They can later look under the hidden flap to read the artists intent. After a while, the students will switch roles. This is a good opportunity for the students to see their peers artwork and for the students to talk about their art. Assessment: The students will be graded on a 1-5 grading scale: 1=Unacceptable, 2=Fair, 3=OK, 4=Good, 5=Outstanding. The students will be graded with this scale on each of the following criteria: following instructions, good craftsmanship and effort, applied artist intent to valentine. Adaptations/Extensions: Adaptation If the encaustic method is too difficult or unsafe for the student, they may make an encaustic seal from a melted crayon (enough just to seal the opening of the envelope. Extension The student may make a larger envelope such as a box, which could hold several valentines. The same encaustic process could be done to the box. Sources: History of Valentines: www.historychannel.com/exhibits/valentine Valentine Traditions: www.pictureframes.co.uk/pages/saint_valentine.htm http://www.sma.shs.nebo.edu http://www.surveyhistory.org/funny_bones_-).htm http://allsaintsbrookline.org/celtic/saints/valentine.html



Grade Level: 5th8th grade OBJECTIVES The activity provides a tactile experience through which the students can gain deeper understanding of the importance of light and memory, particularly as related to the holiday Yom Kippur. The students will learn about the art of candle-making and the significance that candles and light have in holidays and cultures. STATE CORE LINKS Standard 1: MakingStudents will assemble and create visual art by manipulating art media and by organizing images with the elements and principles. (*The students will create and produce a candle, a 3-D piece of art.) Standard 2: PerceivingStudents will find meaning by analyzing, criticizing, and evaluating visual art. Standard 3: ExpressingStudents will create meaning in visual art (* The meaning/purpose of candles for Yom Kippur is to remember loved ones who have passed away) MATERIALS Material on History of Yom Kippur Package of Household (Preserving) Wax Stove or hot plate or electric frying pan Pan(s) Small, narrow can Heavy washer/weight Wick Pencil Candle color wax or bits of crayon Thermometer Scissors

Introduction/Teaching (Art History) Light has been a source of importance and meaning since the beginning of time and throughout art history. Various artists have manipulated and used the power of light in their

works. The candle, or a single light source, can have great power and meaning. In 1862, a Utah artist, Alfred Lambourne, used the moon as the single source of light in the scene of his painting MoonlightSilver Lake, Cottonwood Canyon.

[an image of Lambournes piece is available on http://springvilleartmuseum.org/collections/ browse.html?x=art&art_id=1293 which has a zoom function. A small copy of the image is available at sma.nebo.edu/collection.html. A large image of the work will be available in the Education section after Ocyober 18.] *Have the students get into groups and discuss the following questions while studying the painting. Then have one spokesperson from each group tell about what the group discussed. Have one person in the group be the group chairman to see that everyone participates in the discussion. (Criticism) In this piece, is the artist, Alfred Lambourne, successful in his use of light, with the moon as the single light source? What kind of mood or feeling is created by the light from the moon? Is there anything else about the piece that you found interesting and would like to share? The moon, as the one light source, holds great power and adds to the meaning and mood of the painting. Light, also holds great meaning for people in different cultures and during different holidays. *At this point, pass out The History of Yom Kippur handout (handout and teachers key are found at the end of the lesson) to each student. Tell the students that they will first quickly read through the handout once. Then, tell them that they each will be be expected to fill in the missing blanks as you tell them about the history of this holiday. The need to fill out the worksheet will promote active listening and engage the students in the learning process. Special needs students who have difficulty listening and writing at the same time may need to adapt this task. History of Yom Kippur In the Jewish culture, it has long been customary for Jews to light a memorial candle to recall the memory of close family members at the start of the holiday Yom Kippur. Yom Kippur, called the

Day of Atonement, is the holiest day of the year to those of the Jewish faith. It is a day of fasting dedicated to asking God about reconciliation between people and between individuals and God. It is the most difficult fast day because individuals must fast for 25 hours. Jews believe that the single, long-burning candle illuminates the void in their lives created by the loss of a loved one. In memory of parents who are deceased, these special candles that burn throughout Yom Kippur are lit. Then two holiday candles are lit and blessed. This lighting signals the beginning of Yom Kippur. (Aesthetics) Ask the students if they believe that candle-making is a process of creating art and if they think that candles can be art forms. Guide the discussion to bring out the point that candles are no longer used just to light the darkness or for cultural purposes. They are also used as art forms. Wax can be molded in many different ways to create many beautiful candles that hold artistic value. ACTIVITY (production) To make taper candles: PROCESS: 1. Attach wick to the middle of a a bestscentedcandles.info/scented-candles.htm pencil. *Note: Wick length must be cut 2 times the desired height of the candle.* 2. Fill a large pan with 2 inches of water and heat until almost boiling. Place a narrow can in the larger pan of water. 3. Melt a few bars of wax in the can. Cover the can to prevent spattering. The temperature of your wax for making easy dipped taper candles should remain between 150-155 degrees F. Before each dip, check the thermometer to make sure the wax is between 150-155 degrees. *You can also add candle color wax at this point that you drop in along with the regular household wax to make the candle a desired color. If you have several cans of wax in different colors, the students can dip a little in one color and then maybe dip the end with a different color. 4. Lower the weighted wick into the can. 5. Just keep dipping the wick in and out of the can of wax, but let the layers of wax on the wick harden between each dip. Between each dip, let it cool for about 30 seconds to 2 minutes (until the wax is dry) before you dip it again. Try to dip it to the same place on the wick each time. 5. Stop dipping when desired thickness is reached. The taper shape at the top will have developed naturally. 6. When your taper has cooled (is no longer malleable and wont bend) cut the end/washer off. *Note: You need to keep the wax really hot all the time, so just keep the pan sitting in hot water. Safety Guidelines: Safety precautions must be taken in candle-making. Before starting to make candles, make sure that the students take this seriously. If they dont follow the safety rules then

serious injury or damage could result. NEVER leave children alone with melting or melted wax unattended. NEVER overheat wax. ALWAYS use a thermometer. DO NOT use a microwave or direct heat to melt the wax. ASSESSMENT

Student Teacher Grading Rubric: Self-Evaluation Evaluation 1. Actively participated in the group discussion of art piece __/__ pts. __/__ pts 2. Completion of Handout on the History of Yom Kippur __ /__ pts. __/__pts. 3. Followed the step-by-step directions for candle-making process __/__ pts. __/__ pts. 4. Level of Craftsmanship of finished product (taper candle) __/___ pts. __/__ pts. Total ___/__ pts. Total ___/__ pts.

SOURCES http://www.waikato.ac.nz/library/resources/edu/artsed.shtml www.usoe.k12.ut.us http://www.mscd.edu/~counsel/holidays/yomkippur.html http://media.nasaexplores.com/lessons/03-070/k-4_2.pdf http://www.candlehelp.com/?content=twisted VARIATIONS How to Make a Twisted Taper Candle Supplies Needed: Freshly-made Hand-dipped Taper Candles Wax Paper Rolling Pin

http://www.candlehelp.com/ ?content=twisted

1. Place your (still warm) taper candle down on a sheet of wax paper. 2. Place your rolling pin gently on top of the candle, at the base end. Apply gentle pressure as you roll the pin toward the tip of the candle. Be aware that the top of the candle will cool and harden more quickly than the base. Be careful at the top of the candle and apply slow, gentle pressure with the rolling pin, to avoid cracking the tip. 3. How thin you flatten your taper is your choice. After you have flattened your taper to the thickness you want, begin twisting it. Twist it slowly and gently. Work your way from one end to the other, and with each time, adding a little more twist to the candle. Pay attention

to the tip of your candle, and get it twisted to the shape you want it before it is too hard to manipulate. Be careful to apply only slow and gentle pressure, to prevent cracking. 4. Once you have achieved the desired look, let your candles cool and harden completely. http://www.dod.mil/afis/editors/lineart_oct.html

Name____________________________ Handout- History of Yom Kippur In the _____________ culture, it has long been customary for Jews to light a memorial candle to recall the memory of _____________________ at the start of the holiday Yom Kippur. Yom Kippur, called the Day of _____________, is the _____________ day of the year to those of the Jewish faith. It is a day of _______ _____dedicated to asking God about reconciliation between people and between individuals and God. It is the most difficult fast day because they must fast for ____ hours. Jews believe that the _____________, long-burning candle illuminates the void in their lives created by the __________ of a loved one. In memory of parents who are _____________, these special candles that burn throughout Yom Kippur are lit. Then two holiday candles are lit and blessed. This lighting signals the ________ __________ of Yom Kippur.


Teachers Key
Handout- History of Yom Kippur In the Jewish culture, it has long been customary for Jews to light a memorial candle to recall the memory of close family members at the start of the holiday Yom Kippur. Yom Kippur, called the Day of Atonement, is the holiest day of the year to those of the Jewish faith. It is a day of fasting dedicated to asking God about reconciliation between people and between individuals and God. It is the most difficult fast day because they must fast for 25 hours. Jews believe that the single, long-burning candle illuminates the void in their lives created by the loss of a loved one. In memory of parents who are deceased, these special candles that burn throughout Yom Kippur are lit. Then two holiday candles are lit and blessed. This lighting signals the beginning of Yom Kippur. http://digitalgallery.nypl.org/nypldigital/explore/dgexplore.cfm?col_id=172 http://www.roatanonline.com/yabadingding/candles.htm

http://www.beckfamily.net/b2/ images/P1010006.jpg 94

American Indian Heritage Hide Painting

OBJECTIVES Students will learn about Native American culture Students will link symbols with meaning: students will plan, choose symbols, create a narrative, and execute their own Hide Painting. Students will discuss the pros and cons of telling stories with pictures/symbols

Ask students how they could tell other people important information if they didnt have a way to write, email, or snail mail the information. Explain that not only did they not have email or mail, but early Native Americans did not have written languages. One way they recorded information about important events such as battles or how many people were in their tribe, was to create paintings that recorded information. Ask students to think of ways you could make simple images tell a story. Then show the class some images of actual Native American Hide Paintings and have the students look for examples that match their ideas. Ask them to also find symbols or images they had not thought of. Have students choose a story and symbols to use, and have them design and create their own hide paintings on tan construction or bulletin board paper. This art activity can be done as individuals, as groups, or as a class. Have students plan their hide paintings this approach actually saves time as well as helping to ensure that students create a meaningful finished product that entails using higher-order thinking skills as well as developing art-related skills. The students should fold a paper in fourths and make a quick sketch in each section. Each sketch needs to be slightly different. Then they can choose their best idea for their hide painting. Older students can also be introduced to the idea of using sketches for specific parts of the finished artwork. Artists often make sketches or studies, as they are called, of specific parts or of a whole painting. For this assignment, students can use sketches to decide how they will depict the symbols that tell their story. Best images

http://americanhistory.si.edu/kids/buffalo/hideactivity/frameset1.html http://blog.hmns.org/wp-content/uploads/2008/11/winter_count.jpg

Images from the Smithsonian of paintings & Drawings http://www.americanindian.si.edu/searchcollections/results.aspx?catids=1&objtypeid=Painting%2f Drawing%2fPrint&src=1-4

Ledger Drawings http://www.americanindian.si.edu/searchcollections/results.aspx?catids=1&objtypeid=Painting%2f Drawing%2fPrint|Ledger+drawing&src=1-4

Piikuni (Blackfeet) elk-skin robe with painted decoration by Mountain Chief, mid-1800s; Museum of the native American, New York, N.Y., USA Photograph by Anagoria, 11 April 2011 GNU License http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Native_American_hide_painting


VARIATION: Decorated Shields OBJECTIVES: Students will

Make connections between their lives and Native American peoples Design a protective shield

Think of ways to solve a personal problem Choose symbols and designs

Create a pleasing and meaningful arrangement as an artwork Improve their technique with colored media MATERIALS

Brown paper, Pencils and planning paper, Colored media such as paint, crayons, markers or colored pencils

Discuss the traditional use of shields in Native American life and show some images of Native American decorated shields. Ask students to think about what they need to be shielded from today. Have students sketch images they could put on a shield, choose their favorite, and make a drawing on tan paper of the shield. Students can paint or color in the images. Have students cut out the shield and create a display of the shields.

Cheyenne River Lakota shield cover, ca. 1880s. South Dakota Pigment, hide, and rawhide. (6/2195) http://newsdesk.si.edu/photos/cheyenneriver-lakota-shield-cover



Celebrate the Seasons

Winter Make an artwork (or several) in the snow and take a photograph of the artwork(s). Create a winter scene painting using dark blue construction paper as the background. Or, make a cut-paper landscape. Use a piece of blue construction paper for the background. Cut a piece of white paper, about 1/3 of the paper. Glue this on the bottom section of the blue paper. Now cut out some trunk shapes for trees and add smaller branches. Glue these down. Students can add simple house shapes, if desired. Using white paint, add clouds, snow at the base of the trees, and sprinkle some over the artwork to make it look like its snowing. Use high contrast in an artwork. Draw winter trees after looking at some trees and how they branch Spring Learn about flowers and draw one Make a spring scene Use bright colors in an artwork Learn about seeds, plant seeds, and draw the plant at various stages. Summer Learn about genre scenes, and then make an artwork that is a genre scene of your favorite summer activity Sing Oh, What Do You Do in the Summer Time? and have the students make up verses about things they like to do. This song is available on the LDS website, but the song has nothing to do with religion or church, so you can use it in school. http://lds.org/churchmusic/detailmusicPlayer/index. html?searchlanguage=1&searchcollection=2&searchseqstart=245&searchsubseqstart=%20&searchseqend= 245&searchsubseqend=ZZZ Fall Have students bring a leaf they like to school. Have the students make a drawing of the leaf, cut the shape

out of colored paper (cut multiples) and use the leaf shapes to make an artwork utilizing positive and negative shapes. Learn about color schemes and make an artwork that uses mostly analogous colors. You can add the idea of center of interest and discuss ways the students can create a center of interest in their artwork. Show students examples of Andy Goldsworthys art made from colored leaves. The best way to find some is get one of his books from the library or search the Internet using google with Andy Goldsworthy leaves as the search term and asking the search engine to show only large images.

Student example http://class19.bltnorthants.net/files/2011/06/andy-goldsworthy-001.jpg


Six Pointed Spiral Stars

Grade LevelUpper ElementaryMiddle Objective: Given paper, scissors, glue stick, and string, students will learn to make a 6pointed 3D Spiral Star that can be hung as an ornament, in a window, or used in multiples to create a mobile. Core Objective: MakingStudents will play with art materials and will begin to order them by basic art elements and principles. ExpressingStudents will explore and create meaning in art. Materials Paper, cut into 6 square pieces star (Copy paper, scrapbook paper, construction paper) Scissors Glue stick String 12 to 24 long Background: Show students some examples of stars or snowflakes from different cultures and discuss the reason stars are such a common symbol. Ask students what stars may symbolize for various cultures. Ask them what stars mean to them.
http://www.mvgori.nl/~vgelder/ origami/fototxt/ starkusd.htm

Directions: 1) Fold each square diagonally in half; open and fold again across the opposite diagonal. Then, without unfolding the paper, fold the triangle in half to create a smaller triangle.


2) Position center point of triangle pointing to the left, folded side on top.

4) Now, open the square. Starting with the center square, fold the tips toward each other, away from the center crease. Glue the tips of the points together so they overlap slightly.


5) Turn the paper over and curl the next set of tips toward each other. Glue. Continue, until all tips are glued to each other, making sure you turn the paper over each time so that the curled and glued sections alternate sides (see diagram).


Follow the steps just given until all 6 sheets of paper are made into glued spirals. Arrange 2 spirals so the center section faces the next spiral, and glue tips together in the center.


7) Continue to add spirals so that the center section faces the next spiral, and glue tips together in the center. When all six spirals have been glued at the center points, glue the sides of the spirals together where they touch.

All photos, except last one, by Robyn Card

8) Attach string, hang in a place of your choice and enjoy!

flickr.com/photos/perspicacious/sets/1601810/ 104

Taking back the holiday season from the industry

Grade Level5th Grade OBJECTIVES Student will be able to: Examine the origin of various holiday traditions, specifically, the holiday tree Discuss the increase in holiday decorations as the industry flourishes Create personal decorations that are meaningful to the student Analyze the focus for product and graphic designers during the holiday season STATE CORE LINKS Standard 1 (Making): The student will explore and refine the application of media, techniques, and artistic processes. Objective 1: Explore a variety of art materials while learning new techniques and processes. Objective 2: Predict the processes and techniques needed to make a work of art. b. Select appropriate media in which to portray a variety of subjects for works of art. c. Use preparatory sketches to solve visual problems before beginning an actual work of art. Objective 3: Handle art materials in a safe and responsible manner. Standard 2 (Perceiving): The student will analyze, reflect on, and apply the structures of art. Objective 1: Analyze and reflect on works of art by their elements and principles. a. Explain why triangular shapes tend to strengthen compositions. b. Explain how the elements of color, line, and space are used to communicate ideas in art. Objective 2: Create works of art using the elements and principles.

Decorating the Tree:

Sergei P. Viktorov Decorating the New Year Tree (1960) Private Collection


Standard 3 (Expressing): The student will choose and evaluate artistic subject matter, themes, symbols, ideas, meanings, and purposes. Objective 1: Explore possible content in art prints or works of art. a. Determine the context by examining the subject matter, themes, symbols, ideas, and meanings in significant works of art. Objective 2: Discuss, evaluate, and choose symbols, ideas, subject matter, meanings, and purposes for students own artworks. Standard 4 (Contextualizing): The student will interpret and apply visual arts in relation to cultures, history, and all learning. Objective 1: Compare the arts of different cultures to explore their similarities and diversities. a. Express thoughts, feelings, and ideas about the suggested works of art for this grade. b. Describe what the artists intentions may have been at the time the art was created. Objective 2: Connect various kinds of art with particular cultures, times, or places. b. Create a work of art that reflects a positive part of past or present American culture. Materials Various Norman Rockwell images dealing with the holiday season. http://www.nrm.org/ Examples of holiday tree ornaments Glass ornament balls, clay, paper, paints, crayons, Styrofoam, felt, stuffing, glue, string, and other miscellaneous materials that could be used to create an ornament. Activity Introduce the lesson with a discussion of the holiday season. Ask students what their favorite part about the holiday season is. Do they like the decorations? What about the decorations do they particularly like? Why do they think so many people decorate for the holiday season? So much of the holiday season is based on religious holidays observed because of a historical event (e.g. Christmas and Hanukah). Any discussion of religious holiday history is left to the discretion of the teacher. This lesson will refer to decorations and events during the holiday as holiday decorations, such as the Holiday Tree, which was originally known as the Christmas Tree. It can be discussed that the reason the Christmas tree has recently been referred to as the Holiday Tree is so people from all religions will start to decorate their homes with this previously Christian practice. Traditional Christmas tree decorating was rarely seen in America one hundred years ago, but today it is very common. The holiday season industry in America is one of the biggest industries. Every year, months before the season, decorations are displayed and available for purchase so Americans can begin planning their decorations well in advance. Ask students what examples

they have seen or displays they have seen of holiday decorations. Ask if they are attracted to these decorations and displays and why they think these are attractive to people. How do they make people feel when they look at them? Visual Culture Decorations for Holiday Trees are a large portion of the money that is spent during the holiday season. Have students bring in their favorite ornament they have at home or describe some they remember being drawn to when they saw them in the store. Why are these ornaments their favorites? Do they mean something to them? Or do they just think they look cool? Discuss how product and graphic designers think about whom they are designing things for and then create something they think would be attractive to the public. Make a list, as a class, of different elements and principles a designer may use to help Americans feel the holiday spirit when looking at their products. Some examples may be curving lines in ornaments because it makes people feel free and peaceful. Many bright colors and shiny materials are used, such as in popular ornament balls. Are certain colors used more than others? Why? Many people love the holiday season because it holds a feeling of caring and kindness of friends and family. Many people find personal meaning in the Holidays, yet so many of the decorations are designed just for looks. Have students be thinking of a way they could create a Holiday Tree ornament that has personal meaning for them or their family. What materials would they use? Art History Many artworks have depicted scenes from the holiday season. Norman Rockwell is a good example of someone who dealt with human life on a day-to-day basis and created artworks that dealt with life during the holiday season. Have students compare the purposes of Rockwells images to the Russian artwork by Sergei Viktorov Do these artists portray the holiday season differently? What are possible reasons for the differences? Aesthetics There are numerous stories about the origin of the Christmas Tree or Holiday Tree. One story tells of Martin Luther, who was taking a walk outside his home one evening. The moon was shining bright, and the light came through the tree, and was so beautiful to Martin Luther, that he came home and used a fir tree, decorated with lit candles to help simulate the experience he had for his family.

icecube.berkeley.edu/~bramall/vacationshtml/Fairbanks03HTML/NightSights/pages/Moon%20Tree.htm 107

Explain that what Martin Luther experienced was an aesthetic experience. The light hitting the trees awed Martin Luther so much that he was conscious of what he was seeing, and it was so wonderful to him that he had to share it. So often we have experiences like this and want to share them with those around us. An Aesthetic experience is often hard to describe and definitely hard to recreate. Ask student s if they think Martin Luthers re-creation of the tree would successfully create a similar experience for those in his family as he had on his walk. Have students describe an aesthetic experience they may have had, something that made them step back and think visually about what they were seeing. Then have students brainstorm ways they would try to recreate that experience for their friends and family. Do they think they would be successful? Production Allow students to create an ornament for a holiday tree. The ornament should express something that communicates something about them or about their life experience. Each student should brainstorm ideas and make a proposal as to what their ornament will look like and what material they would use to make this ornament. The teacher should create a list of materials that may be made available to the student so the student is aware of what he or she can work with. Students may be interesting in painting glass ornaments; they may also be interested in working with clay. Criticism Have students compare and contrast their ornament to the one they own or saw at a store. Do they like one more than the other? Does the one they created have more personal value? Ask the students if they think the ornament they created would be something the general public would be attracted to purchasing. Variations To explore the graphic design element to holiday decorations a little further, have students think about how they could make an ornament that has personal meaning, but will appeal to the general public. An example is a babys first Christmas ornament that has a slot that can hold a photograph of any child. Anyone can use this type of ornament but it can still be personalized easily after purchase. Have students design an ornament for a family member or people with a particular interest. For example, a quilt ornament for someone who makes quilts, or a gingerbread sports figure for someone who loves a particular sport. Extensions Many Holiday Trees are decorated using a theme or some sort of repetition or continuity. Have students design a whole tree that is personalized for them or their family. What theme or themes would be used throughout the whole tree to create unity? christmas-tree.com/stories/Treelogo.gif

An Earth Day Artwork

Grade LevelElementary Objectives: Students will demonstrate an understanding of Earth Art, and Andy Goldsworthys art in particular by viewing, discussing, identifying processes and themes and by creating a group Earth Artwork. Students also will photograph, write about, and display their artwork. State Core Elementary Visual Art Core: Making, Expressing, Analyzing, and Contextualizing Materials: images of Andy Goldsworthys art (you can find literally thousands of images of his work using Google Image Search) Include artworks that will last a long time as well as those that will last for hours or even just minutes. Andy Goldsworthy: Rivers and Tides (video, optional) es nd Tid a s r found objects (natural objects) e v : Ri worthy s e a digital camera d l o G I mak , s y Andy a the , he s ) (2001 ver possible h work joins ge a e ac e pass or When very day. E h t s e Show the class the images of Andy e fin gf a work line that de d accountin ut I Goldsworthys art, and if possible, a b n ext in idual, king a n r v i a d m n i , a section from Rivers and Tides. is ingle life of my . Each piece ined as a s e mb my tim the line co Help students to understand what materials ee also s Goldsworthy uses for each artwork and how he work. puts the artworks together. Ask them to guess how long each artwork may last. Ask students why they think Goldsworthy uses natural materials. Goldsworthy says: I enjoy the freedom of just using my hands and found tools - a sharp stone, the quill of a feather, thorns. I take the opportunities each day offers: if it is snowing, I work with snow, at leaf-fall it will be with leaves; a blown-over tree becomes a source of twigs and branches. I stop at a place or pick up a material because I feel that there is something to be discovered. Here is where I can learn. http://www. applebyheritagecentre.org.uk/html/andygold/andygold.html Detail of artwork made by attaching bamboo with thorns

Ask students to discuss their ideas about how Andy Goldsworthys art is about what is beautiful. Also help them to identify what themes Goldsworthys explores such as Time, Passages, Stone, Wood, etc. Explain that in honor of Earth Day, the class is going to make earth art. Give the students a little background on Earth Day. See A Brief History of Some Popular Holidays. For more detailed information about Earth Day, see the following web sites: http://www.earthday.org/resources/history.aspx http://www.kidsdomain.com/holiday/earthday/ http://www.earthday.gov/ http://www.earthday.org/involved/teachers/joinNetwork.aspx Take the students outside and help them collect some natural objects. (You will need to check around beforehand. If your grounds crew is very diligent , you may need to bring and have the students bring items. You may also be able to get items from neighboring lots.) Divide the students into small groups. Have them choose items to use in their artwork. Like Goldsworthy, they should limit themselves to one or two kinds of items (If the students use too many kinds of objects, the artwork will tend to look messy rather than controlled). As a group, they should brainstorm what they can do with their materials. Encourage students to explore the possibilities of their materials and not just to make an artwork that is basically a copy of a Goldsworthy. It may help if the groups make a list of what they might do with their materials (this assumes either the students can write or that you have helpers who can write for the students). Students may need to walk around and look at the natural features of the areas they can choose as the site of their work. Have the students sketch several possibilities of an arrangement of objects. They should choose their favorite but not be afraid to make new decisions as they work with the materials or interact with the items or space in their area. Be prepared to help students talk out difficulties with their artwork or with working as a group. Do avoid telling the students what they can do, and instead, ask leading questions such as What could you use to hold your items together or to the site? What are some ways Andy Goldsworthy used to make his artworks? How could your leaves (for example) be organized so they relate to the rocks? (Or to the tree, or whatever is in the site the group is using.)

Help the students photograph their finished artworks. Download the images and print them in color. Have the students use very small amounts of glue to tack the photos to a larger piece of heavy colored paper. The students should title their work and write a brief comment about the experience or what the artwork means to them. Display the photographs and written statements where the rest of the school can see them. Assessment Have student groups evaluate their work using criteria such as the following to create a rubric: Group Work: We had a hard time working together, and some of our group didnt do anything. We worked together okay and most people did their share. We had better ideas because we worked as a team, and everyone helped. Creativity: Our artwork looks a lot like one of the pictures. Our artwork is somewhat different from any artwork we saw. Our artwork is quite different from any we saw. Use of materials and site: We just put our artwork down on the ground. We used something natural in our site to help make our artwork. We used our site and our materials together in an interesting, new way. Craftsmanship: Our artwork is kind of sloppy and was coming apart before we could photograph it because we werent very careful. Our artwork looks fairly neat but could be better. It mostly stayed together until photographed. Our artwork is put together very carefully and neatly, and stayed together until we could photograph it. (You may have to help the students evaluate whether their work stayed together for a reasonable period of time based upon the materials and the site.) The teacher can use a similar assessment tool to evaluate the success of each group artwork, rephrasing as needed.

Student example from camartech.com.au/mjandygoldsworthy-unit.shtml


Variations: 1. Create one large artwork as a class. 2. Study additional Earth artists and make an artwork inspired by one of the artists studied. 3. Write a poem about the finished artworks. Use an age-appropriate poetic form. 4. Make artworks out of trash that the class finds on the playground. Books on or by Andy Goldsworthy Passage by Andy Goldsworthy Andy Goldsworthy: A Collaboration with Nature by Andy Goldsworthy Stone by Andy Goldsworthy Wood by Andy Goldsworthy Video (can be found at local video rental stores) Andy Goldsworthys Rivers & Tides DVD ~ Thomas Riedelsheimer Web sites: Six Elements of Art portrayed in photos of Andy Goldsworthys art http://www.writedesignonline.com/ history-culture/AndyGoldsworthy/overview.htm Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty

History of Goldsworthy and examples of art made by elementary school students during a unit on Andy Goldsworthy http://www.camartech.com.au/mj-andygoldsworthy-unit.shtml http://painting.about.com/od/landscapes/ss/Goldsworthy_6.htm cairn photos http://www.usc.edu/schools/annenberg/asc/projects/comm544/library/quiz1/034a.html http://www.stormking.org/AndyGoldsworthy.html http://www.senorcafe.com/archives/cat_art.html The Hourglass & the Hoar-Stone by Geoffrey Coffey http://d-sites.net/english/goldsworthy.htm Additional Sources: Books Earth Day, Amy Margaret, The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. The Library of Holidays series ISBN 0-8239-5787-X Earth Day, Keeping Our Planet Clean, Elaine Landau, Enslow Publishers, Inc. Finding Out About Holiday series ISBN 0-7660-1778-8

Other Holiday Ideas

Heres a wide variety of elementary activities based on an important day or time period. Many of the activities are linked to information the students can learn. How much information you include is, of course, up to you. You may want to only introduce a subject or idea or you may want to link the art activity to science, reading, history, or whatever is appropriate. Art image sources are listed in case you want to use actual artworks as part of the activity. For purposes of these suggested activities, the assumption is that you have access to paper, pencils, colored media, colored paper, scissors, and glue. Materials beyond those basics are the only ones listed with the activities. New Years Create an artwork about something you would like to have happen in the coming year. The artwork can be an illustration, a narrative, genre, semi-abstract or abstract. Black History Month Learn about a Black artist such as Romare Bearden, Henry O. Tanner, Jacob Lawrence, Betye Saar, Alison Saar, Faith Ringgold (large images by all these artists can be found online through google image search or a similar search engine. Create an artwork that relates to the artist studied in some way. Discuss changes that need to occur in our society and create an artwork about one of those changes. http://www.kdgstudio.com/clients/harlemrenaissance/ Presidents Day Learn about Portrait painting and create your own portrait of a US President. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gilbert_Stuart_ Williamstown_Portrait_of_George_Washington.jpg Thanksgiving Flag Daydesign your own flag and explain why you choose the symbols and/or colors you used. Halloween Create a scary artwork. April Fools DayLook at some examples of Tromp loeil art and create an artwork that fools the eye in some way. Labor DayLook at art that champions the working man, discuss why Americans, in particular might want to make art about working people, and make a class, group, or individual art about working men or women that you admire.

Chinese New Year make paper dragons After learning about the different types of Chinese dragons (below), decide what kind of dragon you would be. Make a list of your characteristics. Make a dragon drawing that exhibits those characteristics. Give your dragon a name. Types of Dragons There are nine major types of Chinese dragons. These include the horned dragon, the winged dragon, the celestial dragon (which supports and protects the mansions of the gods), the spiritual dragon which generates wind and rain for the benefit of mankind), the dragon of hidden treasures (which keeps guard over concealed wealth), the coiling dragon (which lives in water), and the yellow dragon (which once emerged from water and presented the legendary Emperor Fu Shi with the elements of writing) The last of the nine is the dragon king, which actually consists of four separate dragons, each of which rules over one of the four seas, those of the east, south, west, and north. http://www.crystalinks.com/chinadragons.html Read the following Story to the students. Have the students choose a feature in your geographical area a dragon could turn into and draw that feature as a dragon. Use the following story as a Readers Theatre. Read the story to the students, and have them make up their own Dragon Tale. The 4 Dragons: A Chinese Tale Once upon a time, there were no rivers and lakes on earth, but only the Eastern Sea, in which lived four dragons: the Long Dragon, the Yellow Dragon, the Black Dragon and the Pearl Dragon. One day the four dragons flew from the sea into the sky. They soared and dived, playing at hide-and-seek in the clouds. Come over here quickly! the Pearl Dragon cried out suddenly. Whats up? asked the other three, looking down in the direction where the Pearl Dragon pointed. On the earth they saw many people putting out fruits and cakes, and burning incense sticks. They were praying! A white-haired woman, kneeling on the ground with a thin boy on her back, murmured: Please send rain quickly, God of Heaven, to give our children rice to eat.. For there had been no rain for a long time. The crops withered, the grass turned yellow and fields cracked under the scorching sun. How poor the people are! said the Yellow Dragon. And they will die if it doesnt rain soon. The Long Dragon nodded. Then he suggested, Lets go and beg the Jade Emperor for rain. So saying, he leapt into the clouds. The others followed closely and flew towards the Heavenly Palace. Being in charge of all the affairs in heaven, on earth and in the sea, the Jade Emperor was very powerful. He was not pleased to see the dragons rushing in. Why do you come here instead of staying in the sea and behaving yourselves? The Long Dragon stepped forward and said, The crops on earth are withering and dying, Your Majesty. I beg you to send rain down quickly! All right. You go back first, Ill send some rain down tomorrow. The Jade Emperor pretended to agree while listening to the songs of the fairies. Thanks, Your Majesty! The four dragons went happily back. But ten days passed, and not a drop of rain came down. The people suffered more, some eating bark, some grass roots, some forced to eat white clay when they ran

out of bark and grass roots. Seeing all this, the four dragons felt very sorry, for they knew the Jade Emperor only cared about pleasure, and never took the people to heart. They could only rely on themselves to relieve the people of their miseries. But how to do it? Seeing the vast sea, the Long Dragon said that he had an idea. What is it? Out with it, quickly! the other three demanded. Look, is there not plenty of water in the sea where we live? We should scoop it up and spray it towards the sky. The water will be like rain drops and come down to save the people and their crops. Good idea! The others clapped their hands. But, said the Long Dragon after thinking a bit, We will be blamed if the Jade Emperor learns of this. I will do anything to save the people, the Yellow Dragon said resolutely. Lets begin. We will never regret it. The Black Dragon and the Pearl Dragon were not to be outdone. They flew to the sea, scooped up water in their mouths, and then flew back into the sky, where they sprayed the water out over the earth. The four dragons flew back and forth, making the sky dark all around. Before long the seawater became rain pouring down from the sky. Its raining! Its raining! The crops will be saved! The people cried and leaped with joy. On the ground the wheat stalks raised their heads and the sorghum stalks straightened up. The god of the sea discovered these events and reported to the Jade Emperor. How dare the four dragons bring rain without my permission! The Jade Emperor was enraged, and ordered the heavenly generals and their troops to arrest the four dragons. Being far outnumbered, the four dragons could not defend themselves, and they were soon arrested and brought back to the heavenly palace. Go and get four mountains to lay upon them so that they can never escape! The Jade Emperor ordered the Mountain God. The Mountain God used his magic power to make four mountains fly there, whistling in the wind from afar, and pressed them down upon the four dragons. Imprisoned as they were, they never regretted their actions. Determined to do good for the people forever, they turned themselves into four rivers, which flowed past high mountains and deep valleys, crossing the land from the west to the east and finally emptying into the sea. And so Chinas four great rivers were formed -- the Heilongjian (Black Dragon) in the far north, the Huanghe (Yellow River) in central China, the Changjiang (Yangtze, or Long River) farther south, and the Zhujiang (Pearl) in the very far south. http://www.crystalinks.com/chinadragons.html Make a Chinese Dragon Puppet: Colored cardstock paper Colored Construction Paper Bamboo skewers or popsicle sticks Glue and/or tape Crayons or Markers Optional Glitter, tissue paper, fabric trims, etc for decorating the dragon puppets After learning about Dragons in Chinese culture, have the students make their own Chinese Dragon

puppets. The students should fold the cardstock in half hamburger style, to crease it. The puppet will work best if the neck and thick part of the tail are the same size, but for young students, you probably dont want to worry about that. Students will make a head and tail section from the cardstock, and then cut a long piece from the construction paper that is the width of the head and tail. Have the students make accordion folds in the construction paper. They should glue the accordion folded paper to the back of the head and tail sections. (Bodies can be a single layer accordian fold or doubled, as in the example.) Then tape or glue the bamboo skewers to the back of the tail and head sections. To make a slightly fancier version, have the students make two copies of the head and tail sections. After completing the steps above, the students will glue the 2nd head and tail sections on the back so they cover the places where the construction-paper body was glued and the places the skewers or popcicle sticks were glued. http://www.origami-instructions. com/origami-dragon.html http://janasthinkingplace.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/chinese-dragon.jpg Cinco de MayoLearn about the Battle of Puebla, which was important for at least two reasons. First, although considerably outnumbered, the Mexicans defeated a much better-equipped French army. This battle was significant in that the 4,000 Mexican soldiers were greatly outnumbered by the well-equipped French army of 8,000 that had not been defeated for almost 50 years. Second, it was significant because since the Battle of Puebla, no country in the Americas has been invaded by any other European military force. (wikipedia) In honor of Cinco de Mayo, learn and perform a traditional Mexican dance such as La Cucaracha. Ramadan Learn about Islamic culture and calligraphy and create a calligraphicstyle design. Older students may want to create a calligram of an animal.


St Patricks DayLearn about St. Patrick/Ireland and do one of the following: 1. Learn about celtic knots and make a celtic knot design using the provided knotwork page (at the end of the packet) 2. Use a shamrock as a motif in a design

Jan 13 Make your Dreams Come True Day Have students draw their dreams and write a short description of what those dreams are. If desired, you can preface the assignment with information about Martin Luther King Jr. and the role he played in human rights. February 5 Weatherman DayLook at art that depicts weather such as Storm Spirits on Horizon #6 by Lee Anne Miller (SMA). Then create an artwork showing one kind of weather

March 6 Michelangelos birthdayLearn about Michelangelo, try sculpting in one of the following ways: paper clay, Styrofoam, soap, or paper clay. Or, learn about Michelangelo then tape paper to the underside of tables and have students try drawing from that position. Show the class images of the Sistine Chapel (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sistine_Chapel) March 18 Grandparents Daymake a card for Grandparents or other close family members or friends, and use a new technique or media in making the cards such as using rubbings, Keep America Beautiful DayDiscuss what they can do to help keep America beautiful, make posters and post them around town.

April 26 John Audubons birthdayLook at some of his art, learn about some related artworks, and draw or paint a bird.

Materials: images of Audubons work, read-aloud book, images of local birds http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:John_James_Audubon_1826.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:41_Ruffed_Grouse.jpg The Boy Who Drew Birds: A Story of John James Audubonby Jacqueline Davies

Audubons Birds of Americaby John James Audubon Have students draw and label a bird. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Birdmorphology.svg May 19 Circus DayAs a class create a circus mural October 2 Peanuts Comic first publishedread some comics, learn some ways to draw for comics and make up a comic Young students can draw people using basic shapes. Heres a good website: http://www.how-to-drawfunny-cartoons.com/learn-to-draw-people.html Older students can improve their skills at drawing 3-D shapes. Heres a good tutorial on drawing 3-d shapes: http://www.scribd.com/doc/688481/How-to-draw-Comics-and-Cartoons Oct 12 Farmers DayHelp students to understand what farmers contribute to their lives, discuss artwork about farmers, create an artwork that shows farmers in modern times. Or, compare historical agricultural practices with current practices. Have students write a statement that includes one reason agricultural practices are better now and one reason older practices were better. Discuss foods that local farmers produce and create a still-life of some of those items. Draw the still-life.

Alvin L. Gittins, Vegetablescape (1964) Oil on board, 18 x 48

November. 1st Childrens Book week Let students choose a favorite book and create an artwork in response to the book. The artwork does not have to be an illustration.



Elicia Timpson Gray, 2004